This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MECHANICS DEPT
.
PRINCIPLES OF
ELECTRICAL DESIGN
5K? QrawMlEook (a 7m
PUBLISHERS OF BOOKS FOR/
*v
Coal
Age
Electric Railway Journal
Electrical World
Engineering NewsRecord American Machinist v Ingenieria International ^ Power Engineering B Mining Journal
^
Chemical 6 Metallurgical ^Engineering
Electrical
Merchandising
PRINCIPLES
OF
ELECTRICAL DESIGN
D. C.
AND
A. C.
GENERATORS
BY
ALFRED STILL
PROFESSOR OP ELECTRICAL DESIGN, PURDUE UNIVERSITY; FELLOW AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS; MEMBER INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS; MEMBER INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS. AUTHOR OF "ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION," "PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMER DESIGN," ETC.
"'
'A UFO
!
SECOND EDITION
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE
LONDON:
6
A
8
BOUVERIE 1921
ST., E. C. 4
Engineering Library COPYRIGHT. 1916. INC. COPYRIGHT. TBK MAJ'I. INC. .K PRKBB YORK: P A. BY THE McGRAWHlLL BOOK COMPANY. BY THE McGRAWHiLL BOOK COMPANY. 1921.
January. 1921. PURDUE UNIVERSITY. The revision covers many minor alterations which are mainly corrections of errors which have crept into the first edition. but the method of deriving the formula for the flux cut by the shortcircuited coil during commutation has been modified.f in alternating current generators. Two or three new cuts have been made to replace those in the first edition which it was thought might be modified with advantage. and since the application of fundamental laws to the practical problems of the engineer can be adequately illustrated by the few examples which have been selected. there would appear to be no reason for adding new material in the form of additional design problems.m. no advantage would be gained by introducing designs of other dynamoelectric machines such as induction motors or rotary converters. ^47190 . and a new treatment has also been introduced in connection with the armature m.PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION trical After using this book for four years as a text in teaching ElecDesign at Purdue University.. the writer believes that. The book is intended mainly for the use of students following courses in Electrical Engineering. IND. . although few types of machines have been dealt with.
.
and so help the reader to realize the practical value of theoretical vii knowledge. The book cannot do more than serve as a reference text or the basis for a course of lectures. Thus as a reference incomplete. but in criticising the book. and for this reason emphasis is laid on fundamentals and principles of general application. four to six hours should be spent in the actual working out of practical designs. while but little attention who may be is paid to the needs of the practical designer. At the same time he does not claim that the procedure here adopted is such as will meet the requirements of the professional designer. he consistently represents the effects as being due to the cutting by the conductors of imaginary magnetic lines. trusted to devise his own timesaving methods of calculation. The writer is a firm believer in the advantage of having a concrete mental conception of the hidden actions which produce visible or measurable results. In this as in every other study. all that is worth having the student must himself acquire by giving his mind to the business on hand and taking pains. this text is admittedly It is incomplete also as a means of giving the stuis supposed to get from a course in electrical design. and in studying the electromotive forces developed in the windings of electric generators. dent what he book for the designer. and for every hour of book study. The writer has ventured to express some views regarding the ter qualifications of the successful designer in an introductory chapwhere he believes they are less likely to remain permanently buried than if embodied in a preface of unconventional length. provided always that he has a thorough understanding of the essentials governing all electrical design. it is important to bear in mind that its main object is to illustrate the logical application of known fundamental principles. for the simple reason that no art can be mastered by the mere reading of a book. It is not to . No attempt has been made to deal adequately with the mechanical principles involved in the design of electrical machinery.PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION This book is intended mainly for the use of students following courses in Electrical Engineering.
The thanks of the writer are also not only for assistance in reading and correcting proofs. and sense of proportion. IND." the Journal of the Franklin Institute. Curtner. but what has been borrowed from these publications has to a large extent been rewritten. he is in a position to apply shortcut methods to his work. 1916. in connection with which he has at hand a vast amount of accumulated data. due to Mr. also for valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. This is not readily done by the student. from the fact that he generally makes use of existing patterns and stampings. but June. Portions of the material here presented have appeared recently in articles and papers contributed by the writer to the "Electrical World. apart . without which "rule of thumb" methods and rough approximations cannot be applied intelligently. L. and the Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.viii PREFACE be supposed for a moment that an experienced designer can afford the time required to work through the detailed design sheets as here given in connection with the numerical examples but.. D. . who usually lacks the experience. judgment. LAFAYETTE.
8. 1.m. Calculation of leakage paths Magnetic 6. 16. Calculation of magnet windings 11.CONTENTS PREFACE LIST OP SYMBOLS v xiii CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY I 1 CHAPTER ART. 3. Number of poles Pole pitch 78 .f.. Flux leakage in similar designs 7. 18 22 27 28 29 32 41 Heat dissipation Temperature rise Intermittent heating 44 46 III CHAPTER THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS ' 13. 2. Frequency ix 19. 15. The output formula 70 72 20. IV BRIEF OUTLINE OF FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS PROBLEM Generation of e. Leakage coefficient Tractive force 9. Magnetic clutch Horseshoe lifting magnet (Numerical example) Circular lifting magnet (Numerical example) 48 49 50 53 64 CONTINUOUS CURRENT GENERATORS CHAPTER DYNAMO DESIGN 18. 12. Introductory Short stroke tractive magnet 17. Effect of iron in the magnetic circuit circuits in parallel 5. 4. II THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS PAGE The magnetic Definitions circuit 10 12 15 . 14. Materials Wire and insulation 10.. .
Hysteresis 32. CHAPTER 44. Cooling surfaces and temperature rise of armature 35. Number CHAPTER LOSSES IN ARMATURES 31... curves 41. . Current density in armature conductors 30. Ring. Calculation of end flux coil 49. 26. 38.m. Correction for taper of tooth 39. by Commutating interpoles Example of interpole design during commutation 140 142 149 151 155 160 165 171 . Actual tooth density in terms of airgap density . 25. and eddycurrent losses in armature stampings Usual densities and losses in armature cores 33. Introductory 45. 24. Effect of armature current in modifying flux distribution . and syllabus of following chapters CHAPTER VII FLUX DISTRIBUTION OVER ARMATURE SURFACE 36. Variation of permeance over pole pitch Permeance 40.and drumwound armatures Multiple and series windings Equalizing connections for multiplewound armatures Insulation of armature windings Number of teeth on armature 83 84 84 90 91 93 93 94 96 97 of commutator segments Potential difference between segments 28. Theory of commutation 46. 51. Calculation of slot flux cut 50.x CONTENTS CHAPTER V ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION ABT. . Airgap flux distribution with toothed armatures 37. Opencircuit flux distribution and m.. Effect of VIII COMMUTATION . . satura method of predetermining flux distribution 115 119 121 123 128 129 132 135 42.f.. Ventilation of armatures 34. Length and resistance of armature winding 27. end flux 48..100 104 105 107 113 Summary. 23. Opencircuit flux distribution curves as influenced by tooth tion 43. Nature and thickness of slot insulation 29. Introductory 22. VI VENTILATION TEMPERATURE RISE . Practical curve . Effect of slot flux 47. 21.
C. 79. Flux density in air 77. Leakage factor magnets .f. 54. xi PAQB 175 178 181 Prevention of sparking Practical considerations 53. Arrangement and calculation of Temperature rise of field coils field windings 60. Numerical example Calculations 64.CONTENTS ART. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE 199 62. E. Classification of FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 237 238 239 241 241 242 244 247 24S 248 250 251 252 synchronous generators 67. Mechanical details affecting commutation 52. XII LOSSES AND TEMPERATURE RISE 255 257 258 259 of windings Spread of winding 80. Design of continuous current motors 200 204 235 ALTERNATINGCURRENT GENERATORS CHAPTER XI DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 65. . Specific loading 76. Insulation of armature windings 81. 59. Number of phases 68. Usual speeds of A. Pole pitch and pole arc gap Inherent regulation 75. Current density in armature conductors Types . 73. Calculation of total ampereturns required 56. Number of poles Frequency 69. . and mesh connections Power output of threephase generators Usual voltages 74. 58. developed in windings ' 71.m. Heating of commutator Temperature rise CHAPTER IX THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 55. DESIGN OF FIELD MAGNETS EFFICIENCY 185 186 187 190 193 195 The magnetic circuit of the dynamo on field in multipolar dynamos 57. Introductory 66. Length of air gap CHAPTER ARMATURE WINDINGS 78. Introductory Design sheets for 75kw. Efticiency CHAPTER X DESIGN OF A CONTINUOUS CURRENT DYNAMO 61. multipolar dynamo 63. Star 72. generators 70.
Introductory 113. 96. 100.. Full load developed voltage 86. Regulation on any power factor 109. 271 permeance over pole pitch (Salient pole machines) M. xii CONTENTS PAGE ART.C. . Singlephase alternators 114. 320 321 322 324 . Regulation 105.f. 98. The magnetic circuit 104. turboalternator 115. Factors influencing the inherent regulation of alternators 106.m. Outline of procedure in calculating regulation 299 301 303 305 308 309 311 312 317 from study of e. Calculation of slot leakage flux 97..m. and flux distribution on open circuit (Salient pole machines) 272 93. INDEX . Numerical example Calculations . * . Variation of 92. .f. Equivalent sine waves 272 274 281 284 286 288 290 291 294 295 CHAPTER XIV REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY OF ALTERNATORS 103. Method of determining position of armature m. waves 111. Total losses to 89.. 84.f. Shortcircuit current . wave Form factor 102. 107. 108.m. . Inductance of A. WAVE SHAPES 269 . Calculation of armature inductance 88. Airgap flux distribution under load Form of developed e. Influence of flux distribution on regulation 110.m. Efficiency CHAPTER XV EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN 112. Regulation on zero power factor " . Slot leakage flux 94. Ventilation . Tooth and slot proportions Length and resistance of armature winding . armature windings 87.m. 101. 359 . 85. . Effect of slot leakage on fullload airgap flux ..f in alternatingcurrent generators 95. Temperature rise of be radiated from armature core armature 259 260 261 261 263 264 266 267 CHAPTER XIII AIRQAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 90.f winding . Special case of cylindrical field magnet with distributed Armature m. 99. Shape of pole face 91. . . 82. 83. Design sheets for 8000kw.
m. number of brush sets. area of surface. average airgap density over tooth pitch. flux density in air gap (gausses).f. Brown and Sharpe wire gage. average value of airgap density over the armature conductors of one phase. length of pole (radial). coefficient of friction.m.f. volts per conductor.m.f. e. EC e = E = Em Eo E s Et e ec e. E = electromotive force (e. per armature inductor. = terminal voltage when load is thrown off. = terminal voltage. C c c = = =' electrostatic capacity (farads). = depth of armature slot (length of tooth). average airgap density under commutating pole. of potential (volt). = electromotive force. D = DC d diameter of armature core (including teeth). = instantaneous. magnet core. Eg B. d d d de inside diameter of = maximum value of equivalent sinewave. generated in coil / = frequency (cycles per second). (volts). = instantaneous e. A = Ac a area of one lobe of periodic = = ampereconductors in pole pitch.m. or B = magnetic flux B" = magnetic flux B a = instantaneous B = B = c c density (gauss). average or equivalent flux density in pole cores. = mean or average value of e. density (maxwells per square inch). actual flux density in teeth.m.m. xiii . of of = diameter = diameter commutator (inches). = equivalent length of tooth.f. area of crosssection. difference Ea = volts per phase in armature winding.f.f. value of e. coefficient in resistancetemperature formulas. end connections of shortcircuited during commutation (volts). Bg Bp B & S. t 6 = = = = = = average airgap density in zone of commutation.). armature core.LIST OF A = SYMBOLS wave plotted to polar coordinates. = reactance voltage drop per phase (slot leakage only).
gross length of armature core. V = axial projection of armature end I I e inductance.v. kilowatts. generator). a length. any whole number. / = = = = intensity of magnetic field.f. total axial length of brush contact surface. = number of slots per pole per phase. circular mils per ampere. M (ra) (M) = m. L = L = c = = y\ (commutation). amperes.m. ln IP lv = = = = = = = = = a length expressed in inches. cooling coefficient.C. = circular mils. instantaneous value of current. connections beyond slot (A. a constant. length of end portions of armature coil. 7 I Im i is = = = = current.a. = pole arc. kilovoltamperes. I" la lc le If. r . n. coefficient of selfinduction (henry).w. axial length of commutating pole face. length of cylindrical surface of commutator (inches). k. core.C. n = number of radial air ducts in armature n = number of slots per pole. . leakage factor. average current density over brush contact surface. N N t = number of revolutions per minute. armature core length. = magnetomotive force (gilbert). current per phase (or per conductor) in alternator armature winding. total axial length taken up by vent ducts. or gauss). armature windings). k. machines) mean or average value of current. (for slot k k k = = = k . magnetizing force (gilberts per centimeter. current per conductor in armature (D. horsepower.C. ratio . net length of iron in armature core (usually inches). distribution factor (A. rr ^ = = 10 permissible current density at brush tip. thickness of commutator mica.v LIST OF SYMBOLS H hp. instantaneous value of current in armature conductor leakage calculations). usually expressed in centimeters. = number of revolutions per second.
S = brush contact surface. t = temperature (degrees Centigrade). s = slot width. tc = time of commutation. peripheral velocity of armature surface velocity of commutator . : r r~ r = pole pitch. R = c Rd = Ro = brush contact resistance per square inch of contact surface. armature periphery (ampereconductors per inch). peripheral velocity feet per minute. T = number of turns in armature coil. R = R = R = R" = resistance (ohm). resistance of armature coil undergoing commutation. peripheral velocity of commutator surface feet per minute. S = number of turns in a coil of wire. of poles. T = temperature rise in degrees Centigrade. SI = ampere turns. r = pole arc. = interval of time. permeance. average velocity of air in ventilating ducts feet per minute. pounds per square inch. length of radius vector. Q = q = specific loading of quantity of electricity.LIST OF SYMBOLS p = P = P = pi xv power. resistance at temperature zero degrees. t t V = V = e v vc Vd = = = centimeters per second. = ampereturns for air gap. R = t resistance at temperature ratio t degrees. (SI) a = armature ampereturns per pole. centimeters per second. s/. = width of tooth. resistance magnetic reluctance (oersted). between opposite faces of an inch cube of copper (ohm). t = thickness of magnet winding. U = width of rotor tooth. = space factor. radial depth of armature stampings below slots. watts. tappings to com T = number 8 of inductors in one slot. of electrical paths in parallel in p = number = number armature winding. T6 number of turns in armature coil between mutator bars. pressure.
^' = "apparent" internal powerfactor angle.f.1416 approximately.C. = X = reactance (ohm). (magnetic circuit closed through roots of teeth).m. generator). = leakage flux (maxwells). = slot pitch. = permeability = B/H. = pole pitch (usually in inches). = total slot leakage flux. Z' = total number of inductors (A. 3. clearance between coil sides in end connections of armature windings. generator). current density. of coil side in a = angle denoting slope end connections of armature a = = = A = Aw = maximum current 5 winding.C. 4> = total flux entering armature from each pole face. *\ = flux entering armature in space of one tooth = internal powerfactor angle. <c = total flux entering teeth comprised in commutating zone. 3>i \l/ pitch. = deflection of shaft (inches). <$o = flux per pole actually cut by armature conductors. angle of lag of current behind phase of opencircuit e. = "equivalent" slot flux (magnetic circuit closed through tops of teeth).m.xvi LIST OF SYMBOLS W = power watts. f. Z = number of inductors on armature (D. Z = number of inductors in series per phase (A. = * = <f e total flux cut total flux cut by one end of armature coil during commutation. a w = a portion of the total (circumferential) width of brush. $ = magnetic flux (maxwell). cooling coefficients (armature temperature). CO =27T/ . due to armature cross magnetization. = an angle. generator). &d = flux entering armature core through roots of teeth (commutaT tion). amperes per square inch. density over contact surface of brush. Z = impedance (ohm).f. 5 de 8S 6 X n TT = length of actual air gap tooth top to pole face.C. = length of equivalent air gap in machines with toothed armatures. W = width of brush (circumferential). angle of phase displacement of developed e. W = brush width (arc) referred to armature periphery. = angle of lag (cos 6 = power factor). by end connections (both ends) of polyphase slot leakage flux & = "equivalent" *' armature winding.
and the student should endeavor to form a mental picture of these imaginary magnetic lines in connection with every piece of electrical apparatus or machinery which he desires to understand thoroughly. the principles of electricity and magnetism. and the difficulties to be overcome.PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY devoting a whole chapter to introductory remarks and generalities which are rarely given a prominent place in modern technical literature. The principles of the magnetic circuit will be explained here in some detail.m.f. the use of vectors for representing alternating quantities. but to show what may be gained by an intelligent study of the conditions to be met. is generated is for the practical engineer. 1 . The knowledge required of the reader includes elementary mathematics. such as may be acquired in the laboratories of teaching institutions equipped for the training of electrical engineers. by the designer of electrical machinery. or in the handling and operation of electrical plant in manufacturing works and power stations. The conception of the magnetic circuit consisting of closed lines or tubes of induction linked with the electric circuit unquestionably a useful one involving the cutting of these magnetic lines by the conductors in which an e. the author hopes not only to explain the By scheme and purpose of this book. and some familiarity with electrical apparatus and machinery. because the whole subject of generator design from the electrical standpoint is little more than a practical application of the known laws of the electric and magnetic circuits. but a fair knowledge of the physics underlying the action of electromagnetic apparatus is presupposed.
