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Parl I

Section 2.1: Definitions
2.1 An isolated flcc electron i! lraveliog throughan clectrichclclJrclnsolDe initialpointwher-e its potenlitlc eru) per unil charge coulontbic is {rr)lrfl,q() l7 kJ/(' and vclocit) = 9.1Vnr/s to someiinal point $ hereits coul(nnbic potcntitlenerry per unit chirue js 6 kJ/C.Dere rine lhc charuein velocir\.ofrhe clectron. Ne!lect gritVilutional lbrccs. ?'

t . 7 5V t . 5v l:5v I V

I hc unit uscdlor volttgei5 lhc \olt. Ior cufienl lhc a rp.rc. rnd lor tesislrrrce lhc ohlt).Usingthe dehnilions ol volttlc. cufrenl. and rc\isti1nce. express i . r .| , , r , : r ' r l i ;l n \ J-Ln.l:'r.rr, \r lK t .s r, urrt\. 'Ihe 2.3 cepiicirlola crf barler\is usuallyspcciliecl in lumpere holrrs. A billteryrtled tt. sit\. 100A h should be ablc to supflv I{X)A tbr I h. 50 A tbr.2 h. 25 A ior -l h. I A 1br 100h or an) olherconrbinalion \'ieldingr prorluct of 100A,h 2.2 x. Ilow ntitn) coulorlb\ ol chitrce shouldwe bc itble to dra$ fr(nrra full\ chlrsed 100A,h bltter).,1 h, Hou mirn\ elcctrons (locs!oLu-l[ts\\'er lo pitfl ll requlre./ 2.4 p 2 . 1i s a n e r a n r p l e T h e c h a r g e c l c is eh o u I i n F i g u | e (1tur,.!r. al it t\'t)-t-at( lhc currentis heldconslant irt 50 rDA li)f 5 h. Jhcn il rs srlllchedlo l0 rnA lirr the nexr 5 h.Find il. I hc lotil chargc lritnslcned to thc bullery. b. The energ! trn|\len.cdto lhe bltlcr),. Hil,/ Rccalllhrt lrterq! r/ js lhc i le-srxl ol po$er.or 2.5 Bltrcliest...g..lcad-JciLi br efies)sk)rechemrcill cnerg! n (l conrcrl tt Io clcctficenelg) on dentand. Bnllcries do nol slorcelectfic chargc oI cllargccill.Iiers. Charge carricr\(electrons) enleronc tcf tinrl ol the battcry. itcquire elcclfic l potential encrg,-. and e\iL Ironrthe olhertefI]tintltt a lower volta-qe. Rcrrenber l l l (( l e L l r o h ' t. r . , n r c r ' . r r t r c i l r . r lrt' i. s .r rcrrre . ', l, r tr,, lhink of posirilecarricI1\ liowing in lhe oppotile (lrrcclion. thrt is. convcntionul culTent. und exiling at a hr-shef roltilge.All currenl\in lhis course. unlcss ollter\\ t\L'\titled.alre conrelljonalculrenl.(Benjantjn l fanklincauscd lhis me\s| ) For d baller), $ ilh a raled \ollage - ll V tnd r flled capuctlv = l-50 A h. alctcrntine r. Thc ratedchclnical cnefg\'!loredin thc bi ter\,. h. Thc tolal chrrgerhll cltllbe \uppliedrt lhe rared volliue.

-l0 nrA




What dcternincsrhelbllowingl a. Horv rnuchcurrcnlis supplied (al a constant vollage)byan ideillvollage\ource. (at a constant b. Ho$ much voltage is supplied currenl)by an idealcllt-rcnt soulce.


An automorive baflery is riLred at ll0 A h. This rreanslhilt utdet ceflajnIeslconditions il cirnoutpul I A rt ll V lbr 120h (underorhertell conditions. lhc battcry n)a) haveotherrltin{s). iL How tnuchtotalenergyis rtoredin the battery.) b. Ifthe headlighls are lcfi or)o\ernight(ll h). ho$ nuch energywill slill bc srored in rhc btlter.\,in lhe (Assume n)Lnrlng.' a 150-WftXtl powerratinglor both heaclligbrs rogether. )


A cal batter'V kept in slora-qe in the Drsemenl needs rech{rging. Il the voltage tnd the cufent providedb] thc charger duringa charue cvclcaresho$n in Figure

a. Find the IotarlchargeIranstered I() the balter),. b. Find the totalenergytfansfirrcd lo thc batery. 2,9 Suppose the currentllo$,ingthfoughI wire rs siven b! the curveshoun in l-i-eure P1.9. a. Find the antouul ol charge. r/. tllal llous through the $,ifebct\,reen 1r = 0 anci t: = I s. h . R e p e ap t a r ta f b r 1 . = 2 . l . . 1 . 5 , 6 , 7 . 8 . 9 . a n d l 0 ! . c S k e t c h q ( / ) l b r 0 :/ : 1 0 r .

