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Code/Reference

3.3.2.1 Subsurface conditions and geotechnical descriptions

Table 3.6 Soil Design Parameters Soil Soil Elev. Layer Soil SPT Layer From To Depth Description N (m) 1 2 3 4 0 -6.5 -19.5 -29.5 (m) -6.5 -19.5 -29.5 -40.5 (m) 6.5 13 10 11 Loose Sand Medium Dense Sand Dense Sand Very Dense Sand

Bulk Friction Modulus Data of Soil Design Angle of Elasticity Parameters were Density 3 sat, (Kn/m ) E, (Kn/m2) taken from Tables 2-7, 3-4, Foundation 4 12 25 4750 Analysis & Design, (Bowles, J.E., (1989)) 10 18 35 6250 39 50 20 22 40 47 80000 150000

Design Considerations: 1. The pile foundation that will be designed is for an assumed bridge structure. 3. Water level is being assumed to be at or just below ground surface. 4. Initial and draft calculations were performed and a preliminary number of piles and pile section was selected and the final design calculations will be presented here. 3.3.2.2 Foundation loads and load combinations Table 3.7 Summary of Loads Load Axial Moment ULS Moment Lateral Load Lateral Load Case Load about X - Dir. about Y - Dir. along Y - Dir. along X - Dir. SLS

Mx My Py Px

(Kn) ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS 8010 6400 6640 6400 6480 6300

(Kn) 0 40 0 40 150 40

62

Calculation/Discussion

Code/Reference

Y-Axis X-Axis

Ps

Msy

Psy

Psx Msx

Note: Direction of Traffic is along Y-axis. Figure 3.5 Schematic Diagram of Foundation Loads

3.3.2.3 Verify the requirement of a pile foundation Presumed bearing value of loose sand for foundation with width = 4m. <= Table 2.4 Foundation Design and Construction (Tomlinson & Boorman, (1995)) <= Table 3.7 Summary of Loads

=> =>

30

KPa

= 6400 KN

Afd =

Ps q = 213 m2 Size of Foundation is controlled by the geometry of the bridge structure, so area of footing is not acceptable! So, pile is required.

=> =>

63

Code/Reference

Actual Load Eccentricity (Factored Loading from Load Case 2) eactual = Mux Pu eactual = 1.193 The actual eccentricity is less than the allowable, eccentricity requirement is complied.

Check for the Footing Settlement qo(')(1-2)IsIf Es <= Principles of Foundation Engineering (Das, B.M., (2004))

Averaged modulus of elasticity of soil Net applied pressure on the foundation Posson's ratio of soil = 0.3 B/2 for center of foundation Shape Factor Depth Factor Calculate the value of Es, Calculate the value of qo, Es= 5897.1 KPa qo = Ps Afd = 88.063 KPa B 2 = 2.375 m

B' =

Calculate the value of Is, 4 For settlement at centre of footing L m' = B = 3.221 n' = H (B/2) = 8 =

64

Calculation/Discussion Calculate for shape Factor, Is, For: m'= 3.221 n'= 8 => Is = F1 +

Code/Reference (2-)F2 (1-) = 0.7976 <= Table 5.4 Principles of Foundation Engineering (Das, B.M., (2004))

Calculate for Depth Factor, If, Ratio Df/B = Ratio L/B = 0.5263 3.2211 If= 0.85 <= Table 5.5 Principles of Foundation Engineering (Das, B.M., (2004))

Calculate for Elastic Settlement, Se Se= 0.088 m The footing settlement is more than the 25mm allowable so a pile foundation is required.

Summary of assumed project study; The project feasibility study conducted for the design and construction of this bridge structure recommends the following ; 1. Due to constrainst at the site and its location, only pile driving method of pile installation is deemed feasible. 2. The structural steel pile is being recommended, however since supply of the steel pile may not be adequate during the construction stage, a reinforced concrete pile is being considered as good alternative.

65

Calculation/Discussion 3.3.2.4 Design of precast reinforced concrete pile Design Consideration: 1. Preliminary Pile Size 450 x 450 Grade 50 2 b= 450 mm Ag= 2.E+05 mm d= 450 => 22 mm Piles 1.5

3 Sx= 2E+07 mm

Code/Reference

m = 1.35 m <= Sec. 9.5.2.3.2.3 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006)) 1.35 m (typ.) 9 eL 10 11

2xPile Dia.