1 the use of unconventional symbols involves their correct definition. certain amount of conversion from centi This may. or the e. the next step is to calculate with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes the quantity of magnetic flux produced by a given current. and the chapter on magnet design has been written with 1 A list of the symbols used will be found at the beginning of this book. This point is made here to emphasize the writer's conviction that the student should endeavor to regard symbols and matheliterature cannot be otherwise matical analysis as convenient means to attain a desired end. at first sight. system will be used so far as possible.2 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Having clearly realized the general shape and distribution of the magnetic field surrounding a conductor or linked with a coil of wire carrying an electric current. the design of electromagnets will be taken up before considering the magnetic field of dynamos. there must necessarily be a meter to inch units. and L for the coefficient of selfinduction. but since engineers of Englishspeaking countries still prefer the foot and inch for the measurement of length. This preliminary study should be very helpful in paving the way to the main subject. tends to obscure the physical meaning of the things they stand and although uniformity in the use of symbols in technical than advantageous. as /* for permeability. developed by the cutting of a known magnetic to the consideration of units of measurement.m. in the opinion of the writer. field. and for this reason their occasional appearance in writings that are professedly of an instructional nature should not be condemned. and that he should cultivate the habit of forming a concept or mental image of the physical factors involved in every problem. but. even during the intermediate processes of a calculation. there is something to be gained by having to transform results from one system of units to another.S. By way of illustrating the application of fundamental magnetic principles. instead of striving always to visualize the physical (or natural) reality which these symbols stand for.G. appear objectionable. and alphabetical letters as are in general use to denote certain physical quantities or coefficients. Familiarity with these symbols for. The process helps to counteract the tendency of mathematically trained minds to lay hold of symbols and formulas and treat them as realities. .f. This leads The practical units of the C. The same may be said of such vice versa. if this can be done.
is essential to the successful designer." justified only It by experience and must which have not been developed from first principles. The formulas used in design are therefore frequently empirical.INTRODUCTORY this : 3 end in view it does not treat of coreless solenoids or magnetic mechanisms with relatively long air gaps. for the simple reason that the factors involved are either so numerous or so abstruse that they cannot all be taken into account when deriving the final formula or equation. This A and quality. an attempt is made to base all arguments on scientific facts. because the air clearance is always small in dynamoelectric machinery. and build up a design in a logical manner from known fundamental principles. which may be referred to as engineering judgment. and they yield results that are often approximations only. will give sion. the scientific basis underlying all formulas used in this book. who uses empirical formulas and "short practical knowledge. he him the required proportion or dimenthen apply tests based upon established scientific principles in order to check his estimate. All the conditions and governing factors are not accurately known at the outset. are subject to variation under conditions which it is difficult to determine. . In the method of design as followed in this book. whenever possible. but it is necessary to success in engineering work. but an effort will be made to explain. and is strengthened by the experience gained sometimes through repeated failures. or the surmounting of such obstacles and difficulties as will arise in every branch of progressive engineering. is not easily taught. magnetic reluctance. be supposed that a commercial machine can be designed without the aid of some rules and formulas cuts. it grows with practice. not. In any case the constants used in all scientific lines. actual tests. whether this is of the nature of invention and designing. and many perception of the fitness of a thing to fulfil a given purpose of the relative importance of the several factors entering into a problem. This is admittedly different from the method followed by the practical designer. even when developed on strictly the result of observations made on of them. in nine cases out of ten. and so satisfy himself that his machine will conform with the specified requirements. such as the coefficients of friction. and a good designer is able to make a will close estimate or a shrewd guess which. and eddycurrent loss. are invariably formulas. however.
whatever line of follow. be thought that these remarks tend to belittle or of perception. in addition to the practical value of this accomplishment. should be able not only to understand and read engineering drawings. accuracy. designing can be learned. be of great benefit to all may not men in the matter of forming judgment and developing ingenuity or inventiveness. and the methods of the practical engineer. yet every engineer. on the contrary. either in words or by sketches and drawings. not necessarily know nothing about engineering drawing. with sufficient. who requires results of commercial value quickly. it is an indication that he has a clear conception of the actual or imagined thing. does not follow that the designer need is by practice. and who usually depends more upon his intuition and his quickness than upon any logical method of reasoning. Clear thinking is He must be able to visualize absolutely essential to the designer. The man who can always express himself clearly. The art of making neat sketches or clear and accurate drawings of the various parts of a machine. It must not logically underrate the method of obtaining results through a sequence of proven steps. ideas in his own mind before he can impart these ideas to others. but only by applying the information gathered from such reading to the diligent working out of numerical examples and problems. The ability to . learnt only work he may It is particularly important that he should be able to make neat dimensioned sketches of machine parts.4 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN A knowledge of the theory and practice of design. this is the only safe method by which the accuracy the method which this book. is It is can be checked. neither do they know how few of their elders ever exercise their reasoning faculty. is invariably one whose thoughts are limpid and who can therefore realize a clear mental picture of the thing he describes. because. in the drafting is Although the work done it room designing. but not necessarily great. Young men seldom realize the importance of learning to think. and it is whenever possible. the thoroughness of which followed. but to produce them himself at need. but it will at least help to bridge the gap between the purely academic and logically argued teachings of the schools. It must depend upon the line of work to be ultimately would seem to be of great importance to every engineer. throughout not by the reading of any book that the art of of results followed. and can make his ideas intelligible to others.
1904. and essential to the designer. increase its efficiency by developing neatness and accuracy in the making of sketches." Considering further the difference between the training reby the student in the schools and the training he will subsequently receive in the world of practical things. Engineering is the economical application of science to material ends. poor composition and illegible untidy It is. and provide a good working basis of fundamental knowledge which shall give weight all future thinking. By enlarging and enriching one's vocabulary through the reading of high class literature. possible to train the mind and greatly writing. J. may be cultivated to an extent which the average student in the technical schools and engineering universities In an address delivered on April 8. the clearness of thought important to every engineer. ability. is of far importance. and by the study of languages. it must be remembered that the object of technical education is mainly ceived to develop the mind as a thinking machine. entirely fails to recognize. The commercial aspect of engineering is seen more clearly after leaving school because it is not easily taught in the class room. however. and if the items of cost and durability are omitted from a problem. the however important from other points of view have no engineering value. The cost of all finished work. A. the former is certain to outstrip the latter materially in the race for professional advancement. to the Engineering Society of the University of Nebraska. but the study mind of of English. L. and balance to therefore. DR. "Too much stress cannot well be laid on the importance of a thorough study of the English language. for the engineer of Englishspeaking countries. is the results obtained . WADDELL said. energy. one of them being in every respect a master of the English language and the other having the average proficiency in it.INTRODUCTORY "see things " in the 5 is an attribute of every great engineer. Given two classmate graduates of equal and other attributes contributary to a successful career. The student does not. including that of the raw materials used in construction. and mental inefficiency are revealed by thought Vagueness inaccurate and sketches. get a proper idea of the value of time. and by paying constant attention to the correct meaning of words and greater their proper connection in spoken and written language. The knowledge of foreign languages has an obvious practical value apart from its purely educational advantage.
yet it is essential to know what degree of approximation is allowable in the result. right time and proceeding systematically by doing at the and in the right place the particular thing that should be done before all others. by the study and practice of machine design. It is by taking on responsibilities that confidence and selfreliance are developed.6 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Provided the work is carefully done. This has already vaguely been referred to as engineering judgment. regardless of the particular practice advocated by a book or teacher. doing. a sense of proportion. what is expedient. and the student may work out examples in design by following his own methods. This is a matter of judgment. or a sense of the absolute and relative importance of What is worth things. By making mistakes that are frequently due to oversights or omissions and by having to go over the ground a second or third time in order to rectify them. if not actually with the one faculty of inestimable value known as . Thus. seeing the fitness of things. of so spent is rarely wasted. and what would be mere waste of time. and time cost of labor. but all these are allied. not only material cost which is but also labor cost. A student in a technical school may be able to produce a neat and correct drawing. but the salary he could earn as a draughtsman in an engineering business might be very small because his rate of working will be slow. which is developed only with practice. but the student should try to realize their importance. namely. of the greatest importance. the element time becomes. and similar factors. and bear them in mind. identical. that one must resist the tendency to correct. jump at conclusions. He can usually check his results and satisfy himself that they are substantially This will give him far more encouragement and satisfaction than the blind application of proven rules and formulas. The necessity of checking one's work. therefore. A study of design will do something toward teaching a man the value of his time. is of great value in developing one of the most im portant qualifications of the engineer. although it is important to check and countercheck all calculations. which depends on fairly easy to estimate the size and complication of parts. thoroughly except by actual practice in engineering works. The designer must always have in mind the question of cost. an important lesson is learned. accessibility of screws and These things are rarely learned bolts. if slowly. may be learned surely.
but their early training and thorough knowledge of engineering facts and practice act as a constant . when the manner of doing it has been him. a designer should preferably have a leaning toward He should not be bound original investigation or research work. so called 7 Frenchman It should because it is according to the definition of a witty the least common of the senses. he should assert his personality. on established fundamental principles. the truth and soundness of which are undeniable. In other creative arts. with the result that they rarely of serious importance. would have no practical application. provided these are based. is be realized clearly that the true designer a maker. like those of many socalled inventors. because his conceptions. This is a point that is frequently overlooked. the trammels of nor by convention.INTRODUCTORY common sense. to explained In addition to a sound knowledge of engineering principles and practice. skilfully. and intelligently formed. but it is also true that the great designers. His value as a live factor in the engineering world will increase by The much as he rises above the level of the see The man who can done. intuition and a fertile imagination are considered essential to success. and there can be no valid reason than purely in by the engineer. not an imitator. the designer is not likely to succeed. They work by intuition rather than by methods that are obviously logical. such as poetry and painting. and how it may be always of greater value than the man who merely does a thing.and useful check. discouraged by the groundless belief that what has been done before has necessarily been done On the contrary. what has to be done. have the courage of his own opinions. and rightly. that is to say it requires skill and ingenuity addition to mere knowledge. just so function of the designer is to create. do not always understand why they have done a certain thing in a certain way. Without a sound basis of engineering knowledge. is mere copyist. the cultivation of the imagination is obviously of the utmost value. for undervaluing the possession of these qualities The work of the designer is artistic rather scientific. make mistakes It is not suggested that the exalted moods and "inspired imaginings" of the poet or artist would be of material advantage . even of mechanical and electrical machinery. however If the chief function of the designing engineer is to create.
neither does he cultivate it as he might. that it all that goes to the making of a designing was deemed advisable to say something of a general nature machinery. It is an admitted fact that the outlook of the graduate from of the engineering schools is narrow: this is no doubt due to faults in the system and the teachers. The fact that the indirect benefit to be derived therefrom may. and it is just because a book such as the present one cannot give.8 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN to the practical engineer. It is unfortunate that neither the nature of the subject nor the in manner which it is presented in the following chapters is likely to stimulate the imaginative faculty. and political economy. greatly outweigh the apparent advantages of socalled utilitarian lines of study. it is necessary to arrange the matter in accordance with some logical scheme. principles machinery may underlying the action of dynamoelectric be studied under two main headings: to an electric current in a The magnetic condition due conductor or exciting coil. did he realize the advantages if only from a grossly commercial standpoint that would thereby accrue.m. on the plea that he would be wasting his time. It is only at a later period of his engineering career that he begins to realize how an intelligent and appreciative study of these broader subjects would have stimulated his mind and and cultivated his imagination to a degree which would be a great lasting benefit to him in his profession. relating to the art of designing electrical The 1. and generally does. but the student himself is apt to neglect his opportunities for the study many largely of subjects such as general literature. but the writer believes that no apology is needed for referring in this chapter to main portion of the book. There is today a tendency to underestimate the value of abstract speculation and the pursuit of any study or enterprise of which the immediate practical end is not obvious. languages. engineer. but the present writer wishes to state. most emphatically. the average engineer does not rate imagination at its proper value.f. developed in a conductor due to changes in the magnetic condition of the surrounding medium. in his opinion. In presenting fundamental principles and showing how they may be applied to the design of machines. and subjects outside the scope of the does not claim to give. 2. The e. . that. is generally overlooked. history.
shape. or.INTRODUCTORY This last effett. and Chaps. will be considered by magnetic when taking up the design of dynamos. lines which II and III will be devoted to the study of the magnetic circuit. of the exciting magnetic coils are known. . 9 may be attributed to the cutting of the electric the conductors. to the calculation of the excitation required to produce a given flux. and position. For the present it will be advisable to investigate condition (1) only. alternatively. the quantitative determination of the flux when the size.
but when the path of the magnetic lines is "nonmagnetic" material. which may be studied in all books on magnetism. When the magnetic circuit is mainly through iron. magnets to and the but little principles of the magnetic circuit can be applied with difficulty. proposed to consider. and the air gaps are comparatively short. and it is. it may be stated without hesitation that the analogy between the magnetic and electric circuits. coils of wire carrying electric currents produce a magnetic field in the surrounding medium whether air or iron and the purport of this chapter is to show how the magnetic condition due to an electric current can be determined within a degree of accuracy generally sufficient for practical purposes. in the first place. Without dwelling on the mathe1. and empirical formulas or approximate methods of calculation have to be used. will be paid to types of magnets with small air gaps because these serve to illustrate the conditions met with in fieldmagnet design.CHAPTER II THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS In all dynamoelectric machinery. in the case of coreless solenoids or magnets with very large air gaps. the paths of the magnetic flux cannot readily be predetermined. the quantitative calculations become more difficult and less scientific. the fundamental principles and calculations involved in fulfil proportioning and winding electro Particular attention specified requirements. the electric circuits is less conand between the magnetic analogy venient and may indeed lead to confusion. and the idea of a closed magnetic circuit linked with every electric largely through air or other 10 . calling for an experienced designer if results of practical value are desired. The Magnetic Circuit. thus facilitating the quantitative calculation of the flux at various parts in the circuit. therefore. matical conceptions of the physicist. while. The design of the magnetic circuit of dynamoelectric generators does not differ appreciably from the design of electromagnets for lifting or other purposes. it is generally possible to picture the lines or tubes of magnetic flux linking with 'the electric circuit.
m.S. (magnetomotive force) and therefore on the current and number of turns of wire in the exciting coils. each tube being closed upon itself and linked with the electric circuit to which the magnetic condition is The distribution of the magnetic field will depend upon the due. but also when iron is present of the flux. The amount circuit will depend upon the m.f. length. more properly.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS circuit. yet they are based on an analogy which. or. The magnetic flux is thought of as consisting of a large number of tubes of induction. shape of the exciting coils. unit. and reluctance (the engineer's unit) or in gilberts is the magnetic equivalent of resistance in the electric circuit. or maxwells. or / Similarly. X P T (1) (2) In this analogy. with The chief difference all its advantages. OHM'S law (a) for the electric circuit can be put in the two forms 1 . will 11 be most useful to the designer of electrical machinery. of the iron in the the magnetic flux in a given circuit. on the flux density. $ is the total flux of induction.G.m.f. It is necessary to bear in mind that although these are funda mental formulas of the greatest value in the calculation of magnetic circuits. and upon the magnetic magnetic quality. X conductance. Current Current = .G.f. has its limitations. magnetic reluctance  force  or * = (6) Magnetic flux or = magnetomotive force X permeance $ = m.m. important factor in the determination of the permeability . and crosssection. lines. is the force tending to produce the magnetic condition expressed in ampereturns the C.S. or I = f = E X (r>J (6) = e. in the magnetic circuit: (a) Magnetic flux of induction = magnetomotive : .m. and of position. on the amount which is an (/*). shape. between OHM'S law of the electric circuit and the analogous expression as applied to the magnetic circuit lies in the fact that the magnetic reluctance does not depend merely upon the material.m.f. usually expressed in C. of the various parts of the magnetic circuit.
