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Systemsl

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 974; the number immediately following the designation indicates the ;'sa1 .1 original adoption or, in the caseofrevisioq the year oflast revision. A number in parenthesesindicates the year oflast reapproval. A superscript epsilon (r) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

INTRODUCTION The following sections describe a guide for determining the thermodynamic excellenceof to establishand compareperformancelevelsof geothermalpower systems. This guide may be r.lsed plant using equal or different resourceconditions and is intendedas designs alternativegeothermal in support of geothermalplant optimization. information for means supplying a It is also the purposeof this guide to promote the common useof pertinent comparisoncriteria for geothermalpower systems,and to discouragethe use of somecriteria which may rangefrom lessuseful to misleading. 1. Scope 1.1 This guide defines and examinespower plant performanceterms and criteria for use in evaluation and comparison of geothermalenergyconversionand power generation systems.The special nature of these geothermal systems make performance criteria commonly used to evaluate of limited value. This conventionalfossil fuel-firedsystems guide identifies the limitations of the lessuseful criteria and defines an equitable basis for measuring the quality of differing thermal cyclesand plant equipment fior geothermal resources. 1.2 This standarddoesnot purport to addressall of the safety problems, tf any, associatedwith its use. It is the responsibiiityof the user of this standard to establishappropriate safetyand health practicesand determinethe applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. and Use 2. Significance 2.1 Thermal efliciency and heat rate are frequently utifized to evaluate the thermodynamic quality of fossil fuellhed power plants.zEvaluation of geothermalsystemsusing similar definitions of thermal efficiency and heat rate can be the misleadingand, for most purposes,inadequatelyassesses quality of alternative cycles.A utilization factor, defined as the ratio of het work output to the ideal work availablefrom the geofluid,providesa more equitablebasisfor evaluation systems. of geothermal of the thermodynamicexcellence -3. Calculations 3.1 Fossil Fuel-fired Power Plants-Thermal efficiency ind heat rate are usefuland valid criteria for evaluationand

' t This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E44 on Solar, and is the direct responsibility Geothermal,and Other Alternative EnergySources of SubcommitteeE44.20 on Utilization. Current edition approvedNov. 28, 1983.PublishedMay 1984. 2 Kestin, A. J., DiPippo, R., I(halifa, H., and Rylev, D. J., "Source Book on the Production of Electricity From Geothermal Energy," DoE/RA/28320-2, U.S. DepartmentofEnergy, 1980,pp. 243-257.

comparison of fossil fuel-fired power plants. Thermal effito the heat that is ciency is the ratio of net work generated theoretically available from the fuel. Conventional usage within the electric generatingindustry definesthermal efEciency(in fractions)as:

n, = (3.6 x 106 /HR) where: (dimensionless)

(l)

3.6 x 106: joule equivalent(J) of I kWh, and IIR = heat rate, the ratio of energysuppliedto the net output, J/kWh. 3.1.1 For fossil fuel-fired power plants heat rate is expressed as: (2) HR = (Mrx FC/W) where: Me : fuel flow rate, kg/h, f'C : fuel higherheatingvalue,J/kg, and W : net output, kW. 3.1.2 Thermal efliciencyand heat rate include the effecwith the fuel comtivenessof energy conversionassociated bustion, the effect of heat rejected in exhaust gasesand and allowancefor equipment and balanceof condensate, plant auxiliary power losses.Thus, thermal e{Iiciency and heat rate provide an equitable basis for ranking and comparingfossilfuel-firedplantsofalternativedesign. Power Plants-Evaluation of geothermal 3.2 Geothermal using a similar defrnition of energy conversionprocesses and for rate can be misleading and heat thermal efficiency the quality of most purposesdoes not adequatelyassess alternativecycle configurations.The heat supplied to the geothermal cycleis in general:

Qo(ho h,)(Jlh)

(3)

(exceptions in the are discussed and the heat rate becomes paragraph): next (4) HR = (Q"(h"- h,)lw) (J/kwh) where: fluid (geofluid) Qo = total massflow rate of the geothermal kg/h, to the cycle,

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&o : specific enthalpy of the total two-phaseor singlephase well flow, J/kg, and h, = specificenthalpyofthe fluid rejectedfrom the cycle and returnedto the reservoiror environment,J/kg. 3.2.1 The resultingthermal cycle efliciencyfor a typical in Fig. I asa function of singleflashsteamcycle,is presented the temperatureof the rejectedfluid, f,,. This figure shows continuouslyincreasingthermal efliciency as hotter fluids However,it can be shownthat are returnedto the reservoir. for any geotherrnalcycle, there is an optimum value for rejection temperaturethat will produce maximum power output per unit of massflow from the well. Consequently, the continuouslyrising efficiencyshown by Fig. I can be misleading.When optimum rejection temperature is exthe well flow requiredto produceeach kilowatt of ceeded, power increases exponentiallyand may exceedeconomic limits. 3.2.2 Calculationof the heat rate using Eq 4 is valid for geothermalbinary cycles(Fig. 2a), wherein heat is transferred from the geothermalfluid to a secondaryworking This fluid and the total well flow is returnedto the reservoir. whereina heatrate equationrequiresmodificationfor cycles into steam(Fig. 2b fluid is flashed fraction of the geothermal The modifiedequation ascondensate. and2c)and is rejected becomes:

HR=

Qoh,- Qo(M,h,+ M.h")

at oneorr M" : sum of the steamvaporfractionsproduced levels,and more pressure J/kg. h. = specificenthalpyofrejectedcondensate, Terms must be added to reflect heat rejected from well vapors. ellluentsventedas noncondensible 3.3 Utilization Factor-A more useful basis for comparing the thermodynamicexcellence of geothermal energy is provided by the utilization factor, conversionprocesses The utilization factor is defined as the ratio of net work from the geofluidbetween output to the idealwork available its initial state (supply condition) and the sink condition (lowesttemperature availablefor heat rejection).Utilization as: factor ( U) canbe expressed u: w 3'6 x lo6J * --kW[Q"E, (clmensrot rless) (6)

(J/kwh)

(5)

where: within the Ei = ideal specificwork available to the process natural boundsof the environment,J/kg, Oo : well headmassflow rate, kg/h, and W = net usefulpower,kW. 3.3.1 Utilization factor fulfills the objectiveof evaluating the quality of thermal cyclesand for ranking the power potential of geothermalresources. It is important that lhe power be explicitly defined as net power, as there may be and in auxiliary power requirements, signifrcantdifferences differing methodsof providing auxiliary power,in the cases This appliesparticularlyto auxiliary power beingevaluated. allowancesfor venting gasesor for transportingworking fluids.

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FlG. 2b Schematic of Single-Flash Steam Cycle

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3.3.2 Utfl:ranon factor for a typical single flash steam cycle,is presentedas a function of rejection temperaturein Fig. 3, the rejection temperaturewhich resultsin the highest utilization is referred to as the optimum temperature. For multiflash cycles (including flash-binary) optimum values can be identified for each flash level. For binary cycles, tend to vary with the secondaryfluid optimum temperatures Optimum rejection temperaturecan also be identiselected. fied for hybrid cycles such as those employing total flow machineswith steambottoming cycles. 3.3.3 Examinationof Figs. I and 3 indicates that thermal efficiencyand heat rate are not comparablewith utilization systems, increases factor.Thermal efliciency,for geothermal with increasing rejection temperature, whereas utilization factor showsan optimum rejection tmperaturefor a given : iupply condition. Utilization factor is presentedas a guide for design evaluations and the selection of suitable design conditiqns for equipment specifications. 3.4 ldeal SpecirtcWork-The ideal specificwork (d), is the theoretical maximum work which can be obtained from ( P" ) and enthalpy ( ft" ) a systemat an initial stateat pressure andsink conditions(P, and 7,). The idealspecific work can h calculatedusing the secondlaw of thermodynamics.

Ei= (ho - h^) - f.(S" - S") (7)

S" and 5 = geothermalfluid entropies at inlet and sink conditions,J/kg.& and = sink tenrperalure,I( Tu .,.3.!.1 The use of thermal propertiesfor pure water in the qf 4 wifl result in a utilization factor which calculation= reflectsthe influence of salinity and other geofluid contaminants on the relative performance of different sites. The initial enthalpy, (h), must be explicitly and consistently defined for valid comparisons; for instance, the choice of well head temperature would not be appropriate for plants employing downhole pumps or downhole heat exchangers. Therefore,the initial temperatur should be defined for the well flow entering the downhole system. 3.5 Sink Condition-Unless specialenvironmental conditions exist, in deriving the ideal specific work, the sink condition of saturatedwater at 15.6'C (60'F) is recom: mended. 3.6 GeofluidRate-:-For comparisonsof alternative cycles or apparatus for a specific site or resource, where ideal specific work, (-01), is constant,the coniparisoncan proceed on the basisof specificpower, WIQ- or its reciprocalwhich is usually termed water-rate or geofluid-rate.Thb geofluidrate measuresthe well flow rate to produi:e a kilowatt of powerand is a major index of field divelopment costs.For comparisonswhere auxiliary lossesare presumedconstant, the geofluid-ratecalculation is often foreshortened to a basis po\vergeneration, of gross however, this shouldbe usedwith caution.

The Amedcan Society for Testing and Materials takes no position rcspecting the validity of any patent r,?hts ass erted in connection with any item mentionad in this standard. Users of thrs standard arc exprcssty advised that determination ol the validity of any such pEitentilghts, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. i fhls stahdard is subiect to revision at any time by the responslb/e tec hnical committeeand must be rcviewed every five years and it nat revised, either reapqoved or withdrawn. Your comments are invitd either for rcvisian of this standard or for addiionat standards and should be addrcssed to ASTM Headquarters. Your commenta witl receive carcfut consideation at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may aftend. lt you feet that your comments have not recelved a faii hearing yiu should makeyour pA 1910A. views known to the ASTMCommitteeon Standads, 1916 Race St., phitadetphia,

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