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This paper describes the design and implementation of a rocket payload system that functions as an attitude monitoring and surveillance systems. The system is designed to monitor rocket’s dynamics and take aerial photographs. The measured data is sent via radio frequency (RF) modem to a ground control system (GCS) in real-time. The rocket dynamics comprises of rocket’s linear acceleration and orientation data. The rocket’s orientation is represented in the roll, pitch, and yaw angles. The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) integrate accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data to obtain accurate orientation angles. Additionally, the payload system is capable for aerial surveillance in the form of a still image. In June 2012, the system is fitted to the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency (LAPAN) RUM-70 payload test rocket and is successfully launched. The monitored data clearly shows the several stages of the launch. Moreover, the imagery system managed to take a clear picture of the Congot coastline.

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Sambya Aryasa S.

Electrical Engineering

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Hanif Rizal

Electrical Engineering

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Angga Irawan

Electrical Engineering

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Electrical Engineering

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Bandung, Indonesia

wadpirawita@stei.itb.ac.id

AbstractThis paper describes the design and implementation of a rocket payload system that functions as an attitude monitoring and surveillance systems. The system is designed to monitor rockets dynamics and take aerial photographs. The measured data is sent via radio frequency (RF) modem to a ground control system (GCS) in real-time. The rocket dynamics comprises of rockets linear acceleration and orientation data. The rockets orientation is represented in the roll, pitch, and yaw angles. The Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) integrate accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data to obtain accurate orientation angles. Additionally, the payload system is capable for aerial surveillance in the form of a still image. In June 2012, the system is fitted to the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency (LAPAN) RUM-70 payload test rocket and is successfully launched. The monitored data clearly shows the several stages of the launch. Moreover, the imagery system managed to take a clear picture of the Congot coastline. Keywords-component; surveillance; AHRS; monitoring; attitude;

system has been widely used for attitude monitoring of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) such as octorotor [2]. The system consists of accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer sensor. To obtain the orientation angle, sensor fusion algorithm is used to integrate the sensors output. II.

PAYLOAD DESIGN

A. Payload and Rocket Spesification The structure of the payload is designed to have a cylindrical form, which encloses the electrical circuitry of the system, and protects it from impacts. The system generally functions as a telemetric device, which monitor the rocket dynamics. Additionally, the system has an imagery system capable of doing aerial surveillance in the form of a 200 x 200 pixels gray-scale still image.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Telemetry is a method that allows the measurement of the data is done from a distance. Such technology has been used in variety of fields such as agriculture, meteorology, oil and gas industry, rocketry, and space exploration. In 2009, a telemetry system is developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (LAPAN) to measure temperature, pressure, and humidity at a certain altitude [1]. The system is used for atmospheric research or weather monitoring. In this paper, a telemetry system is developed to monitor rockets dynamics and to observe Earth's surface. Rockets dynamics data comprise of its linear acceleration and orientation angles, which is represented in the form of Euler angles (roll, pitch, and yaw). Additionally, the system is capable of capturing a 200x200 pixels gray-scale still image. For further development, both forms of telemetry can be used to support the basic functions of the satellite subsystem such as attitude control and civilian earth observation. Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) is implemented as the rockets attitude monitoring system. Such

Figure 1. Launch Stage

The rocket used to test the payload system is the LAPAN RUM-70 payload-testing rocket. The RUM-70 is 1230 mm in length, 76 mm in diameter, and 4.6 kg in weight. It is capable of carrying a payload with the maximum dimension of 100 mm in diameter, 200 mm in length, and 1 kg in weight.