is. 1 What the practical designer wants to know the number factor ampere y^ constantly enters into magnetic calculations as it is required to convert the engineer's unit (ampereturn) into the C. m.f. therefore. m. Magnetizing Force. units of current. Definitions. or magnetic force.or.G.f. the total ampere turns producing this induction are SI. or. It should not be necessary to explain its presence here. The symbol generally used to denote this quantity which is also referred to H as the intensity of the magnetic field. or simply field intensity.495 (SI per inch).12 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN which tends to Magnetomotive Force.f.m.m. unit (gilbert).m. at every point on the surface of a turns required to produce a given magnetic flux. = 47T Y^j SI 1 gilberts. radius surrounding a unit magnetic pole placed at the center.m. because this is done more or less lucidly in most textbooks of physics. a flux of 1 maxwell per square centi meter. cm. The factor 10 in the denominator converts amperes into absolute C. If we consider any closed tube of induction linked with a coil of S turns carrying a current of / amperes. and the total m. if preferred to use ampereturns per inch (not uncommon in engineering work). The sphere of 1 cm.f. netic potential between two points is called the magnetomotive force (m. we may is write H of 4?r = 0. . It should be sufficient to remind the reader that the introduction of this factor is due to the physicist's conception of the unit magnetic pole which he has endued with the ability to repel a similar imaginary pole with a force of 1 dyne when the distance between the two unit poles is 1 cm. at the point considered. of flux The surface of the sphere being 4ir sq.m. is is The magnetomotive force per centimeter called the magnetizing force.f. there must be unit flux density over this surface. that is to say. = 2H51 where 81 is centimeters a short portion of the magnetic circuit expressed in over which the magnetizing force is considered of H constant value.G. since. The difference of magset up a flux of magnetic induction 2.S. known as the gilbert will set up unit flux of induction between the opposite faces of a centimeter cube of air.471j.) between those points. Now.S. it follows that 4?r lines must be thought of as proceeding from every pole of unit strength. the line integral of the magnetizing force. a similar pole will be repelled with a force of 1 dyne. The magnetomotive force is.. OT Thus it is H = QAir X ampereturns per centimeter = 0. The unit m.
excepting only iron. should be considered as a tube of induction having an apThe preciable crosssection which may vary from point to point. be defined as the ratio of unity. it is not merely a physical property of the substance. Reluctance and Permeance. the permeability of all flux density. therefore. The reluctance of a directly proportional to its length to its crosssection. will be denoted by the symbol <. Thus. the flux density is B = <i>/A gausses. is taken as Permeability can. lines/' ''magnetic expression should suggest the center lines of these small unit tubes of inThe total number of unit magnetic lines through a duction. conductivity of a substance resented by the symbol ju. The unit of flux density is the gauss. is substances. because it depends also upon the in the case of iron. crosssection given Flux Density. in square centimeters. while reluctance is calculations more convenient to use when making on magnetic paths in series.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS it 13 Magnetic Flux. the magnetic conductivity of a substance to the magnetic conductivity of air. it is a density of 1 maxwell per centimeter of crosssection. Thus. and cobalt For practical purposes. Magnetic permeanace is the re ciprocal of reluctance. ^ When Permeance = damental formulas calculating reluctance or permeance for use in the fun(1) or (2) it is important to express all . What may be thought of as the magnetic Permeability. of a magnetic circuit carrying a total flux of $ maxwells uniformly distributed over the section. known as permeability and repUnlike electrical conductivity. a knowledge of the permeance of the various paths is useful when considering magnetic circuits in parallel. and cobalt. if A is the crosssection. The symbol B will be used throughout to denote gausses. the reluctance will be expressed in oersteds. is path of unit permeability and inversely proportional Reluctance of magnetic path in air = = r Reluctance of magnetic path in iron If r /iA the dimensions are in centimeters. nickel. The unit of magnetic flux is the maxwell. and is which customary convenient. nickel.
47nS7 = Hili +H 2 lz + etc.14 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN dimensions in centimeters.m. Flux in maxwells = m. (4) .f. through all crosssections of the magnetic tube of flux indicated FIG. = = flux X reluctance or gilberts maxwells X oersteds or 0. since m.2 IT. we have.+ etc. in Fig. shows a (closed) tube of induction linked wire of S turns through which a current of / amperes supposed to be passing. point to point of the magnetic circuit. Tube of induction linked with coil.S. and generally does.f.m. vary from 1.f.) / (3) magnetizing force X length of path. no constants have then to be introduced because. system of units. = 0.47nS7 = $ X (TVAijLtl + AzjJ. in gilberts reluctance in oersteds The with a is coil of sketch. m. it is sometimes convenient to put the above general expression in the form Also. at a given point where the crosssection is A i square centimeters the density in gausses is B\ = Turning again to the fundamental formula of the magnetic circuit. Fig. the density B will be inversely proportional to the crosssection. This tube of induction consists of a number of unit tubes or socalled magnetic lines each of which is It follows that the total flux $ is the same closed on itself.m. and since the total flux <i> is of constant value.G. The crosssection may. 1. with the C. 1. Thus.
and B = &/A it may be convenient to put the above expression in the form in I which is B = Also.m. /*. since m. the flux in the ring can be calculated for value of the exciting ampereturns SI. wound with SI ampereturns evenly distributed.G. or magnetizing This conception intensity.f. if is ju Thus. as such. based on the average results of such tests. 2 and 3. expressed in gausses.f. but it is well to bear in mind that. 2 should be preferred when the C. and. and curves are then plotted. varies considerably with different kinds of iron.m. The BH curves of Fig. is H liable to lead to confusion of ideas. the B is the same as that of H. (the magnetizing force. H .THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 3. $ = QAirSI X ^j the average length of the magnetic lines. or tables compiled. where centimeters. Consider a toroid or closed anchorring of iron of uniform crosssection square centimeters. or m.S. for a lines per given value of H. (in gilberts) = HI D whence /* B * JR X I which explains = jj' why the permeability is sometimes referred to as the multiplying power of the iron. Effect of 15 Iron in the Magnetic Circuit. known. X P. system of units is used in the and other " nonmagnetic" materials. in air numerical value of For a given magnetizing force (or exciting ampereturns per unit length of circuit) the value of the permeability. but if the air is replaced by This accounts for the fact that* iron. Thus. it will be pR or B lines.m. Since /A is a any given function of the density B. careful tests are usually made by the manufacturer on samples of iron used in the construction of machines. as indicated by the curve known as the hysteresis loop. per centimeter) is also referred to as the intensity of the magnetic field. we have. For the use of the designer. A Applying the fundamental formula $ = m. Curves of this kind have been drawn in Figs. or irD D is the average diameter of the ring.f. the magnetic flux in air will be H square centimeter of crosssection. it also depends on the past history of the particular sample of iron. and will not be the same on the increasing as on the decreasing curve of magnetization.
16
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
19000
THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS
17
no
20
40
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
AmpereTurns per Inch
FIG. 3.
Magnetization curves (inch units).
18
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
measurements
calculations; but so long as engineers persist in expressing linear in feet and inches, the curves of Fig. 3 will gen
erally be preferred by the designer. Fig. 4 may be used for high values of the induction in armature stampings of average
quality.
The value
of
JJL
is,
of course, the ratio
between
B
of Fig. 2
and
the corresponding value of H, and curves or tables giving the could be used; but it is generally more relation between /z and convenient to read directly off the curves of Figs. 2, 3, or 4, the
H
160
140
L120
110
'200 400 600 800 1000120014001600180020002200240026002800300032003400360038004000
AmpereTurns per Inch
FIG.
4.
Magnetization curve for armature stampings (high values of
induction).
flux density in the iron coresponding to any known value of the magnetizing force. As a matter of fact, it will be found that the curves are more frequently used for the purpose of determining the necessary ampereturns to produce a desired value of the flux density.
4. Magnetic Circuits in Parallel. As an illustration of the fundamental relations existing between magnetic flux and exciting ampereturns, it will be convenient to work out a numerical example. A simple case will be chosen of magnetic paths in series and in parallel, with small air gaps in a circuit consisting mainly of iron, and the effect of any leakage flux through air paths other than the gaps deliberately introduced will be
neglected.
THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS
The arrangement shown
in Fig. 5 is
steel casting consisting of the
19
supposed to represent a magnetic paths (1) and (2) in It parallel, with the common path (3) in series with them. will be seen that the paths (1) and (2) are provided with air gaps and that the exciting coil is on the common limb (3) only. Paths (1) and (3) have iron in them and the permeance of these
paths will depend upon the density B and therefore on the total In regard to path flux $1 and <i> 3 in these portions of the circuit. of but the crosssection of the iron, (2), it also consists mainly
iron has purposely been
large, so that the reluctance of in in the iron the gap; the value of this path is practically all be and the reluctance of will this part will be very low, large,
made
B
/c
of the iron circuit will be considered negligible.
The dimensions
FIG.
5.
Typical magnetic
circuit.
of the parts are indicated on the sketch, and the problem to be solved is the calculation of the necessary ampereturns in the coil to produce a given total flux of, say, 1,000,000 maxwells through
the path (1). The reluctance of path (1) alone consists of the airgap reluctance in series with the reluctance of the iron limb of length li
and crosssection A\.
Thus,
p1 ~
all
_i_
iJg
li
'
A
v /N
1 A
iJ
4
1
v/i /\ ^1
dimensions
being
is /*i,
expressed
unknown quantity
$1
and
this
in centimeters. The only can be determined because the
flux density in the iron will
be
100,000 maxwells per square inch,
1,000,000
=
10
20
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
" where the index is added to the symbol B to indicate that inch units are used and that the density is not expressed in gausses.
for a given sample of iron, the value of the percan be found, and Ri calculated by putting the meability numerical values in the above equation. The necessary m.m.f. for this portion of the magnetic circuit (i.e., path (1) only) is
Knowing
B
fj,
$1
X
#1
gilberts.
actual procedure would be simplified by using the curves of Fig. 3 thus: Referring to the upper curve (for steel), the ampereturns per
The
inch reqmred to produce a flux density of 100,000 lines per square inch is seen to be 80, and since the iron portion of path (l)is
25
in. long, the ampereturns required to of iron only are 80 25 2,000.
overcome the reluctance
X
=
For the
air portion of
path
$>i
(1),
we
have,
m.m.f.
or
=
X
reluctance of air gap
0.4,57
=
n O
1,000,000
X
^635
2,000
y
O
FJ4
whence
SI = 1,560
The
or,
total
SI
for
path
(1) are therefore
+
1,560
=
3,560
m.m.f.
=
0.4T
X
3,560
is
=
4,470 gilberts.
Observe now that this m.m.f.
flux in
the total force which sets up
the magnetic path ence of magnetic potential which produces the flux of induction in the two parallel paths (1) and (2). To calculate the total flux
in
(2), or, in other words, it is the differ
path
(2)
we have,
3>2
=
m.m.f.
XP
f
2
=
The
4,470
X
2
?
*
1 .X
= ol! 6.O1
The
227,000 maxwells
coil is, therefore,
is,
total flux in limb (3)
under the exciting
$8 =
$! f
<j> 2
=
1,227,000.
density in this core
B" z = ^ = A.Z
1>22 000 J> 20
=
61,350 lines per square inch.
Fig. 3) are 8,
The necessary ampereturns per inch (from the SI for path (3) are 8 X 50 = 400.
and
THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS
21
The total ampereturns required in the exciting coil to produce a flux of 1,000,000 lines across the air gap in path (1) are therefore 3,560 + 400 = 3,960, which is the answer to the problem. In all cases when there is no iron in the magnetic path, i.e.,
when
fj,
=
1,
as in the air gaps of dynamoelectric machines, the
y
required ampereturns depend merely on the density B and the length I of the air gap. The fundamental relation, m.m.f. = HI
can then be written 0.4^^7
=
Bl whence,
D
SI per centimeter
similarly
(in air)
SI per inch
(in air)
=
o *4
^^ B =
(in air)
2.02
B
= 2B
If
approximately
the density
is
expressed in lines per square inch,
SI per inch
= B" 55 .
O.J6
These formulas are .easily remembered and are useful for making
rapid calculations. With a view to the more thorough understanding of electromagnetic problems likely to arise in the design of electrical
machinery, it should be observed that path (2) of the magnetic system shown in Fig. 5 may be thought of as a shunt or leakage path, the useful flux being the 1,000,000 maxwells in the air
gap of path (1). It is important to note that this surplus or leakage magnetism has cost nothing to produce, except in so far as the total flux <f> 3 is increased in the common limb (3),
calling for a slight increase in the necessary exciting ampereturns. Even this small extra loss could be avoided by in
PR
creasing the crosssection A 3 of the common limb; but this would generally add to the cost, not only because of the greater weight of iron, but also because the length per turn of the exciting coil
would usually be
copper
if
the
PR
greater, thus increasing the weight losses are to remain unaltered.
and cost of For these
reasons alone
it is
well to keep
down
the value of the leakage flux
in nearly all designs of electrical machinery; but the point here made is that the existence of a magnetic flux, whether it be useful
in the sense of
or leakage magnetism, does not involve the idea of loss of energy an loss which must always be associated with
PR
the electric current.
Attention
is
called to this
matter in order
22
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
to emphasize the danger of carrying too far the analogy between in the the magnetic and electric circuits. The product
PR
electric
<1>
2
X
always associated with loss of energy; but reluctance does not represent a continuous loss of energy in
circuit is
it
is
If the energy wasted in the exciting coil be said that the magnetic condition costs may ignored, maintain. It to does, however, represent a store of nothing has not been created without cost; but, with the which energy extinction of the magnetic field, the whole of this stored energy is given back to the electric circuit with which the magnetic circuit is linked. This may be illustrated by the analogy of a frictionless which flywheel dissipates no energy while running, but which, on being brought to rest, gives up all the energy that was put
the magnetic circuit.
into
it while being brought up to speed. The dotted lines on the righthand side of the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. 5 indicate two extra iron paths for the magnetic
flux.
It
ring
D
should particularly be observed that the closed iron can be linked with the exciting coil as indicated without
modifying the amount there may obviously be iron ring, but it has cost ampereturns have not
said of the circuit
C
through path (1): a large amount of flux in this closed nothing to produce because the exciting been increased. The same might be except that the flux in this circuit has to
of the useful flux
go through the common core (3), and in so far as extra ampereturns would be necessary to overcome the increased reluctance of the iron under the coil, the m.m.f. available for sending flux through paths (1) and (2) would be reduced, and if path C were of highgrade iron of large crosssection relatively to ^3, the useful flux in path (1) might be appreciably reduced. A proper understanding of the points brought out in the study of
Fig. 5 will greatly facilitate the solution of practical arising in the design of electrical machinery.
5.
problems
Calculation of Leakage Paths. The total amount of the magnetic leakage cannot be calculated accurately except by
making
an
certain assumptions which are rarely strictly permissible
in the design of practical apparatus.
Whether the machine
is
electric generator or an electromagnet of the simplest design, the useful magnetic flux is always accompanied by stray magnetic This leakage lines which do not follow the prescribed path. flux will always be so distributed that its amount is a maxi
mum;
that
is
to say, the paths that
it will
follow will always
and if the two surfaces are approximately of the is and same shape size. If the length of air gap between the parallel iron surfaces is small relatively to the crosssection. the average crosssection (see Fig. because it enables the experienced designer to make sketches of various probable distributions of the leakage flux. and base his calculations on the arrangement of flux lines which has the The fact that the leakage flux usually greatest permeance. The following examples and formulas cover some of the simplest cases of flux paths in air. Case (a). the usual assumptions are made magnetic lines. other than unity. but it may regarding the paths followed by the safely be stated that. it calls for engineer savors somewhat and a combination of common sense engineering judgment side and some on the low based on previous experience. and the averages estimation of are fairly accurate. 2~ l and the permeance is P =f (6) . but the leakage flux like the designer or practical many other problems to be solved by of scientific guesswork. estimate flux leakage even in new and complicated designs with but little error. the calculated value will almost invariably be something less than the actual stray flux as subsequently ascertained by experimental means. follows air paths means that the permeance of these paths does not depend upon the flux density B. and it is surprising how the intelligent application of empirical or approximate formulas and rules will often conduce to excellent results. except by making certain convenient assumptions of questionable A designer of experience will frequently be able to value. the difficulty with the exception of very short air lies in the fact that gaps between relatively large polar surfaces it is rarely possible to predetermine the distribution of the stray flux. /j. Parallel Flat Surfaces. when all possible leakage paths have been considered. It is well to bear this fact in mind.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 23 be such that the total permeance of these leakage paths has the greatest possible value. 6) _ A + A. The errors introduced are some on the high side. this simplifies the problem because it is not necessary to take into account values of the permeability. and these formulas applied to the calculation of the leakage flux.
but the formula (9) is not applicable when ri is large relatively to 7*2 because the actual flux lines would probably be shorter than the assumed semicircular paths. Permeance between non parallel surfaces. in centimeters. r2 loge =>  (9) Case (c). parallel plane surfaces. Case Flat Surfaces of Equal The assumption here made is Area Subtending an Angle 0. P = r>  .24 all PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN dimensions in this and subsequent examples being expressed (6). Permeance between FIG. 7. 360 r2 2^ loge n (7) FIG. Let I = length of polar surface at right angles to the plane of the section shown in Fig. 6. For the special case when = 90 degrees. that the lines of induction in the air gap are circles described from a center on the axis where the planes of the two polar surfaces meet. 7. This is a case similar to the one last considered. The as dr is then. Equal Rectangular Polar Surfaces in Same Plane. sum of the permeances of all the small paths such X 360Z . With a greater separation between the polar . and the two surfaces in the same plane. (8) For the special case when lie 180 degrees. log.