0.9 m

B= 4.75 3

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

66

Code/Reference

Pu

Mux

o a R1 Figure 3.7 Sectional View of Footing From Summary of Loads; From preliminary footing dimensions, a= 2.95 m b= 1.475 m R2

Pu= 8010 KN

Mux= 8350 KN-m

F =0 R2 + R1 - Pu = 0 Axial Load per single pile, R2 Ru= No of Piles = 621.4 KN Calculate for R1 R1= 1174 KN

67

Calculation/Discussion Check the Adequacy of Preliminary RC Pile Size Capacity of Pile; For a 450 x 450 Grade 50 concrete section with, = 1.50%

Code/Reference

621.4 KN

OK

<= Table 7.1.5 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006)) <= Cl 10.9.1 &10.9.2 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006 Capacity of Pile; R= C qs z + At qt - Wp z=0

L

1.50% OK!

3.3.2.5 Geotechnical axial capacity of pile Refer to Table 3.6 for soil properties. Loose Sand 1= 12 KN/m L1=> 6.5

3

L2=> 13.00

3

where; C= Circumference of pile qs= Pile shaft shear stress z= Segments of Pile embedment Length, L At= Pile toe cross sectional area qt= Soil bearing stress at pile toe. Wp = Weight of pile

3 w= Unit weight of water (9.81 kN/m )

L3=> 10 3= 20 KN/m

3

L4=> 11

qs= v'

Calculation/Discussion Thus, at Loose sand layer; qs1= 2.145 KPa @ Medium dense sand layer v' = { L2 + L1} 2 = 106.6 KPa (2 w ) = 0.35 = 0.3

Code/Reference <= Table 18.1 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006 <= Table 18.1 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006

Thus, at medium dense sand layer; qs2= 37.31 KPa @ Dense sand layer qs3= v' = 112.5 KPa also, v' = { L3 + L2 + L1} (3 w ) 2 = 250 KPa <= Table 18.1 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006

= 0.45

@ Very dense sand layer qs4= v' = 192.2 KPa also, v' = { L4 + L3 + L2 + L1} (4 w ) 2 = 427 KPa <= Table 18.1 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006

= 0.45

Calculate total Pile shaft resistance; Rs= Cz1qs1 + = 2931 KN Cz2qs2 + Cz3qs3 + Cz4qs4

For point bearing resistance of pile qt= tt' = 42700 KPa where: t= 100 t' = { L4 + L3 + L2 + L1} (4 w ) 2 = 427 KPa 69 <= Eq. 18.3, Table 18.2 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006

Code/Reference

Rs Wp

11340 KN The value of R > 621.4 KN OK! <= Table 8.10 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006

4536 KN

where; = 0.4

Pro= Prco +

Prso

where; Prco= 1cf'c( Ag - Ast) Prso= fyAst 1= 0.80 c= 0.65 f'c= 50 MPa 2 Ag= 2.E+05 mm

Consider = 0.037 %

<= Eq. 10.10 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

2 Ast= 7.E+01 mm = 0.85 fy= 400 MPa Substituting values and calculate Pro,

Pro= 5289 KN So that Pmax; R= 0.80Pro = 4231 KN > <= Eq. 10.9 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

621 KN

OK

70

Calculation/Discussion 3.3.2.7 Estimate pile driving capacity Discussion: 1. The Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual recommends the use of wave equation analysis for all calculation of pile driving capacity. This analysis gives a more reliable results than the conventional dynamic equations. However, the use of wave equation analysis involves the use of commercially available computer software. In the absence of the wave equation software, a modified Gates dynamic formula will be used to estimate the pile driving capacity. 2. The research paper, Recent advances in the design of piles for axial loads, dragloads, downdrag, and settlement, B.H. Fellenius, 1998, it stated that " regardless of whether of not the settlement of the ground surface is of noticeable magnitude all piles will develop skin friction and dragloads" 3. A downdrag force will be included in the calculation. In the absence of a geotechnical engineer's recommendation, a value will be estimated as a percentage of the total pile shaft reaction.