C h a t l e r2

F u n d a m e n r ao ts t Etecr.iu C.ircurts

maximumof 9 V ts shownin Figurep2.I0. The bat(ery is charged tbr (r h. Find: 12 t a 9 a. The Iolai charqe delivered to Ihe baltery. b- Thc energvIranslerredto thc batlerv durinq lhc, cnargtng cycte. //i/r/: Recall(hatthe enel-s!. u,. i! thc intcgrar or po\,rer. or


a. =

y(/t =6.E+ 10.19 c r ( r [ t] , .

0</< I h

, =
d 6

irl)= |l:X ] r A .0 < / < t h n /(r)= l0{le r/ l,/| *l ,rA. r > : h

2 E ; 0 -2 Figure P2-l O

Figure P2.9

2, 1 1 'fhe charging pl.l I is an schemc use<l in Frqure examplc of a constanl,currenl charge clclc. .l.hc charger voltage is conrrolled suchthatthe cu|Tenl inlo the btffer) is heldconstanl al40lnA. assho\rnin Fi-sure Pl.l l. fhe hattery is charged tbr 6 h. Finrit a. The t(nill charsc delivercdto the battcry. b. The eneryy transfirred k' the bafler} durinr the cnarglng oycle. Hlfl. Recalllhat lhe energy. u.. is rhe ir)tesritl of power. or

2,1O The char-lilgschcnle usedin Fillurepl.l0 is an e\anlplcol a constanl-volla-qe chat.gc wrll)current Ilnlrl. fhe chrrgervoltage is suchihal Ihe curenl into lne ba ef)'doesnol c\ceed 100nl^. as \hown in F r ! L r cl , l . | | r . f l r e , h . r r . - e . r\ , , , 1 d . 1 ( r. \t c . r \ ( \I , , I r r ( .

Pan I

t.l \ 07iY


Figure P2.l1




I h c c h a r - l i n g s c h e n r c u s c d i n F i , r : u r cP 2 . l l i s c a l i e c l n tulttrtrl tttrrcttt tltatqa lrr /r,. I he curre t \litfl\ lrt l h e h i e h c s t l e \ c l a n c lt h e n c l e c r e a s e s || ith liotc for thc e n t r r c c h i r r g ec v c l e . i l s s h o w n . l h c b r t l e f Y i s c h i - t r g e d lor 1l h. Frndl .1. The tolal chxfgc dcli\ered to lhc bxltef\. b . I h e e n c r g ) t r r n s l i I T c - dt o t h ! ' b n t t e r y d u r i n g r h c chtrginq r\ clc.

/ 1 r r l : R c c a l l t h i l l l b c e n r - f g v .u . i \ t h c ' i | t e g r a l o l p o w c f . o f

Figure P2. l3

Sections 2.2,2.3: KCL, KVL

2.13 t j \ e K i f c h h o s c u e n tl w l o d e t e r n i n c rhe u n k n o r nc u r f e n l is I I h ec i r c u i o t f F i q u r cP l . l J . A\\umcthn l: /1 lA.i = lA./\:8A. lnd 2 . 1 4 l p p l y K C I -r o l i n ct l h cc u n c n lI i n l h ec i r c u i l of l - r S u r1 e, 1 . 1 4 . 2.15 r\pply KCL lo lincllhc currcnr/ in llte circuiro1' F j g u l cP l . l 5 .

Figure P2.14

C h r p . e rl

FuDdarnenra otlsE l e c t r i cC i r c u r l \

Section 2.4: Sign Convention

2.18 In the circuitsof Figurep2.18.thc direcrions of currentand poJaritics of voltagchaveulreadv bccn dehned. Find thc aclualvalues of lhe rnt_rrcareo cLrrrcot! and vollages.


Figure P2.15

2.16 Appll KCL ro hlcl rhe vollages r iLndf. ir Figure Pt.t6.


\ .)

Figure P2.16

t/rr\ I

, - ' r fl r



rh) l0o


t.Jse Ohm \ t-rw rnd KCL to (lctcrntine thc currenl / i I l h cc i r c u i l o' Fi{urepl.17.

/. I



Figure P2. l8

Figure P2.17

2,19 I,inci rhc po"cr delivercd b1 cact)\ourcein rhc cifcuilsof I.'i8urc P2.19.

Paa I

lov +

l 0v


Figure P2.21 2.22 For the circdt shown in Figure P2.22: a. Determinewhich componenlsare absorbingpower and which are delivering power. b. Is conservation of power satisficd'lExplain vour answer,

.1/\ (b) Figure P2.19

2.20 Dctelminewhich elenrents in thc circuitof Figule P2.20arc supplying powerand which arc dissipating porvcr. Also delermine thc amount of powerdissipxted ancl supplied. 2.23

Figure P2.22 For the circuit shorvnin Figure P2.23.determine the powcr absorbedby lhc 5 f,2rcsislor.