Let I stand. for the length measured perpendicularly to the plane of the section shown. we may up of a number dx. log. as before.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 25 surfaces. then. 8. 8. and in order to calculate the total flux between the inner core and the outer cylinder forming the return path for the useful flux consider the reluctance of the air path as being made 9 shows a used for be might to supposed occupy a Fig. p== . Permeance between surfaces in same plane. Case (d). &* (10) FIG. The exciting coil is Comparatively small portion of the total depth. *X dr dr 7T . Ironclad Cylindrical Magnet. section through a circular magnet such as lifting purposes. dx reluctance r 2irxh The reciprocal of this quantity is the permeance. ' When P= l~? 7* (U) the radial depth of the winding space (R r) is not . whence. the lines of flux are supposed to follow the path indicated in Fig. of concentric cylindrical shells of height h and thickness Thus.
10) to a Starting with the maximum when fundamental formula. the windings will depend not only upon the space occupied by Same as Case (d) Whole of the Available Space. on the value. but. Leakage paths in circumagnet (space not occupied by FIG. it will increase according to a straightline law from h. d$ = whence X or (12) . 10. greater than the radius of the iron core the permeance may be expressed with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes as mean TT crosssectional area length of flux path (R + r)h (Rr) Case (e). zero when x = (see Fig. X P. has no longer a constant establish a magnetic flux.f. we have. assumption that the reluctance of the iron paths is negligible. and The leakage flux in the annular it is illustrated by Fig. FIG.m.26 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN (r). lar 9. lar Leakage paths in circumagnet (space entirely fitted by copper).m. exciting coils). but also upon the m. permeance of the air path.f. (Ha) Except that Coils Occupy the This is the more usual case. 10. tending to This m. $ = \Q AirSI x = m.f.m.
permeance. it will be seen that the permeance. there appears to be no good reason for doing so. length I which are shown in section in Fig. to the base and previous and although the formula could be a table of hyperbolic logarithms is not available.m.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS which. P. Flux Leakage in Similar Designs. the quantity log.303. but the following formula may be used.f. If e. 11. . In all the above formulas 6. 11 cannot be calculated so easily as in the examples previously considered. average value of m. will be the leakage maxwells. where the coils do not occupy the whole of the annular air space between the core and the cylinder forming the coil. Parallel Cylinders. return path. The permeance of the air paths between the sides of two parallel cylinders of diameter d and FIG. It is evident that this formula can be applied to case (d) in order to calculate the leakage flux in the space occupied by the X and so obtain the total leakage flux inside a magnet of the type illustrated. and this is seen to be merely the product. 1 6 It will be observed that the logarithm in this is equations rewritten to permit of the direct use of tables of logarithms to the base 10. can always be obtained by using a table of common logarithms and multiplying the result by the constant 2. flux in if 27 the dimensions are in centimeters. Permeance between parallel cylinders. Case (/). remains unaltered per unit length measured perpendicularly to the crosssection shown 1 This formula can be developed mathematically in the same manner as the betterknown formulas giving the electrostatic capacity between parallel wires.
but would also vary approximately as I 2 . apart from the actual magnitude of the dimensions. or as the volume of the magnet. 9 and 10 have. or leakage flux + leakage _ useful flux or  *+** where $j is the total number of leakage lines calculated for every path where an appreciable amount of leakage is likely to occur. coefficient. the leakage flux will vary as the third power of the linear dimension. with a proportional change in all linear dimensions. When designing electromagnets or the frames of dynamo machines. the exciting ampereturns would not remain of constant value. will vary as I s For the same rise of . a fairly close estimate of the probable leakage factor is necessary in order to be sure that sufficient iron section will be The sections shown in Figs. 7. S. and the resistance. Thus. . . Given the same size of wire which obviates the necessity of considering changes in the winding space factor the number of turns. factor. the leakage flux in similar designs of apparatus would be proportional to the first power of the linear dimension Z. and as a rough approximation it Z X   may be assumed that. been taken through the axis of length instead of at right angles to this axis as in the 1 other examples. will be proportional to Z 2 . temperature on the outside of the windings.28 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN in the sketches 1 provided the crosssections are similar. is the ratio useful flux if The leakage . Thus. Leakage Coefficient. PR whence oc I* and S/ccZl'5 The portional to total leakage flux in similar designs of magnets will be pro1 5 Z or Z 2 6 . for convenience. if the exciting ampereturns were to remain constant. the watts lost in heating the coil must be proportional to the cooling surface. but since the crosssection of the winding space is proportional to Z 2 . R.
by the exciting 8. in pounds per square centimeter = .. n JL J. but also in rotating electric machinery.G. then. and since 1 Ib. B. after which a In averaging of the component forces can be made.e. the density to get a mean result. = 444. B. The exists along the magnetic lines of force. not only in electromagnets for lifting purposes. B n . but the average of the summation . in pounds per square inch = 7o B2 v i0 6 ^^ If the density is not constant over the whole surface considered. is expressed in gausses (i.800 dynes. stands for lines per square inch. J. Force in dynes Bz = ^ A O7T (14) where A is the crosssection in square centimeters of a given area over which the flux density. Qn nnr oU. lines per square centimeter). where this is the most important function of the magnetism. and the product of the useful flux by the leakage factor will be the total flux to be carried by certain portions of the magnetic circuit enclosed coils. it is obviously not the square of the average density that must be taken. in C. MAXWELL'S formula is. pull...THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 29 provided under the magnetizing coils and in the yoke to carry the leakage flux in addition to the useful flux. is assumed to have a constant value. is tractive effort. or the tension which one of the effects of magnetism which it is necessary to calculate.UUU (15) or pull. 2 . Tractive Force. in pounds per square inch = B i 2 70^ AAA (16) In both of these formulas the density. The leakage factor is always greater than unity. or in magnetic clutches or brakes. pull. This formula can be used to calculate the pull between two parallel polar surfaces when the air gap between them is small The engineer desires to relatively to the area of the surfaces. where decentralization of the rotating parts may lead to very serious results owing to the unbalancing of the magnetic pull. the above formula can be written. know the pull in pounds exerted between the two surfaces. the area must be divided into small sections. If B.S.
that is to say. air with the section. of movement. that is to say. For the perpendicular gap (sketch a) we can write. The sketch (6) shows a similar bar of iron. has the same value.30 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN squares of the densities taken over the various component areas of the crosssection considered. with air gap (of length I) normal to the direction Pull between (a) of Fig. Sketch 12 shows a portion of an electromagnet of rectangular crosssection. and considering the reluctance of the air gap only. For the inclined gap (sketch 6) . in case (&). but gap inclined at an angle 8 with the normal crossThe total movement. which is supposed to be confined to the direction parallel to the length of the bar. I. . is the same in both cases. the flux density will be inversely proportional to Now the shortest distance between the two parallel surfaces. although it is the mechanical force exerted in the direction OF% which it is proposed to calculate. The magnetic pull will actually be exerted in a direction normal to the opposing surfaces. 12. OF. With the ampereturns of constant value. This is briefly summed up in the general expression. total longitudinal force Fi = kB^Ai (18) where A. total longitudinal force F 2 = kB 2 A z X z cos (19) express equation (19) in terms of A\ and B\. ~ ~^* Magnet with inclined air gap. the air gap measured in the direction C*) FIG. although the actual air gap measured normally to the polar surfaces is smaller in (6) than in (a). in dynes = oi I B*dA Inclined Surfaces. pull. Conical Plungers. is a constant. 1 Thus. in the direction of motion.
since cos e te x ^ xcos Bi kBSAi cos 2 e ~ Fi cos 2 (20) The same relation holds good for coneshaped pole pieces. . cos and. for the same exciting ampereturns. for normal gap FIG. which corresponds to the crosssectional is. 13. where the factor cos 6 is introduced as before to obtain the axial component of the magnetic forces. we have as before. The conical surface. referring to Fig. Also. 13. Magnet with conical pole faces. Thus. area of the air gap. i and F 2 = kB 2 *A 2 X cos for conical gap.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUITELECTROMAGNETS therefore ' 31 B2 A F* = l B : l cos Also. in which the magnet core is supposed to have a circular crosssection of radius r. cos 2 e F which is 1 identical with formula (20).
up to higher 9. There is a limit to the amount of taper that can be put on the conical pole pieces. as will be explained later. or cast steel as used for electromagnets. while. it is often advantageous to force the density values in the teeth of laminated armature cores. Materials Wire and Insulation.pull for the introduced in designs of electromagnets when the total travel is small relatively to the diameter of the plunger. which con centrates the magnetic flux tribution and density in the air and so provides the necessary disgap where it performs the duty required of it. I2 cos 2 e where l\ is the length of the normal gap which corresponds to the required initial pull. the travel of obtainable length by providing conical surfaces is. This formula is easily derived from the expressions previously developed. In this manner it is possible to obtain increased length of travel without adding to the weight of the magnet. 2 or 3 (pages 16. The effect of iron in the magnetic circuit has however already been discussed at some length. because the airgap density which determines the magnetic pull cannot then be carried up to high values. and as its various articles. The most important of these materials is the iron.000 gausses. A reference to the curves of Figs. with magnetic characteristics very similar to those of soft annealed iron of good quality. it is properties will be considered further in the course of subsequent proposed to confine the remarks immediately fol 1 This is practically pure iron. Before going further into the design of electromagnets it will be advisable to consider briefly the qualities of the materials used in their construction. This is sometimes an advantage. It should be noted that a limit of usefulness is reached when the flux density in the iron core approaches saturation limits. For the same initial pull. 1 the upper limit may be placed at about 19. 17) will enable the designer to judge when the density in the magnet is approaching uneconomical values. in wrought iron. and a large amount of taper will prove to be of little use. even with greatly increased exciting ampereturns. and conical poles are occasionally the initial . Thus.32 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Thus in both cases the inclined gap has the effect of increasing same total length of travel. in the case of cast iron it will rarely pay to carry the induction above 11. . although.000 gausses.
the copper wire. therefore.000 volts are now common for stepup transformers. easy to handle. which is the material universally used for the windings. when the flux links with a large number of turns of turns and the product maxwells there may be. Pressures of 100. and also between the winding as a whole and the iron of the magnetic circuit or supporting framework. as occasion arises. are obtained by means of static transformers. data and information of a practical nature will be given. considerably in excess of the normal potential difference calculated on the assumption of a steady impressed voltage between the terminals of the coil.000 volts and even higher pressures.000 volts (which is the limit for any of the designs dealt with in this book) It is. and the very small. which contain such information as the designer of electrical apparatus The very large. and generally the most The resistance of a suitable material for electrical windings. and the provision of appropriate insulation presents no serious difficulties.000 volts. is X of potential between neighboring turns of wire. devote but little space to the discussion of insulation problems. The higher pressures. but wire tables for the use of electrical engineers are 3 . and there are many transformers actually in operation at 150. 16. may have to be considered. which prevent electrical contact between neighboring turns of wire. so that the provision of the requisite insulation for machines working at pressures not exceeding 16. high voltages are rarely used. when the inductance number is large differences great i. as used for transmission of energy to great distances. at the instant of switching off the current. Copper Wire. namely. omitted. although. With silver as the one exception. sizes of wire are requires.000 volts as. it is also mechanically strong. For the operation of electromagnets. copper is the metal with the highest electrical conductivity.e. and the insulating materials. and the question of insulation then becomes of such great importance that it has to be very thoroughly studied by experts. given size and length of wire is usually obtained by reference to a wire table. and in alternatingcurrent generators..THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 33 lowing to the only other materials of consequence in the design of magnets or dynamos. pressures up to 5. similar to the accompanying tables. but it must not be overlooked that. the pressure may be as high but rarely in excess of. In the design of continuouscurrent machines. proposed to offers no insuperable difficulties.
&S.G. is The Brown and Sharp gage commonly used which has been adopted while the legal standard gage (S.W..34 so PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN common in electrical handbooks and textbooks. In using the accompanying tables. that parcan generally be obtained in America. ticulars of sizes not here included without difficulty. B.) Standards Committe is used almost withthe Engineering by out exception by electrical engineers in England. reference should always be made to the heading. COPPER Gage No. to ensure that the figures relate to the required wire gage. BROWN AND SHARP GAGE. WIRE TABLE. .
..W. COPPER Gage No. STANDARD WIRE GAGE.G. 35 S.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS WIRE TABLE.
but 10 X 4 7T = 1. in 1 sq. and usually is.7854 2 The area of any conductor expressed in circular mils is always greater than the true area expressed in square mils. The system on which the B. exactly halves the crosssection with an increase of three sizes. 10 B. (or 140F. (Brown and Sharp) gage is based. and the number of circular mils in a given area therefore greater than the number of square mils.000 6 square mils. Thus. = (diameter in mils) true area in square mils 0. for approximate calculations. Thus. It will also be found that a No. copper wire in. or rule is at a temperature of about 60C. commercial wires can be. conductivity by .36 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN is in diameter. sftes of wire on the B. has a crosssection of about 10. and by assuming that the variations in 1 The specific resistance of to that of pure electrolytic copper of Matthiesson's standard. Simple Formulas for Resistance of Wires. & S. & S.000. in. = If it (22) = diameter in mils. The weight of any by the formula: Weight where d size of round copper wire may d2 ^7^ ooU be calculated in pounds per 1. a wire is known for any given temperature can be calculated approximately for any other temperature by remembering that the resistance of all pure metals tends to become zero at the absolute zero of temperature.000 circular mils (diameter = 0.1 approx. there are 1. equal 100 per cent. This formula is therefore applicable to the calculation of coil resistances under operating conditions.000 ft. A very convenient and easily is 1 remembered wire 1 ohm that the resistance of any copper per circular mil per inch length. when they are hot.237 circular mils.000 ft. & S.).273.) is 1 ohm per 1. the resistance of Variation of Resistance with Temperature.) and its resistance at normal temperatures (about 20C. The (m) crosssection of a cylindrical wire in circular mils is. gage can be determined if necessary without reference to tables. because the unit area called the circular mil is smaller than the square mil.
where the space . or three layers of cotton or silk.0 Substitute the numerical values. in order to eliminate #o. the relation (23) is. Insulating Materials. and a The covering on the copper wires may Silk coverconsist of one. If temperatures are read on the Fahrenheit scale.004 which will give the answer 8. _Diagram illustrating by which the resistance # 2 at the variation of resistance with temper temperature U can be calculated when the resistance R\ at the temperature n is known. two. Numerical Example Change of Resistance with Temperature. the value = R t (l + 60a) #60 #(. and solve for of which is found to be. The resistance of copper per circular mil per foot is 12 ohms at 60C. we have. = Ro(l + at) If it is desired to calculate the change in resistance which occurs from when the temperature is raised ti to U degrees. that is to say. a = 0. all as indicated in Fig 14. Thus. 'l (24) ~ 238 C * ("Inferred" FIQ i4 > Absolute Zero) ^i r an. if Rt and RQ stand respectively for the resistances at temperatures of Rt t degrees and zero degrees. The coefficient a = 0. 0. Xa # = R = t 10. J? 2 I'll Resistance Ri = Ro(l + = R (l + ah) ati) Dividing the first equation by the second. #60 t = R R = # Q (1 (1 + + 60a) ta) t. ings are used only on the smaller sizes.004 if the temperatures are expressed in degrees Centigrade. Divide the first equation by the second.0024. 6o 12. we get.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 37 resistance follow a straightline law.33C. especially when it is important to economize space. Calculate the temperature at which the resistance will be 10 ohms per circular mil per foot.
gage . but there is always the possibility of contact between adjacent wires at abnormally high temperatures. bare copper wire on which a thin coating of flexible enamel has been applied by a special process. enamelled wire may be used. and in BELDENAMEL WIRE DATA Nos. & S. especially in connection with the very small diameters. Enamelled wire may often be used to advantage. is great This is simply space necessary. B.38 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN When economy of taken up by the cotton covering would be excessive in proportion to the crosssection of copper.