Code/Reference

<= Design Step P.10 FHWA LRFD Steel Bridge Design Example (Raymond, A.H., et al, (2003))

= 3752 KN = 421.7 Ton Calculate pile axial resistance by modified Gates dynamic formula For Precast reinforced concrete pile, R= 9 efWH Log (10/S) where; ef= = W= H= S=

Hammer efficency 0.75 (Single acting hammers) Weight of hammer (Ram) (in Tons) Drop of hammer (in inches) Pile penetration for last blow (in inches)

<= Eq. 4.11c Pile Foundation Analysis & Design (Poulos, H.G. & Davis, E.H., (1980))

71

Calculation/Discussion Using Delmag D55 Hammer W= = H= = 11900 5.95 9 108 Lbs. Ton Ft inches 421.7 Ton and calculating the value of S;

Code/Reference

From the modified Gates dynamic formula, it can be shown that; Log (10/S) = R 9 efWH Let : S= 1 N Number of Hammer blows per inch of penetration

Note: Values tabulated in Table 3.8 for Pile driving resistance is obtained using the above equation.

Table 3.8: 1/set and Pile driving capacity N R Pile Stress Ton KN MPa 1 198 1761 8.70 3 292 2598 12.83 5 336 2989 14.76 7 364 3238 15.99 9 386 3434 16.96 11 403 3585 17.70 13 418 3719 18.36 15 430 3825 18.89

Maximum permissible stress during pile driving max= 0.85f'c = 42.5 MPa Actual stress during pile driving actual = R Ag = 18.53 Mpa = 1.00 <= Table 9-9 LRFD For Highway Bridge Substructure FHWA HI 98-032 May 2001

<

42.5 Mpa

OK!

72

Calculation/Discussion Calculate for factored axial resistance during pile driving, R= ( R - 75 % of Rs ) = 650.8 KN > 621 KN From Table 3.8, R= 3825.3 KN = 0.4

Code/Reference

3.3.2.8 Calculate the structural load for each in the pile group Ru= Pu n + Muxeb eb2 + MuyeL eL2 where; Mux= Moment about x -axis Muy= Moment about y -axis eL= Pile distances from y-axis eb= Pile distances from x-axis Pu= Applied vertical load n= Number of piles Calculate load per pile for Load Case 1 @ ULS Pu= 8010 KN Mux= 8350 KN-m Muy= 0 KN-m n= 22 <= Eq. 18-9, Foundation Analysis & Design, (Bowles, J.E., (1989))

73

Calculation/Discussion Table 3.9 Load per pile @ Load Case 1 in ULS loading Muxeb Pile Pu 2 eb eL eb2 eL 2 n eb No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 (m.) 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 1.475 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 -1.48 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 2.1756 47.864 (m.) 6.75 5.4 4.05 2.7 1.35 0 1.35 2.7 4.05 5.4 6.75 -6.8 -5.4 -4.1 -2.7 -1.4 0 -1.4 -2.7 -4.1 -5.4 -6.8 45.6 29.2 16.4 7.29 1.82 0 1.82 7.29 16.4 29.2 45.6 45.6 29.2 16.4 7.29 1.82 0 1.82 7.29 16.4 29.2 45.6 401 (KN) 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 364.1 () 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3 -257.3

Code/Reference

MuyeL

2 eL

Load/pile KN () 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 621.4 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8 106.8

() 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

e2 =>

74

Calculation/Discussion Calculate the axial load for each pile at various load cases, and tabulating the summary;

Code/Reference

Table 3.10 Summary of pile axial load for load cases 1, 2, & 3 in ULS and SLS loadings 1 2 3 Load ULS SLS ULS SLS ULS SLS Case 8010 6400 6640 6400 6480 6300 P= 8350 5182 7920 5120 6900 5180 Mx= 0 200 0 200 600 200 My= Pile No. 1 621.4 454.0 545.9 452.1 517.3 449.4 2 621.4 453.3 545.9 451.4 515.3 448.7 3 621.4 452.6 545.9 450.7 513.2 448.0 4 621.4 451.9 545.9 450.0 511.2 447.3 621.4 451.3 545.9 449.4 509.2 446.7 5 6 621.4 450.6 545.9 448.7 507.2 446.0 621.4 451.3 545.9 449.4 509.2 446.7 7 8 621.4 451.9 545.9 450.0 511.2 447.3 621.4 452.6 545.9 450.7 513.2 448.0 9 10 621.4 453.3 545.9 451.4 515.3 448.7 621.4 454.0 545.9 452.1 517.3 449.4 11 12 106.8 127.9 57.8 129.8 71.8 123.4 106.8 128.5 57.8 130.4 73.8 124.0 13 14 106.8 129.2 57.8 131.1 75.9 124.7 106.8 129.9 57.8 131.8 77.9 125.4 15 16 106.8 130.5 57.8 132.5 79.9 126.1 17 106.8 131.2 57.8 133.1 81.9 126.7 18 106.8 130.5 57.8 132.5 79.9 126.1 19 106.8 129.9 57.8 131.8 77.9 125.4 20 106.8 129.2 57.8 131.1 75.9 124.7 21 106.8 128.5 57.8 130.4 73.8 124.0 22 106.8 127.9 57.8 129.8 71.8 123.4