+15 V

Figure P2-2O Figure P2.23 2.24 2.21 In the circuitof FigureP2.21. dcrcrrlrne lne power ab\orbed by lhe fcsistorR and the powerdelivered by lhc cuffentsourcc. For thecircuit shownin FigureP2.2il. detcrminc which componenls arc supplying powerand which are dissipaling power AIso determine the amount of power dissipatecJ anclsupplied.

Chapter I

f ( n d r n e n t a to s f E l c c t r i cC i r c u r r s


-li: ^.

,,, rll r I

+ -

2.27 In thecircuirshownin Figurep:.11. dctemrine lhc Icmtinalvoltage of the soIrce.thc powcrsuppliecl lo thc circuit(or load),and the ethciencv of the circuit. AssumcIhat the only lossis dueIo lhe inler-nal resistance of thc source. Elficie cy is clctined as lhe fatiool loadpowerto sourcc povvcr

r =it\





.' t-']]l
l{)\' t)


Figure P2.24 Figute 2.25 For rhc cilcuir \houlr in Figurcpl.l-i. clelcminc \\'Irchcorltfo|entsife supfl!ing powcr und $hich arc dissipating po$cr.i\iso delcmtinc the tmount o1. powcf rlr\srprted und \upllted. P2-27

2,28 A l + - r o l t a u t o m o l i vb en l l e r \ . i c \ on|eclcd lo t$o hc'adliehts. suchlhat Ihe t\\o Ioitds nre in prrallcl:each of the herdli-shrs is inlcndecj ro be a 75-\\' Iold. horvever. a I{)(lW he|dli-chl is nri\rakcrrl\ rrshllcd. Whal ls fhc resistance ol eachhcadlighl. and uhlt is the lotal resislance scenb) lhe bulIery.l 2.29 What is lhc equivillenr re\isla|cesccrlbv the biitlcryof Problen 2.18 if two l5-W laillighlsure (in parallel)lolhc rwo 7-i-W \cacrrr addecl headlighrsl 2.3O For thecircuitshownin Firufe pl.i0. dercrlinc thc po$ef absofbcd Lrv Ihe vafiable rcsistof R. rancir)r r r l . ' n O . P r , , r h ep n $ , . .. r b i , | ? l r , ,. r \ . r l .,D( lunctioltof R.



9 ^* t t

2.26 eicclric hctler fcquircs ll LL'tcfm ine

A lr I I0 V.

Figure P2.3O

r . T h c p o w e r i t . i i \ s i p i t l e s t s h e a t o r o l h c , rt o \ s e s . b. l he encr!\'dis\llatcd b],the hculef ijt it l{_h r. Thc c()\t oi lhc lrtcfg\ il lh!, po\\.clcontpluv c h t | 1 1 c \l t t l t e r i i l e 6 r c l s / k W h .


R c t c rl o F i c u r e

il. trindthc rolnl poNersupplicd b) lhc i(leal\ourcc. b. liind the po$er dirripated anclIost\\,lrnln lte noniclea] soLrrce.

Prfl I

c. Whll is the po\lersupplied bv thc source t()the circuitas ntodelcd bv lhe load rc'si\liucc'.) d. Plol lhe lernli !l voltalc and powc. sLtpplied k) lhe cifcuil a\ it litnctionot culTe t. Repert// : i) 5. 10.l(1. l0 A. lr - 12V /l\ =(1..rQ

bulbsrrc corrnecled in series across lhe sameso0rcr. dclc.nrlne the poweretchbulb will di\siprte 2.35 ,,fn incandescenr lightbulb faredat 60 W will dis\ipatc6() heatand ligh( whenconnecled ncro\sx l0(lV idcalvollitsesource. A l(XlW bulb \\ill dissipte 100W whenconncctcalucross lhe sxntc \otlrce.Il thc bIlb\ ateconncclecl in series ucfoss thr sanre sourcc. clcler'ntine thc fo$,erthtl cither-onc ol the lwo bulhs $ ill di\sipirle. 2.36 Fir| the cilc it shownin FigureP2..16. hn(l 'l he eqLrivalcnt re\istiincc scenLrY thc soufcc. 'fhe b. currcnt/, 'fhe powcrdclivelecl hl the \ource.


d. The volluges l and r .. c. The minintLrnt poucr ratingrequired lin R . Giren r: ':llVRr:SO.R = 1 0 C .R . : I A

Figure p2"31 2,32 In the crlcuitof Figlrre P:.11. ii r , : r ,'-1 1n,1 11," po\\!'rdeli\eredh\ rhc sourccis -10nt\V.find /?. r,. r r. a n dr . C i i r c n / : 1 1: 3 1 , 5 2 . / 1 , = l { ) k O . 1 l i = l l 1 ( ) .