When extra insulation is required between the layers of the winding. continuously. and a close packing of the wires.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 39 many cases enamelled wire protected by a single covering of cotton has been used with very satisfactory results. average values. and indeed it is always advisable to place paper between the layers of enamelled wire. . the points to be considered are: (1) insulation. is called the space factor. If A is the crosssection of the copper. based on the assumption of a known diameter over the insulation. because it reduces the crosssection of copper in the and the coil. course much Enamel and (3) cost. a large factor of safety (not less than four) should be used. The price of the silk covering is of higher than that of the cotton covering. In all cases when it is desired to save space by reducing the thickness of insulation on wires. This wire will not suffer injury with the temperature maintained at 200F. 15 will be found to give good It will be understood that the space factors of 15 include no allowance for extra insulation between layers Fig. Space Factor. One advantage of the ordinary cotton covering is that it lends itself admirably to treatment with oil or varnish. unless a careful study of the conditions appears to justify its omission. but on account of the possibility of abrasion during winding. either before or after winding. because this is where the difference of potential is greatest. of Chicago. (2) durability. this is usually provided in the form of one or more thicknesses of paper or varnished cloth. insulation does not add much to the diameter of the by reference to the accompanying table based on data kindly furnished by the Belden Manufacturing Co. does not always agree with the value obtained in but the curves of Fig. and it will withstand without breakdown a pressure of 900 volts per mil thickness of enamel. of wire or for the necessary lining of the spool upon which the coil practice. the ratio ^ T. and A' the total area of crosssection through the winding. The calculated space factor. wire as will be seen Triple cotton covering can be used with advantage on the larger sizes of wire when the working pressure between adjacent turns exceeds 20 volts. The amount of space taken up by the insulation air pockets between wires of circular crosssection is important. It is the insulation between the finishing turns of a layer of wire and the winding immediately below which requires special attention.
micanite paper and will cloth. The materials used for insulating between the winding as a whole and any grounded metal by which it is supported include mica. U." varnished cambric. there be an appreciable loss of space due to the turning back of the wire at the end of each layer. If the number of turns per layer is very small. pressboard. oiled linen 70 .V2 "presspahn.40 is PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN wound. Insulation on Spools or Metal Forms.
as previously explained (Art. The calculation of the ampereturns necessary to produce a given flux of magnetism has already been explained (see Arts.045 0. up to 12. if *'* " A = = number current density in amperes per square inch.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS Up to 41 500 volts 0. For a first approximation of the area required. in.10 volts. and that the air gaps are short. it is then easy to calculate the probable crosssection of the copper in the coil.C. the total amperewires in the crosssection t X I is (SI). provided the magnetic circuit exciting consists mainly of iron of known magnetic characteristics. then.. out one or two numerical exam.03 in. or (M) = 1. however.000 add 0. Calculation of Magnet Windings.800 For mediumsized magnets try A = 900. E.000 10. is If known. whatever be the number of the turns S. total ampereturns in the coil SI = the shown in Fig. The following figures may be used: may For large magnets try A = 700. 3 and 4).060 0. or (M) = 1. which is not likely to cause an excessive heat loss and therefore an unsafe rise of temperature. per 1. or (M) = 1. and (M) of circular mils per ampere. in.000 volts For 2. illustrated i.150 where h jj . and that the applied D. . potential t . _ . .000 volts For higher pressures. These calculations will be more fully . when working . The relation between is. it is well to assume a certain current density in the windings. these quantities._ FIG. have to be wound on a bobbin or former. . 9) A X (M) = 1.000 volts For 3.100. SI.273 X 10 6 assuming the current density.. but for the present it is assumed that a definite number of ampereturns. is not equal to the product t X I because the winding space factor By . and it is a fairly simple matter to determine the force approximately. in. For 1. pies. Cylindrical magnet coil. . 16.080 0. This. difference. volts increase. in.400 For small magnets try A = 1. 16.
By referring to a wire table such as those on pages 34 and 35.) Applying formula (21) for the resistance of a copper wire at a temperature of about 60C. It should be noted that. but decided usually upon in well to avoid making the depth of windI t and may is in. causing the current I to decrease by a proportional amount. That this must necessarily be the case is seen when it is realized that for every increase in S } the resist ance increases in like manner. its crosssection depends only upon the applied potential difference and the average length per turn. be chosen...42 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN must be taken into account. The crosssection of the coil can now be calculated because. Any the ing. and a core of circular crosssection. with a known value for t. 16. of the space factor from the curves of Fig. It is the value of one of these dimensions first t. If it does not seem close enough to the required size for practical purposes. for a given excitation. the standard gage size nearest to the calculated crosssection can be chosen. we have: is more than 3 Mean length per turn = ir(D + t) in.= E y I whence T (p + j)S _ = E I (m) and (26) In this manner the size of the wire can be determined. convenient relation between instance. this being of small diameter for high voltages and of He can select a probable value large diameter for low voltages. . temperature The size of the wire will depend upon the length of the mean turn. because the internal then liable to become excessive. and. (See Fig. S. designer to form a rough idea A little practice will enable the as to the size of wire that will be required. 15. it is quite independent of the number of turns of wire. we may write. resistance = in inches length r 7 (m) . . the coil can be wound with two sizes . even in large magnets.
of winding space crosssection for every 500 ampereturns A convenient required on the coil. of the standard wire of larger size. ~ TT flW X SI n ~D . it is proposed to use (m) crosssection by making the depth Now estimate the number depth. and (by using the space factor curves. R and the current._ . Winding Shunt Coils With Two Sizes of Wire. This simply means that the product A X sf of formula (25) is taken as 500. l) A. but it 43 is generally to the turn and so obtain the modify average length per possible desired result. is to allow 1 sq. (D whence . The formula (26) can be written. For a definite length per turn. two wires of different diameter connected in series or in parallel. which usually provides sufficient winding to space prevent excessive temperature rise. of standard wire. the exact ampereturns required on a magnet can always be obtained with standard sizes of wire by mean H x Feet of A Ohms K y Feet of B Ohms H FIG. or by calculation) of turns required to fill the spool to the required calculate the total resistance. x si Now. at the same temperature. Two sizes of wire in series. 17. wire if (A) is the area in circular mils of the standard size of instead of the previously calculated the required ampereturns can be obtained of winding. using. stand for the ohms per foot length of wire to give the field coils required excitation at the proper temperature. as will be explained shortly.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS. if necessary. The series connection is most usual for magnets or Let R to be connected across a definite voltage.g(") . A = ohms per foot. . } " 7^ R rule. in.
44 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN and B = size of wire. the temperature as measured by a thermometer on the outside of the coil is only a rough guide to that of the hottest part. The highest temperature will be attained somewhere inside the coil. The average temperature is also higher than the outside temperature. it is usual to put the smaller wire on the outside where the heat will be most readily dissipated. the corresponding resistance of the smaller standard It is proposed to make up the resistance R by connecting x feet of A ohms per foot in series with y feet of ohms per foot. will furnish the When required excitation. x + y = xA 1 y = I x whence +B xB = R and If it is preferred to instead of resistances in work with ohms per 1 foot. circular mils of larger standard wire. and it is not easily calculated. Heat Dissipation Temperature Rise. winding with two sizes of wire in series. Thus. it can be ascertained by measuring the resistance of the coil hot and cold.() . if calculated as explained in the preceding article. The maximum temperature can be measured only by burying thermometers or . as indicated in Fig. but it is possible that the estimated value for the current density may result in a temperature so high as to injure the insulation. circular mils of smaller standard wire. 17.(A) where (m) (A) (B) = = = calculated circular mils. B xA also + yB = R or. crosssections in circular mils. 11. we can put the relation of formula (28) in the form J_ (B) 1 X = (m) 1 (A) _  (B) (A) (m) X (B) (B) . or so low as to render the cost of the magnet owing to excess of copper commercially prohibitive. The winding.
is usually specified. or. in magnet coils of average size. the external temperature.. or ^. This depth should rarely exceed 3 in. and the heating coefficient will necessarily have a different value in each case. may be taken as the outside cylindrical surface only. page 41. the mean temperature might be 1. not omitting the inside portion in proximity to the iron magnet core.. preferred. obviously. The depth of winding has much to do with the relation between outside and inside temperatures. the coil must be redesigned reduce the I 2 R loss. and as this may be reached when the outside temperature is 40C. it may be stated that. and a long coil of small thickness will. Thus . This is largely a matter of individual choice based on experience gained with similar types of coil. have a much more uniform temperature than a short thick coil of the same number of turns. ~ TA I 2R and T = where k ~ fcis (30) T is the temperature rise in degrees Centigrade. Zp2 of the The watts lost amount to PR. if the heating coefficient. allowable safe temperature for cottoncovered wires is 95C.65 times.4 times. the whole surface. 16.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS test resistances in the center of the coil 45 when it is being wound. As a rough indication of what may be expected in the matter of internal temperatures. The heating one watt coefficient is the cooling surface necessary to dissipate per degree difference of temperature between the outside of the winding and the surrounding air. which can. If the calculated temperature rise is in excess of this. The cool ing surface of a magnet winding of the type shown in Fig. or this outside surface plus the area of the two ends. or El. in order to increase the cooling surface or The coils of coefficients calculation of temperature rise is based largely upon which are the result of tests. a maximum rise of temperature of 40 or 45C. as measured at the maximum The maximum the hottest accessible part of the finished coil. be properly defined . preferably conducted on the same type and size as the one considered. above that of the surrounding medium.. again. and temperature 1.
402. E. 1 The heating and shape coefficient k is of magnet. in all cases. and on the total radiating surface. The temperature rise is very little whether the coil is surrounded entirely or provided with an iron core. Assuming a surface temperature that is to say.46 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN as the degrees Centigrade rise in temperature when the loss in is watts is equal to the cooling surface in square inches. Without attempting to discuss effects of intermittent service. the same coefficient may be used as for the open coils. G. bearing in mind that. with an average value of 180. to which the reader is referred if he wishes to pursue further the subject of magnet coil heating. A. . In the case of ironclad coils such as those found in many designs of lifting magnets and magnetic clutches. and other details of construction. the coefficient k might lie between 160 and 200. coils rise of about 40 C. even for a given size a function of the difference of temperature between the coil surface and the surrounding medium. the temperature rise T of formula (30) is that of the outside layer of wire. With a temperature rise of only 20C. and (6). internal temperature will depend largely on the shape the final and thick ness of the surrounding iron.. and carrying no current. and the actual cooling surface expressed in square inches. and for this reason the differ writer prefers to consider the total external area of the coil as the cooling surface. LISTER in his excellent paper published in the British Journal Inst. A is that of the total external surface of the copper Heating. 38. the two extreme the exhaustively cases may be considered (a) the apparatus is alternately carrying 12. and the area coil. it also depends upon the material of the spools or bobbins. and open type coils with ends and outside surface exposed to the air finished with a coat or two of varnish over the cottoncovered wire. coil. It is not a constant. on the insulating varnish and wrappings (if any). The area A of this cooling surface will be reckoned as the sum of the outside and inside perimeters multiplied by the length of the coil. E. during short periods of time extending over many hours. so that the total cooling surface is the factor of importance. plus the area of both ends of the found to by air. the apparatus is in use at 1 This is the recommendation of MR. vol. the average value of k should be taken as 190*. for approximate calculations. Intermittent : the full current. p. but.
it follows that.6 grams. with long periods allowed for cooling. possible to calculate how long an electrofor occasional use can be left in circuit without damage A temperature rise of 50 to 55C.6 = fyj 171. and since 1 calorie is equivalent to 42 1 gram of X X 10 6 ergs 1C.09 X ergs per second. and (171. of the coil.. that of copper is about 0. One calorie will raise water 1C. the current flows through the coil during h min. During a period of 1 hr. and 1 Ib. in 1 sec. so that out of a total of 60 min.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETS 47 only rare intervals of time. weight or volume.. by making the assumption that the watts to be dissipated are not ^Q This method cannot safely be used if the "on" and "off" periods are long. The specific heat of water at ordinary temperatures being taken as unity. so that the factor of importance is the capacity for heat.5 X 0. A cubic inch of copper weighs 0. and its total W = PR. The temperature rise is then determined solely by the specific heat of the copper.. as previously explained. The specific heat of a substance is the number of calories re quired to raise the temperature of 1 gram.32 Ib. but no general rule can be formulated in this connection because the size of the magnet is an important If used only at rare intervals of time. Case (6).09 X 42 X 10 6 X 453.32) or 55 watts will therefore raise the temperature of 1 cu. assuming no heat to be radiated or conducted away from the surface In this manner it is magnet to insulation. (or dynecentimeters). to raise 1 gram of copper 42 10 8 in 1 sec. Case (a).. with long for cooling down. and is then switched off for another known period. but W h = factor. of copper 1C. of copper 1C. work must be done at the rate of 0. is 0. = 453. only. in. the current is passing through the magnet coil for a known short interval of time. the temperature rise can then be caculated. a magnet coil can be worked allowed periods at very high current densities.. permissible in making calculations on the heatcapacity . in 1 sec.5 watts. is generally basis.09. this leads to the conclusion that the power to be expended to raise 1 Ib. 1C. But 1 watt is the rate of doing work equal to 10 7 ergs per second.
in inches. and the main object of the designer should be to put forward the design of lowest It is not cost which will fulfil the conditions satisfactorily. such as the means of obtaining quick. A little practice in the design of the simple will forms of lifting magnet. the larger sizes. in pounds. In the design of of little or no value to the manufacturer. 1 There are many matters of interest. the material ^'Solenoids. of varying sizes and costs. either here or elsewhere. special features of alternatingcurrent electromagnets. action in magnets. Introductory.CHAPTER III THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS 13. but none of these can receive adequate attention here. multiplied by the travel. his studies elsewhere : specialize in lifting magnets. Electromagnets and Electromagnetic Windings:" D. be of the greatest value in illustrating the practical application of the fundamental principles underlying the design of all electromagnetic machinery. Many designs. but it is well to emphasize the fact that a designer who does not conis stantly bear in mind the factors of first cost and cost of upkeep. or magnetic brake. UNDERBILL' s book on electromagnets. VAN NOSTRAND CO. and the mechanical devices introduced to attain specific ends. magnetic and electromagnetic mechanisms generally. The designer who wishes to clutches. to the detailed discussion of the commercial aspects of design. The object of this chapter is partly to summarize and coordinate what has already been discussed. the work to be done is usually reckoned as the initial or starting pull. can be made to comply with the terms of a given specification. equalizing the pull over long distances. C. R. especially of electromagnets. or slow. 48 . In the design of electromagnets with movable armatures or plungers. but mainly to familiarize the reader with the laws of the magnetic circuit and the simple computations which will enable him to proportion the iron cores and calculate the field windings of electric generators. must pursue he is referred to other sources of information such as MR. proposed to devote much space.
these are usually of doubtful value. and although formulas can be developed which aim to give the proportions sizes for the most economical design. .THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS 49 cost is the main item. the crosssection of the various parts of the magnetic circuit 4 is readily calculated. because the travel of the plunger. 14. 18. there is not much magnetic leakage. not omitting the important item of initial cost. and it is generally simpler to apply a little common sense and the engineering judgment which will come with practice. 18. or length of air gap. when it is desired merely to compare alternative designs based on a given specification. Given a definite total amo*unt of flux to produce the required pull. It is an easy matter to estimate the volume and weight of materials in so simple a design as a lifting magnet. is small in comparison with the area of the pole faces. and try two or three designs with different proportions before selecting the one that seems most suitable in all and respects. Shortstroke Tractive Magnet. Plunger or iron clad magnet. and the total cost of iron and copper is a good guide to the cost of the finished magnet. _i Brass Ring FIG. With a design of plunger magnet as shown rrn in Fig.
in pounds = F = 7T D 2 70 j55 D 2 0. the flux density over the area between the two annular pole faces must be such as to produce a force that will prevent slipping between these faces. than by a lengthy discussion of the manner in which the various dimensions It will probably be found that are dependent upon each other.50 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Various proportions can be tried.000 gausses. 8) the pull. with the usual cylindrical core. the same methods apply to the calculation of magnets with longer air gap.730. 19 shows a common type of magnetic clutch with conical bearing surfaces. The pull per square inch de2 pends upon B . and the wedge action of the coneshaped rings is not relied upon to increase the pressure between the surfaces in contact. all as previously explained in Art.000)* 1. in pounds per square inch. . should never be less than twice the airgap length. also different values of the magnetic density in the air gap. Fig. A 15.000 thus. is (11. the most economical initial density will not exceed 11. Although Fig. practical rule which determines the minimum length of the winding space is that this length.5 to 3 is generally allowed. 4. and the necessary ampereturns computed. A factor of safety of 2. but. h. although the conical shape is not essential. 18 shows a very short air gap. provided this is not so great as to cause excessive magnetic leakage. More will be learned by trying various proportions and roughly estimating the cost. and (by formula 16. Art. Magnetic Clutch. prohibitive. the ampereturns required become excessive. When the two iron surfaces are held together by the action of the exciting coil.135 = whence D = VF (31) The magnet can now be sketched approximately to scale. is generally similar to that of the circular type of lifting magnet. and the weight and cost of the copper coils. The design of a magnetic clutch to transmit power between a shaft and pulley or any piece of rotating machinery. by forcing the density up to high values. I. total force.
and (hp.) is the horsepower which has to be transmitted. coefficient of friction.) . A = area of all North. Magnetic clutch.UUU f\r\rv different values of X k. B can Note also that be tried. then PAX c X 2irR XN (32) 33. P = N= c pressure in pounds per square inch of contact surface. or of all South. to insert in formula (32) should be (hp. in feet. polar surfaces in contact (square inches). 19. revolutions per minute. the value of hp. If k is the safety factor. these .000 FIG.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS Let 51 R = mean radius. the c = X PA is the tangential force meaning of which is that which will just produce slipping. which gives the horsepower that the clutch will transmit just before slipping occurs.