75

Calculation/Discussion 3.3.2.9 Pile lateral deflection and load capacity Lateral capacity of piles in soils by Brom's Method Embedment length of pile, L = Constant of modulus of horiz. subgrade reaction, nh = 27.03 m

3 10000 Kn/m

Code/Reference

<= Sec. 18.4.1 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006 <= Table 11.13 Principles of Foundation Engineering, (Das, B.M., (2004)) <= Sec. 9.7.3.2 Design & Const. of Driven Pile = 2E+07 mm = 50 MPa

3

My= Sf'c where; S= Pile section modulus f'c= Pile yield stress My= 759 KN-m For; My D4Kp where; = 279 D4= 0.041 3 = 18 Kn/m Kp= tan2 ( 45 + ) 2 = 3.69 Qu D3Kp = 90 (Consider pile is restrained)

Qu= 545 KN

Maximum allowable lateral deflection at top of pile, xo xo= 10 mm <= Sec. 13.9.4 Design & Const. of Driven Pile Foundation (Hannigan, P.J., et al, (2006))

76

3/5 nh

Code/Reference

10

(EI)

2/5

4 2

111.7

KN @ F.S= 2.5

Maximum applied lateral force at service loadings for each pile; Qu= Qu= 1900 22 86.364 KN

<

111.7 KN

OK!

Check for lateral capacity with group effect Maximum pile spacing parallel to lateral load being considered, Z; Z= 2.95 m ; 8x(Pile Dia.) = Reduction Factor= 3.6 m 0.85 <= Sec. 9.7.3.2 Design & Const. of Driven Pile Foundation (Hannigan, P.J., et al, (2006))

Therefore, calculate total pile group capacity Qutotal= Quallow x Reduction Factor x No of piles = 94.96 KN x 22 piles = 2089 KN > 1900 3.3.2. 10 Pile settlement calculation S= Sp + Ss where;

KN

Sp = Elastic deformation of pile shaft Ss= Settlement of ground in which the pile is embedded = Sss + Sst Sss= Settlement due to load at pile shaft Sst= Settlement due to load at pile toe

77

Calculation/Discussion Calculate for elastic deformation of pile shaft, Sp= 0.75 where; Q= Applied pile load (@ service load) L= Total embedment length of pile Ag= Cross section of pile E= Modulus of elasticity of material Calculate, Sp Sp= 1.43 mm Calculate settlement due to load at pile shaft, Cs Qsa L qt Sss QL AgE Sp ;

Code/Reference

<= Eq. 18.22 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006 => 454.0 KN => 27.03 m 2 => 0.203 m

2 => 3E+07 Kn/m

Sss=

= 0.43 mm

where 0.5 Cs= 0.93 + 0.16(L/d) = 2.17 Qsa= 227.0 KN qt= 42700 KPa Sst

Sst=

Total maximum settlement of a single pile; S S= Sp + Sss + Sst = 2.09 mm < Sallow =

10.00 mm

OK! 10 mm <= Sec. 7.4.4 Bridge Engineering: Substructure Design (Chen, W.F., & Duan, L., (2003))

78

Calculation/Discussion Calculate ultimate lateral passive resistance of a pile group; Qu= 0.5BL Kp

2

Code/Reference

where B= Width of pile group = Submerged density of soil Kp= Coeff of passive pressure L= Pile embedment Calculate ultimate lateral passive resistance, Qu= 42898 KN So, Quallow = Quallow = Calculate settlement of a pile group; Sgroup= B D where Se

<= Sec. 6.3.1 Pile Design and Construction Practice (Tomlinson, M.J., (1977))

<= Sec. 18.3.2.2 Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual 2006 Se= Elastic settlement of single pile => 2.091 mm B= width of pile group => 2.95 m D= Diameter of single pile => 0.45 m < 25 mm OK! 25.00 mm <= Sec. 13.9.4 Design & Const. of Driven Pile Foundation (Hannigan, P.J., et al, (2006))