Figure P2.36 2.37 Figure p2.32 2.33 ,\ CtrSoliWhilc I . o r r ! l i l i ' l i s h r b Lir\l b rllc(ll\ iollot!s: /'r = frlcd po\\ c'f = (r0 W /'orr: ratcdopticalpo*er. = lll0 luntcns (lrn) (u\,0rage) I lLrr:tcn: m \V ( l p e r r l i n L l i t c: I 5 ( X h ) (r\erLrge) \ r : l t l c r l o p c f i l l i n\ro l l i r g e: l l 5 \ fhc resistance olthe lilirntcnl ol lhc hulb.nleitsurcd $ ith il sllndurdntullirlctcr.i\ 16.7e Whenthe bulb is conrecleci inlo u circuittnd is opcrttin-r itt lhc rrle(j val!le\-giyen rbo\ e. dctcrninc lu. lhc resi\tilnce olthe lilanlcnt. b. The ctlicieno ol the bulb. 2.34 ,fn rncandesccnl lighrhulb f.rlcdrr 100W $ill di\siflle l(X)\\ t\ hell llld li-ght \t hci conncctcd ilcfo\\ a Il0 V i(leul\oltilse\oufca.Il lbrecoflhe\e Figure P2.37 2.38 Delerminc thc pou,er deliverc(l bl rhc .lcpcr)clenr .,'r't.c i ' r r l l ( . i . u . t, , t I r ! r t r ( l:. {|) Fol tltecilcuirshoun in frgure P2.37.find lr. Thc cLrrrents / iLnd it, 'l'he po$cr delivercd b. hy thc .l A curcnl soufccan(l b! ll)e ll V !oltage\ourcc. . T h , t " t . r ln . $ f l , l \ , r l . r l ( ' l h _l\l . , r f i J i r .

L e rf i = 1 5 0 . / ? . = l 0 A R , = 5 ' } . , R r = 7 Q .l l n d c\pfc'\s i rnd/. s lirnclio|s o l r , .( H / / r . A p p l ) ' K ( ' l _ dllhc nodcb!'tween R und Rr.)

Chapier I

l.undamenrals of Elecldc Circurrs

a. The aesislance of eachol the two coils.

t5(2 | 7!r


u . s r rf r l l a v

b. l'he powcr dissipalionfor each of Ihe orherrwo possiblearlangenlcnls.

Sections 2.5, 2.61 Resistance and Ohm's Law

Figure P2.38 2.42 2,39 Consider NiMH hobbyist barleries shownin the crrcuilof FigureP2.J9. a . I f l ' r = 1 2 . 0Y R r : 0 . 1 5 A a n dR r : 2 . 5 5Q . iind the loadcunent // andthc powcrdissipaled by the ioacl. b. lf we conncct a second ballcryin parallel with battefyI thathasvoltagel'r = 12 V and R: = 0.28 O. will thc loadcurrenl/1 increase or decreasc? Will the powerdissipiited by lhe load increase or decrease? By how much l For the circuilsof FigureP2.42. detemtine lhe re\i.tur virlur:. { Inrludinpthe pouer r:rrrn!,ne.e..irrt to rchic\( lh( inJi(Jledvollaee\.Rrsr.r r. uI r v r i l r h l ei n r . . r . r - . - - . . r n dI . W r . r l i r E \ .



alrrcry {.1 Figure P2.39 2.40

tl! .r} rl

With no load aftacheci. lhc voirirgcal lhe rerninals of i particular powersupplyis 50.8 V Whcn a l0 W load is altachcd,the voltagedrops to zl9 V a. DeIenrioeu5and Rs lbr rhisnoniderlsource_ b. What voltage would be measured ul lhe lenninals in the presence of a l5-Q loadresistor'.) c. Holv much curent could be drawn liont this power supplyundershon-circuit condirions l 11v 0


I orr-16l v fr=l7tl2

2.41 a 220-V etecrric healer hasrwo hcaring coils whrchcan bc switched suchthaieithcrcoil can be used independently or the Iwo can be connecled in series or parallel, yieldinga tolalof four possible conligurations. lf the warmestsetling corrcsponcls to 2,000-W power dissipation and the coolest conesponds to J00 W ilnd

Parr I



show in Figuret': ll Fo| thc cir-cuil



secnbv thc sourcc resislancc il The cquivalenl b. l_hccul fcrll I by the sourcc' c. The po\er delivcfcd I ]( 1 .T h ev o l t x [ e :r ' 1 . lbf Rr' c. The minimunlpo*'cl rxting feqllired

P2'16'the powerahsorbed ln thc circuitof FigLrrc is I5 W liind R bY lhe i5'Q resislor R 4C)

/t = 1()



Figure P2.43

soulcein seen[r1'the fcsi\lancc Fin(lthe equi!rllcnl 2.44 lnd u\e re\[lt 10lind I- II xnd I" l:ieurcPl.'1'1.