The unknown quantities are then R and A. c per sq. c (for dry be taken from the accompanying table. Ib. Pressure. . TABLE GIVING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. surfaces).730.) X k X k 1. the friction coefficient may be lowered as much as 40 per cent.52 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN values should be fairly high. but they will depend upon whether the magnetic circuit is of cast iron or steel.000 X 10 8 X (hp. One reason for using a is B in gausses. and equation (32) can be put in the form R XA = 33.) 2 X NcB where (33) and the coefficient of friction. in. If the surfaces are lubricated with oil or grease. may large factor of safety is to allow for the possibility of dirt or oil getting between the surfaces in contact.000 91 X (hp.
35 in. Cast iron would not be a suitable material. or they can be turned down from square bar iron. Pole Face 2 Square FIG. . 20. Horseshoe Lifting tions to be as follows: Initial pull 53 Magnet. Assume the specified condi 200 Ib. after a sufficient time has elapsed for the final ternperature to be reached. Travel of armature (being the length of the single air gap) 0. The temperature to be taken on the outside surface of the exciting coils. where the iron limbs are of circular section with square pole pieces. The required magnet might be generally as shown in Fig.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 16. Allowable temperature rise = 40C. = = D. These limbs may be steel castings.C. voltage = 110. 20. Horseshoe magnet.
000 where is in gausses. 8. B A is the area of one polar face.54 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN because the large crosssection necessary to keep the flux density within reasonable limits would lead to an unnecessary and wasteful increase in the weight of the copper * coils. all the important the other hand. and then checking results by assuming a larger for the unknown quantity.000 or more than and a smaller value . B. and in square inches. they must become unwieldy and unpractical when factors are taken into account. is to be obtained. it is safe to assume that B will not be less than 5. and the reader may learn much by trying form to put the various. Since very low values of B will lead to great weight of iron. but since the initial airgap length remains constant.000 (34) whence. It is obvious that high values of B are advantageous in so far as they reduce the weight and cost of the iron in the magnet. and very high values will lead to an increased weight of copper. Thus. cannot be immediately determined. and although formulas for minimum cost can be developed. This relation between size of pole face and the airgap density exist if the pull of 200 Ib.730.730. but the density B can be varied within wide limits. page 29. but we shall follow here the method adopted by a large number of experienced designers. requirements in the of a mathematical equation. and frequently conflicting. which consists in trying what seems a probably value for one of the unknowns. the pull. the necessary ampereturns will increase almost in direct proportion to any increase of B. The economical value of the flux density. expressed in terms of the airgap density is ~ 2AB* 1. for in formulas use to arriving at interesting develop approximate the economical dimensions of any particular type of electromagnetic apparatus. Applying formula (16) of Art. the formulas magnetic leakage On It is very are very inaccurate and not of general application. expressed ' 200  ^^1. if all deteras cooling surfaces and factors items such mining including are not taken into consideration.
j pole shoe must be small leakage.000 whence d = 1.000 maxwells. Putting for B. t.88 in. a value of Y in order to keep down the magnetic in. A. the winding in.000 gausses.570. in formula (34). we have: B $ = 6. crosssection. (airgap density) = 6. may be as high as 90. since this only calls for a sufficient The thickness t should not exceed t. the value 7.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS 10. and also upon the allowable current density. The length I of the winding space. The diameter. d. X 6. for definition) might be about 1.000 for We design. TT Thus. Depth of Winding. k = d the quantities so far determined. and the cooling surface necessary to prevent .5 in a magnet of this type and size.45 X 2 X 2 170. page 28. and the thickness of winding. 7.000 lines per square inch. in. will depend upon the ampereturns necessary to produce the desired flux density in the airgap.. space factor. in the copper of the The relation of I to t is not determined by the exciting coils. 1. amount of the ampereturns. The thickness 1% of the this 2 in. but the most suitable dimensions of the coil are really determined by the current density. Summing up w = 2 in.000 gausses. 55 a trial through to completion. this being the main consideration which the designer must always bear in mind.9 or (say) d 1. of the magnet cores under the winding is obtained by assuming a leakage factor and a suitable flux density in the iron. and the density in the core of magnet steel or wrought iron. or product I X 3 because a greater thickness may lead to excessive temperatures inside the coil. the side w of the (square) pole shoe is found to be 1. although it would usually be preferable to carry at least three designs through to the point where it becomes clear that one of these is distinctly preferable to the others from the point of view of economy.570 X 6.5 X = 4 X 6. whence B = 7^ shall select the value of 7. The leakage factor (refer Art. Let us make 101 50 = 6. for l z should be satisfactory.570 gausses.875 in.570 (useful or effective flux per pole) = = 1% K in. and carry this .45 4 90.
56 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN excessive temperature rise. 9. Equating the I R losses with the watts that can be dissipated without exceeding the temperature limit. preferIn the present case we shall try a small ably. If a suitable value for the current density in the windings can be chosen. By formula (21) of Art. or. if with the previously mentioned limit of about 3 in. sf = the winding space factor. as given in Fig. the resistance. in this particular design. I. t = % in. not exceed 3 in. we can write. 47. 11 formcooling surface An average rr to \^~r be dissipated watts : T value of 180 2 may be taken for k. value of coil thickness of about 1. . in this = example. the depth of winding should. of the winding space. being less than 60 if heating is intermittent. it will be an easy matter to determine the length. total surface of coil T X T= = watts to be dissipated R"^ X 01 cubic inches of copper X X h * or k [2lir(d + X 2 + 4*7r(d + whence In order to eliminate I. T = The k allowable temperature coefficient. page 40. Let A = R" = the current density (amperes per square inch). 15. even d were greater than 9 in.3 = 0. and so complete the preliminary design. since.875 f. Thus.. the cooling ula (30). consider t in the numerator to be negligible. t. as i /orx\ m TX >. between opposite faces of an inch cube of copper. rise. with an air gap of 1 Where h has the same meaning as on p. being 40C. in the preliminary As the calculations. we may W /+ /27T/ ___ t) = #"A 2 X 2Uv(d + X sf X 60 . being defined in Art. Current Density in Windings. say. greater than onethird of the diameter of the core. a probable value of 0.625 in.5 will be chosen for this factor. in ohms. It is usual to assume a value for the thickness. size of wire is not yet known.
since the airgap..75X1.250X0. offers far total SI (both spools) = 10. in this case. The total leakage flux between Calculation of Leakage Flux.35 9. We which are is now able to solve for the length of the winding space. will be.250 Length of Winding Space. The ampereturns required for the double airgap only.02 X 2l g X 6. Thus. 4.570 X 2 X 0.02B 2. (SI) g = = = 2.5 = 10.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS considerable reluctance.300. will The approximate value of A will be small in comparison with then be. as indicated on Fig. by formula (5) of Art. If the leakage factor is much in excess of the assumed value (1. .230 2X0.273. not including those required to overcome the reluctance of the iron portions of the magnetic circuit. this gives all necessary dimensions for calculating the permeance of the leakage paths. The ampereturns for the more reluctance than the remaining portions of the magnetic circuit. I = 2 X 40 1 \ 180 X X X 1.000 0. iron part of the magnetic circuit cannot be calculated accurately until the length I and the actual leakage factor have been determined.75 X 0. 20. t 57 I. it will be well to see whether the long magnet limbs will not be the cause of too great a leakage flux.9 or (say) 11 in. i. I = SI total X sf 10.230 approx..5 = (say) 1.e.5) there is danger of saturating the cores under the windings. Before proceeding further with the design. we shall assume the iron portions to require only onetenth of the airgap ampereturns. but. and so limiting the useful flux available for drawing up the armature Let the distance between the windings be 2 in.
X 2 X 0.m.m.31og 10 .350 maxwells.54 X 3. which increases in density from the yoke to the pole the permeance of the pieces and is equal to the average m. and also those between the small ledges caused by the change from square pole piece to circular section under the coil.m.875( V(3. X air paths between the two iron cylinders. which is due to the total m. Between opposing rectangular faces. For the permeance of the paths comprised under 1.425.m.f.m.f.5 + 1.47T * 3 X 10. 0.f.230 . available for the air gap.875) / is. = farthest 0. ~~2~ = 330. 6.. 5.5 X 1.f. (6) The flux leakage between the circular cores under the windings. the total leakage flux between pole pieces is $p = m. This average m.58 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN made up of the two magnet limbs should be considered as parts : two (a) The flux leakage from pole shoe to pole shoe.375 Between the two paper (Fig.m.000 maxwells .801 9.. by pairs of faces parallel to the plane of the formula (10) Art. TT X 11 X 2. The leakage flux between magnet cores under the windings _ m.f.f. will be approximately onehalf the total m. X The permeance of the air paths comprised under (b) may be calculated by applying formula (13) of Art.4r X (Pi +P 2) = = 9.5) + (2 X 3.875 2 51 !. *c = 2 0. we have: Pl 2. 5.300 X 0. Neglecting the flux lines that may leak out from the pole faces removed from each other. 20).45 (a).54 1. Thus. of the exciting coils.25 2.
25 X 2 X 6.5 = whence I (say) 800 10. t.5.75 = Let us try I X 800 X 0. Let us make this \Y in.= 170.5 7. The simplest way to reduce the amount of the leakage flux is to shorten the magnet limbs. .54" and between the 25) sides of the magnet cores (by formula 10.230 = 2 X 1.350 is + 330. that is to say. The permeance between the opposite faces is 7.350 . 80 180 X X 1.45 5. we have. of the exciting coils.000 which is crosssection of the core greatly in excess of the permissible value. between the outside surfaces of the windings.5 1 This formula and also the correct formula (35) are applicable to rectangular as well as to circular coils. more than doubled. I. it is seen to be necessary in this design to increase the depth of winding. square under the windings.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS and the total leakage flux is &i 59 = 9. the square section bar will be carried up through the coils without being turned down to a smaller section as in the trial design.000 = 339. unless the under the windings is increased to keep the flux density within reasonable limits.5X2. 1 Using formula (36) to calculate the current density.75 X0. and at the same time retain the full section of 2 in. in.000 1.273. page 2 x X 2+ 5. = 7 in. the distance between the two parallel magnet cores of square section will now be 5. Allowing still a separation of 2 in.350 maxwells.3 in. The leakage factor 170.000 + 339. and although the long limbs with no great depth of winding may lead to economy of copper. in order to reduce the The dimension t will have to be length.
The modified shown in Fig. p. the value of c which is B = 2Bv + Bp . The ampere overcome the reluctance of the two air gaps of Exciting generally as have already been calculated.000 of the density in the iron cores will be + 4 125. core With high values of B. 21). even if the flux density were below the "knee" of the BH curve.000 + 125. by referring to the BH curves of the material used in the magnet. If we know the of the flux through the iron portions of the circuit we can calculate the flux density. and each section separately in treated With comparatively low calculation can be in the made calculating the required ampereturns.000 maxwells.60 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN total leakage flux will The be approximately = 100. the flux density varies from a minimum value near the poles to a maximum value near the yoke. This calculated value of the leakage flux should be slightly increased because the total permeance between the two magnet limbs will actually be greater than as calculated by the conventional formulas.600 lines per square inch. the length of the magnetic should be divided into a number of sections.000 This makes the value of the leakage factor. amount In the magnet cores under the coils. with the permeability. densities.000 _ 170. it would not be correct to base reluctance calculations upon the arithmetical average of the two extreme densities.000 = 73. and then ascertain the necesreadily m. approximately constant. Closer Estimate will magnet now be turns required to Ampere Turns. 21. the remaining parts of the magnetic circuit consist of the two magnet limbs under the windings.000 The maximum value 170. together with the yoke and the armature. the on the assumption of an average density magnet cores. maxwells. . to sary produce this density. and as the leakage flux is not uniformly distributed over the length l c (Fig. Let us assume the total flux to be 125. _ 170.. as in this example.m.f.
The total ampereturns for the calculated FIG. 3 which is supposed to apply to the particular quality of magnet steel or iron which it is proposed to use. Horseshoe magnet.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS where and 61 By Bp = flux density at flux density at end near yoke.) Part of circuit . end near pole pieces. 21. (Modified design. 21 can now be by using the BH curve of Fig. magnet of Fig. The calculation can conveniently be put in tabular form as shown below.
001276 = 5.14 X = 125 watts. 110 PR loss 1.i = 6 500 > ft  Resistance at 60C.5 X 48. if This larger wire will provide a factor of safety. = 6. or. the wire of crosssection nearest to the required value is No..75 is approximately 4(w + t). because No.C.).. Outer surface of both coils Inner surface of both coils End surfaces of both coils = = = 2X7 2X7 4 X4X X 4 5.75 = 308 =112 = 105 Total cooling surface ... and the potential 15 difference across the two coils 110 volts. 15. temperature down to the required limit. 21. B. 18 Calculation of Temperature Rise. Fig..& S. The space factor for No...2 ohms.42 X = TTS \..62 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of turn is The mean length 3.14 amp. is probably larger should be mentioned that the design of magnet as shown in than would be necessary to fulfil practical requirements.75 X 0. if preferred. wire.. because it is not likely that the full pressure of 110 volts would be maintained across the terminals It . and the number of turns per coil will be 6. thus. T= which 180 125 X 525 = 43C. The crosssection of the copper in the coil is therefore 7 X 1.. = 525 sq. by formula (30) Art.. in.54. and it may be used the watts lost and the temperature rise are not excessive..54 = 6. gage.600 Referring to the wire table on page 34.5 X4X2 X 3.62/0. is 0.. or 4 X = 15 in... ^ is only slightly in excess of the specified temperature rise Another layer or two of winding would bring the (40C. as taken off the curve of Fig. 18 B.. the length of the coil may be increased by a small amount without appreciably adding to the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.. & S.180. Other required values are: coil Length of wire in one = 5. 11 taking 180. The k rise is = of temperature.... X 9... 19 will be too small to provide the necessary excitation.75 X 1.180 7.C.62. D.. Current Total = ^gx = = 1.
if This factor of safety of 1. the actual flux density in the air gap.000 gausses. Factor of Safety. The magnet would be designed either for inter mittent operation.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS for 63 many hours.500 gausses would be a If many magnets are to be made suitable density in the air gap.14 = 11. or. will be approximately 6. all of which will comply with the terms of the specification. to the one design.570 gausses. two sizes of wire may be used as explained in Art. or in any case if the magnet is large and costly.000 gausses respectively.570 of the BH X 8. If actual costs are required. per pound for the magnet will recollect that this design has been worked on the through assumption that about 6. if standard gage numbers must be used. the mean length of turn may be modified by providing a greater or smaller depth of winding space. This method of working may seem slow and tedious. but it is sure. per iron. The reader the designer should now try alternative designs. Seeing that the coils are actually wound with a wire of greater crosssection than the calculated value.070 or (say) 8. using airgap densities of (say) 4. it rately. By com paring the three designs. 12. As an alternative. he will be able to select the one which can be constructed at the least cost. 1. a resistance would automatically be thrown loss in series with the coil windings in order to reduce the still the of while a and effect saving maintaining required copper PR pull of 200 Ib.5 the strictest economy of material is necessary. and X = 300 Ib. or. if left continuously in circuit. page 47. and if actually tried . and 4c. the coils should be wound with a wire of the calculated size. instead 11 800 of being 6. 10. in which case the temperature rise might be calculated as in Case (a) of Art. The initial pull will actually be 200 ^'57^2 may seem excessive. The cost of materials is easily estimated by calculating the weight of iron and copper sepaFor the purpose of comparing alternative designs. through the reduced air gap. the figures would be about 20c. pound for copper wire. as would generally be the case. is usual to take the cost of copper as five times that of the iron parts of the magnet.000 and 8.180 X 2 is not carried above the "knee" in iron the the since density X curve. and actual The ampereturns are 5.800. nearly. Most Economical Design. the initial pull will be somewhat greater than the specified 200 Ib.