KYL-200U

Ground Segment

Transceiver Radio

As shown in Fig. 3, the payload system is designed to be in one of three modes, such as: 1. Idle mode, the system is powered on, and no data is transmitted to the GCS during this mode. In addition, the GCS could send a command to the system to start the attitude monitoring mode or surveillance mode. Attitude monitoring mode, the system continuously sends the rocket's dynamics data to the GCS. The rocket's dynamics data comprise of the rocket's acceleration data and the rocket's orientation angles data. At this mode, the GCS can send a command to stop monitoring the attitude. Surveillance mode, the system sends a 200 x 200 pixels gray-scale still image to the GCS. The system will return to the idle mode after the data transmission is completed.

2.

C. Attitude Monitoring System Design AHRS is a system that uses sensor fusion algorithm to integrate the sensors output. Gyroscope output is used as the core data to estimate rocket orientation. Unfortunately, the measurement of the gyroscopes can drift due to the influence of temperature and pressure. Adjustment is necessary to correct the orientation estimation. Accelerometer output is used to correct the roll and pitch angle, magnetometer output is used to correct the yaw/heading [2]. The block diagram of AHRS is shown in Fig. 5.

Gyroscope + + Normalization Convertion to Euler Angle

3.

The orientation angles of the rocket are represented in a Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) named Cbn. DCM is the result of three-axis rotation matrix composition. The columns and rows of DCM are orthogonal to each other. The amount of rotation in three-axis (roll, pitch, and yaw) can be calculated from matrix Cbn.

Figure 3. Payload State Diagram

C n cos cos [ cos sin sin cos sin cos cos sin sin cos cos sin sin sin cos sin sin cos sin cos sin cos cos sin sin ] cos cos

B. Payload Design In accordance to the specification mentioned in the prior section, the design of the payload is as follow:

Accelerometer Gyroscope Magnetometer

(1)

ADXL345

ITG3200

HMC583

0 C n k C n k [ r -q

-r 0 p

q -p] 0

(2)

C n(k 1) C n(k) C n k T

(3)

KYL-200U

ATMEGA128

uCam-TTL

Transceiver Radio

Microcontroller

Camera

All of the sensors outputs are transformed into DCM form. Accelerometer and magnetometer data is used as a DCM element with previously processed by trigonometry equation. Meanwhile, the gyroscope data is used as the element of rotation rate matrix. Integration of rotation rate matrix produces a change of DCM. This matrix is summed with the previous DCM matrix resulting values of the new DCM element.

Quantization and error integration cause the DCM to lose its orthogonal properties. Normalization process is required to make a matrix orthogonal. Furthermore, the orientation angles of the rocket can be extracted from DCM with inverse trigonometric operations. c11 C n [c21 c31 arctan

c32 c33

sin cos cos cos

Figure 7. Arrangement of the Payload System

c21 c11

arctan

D. Surveillance System Design As prior mentioned in the system block diagram (Fig. 4), the payload utilize the uCam-TTL to capture a 200x200 pixel gray-scale still image. The uCam-TTL camera module has the capability to capture a still gray-scale photograph in various resolutions, which makes it a suitable component for this application. III. PAYLOAD IMPLEMENTATION

B. Attitude Monitoring System The AHRS is implemented using sensor fusion algorithm. The algorithm calculates the estimation of the rocket's orientation angles from the accelerometer, gyroscopes, and magnetometers sensor's output. The sensor fusion algorithm is described in Fig. 8.

START

A. Payload System Fig. 6 describes the schematics of the system electrical circuit:

Initialization

Kinematics calculations

DCM normalization

Drift Correction

Fig. 7 shows the arrangement of the payload system. The payload's frame is created using a 5 mm thick nylon. Nylon material is considered because it is lightweight, and able to withstand the impacts from the rocket launch.

C. Sistem Surveillance As soon as GCS gives surveillance command to payload. Image process capture is done in accordance with Fig. 9.

START

TABLE I.