1l Finrl the equivalcnl rcsistaice b"'t$eclr tenlllniils and b in the circuit ol Figurc I)l 17



( "/,


:l ll

.l !2

Figure P2.44


\ocn b\ the sourcc resislllnce 2,45 Find the e'cluivillent Pl '15 Figure i i1llhe circuitol itn(ilhe cLtfrerrl r!) r!)

Figure 2.48


fbr the circuil sho''u in FigureP2'48 llnd the scenby lhc sourceHoN lruch reristance equivalcnl l the soLlrce bY is dclivered po\\'er lc)
lll lll

Figure P2.45



C h r r p r eIr

F u n d . rr c n t i r l s ol Elecl c Cirruit\

2.49 For the circuitshoun in FigureP2.-19. linclthc cquilalcnlresisrancc. whcfc Rr = 5 Q. R. = I k O . / ? r : R : : I ( X )O . R ; - 9 . 1 O a r t d R6=tko.

Assllne Ihe resistlnce of n 1u\e(l:igureP2.-5 | ) is gi\ en b \ t h ec x p r e s r i oR n : R r r l l+ 1 ( 7 7 i j ) l$ i t h T T . - A P : I , = l s ( - : 1 = ( ) . - l( - l t = 0 . 3 5 ' C / W lR l : 0 . I I g : a n d P i s t h el o u e f LlissipdleLl rn lhe resislive clcmcntof the fusc. Determine lhe raledcurrenlul which lhe cifcuil will melt xnd open. thal is. "blo$ (1/irrt: The luseblou r $hcn R beconrcs infinilc.)

' 2.52 Figure P2.49 2.5O ('help rcsisror\ xrc llhficntedb\ dcposiling i lhin h)ef of crfbon onk) r nonconLiuctin!l c) llncjricill (\ee Figurel'1.50).Il \uch r cylindefhrs subslrrle firdius d rnLllcnglhr/. dclennincthe lhickncss of thc tilnr rcquircdlin n re\i\(drceR il

t,. Figure P2.51


U\e Kirchholl s currenlLr$ rnd Ohnr'slr$ to /?,. Rt. delernline lhc cllrrcntir eachol lhe resistors l f F i e u r cP l . 5 l . \ r = I 0 V . i l n dR 6i n t h ec i r c u i o R - l ( ) o . R r = . + 0 Q .R , = 1 0 a . R r = R . = R6=t5O.

R:llke J:9rrnr / ) n r \urt.lce\ \cglectlheenLl ol lhec!lil]der lrnd ri\sun1e

lhal thc lhicknc\s is nruch \nlxllcf thrn thc fadi \.

t :1.9M s

Figure P2.52 2.53 With relerence lo Problenr l.lJ. useKirchholl r Rr. cuffer1t ln\\ andOh r'\ ]ilw t() lind tlrc rcsislnnces R r . / 1 , . R r . a n dr t . i l R , : 2 O A s s u r r e Rr : :R .rrrR ,l .R . 2.54 A s s u r l l i nR -e r :2 Q. R: - 5 f). R, ::1 C. R . ' : I Q . R : = I Q . / : = . 1 A . a n r l l , - 5 . 1V i r h e circuilol FigureP2.ll. u:e Kirchholl s currelr h\\ rnd Ohm \ hw to lild n . / r . / r . / r . a n d/ \ . 2-55 Figure P2.5O 2.5'l The rcsistivc'clcntcnts ol fuscslighlbulbs. healefs. clc.. \ o n l i e a r( i . e . l.h e r e s i s l r n ci c n r e\ i g i r i h c r n l l n s dcpcnclcnl on lhe currerl ll)rcu!:h lhc elemenl). b. Rr'.

R, : I a. /? : I Q. Rr = ,1,11 Q. Assunring R r : 6 s 2 .a n dI ' s = i l V i n t h ec i r c u i lo l F r g u r c P1.55. useKirchh(tl \ \ollllre ln$ ruxlOInn \ lir\r lo a . i , , .i r , .a n dr , . b. The currenlthrougheilch.e\i\tancc.


Prr I


Figure P2.59 2.6O Find the cqullalentrcsistance secnnl lie sollrce rnd the curreDt I in the circuitof FigureP2.60. Given: 1 . ,: I 2 \ : R l : : l Q . R r - 1 Q . R r = 5 0 O . R r - i l g . R r - l 0 Q . R : - l l 5 ) . R 6= 6 O .