000 lb. say. but also by the designer.64 will PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN be found to involve less time and labor than might be supposed. and when a concrete and definite piece of work has to be done. but if the magnets are of large size and several hundred will be required. would be amply justified. 17. and during the course. he can always check his results when the work is completed. will fall upon a heap of scrap iron. then time spent by the designer in comparing alternative designs and in striving to reduce material and labor cost. It serves to illustrate much that has gone before. and but exemplifies this. 22 is a sectional view is circular in form. or wasted.. and emphasizes the fact that. which..000 lb. The student following the courses at an engineering unless he has had outside experience apcollege does not Time may be used. appear elementary and obvious. The case in point preciate the value of his time. importance than the cost of the materials. not only by the workman. even if the designer must make some assumptions and do a certain amount of guesswork at the beginning. many. 22. If the required width of . 4. lift a ball of steel weighing. If the outer cylindrical shell forming one of the has an average diameter of 21 in. and lead mately 30 to a design of reasonable dimensions. two or three are likely to be wanted. ma*y be of no less. Circular Lifting Magnet. is approxiin. but they emphasize what is generally understood by "engineering judgment" which is rarely acquired or rightly valued until after to the importance of the student has left school. on the opening This of the electric circuit. of his design. as indicated in Fig. it may be well to state that the method of procedure here followed in the case of a horseshoe magnet is not put forward as being necessarily the best. Before taking up the design of another form of magnet. or such as would generally be adopted by an experienced designer. abused. the time spent upon it. The electromagnet of which Its function is to Fig. and satisfy himself that his design complies with all the terms of the specification. device is referred to colloquially as a "skull cracker. or even of greater. it will poles of the magnet include an angle of 90 degrees. the designer should not spend much time on refinements of calculation and in endeavor ing to reduce the cost of manufacture to the lowest limit." The diameter of a solid steel sphere weighing 4. If the required magnets are small. These considerations and conclusions may.
. be suitable for a magnet of the type considered. with Stiffening Ribs . 22.240 gausses. A. and if B = 8. in.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS 65 the annular surface forming the outer pole of the magnet should be less than 1 in. 21 66 sq. for mechanical reasons. FIG. which would provide the required pull 5 if B = 7. or 2.= 96 sq.000 gausses.. The total pull required is 4. minimum width have.000 B 2 B = A A = 6. 54 sq.000 X 1. we Area of outer ring = = 1 X TT X in. Circular lifting magnet. for the pole face on the outer shell. in.730. . it might be necessary. per pole.000 lb.000 gausses. Either of these flux densities would probably Steel Casting etising Coil I Retaining Plate of (Nonmagnetic) S Manganese Steel. The pull per square inch of polar surface is. Assuming a of 1 in. to reduce the diameter in order to obtain a practical design.000 Ib.. Pounds per square inch = whence the area of B 2 each pole face is A = If 2. by formula (16) page 29.
66 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The diameter Let us therefore decide upon this dimension. in. the specification would probably call for  a magnet powerful enough to attract the ball through a distance Let us further assume that. of the center the through magnet. the value of (m) will be 3..2 (m) = X 8. formula (5). section of 5 in.5. by 3 in. will be 42) the crosssection of 47. The diameter of the central pole core core. whence D= be 10 in. 4. in. J4 m intermittent. be 120 volts. and have a conical face to the as shown in sketch. One of the dimensions should. In order to introduce a factor of safety.140. A crossin order to avoid excessive internal temperatures.2 in.02 X l" X 7. Art. in circular mils. The average length per turn and (by formula of wire is 7r(10 + 5) 47. the action being of.025 2.000 ampereturns of excitation required. page the wire. Art. and the edges can be slightly bevelled off so that the polar surface shall not exceed 66 sq. . it will be necessary to provide 2 sq. = 15 sq. and permit of the iron may ball being lifted armature is even when the contact between magnet and imperfect. say..240 X M required section of coil to accomodate the winding. in. in.D 2 = 66 It will be better to provide a 2in.000 amp. hole 9. will probably be large enough = = = 2. be kept within the limit of 3 in. The is therefore about 16 sq. This will probably permit the use of a current density of 1.16 in. if the winding space factor may be taken as 0. which includes a small allowance for the reluctance of the iron in the circuit. if possible.000 g where E is Assuming 1 this to the voltage across the terminals of the magnet. 26. the current will flow through the exciting coil during only half the time that the magnet is in action. 10. per square inch of copper section. of the inner core is obtained from the equation j . Thus.000. of crosssection of coil for every 1. (say) 8. The ampereturns necessary double air to overcome the reluctance of the gap are KS/).
the calculated size is 67 seen to be? only slightly less than the crosssection of No. Using this wire.2C.95 X 2.2 f. and allowing J^ in. and. and the amount of copper might even be slightly reduced if the greatest economy in manufacturing cost is to be attained.e.260. The watts lost in the field when the flowing are El = 120 X 2. it is necessary to estimate the amount of the leakage flux. there will be about 68 layers of 41 The length turns.6 ohms. Calculation of Leakage Flux. current is = 2. it is probable that the value of the coefficient k in this particular design might be about 150.800 turns in the coil. 12.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS Referring to the wire table on page 34. making a total of. The permeance of the leakage paths may be calculated by considering two separate components of the leakage flux: (1) the flux which passes between the core and the cylindrical shell through the space occupied by the windings.702 X 11 = 40. and (2) the flux which passes between the uncovered portions of the central core .. This figure is a safe one.6 = 2. above the temperature of the air. say. since the iron shell offers a large cooling surface in contact with the air. 47. 11 page 46.12 = 11. The current = 120/40. and assume that the power to be dissipated amounts to only 354/2 = 177 watts. 2.95 = 354. because the thickness and radiating surface of the external shell are factors which will have an appreciable influence on the value of the heating coefficient. The temperature of the windings will therefore not be excessive. at a temperature of 60C. The total surface of the coil is 47.000 ft. we can apply the rule referred to in Art. and if we use the average value of 180 for the heating coefficient k. will be 3. in. S. the temperature rise will be 180 X = 42. In order to provide sufficient crosssection in the magnet. as suggested in Art. and of wire will therefore be 2. i. for insulation begage.2(10 + 6) = 755 sq. and ensure that the flux density in the iron shall not be carried too near the saturation limit. 15. Exact data for the calculation of temperatures in coils entirely surounded by iron are not available..95 amp. but since the current is supposed to be passing through the windings during only onehalf the time that the magnet is in operation... B.800 X the resistance hot. and the actual ampereturns Rise of Temperature. & tween the iron and the coil.800 = 8.
200 gausses. 22..45  55 x = The flux through path m.45 2 ^ x ^  = 72 43. path y \ (1).240 = 824.4 = = leakage flux useful flux is 66 X 6. P = (1) is 2 X 7r(10 + 5) X 2 54 6.260 X 2 43.080.000 flux density in the cylindrical outer shell. X Pi ~ = and the flux X 72 374. 0.080.000 gausses in the yoke at the section AB.000 3.5 for path (2). D PI 2 = 3X?r(10 + 5) x 6.000 '+824. dimensions approximate the numerical. for the .000 maxwells.000 (2) is.45 whence AB = 1% in.000 X 1.000 is The $1 + $2 = X 7.m. but a higher density would be permissible. Referring to Fig.000 maxwells. The path In this manner the magnetic circuit may be proportioned.f. be 7. through path $2 = m. near the yoke.240 X 1.080.27 ~ABXirX10X 6. the thickness of the casting at this point. of the magnetic flux is indicated by the dotted lines in . upon which the of the leakage paths have been marked. and this will also be the density in the central pole if the crosssection is the same. if it is desired to have a density will The of 11. and the leakage factor is 3.m.080. and the outer approximately.27 = 9.45 total v XP X 8.f. values of the two permeances are seen to be.5 450. would be obtained from the equation 3.68 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN shell. The 3. as indicated by the length of the line AB. The section at every part of the magnetic circuit can be calculated on the basis of an assumed density. As an instance.
. turns are required to overcome the reluctance of the iron. A saving in copper rise to this may be effected by allowing the temperature approach as nearly as possible the specified limit. the total flux will be greater than the amount necessary to produce the required It is interesting and instructive to calculate the initial pull. The reluctance of the steel sphere which constitutes the armature would be considered negligible in these calculations. the that proper attention be paid to the cost of operation (in this case of the losses) when considering the expediency of lowering the manufacturing cost by econo demand PR mizing in materials. but in as in all economical designs of apparatus in which a saving accompanied by a in first cost is interests of the user loss of efficiency in working. and the calculation has to be made by assuming probable values of the flux density.240 gausses may be view to obtaining the design of lowest first cost.THE DESIGN OF ELECTROMAGNETS Fig. With reference to the important matter of cost. 69 and since the crosssection and length of each part of the magnetic circuit are now known. airgap densities tried with a other than the assumed density of 7. In a welldesigned magnet of this type. pull between magnet and armature when the air gap is practically The limit is reached when all the exciting amperenegligible. When the armature is in contact with the pole faces. unless the specified air gap is very small. 22. and then calculating the loss of magnetic potential across each portion of the circuit. the component of the total ampereturns necessary to overcome the reluctance of the iron or steel casting can be calculated in the usual way. the reluctance of the iron portions of the circuit is but a small percentage of the air gap reluctance.
instead of providing mechanical energy to drive the armature conductors through the magnetic field.f. by revolving in the magnetic field. the procedure is exactly the same as for a D.f. the direction of which is normal to the plane of the coil.CHAPTER IV DYNAMO DESIGN FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. The D. an electric current from an outside source is sent through the armature winding which. converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. 70 .C. Generation of E.m. how conductors to cut the magnetic flux which crosses the air gap from pole to armature core. motor is merely a dynamo of which the action has been reversed. causing the flow of electricity.m. and the next in the of the step development dynamo is to consider how the desired terminal voltage may be obtained by causing the armature 18. The quantity of electricity which will be set in motion is expressed by the formula consisting of S Let this coil ' R a relation that can be proved experimentally.C. or withdrawn from. Im and Em = the average value of the e. a magnetic field of density B gausses. Consider a flat coil of insulated wire of resistance R ohms. and in the following pages the dynamo will be thought of mainly as a generator. turns enclosing an area of A square centimeters. be thrust into. generator. But where t ozxt^ xt = = the time required to enclose or withdraw the flux (*BA).C. In the design of a D. the average value of the current in the coil during this period. BRIEF OUTLINE OF PROBLEM It has been shown in previous the and amount of the magnetic field chapters strength an electric current produced by may be calculated. motor. that is to say.
or. units.m. but it is hardly an exaggeration to say that apart from mechanical considerations.m. which all quantitative work in dynamo design is based.m. At any particular moment it is the rate of change of the flux in the circuit that determines the instantaneous value of the voltage. system of units. machines commutation.DYNAMO DESIGN Hence where 71 Fm E all = (BA) X8 we put <for the in the practical If quantities are expressed in absolute C. economy of material. and a sufficient crosssection of iron to carry the required flux. Consider a dynamo with any number of poles p. The procedure for obtaining a given amount of flux was explained in previous chapters. namely. There are other matters of importance such as regulation.f.f.S. that the flux is equal to the ratio of magnetomotive force to reluctance.G. 23 shows a fourpole machine with one faceconductor driven . efficiency. and express the e. in symbols.f. namely... the electrical part of the designer's work (37). consists in providing a sufficient crosssection of copper to carry the required current. and (2) the law of the generation of an e. which require careful study. and we now see that the voltage of any dynamoelectric generator may be calculated by applying formula For the rest. Fig. namely that one hundred million maxwells This is the fundamental law upon cut per second generate one volt. and in D.m. this formula is clearly seen to express the wellknown relation between rate of change of flux and resulting e. flux (BA) in maxwells. in order that the machine shall not heat abnormally under working conditions. that one hundred million lines cut per second generate one volt. which are not dealt with in this book the work of the designer of electrical machinery is based on two fundamental laws: (1) the law of the magnetic circuit. where the negative sign is introduced because the developed always tends to set up a current the magnetizing effect of which opposes the change of flux. we have volts (37) Em = ^ For the condition S = unity. instantaneous volts in circuit of one turn = d$ r. at X 10~ 8 e.C.f.
the generated volts will be _ ~ 60 This is *pNZ X pi X 10 8 the fundamental voltage equation for the dynamo. It is evident that this number includes not only the top conductors. The Output Formula. it gives the average value of the e. the e. The word "inductor" is sometimes used in the place of "face conductor. we may write. If $ stands for the amount of flux entering or leaving the armature surface per pole. developed in the armature conductors. the formula gives the actual potential difference as measured by a voltmeter across the terminals when no current is taken out of the armature. Under loaded as calculated conditions. N volts generated per conductor It is =  X 60 not at present necessary to discuss the different methods of winding armatures.72 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN revolutions per minute through the mechanically at a speed of flux produced by the field poles." and where either word is used in the following pages it must be understood to refer to the socalled "active" conductor lying parallel to the axis of rotation whether on a smooth core or slotted armature. The part of the dynamo to be designed first is the armature. 19. and since the virtual and average values are the same in the case of continuous currents.f. but let there be a total of Z conductors counted on the face of the armature. 23. by formula (38) is the terminal voltage plus the internal FIG. Then.m. After the preliminary dimensions of the armature have been determined. but also those that may be buried in the armature slots. IR pressure drop. if the connections of the individual coils are so made that there are p\ electrical circuits in parallel in the armature.f. it is a comparatively may . The expression "face conductors" be used to define the conductors the number of which is represented by Z in the voltage formula.m.
of poles. Many forms of the output formula are used by designers. formula is based on certain broad and is used for obtaining approximate dimenassumptions. however. a refinement which need not. as in getting out a line of stock sizes of some particular type of machine. which cannot be embodied in mathematical formulas. after all the influencing factors have been studied in detail. Sometimes the proper speed has to be determined by the designer. together with the current and e. The. to Attempts develop exact output formulas of universal application should not be encouraged because it is not The art of possible to include all the influencing factors. In developing an output formula it is not necessary to enter into details of the armature winding.f. number of armature inductors. are known. Let < = maxwells per = Z = EC = Ic = The output N p number total pole. of the armature. in that case he will be guided by the practice of manufacturers and the safe limits of peripheral speed. sparkless commutation of current. provided the total number of conductors. will be W = ZEdc (39) where I c should include the exciting current in the shunt coils of the field winding. Terminal voltage. enter in the preliminary work. The designer system to furnish the necessary usually given the following data : Kw. but if the designer can evolve a formula which will give him an approximate idea of the weight or volume of the armature. sions only. Modifications or corrections can easily be made later. designing will always demand individual skill and judgment. this will be of great assistance to him in determining the leading dimensions for a preliminary design.DYNAMO DESIGN simple matter to design a field is 73 magnetic flux. amperes per conductor.m. Speed revolutions per minute. output. may be imposed by specifications. revolutions per minute. expressed in watts. in each. Other conditions such as temperature rise. volts per conductor. pressure compounding. .
in inches. Thus ZI C q ~^D QTrD whence ZI C = Substituting in equation (42). A quantity which does not vary very much. is the specific loading. whatever the number which is of poles or diameter of armature. defined as the ampereconductors per inch of armature It will periphery. gap under the pole the ratio (Gausses. while by 6A5B g is the flux in the air gap per square inch of polar surface. in inches. be represented by the symbol q. Substituting for tion (41).Ur (41) Bg = = D r = la average flux density in the air face.74 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The voltage per conductor is where the unknown quantity 3> may be expressed density and armature dimensions. The pole pitch is usually thought of as the distance from center to center of pole measured on the armature surface. and the It will la be seen that the quantity X nDr is ratio r is of the therefore a factor by which the total cylindrical surface armature must be multiplied to obtain the area covered by the pole shoes the effect of " fringing" at the pole tips being neglected.45. pole arc j  r v pole pitch inches of the armature surface covered the area in square the pole shoes. we have _ 60 ae X 10 s E is from which it is necessary to eliminate Z and I e if the formula to have any practical value. diameter of armature core. $p in equation and putting (40) its value as given by equathis value of c in equation (39). we have (43) .) gross length of armature core. Thus in terms of flux $p = where 6.
which. and (2) excessive power loss in the teeth through hysteresis and eddy currents. depends upon the proportions quantities . the same quantity expressed approximately in lines per square inch. in turn. Bg q. The quantity Bg will If the flux density in the teeth is very slots. kw. provided the scientific principles. of the teeth and high. and r. this As a guide in calculations. APPROXIMATE VALUES OP APPARENT AIRGAP DENSITY Output. also upon the flux density in the pole armature teeth. can be correctly determined. selecting a suitable the gap density for the preliminary accompanying table may be used. . The column headed while B" Q is B g is the apparent airgap density in gausses.DYNAMO DESIGN This is 75 not an empirical formula since it is based on fundamental and it is capable of giving valuable information regarding the size of the armature core. to lead (1) an excessive number of ampereturns may on the field poles to overcome tooth reluctance. depend somewhat upon whether the is cast iron or shoe of steel.