ROCKET ACCELERATION AND BODY ORIENTATION DURING LAUNCH Time (s) 2 6.6 8.6 8.9 10.15 14.8 14.95 15.1 15.55 17.1 Acceleration (m/s)

x-axis y-axis z-axis

Camera Initialization

No. 1 2

Roll Pitch Yaw

Take Snapshot

2.624 3.664 0.883 0.146 -0.344 0.6527 -0.924 11.89 5.157 0.523

0.1735 2.62 3.33 4.20 2.56 0.3394 0.4395 0.567 -35.44 9.433

10.31 49.12 -1.121 -10.18 -7.439 -1.062 20.27 8.386 -6.97 -0.068

68 200 56 96 28 80 48 32 16 8

184 172 304 272 260 232 284 340 104 116

3 4

5 6 7

N

End Data ?

8 9 10

Y

STOP

As shown in Fig. 11, the rocket launch can be divided into several stage. 1. Pre-launch

IV.

In June 2012, the payload system is successfully launched using the RUM-70 on Congot Coast, East Java, Indonesia.

In this stage, the rocket is mounted onto the launcher with 76o launching (pitch) angle. The payload only experience acceleration due to gravity. Accelerometer z-axis pointing upward contrary with gravity force. This can be perceived from the z-axis curve, which has the value of 9.8m/s2 or equal to 1g. 2. Rocket Launch In this stage the rocket urn its propellant. The rockets acceleration rise rapidly up to 75m/s2. 3. Free Fall

In this stage, the rocket has exhausted its propellant. Rocket orientation pointing downward causes accelerometer z-axis parallel with gravity forces. Hence, z-axis curve has the value of -9.8m/s2. Later on, acceleration on z-axis decrease until 0 m/s2, which means the rocket is free falling. 4. Parachute Release

In this stage, the payload is separated from the rocket head and its parachute is released. The impact due to the released parachute can be perceived from the chaotic acceleration plot.

Figure 10. RUM-70 launch

5.

Parachute Stabilizes

A. Attitude Monitoring System Table 1 shows the linear acceleration and rocket orientation at some point during the launch. Fig. 11 show the rockets linear acceleration and Fig. 12 show rocket orientation at some point during the launch.

At this stage the payloads chute have een released and stabilized. The payload is ready to enter surveillance mode.

B. Surveillance System In 10 seconds after the launch, the RUM-70's head and engine is separated. The payload, which is contained in the rocket head is tossed and descent slowly by using a parachute. After the payload's orientation stabilized, the GCS would send a command to the payload to start surveillance mode.

TABLE II.

Data Acquired (Byte)

Figure 13. Photo of The Congot Coastline Taken from The Payload

V.

CONCLUSION

Data Lost (byte) Error

39170

830

2.075 %

The captured image is shown in Fig. 13. The result shows some error in the extremity because of radio data losses, but the overall image can still be interpreted as coastline and sea waves.

The design and implementation of a payload system for attitude monitoring and surveillance system has completed. In June 2012, the system had been launched with LAPAN RUM70 payload test rocket on the Congot coast. The rockets attitude monitoring system functions flawlessly. The acquired telemetric data successfully used to identify the stages of the launch. Additionally, the surveillance system successfully takes a photo of the coastline. Unfortunately, quality of the photo suffers from missing frames due to radio data losses. REFERENCES

[1] A. Maulana Y. Nuryadi and N. Anidani Algorithm payload for test load rocket lapan 2009 using atmega 128 in 2nd International Conference on Instrumentation Control and Automation., Bandung, 2011, pp.220-223.

[2]

[3] [4]

[5]

Pura Pradithya AAria. Design and Implementation of Flight Controller Board for Oktorotor Final Project Report Institut Teknologi Bandung. 2010 Sven Ronnback. Development of a INS/GPS navigation loop for an UAV. M.S. thesis, Lule Tekniska Universiteit, Sweden, 2000. W. Adiprawita A.S. Ahmad and J. Sem iring Development of AHRS (Attutude and Heading Reference System) for Autonomous UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Proc. Int. Conf. on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Bandung, 2007. KOMURINDO 2012 Rule ook. Attitude Monitoring and Surveillance System Payload 2012.

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