Figure P2.55

Rq l )- I O . R r - I s ? . / l : = 5 O . 2.56 Assurnin R r : . 1 A . u n d\ r : l . +V i n t h cc i r c u io l i Figurc

P1.55.use Kirchhol] s vollile lilu and Ohm s la$ to llr(l 1 1 ./ , / . / i , . t l r l ( l / b . T h c v o J l l l l l ci l c r l ) s \ e i l c h f e s i s t l n c e . 2,57 A s s u m e t h l t t h c v o l l a q e r o u r c e i n t h e c i r c L t i to l ' Figure l'1.55 it norv |eplaccd br a curfcnl \oUfce.tDd R l j= l Q . / t = I O . R : = I Q . . I t r : . 1 . A . r n d /s : ll A. L,sc Kifchholl \ volllge lir* anclOhnr's l l l \ \ f t ) a l e l c f n i n e l h e \ o l l l L l ] ca c r o \ s e a c h r c \ i s l n D c e . 2.58 pl.5li is Thc rolrirlle rli\i(ler ncl$u.k ol FigLrr.e cxpecled to ptoyrdc 5 V itl thc oulpul. The fc\iskn.s. no\re\er. ntx\ nol bc e\ltctl) thc santc: lhat is. theif t o l e f i l n c c si I e s U c h t h a l tl h e f e s i s t l l n c e s mll\ nol be e x i r c t l \5 l S l l L . I l t h e r c s i s t o r sh u v c + l { } p e r c e n l t o l c r r n c e . l i n d t h c worsl cr\e output \1)ltllllcs. h. Find thesc\!llilges lin lolcrtr)ces of 15 percenl. ( j i r c n :r l0 V.R :5 ke. R. :5 kA

Figure P2.6O 2.61 I n t h c c i r c u i t t )lf- i g u r e P 2 . 6 L . r h c p o w e br sorbed by the l0 Q resislor i\ l0 W Find R Civcn: l , : 5l) V . R L- 2 0 5 2 . R : = 5 O . R r = 2 f 2 R j : l i O . R 5: l l O . R 6: 3 0 A .

Figure P2.61 2.62 Determine thc equrvalenl rcsistance ol the iDtinitc nctworkol rcsisl(n-\ in lhe circuitol FigurePl.6l


Figure P2.62 Figure P2.58 2.63 F'orthe circuitsho$n in FieureP2.61fin.l a. The equivalcnl rL'\islnnce scenh),therour-ce. 2.59 Fincithe equiltlent fc\i\tilnceol_thc circuitol FicurcI'1.59b\ cornbinin{rcsistors in scfiestnd in pl'1rlle l. R , :,1 O. Rr : ll A. R. = 8 A. R, :2 e. i(r=16Q.R,-5Q b. The cuffcotIhtuu{h aDdthc powerabsofb(l b\' the 90-Q resistirncc. Giren: I r = ll0 V. R = 90 A. R : = 5 f )Q . R r : 1 0 A . R r = 2 0 Q . R s = . 1 0 O. R6= l0 A. Rr :60 Q. Rs: ll0 O.


In the bridsecircuitrn FigureP2.66. ifnodcs 1or ternlinals)a arrd,D arc shorledand

=22kA R , : .1.7 kS)

l t {k 0 3 . 3k f )

deler'milc' lhe equi!rlentr e s i s t l r n c e t r e t w e c nl h c n o d c s or lcnrinals ,4 lnd B. Figure P2.63 2.64 ln thc ci|cuitr)l FigurcP].6.1. find the cquivlllent fe\islrncelookinqin xt l.f'ninxls ./ itnd, if lerlninuls I iinclrl ilre openxn(lrgrrn il lemrnrls r'and a/llfe shorled to-getlter. r\lso. lind theequivalcnl rcsistaIce looling in il terninalsr and11 iflcnninal\ (/ and t re openlnd il leflrlnal\ d an(ll) rrc shofrcd tr)gethe'r.

Figure P2.66


Dctcrnrinc thc loltarge bel$eer) nodes.1 antl B in thc cifcuil sho\!nrn FigulcP1.67.

R = ll ko R . = 2 2 0k A
Figure P2.64 2.65 ,qr iin en:Lineering sitc which loLrrre super'r'isrn-u. a l-hor\efo\\'er nlok)rnrusthc \iIed I dj\tince ./ lioln u ponrble -sencrrt(r'(Fi!ufe Pl.6-5). Assunte llte laneriilorcurlbc mocilrlcd as rn idcrl sourcc \r'ilh the voltrge!ivcn. 1he narneplale on lhe lnoI(r-!ivc\ the lollo\r'in! faLrd!oila-qes nrd the corf!'\lon(ling l u l l l o n dc u n - c n t : l ; ;= l t 0v :, l05VI r/,,. 1 , / r r: 7 . 1 0 A I u.^ - l17V-- /vrr -6.-17A Il,i : l5(l nr rnd the |nolornru\t clclivcfits lirll-rale(l po\\,cf. dctcfrrline llte minimunt/\W(; condLtclors $ hrchnrustbc usedin a ruhhcrin\ultled cublc. A \ \ u m el h a lt l r co n l \ l o s s c i\ n l h c c i r c L r o i tc c L r r -ti h nc $ il-cs.

