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Class: Form 2 Subject: Science Learning Area: Water and solution Learning Objective : understanding the composition of water. Date: Duration: 1 hour 10 minutes

a) Learning outcome : By the end of the lesson, Students should be able to: Determine the composition of water. Test the presence of hydrogen and oxygen. b) High Order thinking:

1) Analyzing:
Use a diagram to show how oxygen and hydrogen released from water. Conduct an experiment to test the presence of hydrogen and oxygen.

2) Questioning:
It is really water can extinguished the fire? If no, why? Water is an electric conductor or not? Can you use pencil as electrode? Why?


a) Warm-up activity(Recap):Q-What the composition of water? Q-What is the electrolysis process? Q-State the ratio between Hydrogen and Oxygen Q- Which gas is flammable? How about another one?

b) Introduction:Today we are going to test the presence of oxygen and hydrogen in water by electrolysis.

c) Explanation:Explanation will be done by using diagram about how electrolysis takes place in order to release hydrogen and oxygen gases. Explanations include the type of electrodes used and the relationship between sulfuric acid and the electrical flow.

Demonstration:Demonstrate how to carry out the experiment. d) Evaluation/Assessment:Students will be asked during experiment and at the end of the experiment : Q-Which side is hydrogen gas and which side is oxygen gas? How do you know? Q-Which one is cathode and which one is anode? Or which one positive and which one are negative? Q-What did you observed after test? What the conclusion?


Electrolysis is the passage of an electric current through an ionic substance that is either molten or dissolved in a suitable solvent, resulting in chemical reactions at the electrodes and separation of materials.

MECHANISM OF Electrolysis
The mechanism of electrolysis was first explained by a Swedish scientist Arrhenius in 1887.


1-An electrolyte on dissolving in water dissociates in water into free ions and allows electric current to pass through it.

2-The degree of dissociation is the extent to which an Electrolyte dissociates into ions. 3-The ions carry an electric charge and are responsible for the flow of current through the solution. The amount of electricity conducted by an Electrolyte depends upon the concentration of ions in the solution. 4- The total magnitude of positive charge is equal to the total magnitude of negative charge in the aqueous solution of electrolyte.

GENERAL TERMS Electrolytic cell

is the complete setup or vessel in which electrolysis is carried out. It has three component parts: 1. an electrolyte 2. two electrodes (a cathode and an anode). 3. a battery 2. ELECTROLYTES 1. substance that conducts electric current as a result of a dissociation into positively and negatively ions in solution or molten form. 2. Examples: 1. Molten salts 2. Solution of salts in water 3. Solution of acids 4. Solutions of alkalis

is an electrical conductor immersed in the electrolyte by which electric current enters or leaves the electrolyte. In an electrolytic cell: Anode is a Positive electrode Cathode is a negative electrode


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Some key differences with an electrochemical cell set-up: the two half-reactions are not separated by a salt bridge an electrochemical cell (or other source of electric current) will be required.

Other important items to note:

The anode of the electrolytic cell is the site of oxidation and the cathode is the site of reduction, just as in an electrochemical cell. In an electrochemical cell, the anode is negative and cathode positive, but this is reversed in the electrolytic cell - the anode is positive and the cathode is negative.

Electricity be conducted through an electrolytic cell until all of the ions are used up. An electrical potential is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte. The externally supplied direct electric current supplies the energy necessary to create or discharge the ions in the liquid or solution. Electric current is carried by electrons in the external circuit. Note: Electrons do not actually pass through the liquid. They appear to do so. Battery continuously sends electron down to the cathode and receives an equal number back from the positive anode

Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode. Negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the positive anode. Ions that gain or lose electrons to become uncharged atoms separate from the electrolyte. This is called discharging.

EXAMPLE ELECTROLYSIS OF MOLTEN NaCl 2NaCl(s) 2Na+ (l) + Cl-(l) The half equations are written so that the same number of electrons occur in each equation. Sodium metal at the (-)Cathode 2Na+ + 2e- 2Na Chlorine gas at the (+)Anode 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2 The overall reaction is 2Na+Cl-(l) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g)


The preferential discharge of ions present in an electrolyte at the respective electrode is known as SELECTIVE discharge of ions. Factors affecting the selective discharge of ions:1. RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE ION IN THE METAL ACTIVITY SERIES. 2. The concentration of ions in the electrolyte 3. The nature of electrode RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE ION IN THE METAL ACTIVITY SERIES. Lower the position of the ion in the metal activity series .greater the tendency to be liberated at the respective electrodes 2. The concentration of ions in the electrolyte Higher the concentration of ions in the electrolyte .. Greater the tendency to be discharge 3. The nature of electrode Nature of electrodes determine the preferential ion, which will be discharged at the electrode. Inert electrodes : iron, silver, platinium do not take part in electrolytic reaction. Active electrodes : copper, nickel, silver take part in the electrolysis reaction.

Industrial Application of Electrolysis:-


Electrolysis of molten Alumina

The electrolyte a solution of alumina in cryolite (Na 3AlF6) melts at about 900 C and electrolysis is done at about 950 C. Electrolysis separates the molten ionic compound into its elements.

Aluminium metal at the (-)cathode 4Al3+ + 12e- 4Al (Reduction) Oxygen gas at the (+)anode 6O2- 3O2 + 12e(Oxidation) The overall reaction 2Al2O3(l) 4Al(l) + 3O2(g)


The NaCl will split into Na+ and Cl- ions Water splits into H+ and OH- ions. What will happen during electrolysis? Remember Na is VERY Reactive, it is much more likely to exist as an ion than Hydrogen. REACTIONS At the Cathode 2H+ + 2e- H2 At the Anode 2Cl Cl2 + 2e The non-permeable ion exchange membrane at the center of the cell allows the sodium ions (Na+) to pass to the second chamber where they react with the hydroxide ions to produce caustic soda (NaOH). The overall reaction 2NaCl + 2H2O Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH


An electrolytic process of Formation of a thin protective coating of a non-reactive or superior metal on an article made of a more reactive or inferior metal. PURPOSE To protect the article from rusting To make the article look better Most commonly used metals for electroplating Copper, Chromium, Silver, Tin The anode usually is made of the plating metal. The object to be plated is the cathode.

Electrolysis with Active Electrodes Gold plating

4-ELECTRO REFINING OF METALS is a process by which metals containing impurities are purified by electrolysis to give a pure metal.



12345 BOOKS: Chemistry A course for Olevel by Christopher N. Prescott New edition chemistry by Richard Harwood GCSE chemistry by M.J.Denial GCSE chemistry for class X by R D Madan & B.S.Bisht Chemistry for class IX(book I),STBB WEBSITES: ------------------------------- The End ----------------------------------

ELECTRO REFINING OF COPPER ELECTROLYTE Aqueous copper sulphate solution


CATHODE : pure thin sheet of copper ANODE : Impure block of copper CuSO4 H2O Cu2+ + SO42H+ + OH-



Cu2+ ions are discharged at the cathode as neutral cop Cu2+ + 2e Cu


Copper anode itself loses electrons to give Cu2+ ions in Cu Cu2+ + 2e