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16

2013



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OA OB 2 OM,

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(, ) 0

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. (B E B 2
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u, v

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u v 2 3 1 2x

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0 0 ,

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( Cauchy - Schwarz) 1i / . 44

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1ii

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7 :

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( )

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24. ;
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25.
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, 0

x1x 2 y1y 2

x y12 x 22 y 22
2
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7:
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u v u, v , u, v ,


3) , .
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a / / a a () | a || | cos | || | cos
| a | cos | | cos
| | cos | | cos
| | cos cos
cos cos

4) 3 , 0 | | ,
cos cos , , 0, .

5) : ( )
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u (x1 , y1 ), v (x 2 , y2 ), a (x 3 , y3 ), (x 4 , y4 )
.
: au 0 x1x 3 y1 y3 0 y3
v 0 x 2 x 4 y2 y4 0 y4

x1x 3
y1

x2x4
y2

2 . : cos

x3 x 4

x1 x 3 x 2 x 4
y1 y 2

x1x 2 y1 y2
x y12 x 22 y22
2
1

3 .

a, :
cos

(3)

x 3 x 4 y3 y 4
x y32 x 24 y 24
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(1),(2)

xx
x x
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2
3

| y1y 2 | (x 3 x 4 y1y 2 x1x 3x 2 x 4 )


y1y 2 y12 x 32 x12 x 32 y 22 x 42 x 22 x 42

| y1y 2 | x 3x 4 (y1y 2 x1x 2 )


y1y 2 | x 3x 4 | y12 x12 y 22 x 22

| y1y 2 | x 3 x 4
cos cos
y1y 2 | x 3 x 4 |

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() O xx
-
= Ox, ,
( ) .

(. 1)

(. 2)

(. 4)

(. 3)

(. 5)

(. 6)

(. 7)

(. 8)

0 2

0 / /x x,0 , x 0 ( . 8)

/ /x x,0 , x 0 ( . 4)

/ /y 0, y , y 0 ( . 2)
2

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3
/ /y 0, y , y 0 ( . 6)
2

xy x, x , x 0
4

3
xy x, x , x 0
4

5
xy x, x , x 0
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y
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9) (
).

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(x1, y1 ), (x 2 , y2 ) x1 x 2 0 , ,

y1
(2)
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2 x

1
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x 1

x1 x 2 y1 y 2
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(1 2 )

x1x 2 y1y2
x12 y12 x 22 y22

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, (2), (3) (4) ,

(1 2 )

x1x 2 y1y2
x12 y12 x 22 y22

(1)

10) , , 0 , 9 ,

, 1 2 0 1 2 1 2

11) , , , 9 ,

, 1 2 1 2 1 2

12) 10 11 ,

1 2

1 2 0 1 2 0

1 2 1 2 1
: / / 1 2 , 0,1 .

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