R, = 6.llks) Rr= 0.21 MA

Figure P2-67


thc vohagchcl\\cennodc's ,l antl B il Detcrnrinc ho$nin Figore P].67. t h ec i f c L r \ il

R : t.l ko



Rr-llkO 2.69 Detelminc thc vc)lllucacross R, ir Fi!:urcP].69. 1\ = 1 l V R::3 kO R L: Rr: 1.7 mQ


( rblc Figure P2.65

Figure P2.69

Pall I

Sections 2"7, 2.82 Practical Sources and Measuring Devices

devicewhich chinSes 2.7O i\ thtrtnistotis a nonlincar !alue lIs surrolrndllls rcsistance ds its tcfninal llld lcmpcfaturc ehitnges. The rc\islance lcrnperiitufc hi:t\'c a lclllion i lhc titn ol' serrcfirlly /' R , , { 1 ) : R 1 , ti '' / 7 . !2 11tenuerilturc \\hercR,, : fe\isfdncc R,): rcriislllrrcc ilt tcrnperitlurc l = 298 K. A I : nllleriil constlnl.K K ternperaturc. 7_. 7 r = ahsolute 0.01 K '. plol /1,r,(7 Q lnd I : ) as l. lf Rr = 101) lenperatturc T lirr llnclion ol-thesrrrrounding .r50: 7 : 750. is in pitlirllcl\\ith a 150-Q rc\i\1or. b. Il lhe rirernisk)f fcsistitnce iLnd tor'1hc cquivnlent lind lhc erpre\sion (7-)on the \lntc griPh 1i)ffart o. plol /?,, hl\ n nlclef ,\ rnovingcoil rnclcrnrovenrenl 2,71 : l0t) Q. and lirll-scalc is deilcctron r'17 resistuce causcd b) a mctetculrenl/,,,: l0 /1i\. Thc lnovclncnl nlcasurecl bY the ntuslhe usedlo indicatcprcssttfe Seci-igufePl.7l. rcnsorup lctr rnarimumoi l00 kPiL1odo lhi\. \ho$ing llll ru. Drarvr circuil required lhe lernlrndl\ ot connections hel\\'ccn irppropfilrle th!' scnsof tncl ntelefnto!cntenl. ol eachcontlonenlln lhc b. Deter rinc tha viLlue c lfcur I r. Whlll i\ the lineuffenge.lhrt is. lhe mlntlnutllilnd nrlximulnpressure thall can accurtlel)bc ntcit\ufell,'


the The circuitof FigureP2.72is usedto measure of a battery.The batlery being internal impedance cell. tesledis a NiMll battery . A lresh baftcry is being tested,and it is fbund that is 2.28 V with the switchopenand Ihe voltage 1,,,,i. Find the internal 2.27 V wilh the switchcloseci. resistance of thc battery. b. The sanlebatlery is testedone year later. and youris lbund to bc 2.2 V with thc switchopenbut 0.31 V with thc switchclosed. Find the inlemtl resistance of the ballen.

Figure P2.72 2.73 in ammeter. described the practical Consider rn serrcs of an idcalanlmeler Figure['2.73.consisting a full-scalc u'ilh a l-kQ resistor. The mclersees whenthe current throughil is 30 /A. Il wc dcllection amneterreacjlng a mullirange desire lo conslrucl of l0 mA, 100mA, and I A. lirll scalevalues o lhc setlingof a rotar) switch.detemrine dcpending values of Rr. R:. and Rr. appropriate

"@ l
Figure 2.74 P2.73

resistance oi a thc internal A circuilthat melsurcs where pliicticxl ammeleris shown in Figure P2.7'1, Rs = 50.000Q. l'r = 12 V and R,, is a variable al will. lhal canbc adjusled rcsistor thecurrenli lu. A\slrnlethatr,, << 50.000O. Estimale of 1504A when a current h. ll the nleterdisplays resislancc ofthe meter Rr, : l5 Q.1indthe internal


r l r , r t ' rt , i,I( ..... tt-,r LCf-U.r,

Figure P2.74




A plactrcal \1)ltnrcler ha\ in intcrrrar resrsrance r,,,. Whrt i\ lhc vlluc ol r,,,il rhc D-rctcf rc.r(ls I LllI V $ h c n c L ) n n e c tu es ds h o $ ni n F i s u r c P].75.