Sgroup=

5.35 mm

Calculate group total axial capacity; For pile group efficiency, n; 2(n1+n2-2)d + 4D pn1n2

n=

79

Calculation/Discussion where n1= n2= d= D= p= calculate for the value of n, n= 0.7955 Pu= = n R 79379 KN > 8010 KN OK! No. of columns in plan => No. of rows in plan => Spacing of pile => Pile Dia. => section perimeter of pile => 11 2 1.35 0.45 1.8

Code/Reference

m m m

3.3.2.12 Pile structural capacity with combined axial & bending Calculate pile section bending moment capacity Estimate the steel reinforcement requirement for axial and bending resistance; Consider Load Case 1 Loads per single pile, Mux= 379.55 KN-m => Muy= 0.00 KN-m Ru= 621.4 KN => 0.38 MN-m

0.621 MN

Ru = 3.069 MPa Ag thus, ~ = 0.032 Mux Agh = 4.165 MPa <= Table 7.5.17 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006))

= Ratio of centre to centre distance b/w outermost main reinf. Bars to overall depth of section = 0.56 For Concrete f'c = 50.0 MPa b= 0.0398

<= Table 2.1 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006))

80

2 2 5828 mm ; Try

Code/Reference Kr= 9.50 <= Table 2.1 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006))

8 - 30mm rebars

Actual, As= 5600 mm say OK! Actual = 0.036 < b OK Calculate bending moment capacity, Mrx where, d= h - cover - ds b= cover= ds= db= 450 75 10 30 mm mm mm mm KN-m => 524 KN-m db 2 => 350.00 mm

Therefore, for combined axial & bending; Ru R 621.4 4231 0.147 + Mux Mrx 380 524 0.72 = 0.872 < 1.0 OK < 1.0

<= Eq. 2.13 Concrete Design Handbook - Part 2 (MacGregor, J.G., et al, (2006))

+ +

Spacing requirement of longitudinal reinforcement; Actual clear spacing of reinforcement Spacing= b - 2cover - 2ds - 4db 3 no. of spaces = 53.3 mm Clear spacing of reinforcement requirement Should be the largest of; 1.4db= 42 mm 1.4ag= 28 mm ;ag is max size of coarse aggregate=20mm and, = 30 mm So, spacing = 53.3 mm > 42 mm, OK <= Cl 7.4.1.1 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

81

Calculation/Discussion Consider Load Case 3; Mux= 313.64 KN-m Muy= 27.27 KN-m Ru= 517.3 KN Ru R 517.3 4231 0.122 + Mux Mrx 314 524 0.60 + Muy Mry 27.27 523.7 0.05 = 0.77 < 1 OK! Mrx= 523.7 KN-m Mry= 523.7 KN-m Pucap= 4231 KN < 1.0

Code/Reference

+ +

+ +

3.3.2.13 Pile shear capacity Single pile maximum factored shear force; Vf Vf= 136.36 KN Concrete section shear resistance; Vc= c f'c bwdv where; dv= effective shear depth, as 0.9d , = bw= section width within depth, d = c= resistance factor for concrete, = = For normal concrete density, = = section per A23.3, Cl 11.2.8.2, = f'c= concrete compressive strength, = Determine the value of, Vc Vc= 117.27 KN < Vf shear reinfrorcement is required <= Cl 11.2.8.1 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006 <= Eq. 11.6 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

2 100.0 mm

82

2 Av= 200.0 mm

Code/Reference

Calculate the spacing of 10M stirrups, s; s= sAvfydvcot Vs = 0.85 <= Eq. 11.7 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

2 area of shear reinforcement per stirrup, = 200.0 mm yield strength of steel shear reinforcement, = 400 MPa effective shear depth, as 0.9d = 315.00 mm for CSA A23.3 Cl 11.3.6.3 simplified method, = 35 degrees

Determine the value of spacing, s; s= 1602.3 mm Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement The lesser of ; 0.7dv= Or, = <= Cl 11.3.8.1 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

221 mm 600 mm

3.3.2.14 Pile transverse reinforcement requirement Minimum tie diameter requirement; dtie= 0.3db= 9.0 < 10 M stirrup provided, OK

<= Cl 7.6.5.1 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

83

Calculation/Discussion Minimum tie spacing requirement; spacing should be the least of; 16db= 480 mm 48dtie= 480 mm or, h= 450 mm

Code/Reference <= Cl 7.6.5.2 (CSA A23.3-04 Design of Concrete Structures) Concrete Design Handbook Third Edition, 2006

200

84

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