\r rlh r re\t\liucc. The antrl1cter l]todcl i\ lllucd irr lhe b r r n c h a s s h o $ n i t ) t h c t j g u r c . F i l ) d l h c c u f t c n l I h f o u - q hR , bolh |\'ith and without the umntetel in the cifrutl tot lhc l b l l o $ i n - ! : v i l l u e s .u s \ U l ] t i n g l h t t R . = l 0 O . R :

tl(x) Q. /i: = m0 o. Ri : lr=l-lV.

1 . 1k o . , R , :

1 5 0O . a n d

b. /1. = I00 Q c.R;=l0Q (t. R5: I S)

/l\ = 15ll) lr= ll \ Figure p2.75 Anrmerer r.rcnrl r)x\lfl

2-76 LisingtIe circ!il ol lri!ure p2.75. lind rhe yollige t h l i t l h c n t c l e l r c a r l si l i , - l - + V i n d R \ h i l r l h c lbllorvin! I'rlues: R \ : 0 . 1 r , , , .0 . - 1 f , , . 0 . 6 r , , , . | ) r , , , . 1 r , , , .( r , . r n d 1 0 r . , , , . llo$ lilf!c (or \ntitll) \hould the rntcrnulfcsj\luncc ol' thc mctrr bc rclltli\c to R\ , 2.77 A rcltnrctel i\ usc(llo deterntire rnc !otiiLqla iLcro\s il fr.\r\tr!e clelllcnt it) the cifcuit ol l;i!ure p1.77. The i n \ t r L r n l c n tl s n l o d c l e ( l b r e I i d c u l \ o l l m c l e r i n p i l r i t l l e l wtlh ll ll0 kQ tcsi\lor. s \hown. l-herreier is plilcc(l lO nlersUtethc vollilge itctos\ /?r. Assurne Rr : 8 kA. R: - ll kQ. R. - 50 kO. /i. = tt5 ke. lrd / r : I l 0 n r , \ . F i r r ( l h c \ o l l u l c i r c r o \ sR r $ i l h t r ) d | \ i l h o u l l h e v o j l l n c l c f i n l h c c i r c L t i lf i r r . t h e t b l l o w i n g \ alues: tr.Rr: i00Q

Figure P2.78


b./lr-lls) c.Rr-l0kO d. ftr: I 0 0k O

Shorvn in Firurc I)1.79is an alLrnrnunt cilnlllc\crcd b!'itmloadecl b\ the lir|cc f. SIfuingrulc. RL. Rt. R,. und Rr rrc illluchccl ftr tircrJt_.irln it\ \no[l] in Fi.!:urc P2.79arr(l corr)ccte.! irlo lhc circLrit shorvn. The forccciru\es I tcn\ionsltcss otr the t()pol lhe bc:lnlthatcruse\lhc len!lh (rnd lhcr.lir.etha fesislnncc) ol n iud Rt k) iltcrcasc r|(l r contPrcrsion \lre\s on the hottontol thc beuntthit cau\e\lh. lc|lcth (lud thc.elbrc thc relistnnce)olR. itnd R: lo dccral\c. This causcs lt voltage oi 50 rnV ut no(leB rr tth |r.sp.,ct lo rode .1.Dctcrntine rh.' li)rcci1' I, : lt V
f : 69 C\/ml

2.78 .{l lnrnr.-ter is usctlar shoun in Ligufc pl.78. The ilDtIltL'tet (J1 modclconsisls nIt idcillrmrllclerin \c es

/ 1 ,= I k Q , : 15 rrrnr

/r - I00 ntfi

Pr|t I


/ ] T__---t I -"-l

incr'case ancl a compression strcss on the bottollt ol the (andIhereti)re beamthatcauscs ilte len-eth the resrslaDce) of Rt ilnd Rr to decrcase. Thi\ gencrlles a vollagebetween nodes B end A. Dclennincthis voltngc i i F : 1 . 1M N a n d R,,=lkc l ' r : 1 , 1v /r = 7 crn
_I -




. 1I


tt, = -l cnr

f : 100 GN/rnl

Figure p2-79 Shosl in ijisurePl.E()is I srr'uclurat 2.80 steel clnlilc\credbcarnkradcd hr u tbrcel. Strtin gitu{es Rt. Rt. /1,. u d 1itr iuc iL rchf(l f()lhe bc|t t itssh{)wn andconn(-cled inkr the cr|cuitshoun. The lirrcccuuses lulc-nsiorr ,Jnlhc t(rpof the bcitmthll crusc\ lhe slrr'rs lenglh(xlrdlhefctole lhc rc\i\tilncc-r ol Ri itnd/lr to

1 L l :-

Figure P2.80