APPROXIMATE VALUES OF q (Ampere Conductors per Inch of Armature Periphery) Kw. these steel or wrought iron.76 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Bg corresponding to the smaller outputs are required because the increased taper of the teeth with the smaller armature diameters would lead to abnormally high densities at the root if the airgap density were not reduced. The figures in table are to the machines with given applicable pole shoes of If the pole shoes are of cast iron. The quantity q in formula (43) is determined in the first place by the heating limits. output . Castiron pole shoes are rarely used except in very small machines. but armature reaction and spar kl ess commutation have some bearing upon its value. of the teeth values should be reduced about 20 per cent. Suitable values of specific loading for use in formula (43) may be taken from the accompanying table.
For a square pole face. or to directcoupled sets of which the prime mover is a highspeed engine or highhead waterwheel. provided the quantities represented by the symbols In order to determine the relaand r. (45) is The output equation (43) shows that there Relation of l a to D. while the higher values would be applicable to beltdriven dynamos. . When the generator is coupled to a steam turbine. the lower values corresponding to machines to make some assumptions which the speed of rotation is low.200 and 6 000 ft. output = la Dv .DYNAMO DESIGN If 77 the speed of rotation (N) is not specified. per minute. Bg where p = the number of poles. If the section of the pole core departs considerably from the circular or It is desirable to square section. q. and the surface velocity of the armature may then attain 2 or 3 miles per minute. a definite relation between the volume of the armature and the . certain further assumptions must be made. Thus. peripheral velocity in feet per minute is.. in so far as the electrical problems differ from those of the lowerspeed machines. This velocity lies between 1. tion between the length la and the diameter D. k = 1 and D y= La p TIT = lies 0. The of discussion of steamturbinedriven generators. output. the length per turn of field winding increases without a proportionate increase of the flux carried by the pole.45p (approximately) The ratio D/l a usually between the limits of 0. will The be taken up in connection with alternator design. it is necessary regarding the peripheral velocity of the armature. the speed is always exceptionally high. and k is the ratio  .65p. irDN whence Inserting this value of N in formula (44) we get kw.35p and 0.7 j fAa\ re have the pole face as nearly square as possible because this will lead to the most efficient field winding. can be estimated.
except for variations in the specific loading (q). The selection of a suitable number of poles will pitch. Pole Pitch. Number of Poles Pole Pitch Frequency.C. the diameter is readily calculated because D^> ~ 7TAT 20. resulting in poor regulation and good practical sparking at the brushes with changes of load. and therefore the peripheral velocity. reaction. are not known. in the space of one pole pitch. The frequency of currents in the armature conductors and of flux reversals in the armature core generally lies between 10 and 40 cycles per second in continuouscurrent generators. but should be avoided.78 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN It is not always possible or desirable to provide a square pole of the If and indeed it is necessary to check the dimensions armature core by calculating the peripheral velocity. The frequency is / V = ^ X Z N bU whence P = (47) This relation is useful for determining the probable number of poles when the diameter. For calcula ting the relation between the length and diameter of armature core by formula (46).. if possible. Exactly what is meant by the expression "ampereturns per pole" when applied to the armature winding should be clearly understood. a suitable value for the peripheral velocity can be assumed. or increased weight to limit these losses the use of high frequencies is uneconomical. With a large number of ampereturns per pole on the armature. Machines. face.000 per pole. the number of poles p must be known. because on account of increased losses in the iron. it is necessary to provide a correspondingly strong exciting field in order that the armature shall not overpower the field and produce excessive distortion of the airgap flux.e. be influenced by considerations of frequency and pole Frequency of D. Ampereturns on Armature. Higher frequencies are allowable. In a twopole . It The width will of the pole pitch is limited by armature readily be understood that the armature ampereturns per pole will be proportional to the pole pitch. i. rule is that the ampereconductors on the armature shall not A exceed 15.
we may say the ampereturns per pole are or just half the number of ampereconductors in a pole pitch. This rule applies also to the multipolar machines.m. datum line may be thought of as the developed dynamo armature. Armature m. Current distribution bipolar armature. permissible to these are approximately halfway between the pole tips. It is. the total number of ampereturns on the armature 79 is 7 SI = X g half of the l c because the current I c in Z ^ conductors on one armature surface is balanced by an equal but opposite FIG. Direction of Motion of Armature Surface FIG. 24. in Fig. 25. show the brushes in this diagram as if . multipolar dynamo. current in ^ conductors on the other half of the armature Zi surface. since there are two poles. Thus.DYNAMO DESIGN machine. as indicated in Fig. Now. The brushes are so placed on the commutator that they shortcircuit the coils when 25. 24. the horizontal surface of a fourpole therefore.f.
by (46) l = rirD ~w (SI) a be the armature ampere In order to eliminate D. whether the machine is bipolar or ing the diagram. and equal to onehalf the ampereconductors per pole pitch as will be readily understood by inspectThus.m. the armature multipolar. producing between the brushes belts of ampereconductors of opposite magnetizing effect. let Then = P <1 whence D = 2p(S/) a Trq la By get substituting these values for and D in equation (49) we P = kw. the maximum is allowable pole pitch = 20 in. output la = la Dv X B gqr X number 4 X 10~ n it is By eliminating arrive at an expression for the peripheral velocity and and D possible to of poles in terms of the other quantities for which values can .m. will always be a maximum at the point where the brushes are placed.. because the direction of the current in the conductors changes at this point. Its maximum positive value occurs at A and its maximum negative value at B. over the surface. Thus. . In its complete form it would be (49) kw. The broken straight line indicates the distribution of the armature m. 25. a safe limit for the pole pitch If q is is r r = i P\  = 750. The formula (45) gives the output in terms of Poles. turns per pole. The armature m.f. ampereturns per pole are (SI) a = ^ ampereconductors per pole pitch z> =f In practice. from the equation. be assumed. X rkq X 10 11 16rW<SJ)a . as indicated in Fig. of the peripheral velocity.80 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN they were actually in contact with the conductors on the "geometric neutral" line. These maximum ordinates are of the same height.f. which dimension Number written rarely exceeded in ordinary types of dynamos.
000 amp. amount will of the current to be collected from each brush This influence the selection of suitable values for k and (SI) a in formula (50). the estimated number and since an even number figure is 6 or 8. The proper number of poles is determined partly by. Values as high as 1.. As a guide in selecting a suitable number of poles for a preliminary design.0138 kw. the required would mean a change in one or more of the assumed quantities. per brush arm are used in connection with low. but.500 7. let the assumed values be as = = q r = v = Bg = (SI) a = k 1 650 0. of course.500 7. the machine of poles is is to have an output of 500 kw.DYNAMO DESIGN By assuming be obtained.7 4.voltage machines. It is based on the usual practice of manufacturers. of poles is necessary. NUMBER OP POLES AND USUAL SPEED Output. of the equation. the accompanying table may be of use. kw. follows. on machines wound for 250 to 500 volts. the set. the current collected per brush arm usually lies between the limits of 700 and 300 amp. LIMITS OF DYNAMOS . a reasonable figure for the 81 values for the quantities in the righthand side number of poles can As an example.500 The number of poles will then be p If = 0. This.
82
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
If the machine is driven by a highhead water turbine, or by an alternating current motor as in motorgenerator sets the speed would be somewhat higher, and the number of poles fewer, than the average figures as given in the above table.
When using this or any other table or data intended to assist the designer with approximate values, it is necessary to exercise judgment, or at least be guided by common sense. For instance
it
in the case of
be necessary to depart from the values given in the table machines directcoupled to slowrunning engines. This is especially worth noting in the case of the smaller machines, which may require more than four poles in order to
may
give the best results on very low speeds.
CHAPTER V
ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION
The object of this chapter is to explain 21. Introductory. the essential points which the designer must keep in mind when determining the number of slots, the space taken up by insulation, the crosssection of the
copper windings, and the method conductors so as to produce a finished armature suitable for the duty it has to perform. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the appearance of a D.C. machine
of connecting the individual
and understands generally the function of the commutator. For this reason it is proposed to omit such elementary descriptive matter as may be found in every textbook treating of electrical
machinery. On the other hand, the practical details of manufacture and much of the nomenclature used in the design room and shops of manufacturers will also be omitted, because
space does not permit of the subject being treated exhaustively; but if the reader will exercise his judgment and rely upon his common sense, he will be able to design a practical armature
winding to
fulfil any specified conditions. direction of the generated e.m.f. will depend upon the direction of the flux through which the individual conductor is
The
moving, and it is therefore a simple matter so to connect the armature coils that the e.m.fs. shall be additive. It does not matter whether the machine is bipolar or multipolar, ring or drumwound, it is always possible to count the number of conductors in series between any pair of brushes and thus make sure that the desired voltage will be obtained. Closedcoil windings will alone be considered, because the opencircuit windings as used in the early THOMSONHOUSTON machines and other generators for series arc lighting systems are now practically obsolete. Another type of machine, known as the homopolar or acyclic D.C. generator, although actually used and built at the present time, has a limited application and will not be considered here. The absence of the commutator is the feature which distinguishes this machine from the
83
84
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
1
more common types; but it is not suitable for high voltages, and the friction and PR losses in the brushes are very large. 22. Ring and Drumwound Armatures. The GRAMME ring winding is now practically obsolete. In this type of machine the coils form a continuous winding around the armature core which is in the form of a ring with a sufficient opening to allow
of the wires passing down the inside of the core parallel to the axis of rotation. The objections to this winding are the high
resistance
and reactance
of the
armature
coils
due to the large
proportion of the "inactive" material per turn. This has a bearing not only on the cost and efficiency of the machine but
also
on commutation, because the high inductance of the windis
ings
liable to cause
In the
drum winding
sparking at the brushes. all the conductors are on the outside
surface of the armature, and although space is usually provided, even in small machines, between the inside of the core and the
used for ventilating purposes only and is not occupied by the armature coils. The drum winding is simply the result of so arranging the end connections that the e.m.fs. generated in the various face conductors shall assist each other
shaft, this space is
in providing the total e.m.f. between brushes. Both windings, whether of the ring or drum type, are continuous and closed
upon themselves, and if the brushes are lifted off the commutator there will be no circulating currents because the system of conductors as a whole is cutting exactly the same amount of
positive as of negative flux. 23. Multiple and Series
Windings.
Nearly
all
modern
continuouscurrent generators are provided with formerwound coils. These coils are made up of the required number of turns,
and pressed into the proper shape before being assembled in the slots of the armature core. Smoothcore armatures are very rarely used, and the slotted armature alone will be considered. In all but twopole machines (which are rarely made except for
small outputs or exceptionally high speeds) there
only one type of
1
coil in
general use.
This
is
practically generally of the
is
of machine see "Acyclic E. NOEGGERATH, Trans. A. I. E. E., vol. XXIV (1905), pp. 1 to 18, and the article by the same writer, " Acyclic Generators," in the Electrical World, Sept. 12, 1908, p. 575. Also "Homo
For information on the homopolar type
J.
(Homopolar) Dynamos," by
polar Generators,
"
by E. W. Moss and
J.
MOULD, Journal
Inst. E. E., vol.
49 (1912), pp. 804 to 816.
ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION
85
The finished coil may consist of any shape shown in Fig. 26 number of turns, but as there are two coilsides in each slot, there will be an even number of inductors per slot. The portion of the armature periphery spanned by each coil is approximately
equal to the pole pitch r, because it is necessary that one coil side shall be cutting positive flux while the other coil side is If the two coil sides lie in slots exactly cutting negative flux.
FIG. 26.
Formwound armature
coil.
one pole pitch apart, the winding is said to be full pitch. If the width of coil is less than T, the winding is said to be short
pitch or chorded: The shortening of the pitch slightly reduces the length of inactive copper in the end connections. Some designers claim that it gives better commutation; but, on the
other hand,
tation,
it
and
it
reduces the effective width of the zone of commuhas a distinct is doubtful if either winding
advantage over the other. There are two entirely different methods of joining together
86
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
the individual coils. Thus, if the two ends of the coil shown in as in Fig. 26 are connected to neighboring commutator bars, Fig. 27a, we obtain a multiple or lap winding, while, if the ends are taken to commutator bars approximately two pole pitches
wave winding. The imapart, (Fig. 276), we obtain the series or of winding is the two these between distinction styles portant fact that, with the multiple winding, there are as many sets of
(a)
(b)
irc ,. N (Approximately) P
.
.
,
1
FIG. 27.
Multiple and series armature
coil connections.
brushes and as
many paralled paths through the armature as there
are poles while, with the series winding, there are only two electrical paths in parallel through the armature, and only two sets of
brushes are necessary, although a greater number of brush sets may be used. 1
1
What
are
known
windings
it is
may be used on lapwound machines when
as simplex windings are here referred to. the current
Multiplex
is
large
and
desired to have
sufficiently
In serieswound machines the multiple winding has the advantage that it enables the designer to obtain more than two circuits in parallel, but not as many as there are poles. In this manner it is possible to provide for a number of parallel paths somewhere between the limits set by the simplex wave and
lap windings respectively.
two or more separate circuits connected in wide brushes. This tends to improve commutation.
parallel
by
These windings
are,
however, rarely met with.
Again, a duplex winding may be singly reentrant or doubly reentrant. In the former case, the winding would close on itself only after passing twice
around the armature, while, in the latter case, there would be two independent windings. It is suggested that the reader need not concern himself with these distinctions, which have no bearing on the principles of armature design. More complete information can be found in many textbooks and in the handbooks for electrical engineers.
ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULA TION
The two kinds
Figs.
of
87
28 and 29.
winding are shown diagrammatically in The former shows a simplex lapwound
while the latter represents in a
multipolar
drum armature,
similar diagrammatic
manner a simplex wavewound multipolar
drum armature. In practice there would ordinarily be a greater number of coils and commutator bars, and the conductors would be in slots. This is indicated by the grouping of the conductors
FIG. 28.
Diagram
of simplex multiple winding.
in pairs, the evennumbered inductors being (say) in the bottom of the slot, with the oddnumbered inductors immediately
above them in the top
of the slot.
It should particularly be noted that the lap or multiple winding provides as many electrical circuits in parallel as there are
poles,
number
and the number of brush sets 'required is the same as the of poles. Thus if I is the current in the external circuit,
plus the small component required for the shunt field excitation, the current in the armature windings is I/p and the current
21
collected
by each
set of brushes is
88
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
In the case of the wave, or series, winding there will be two paths in parallel through the armature, whatever may be the number of poles. Two sets of brushes will, therefore, suffice
to collect the current; but more sets may be used if desired, in order to reduce the necessary length of the commutator. In
this case the brushes
would be placed one pole pitch apart around the commutator, and all brush sets of the same polarity would be joined in parallel. This does not, however, increase
FIG. 29.
Diagram
of simplex series winding.
number of electrical paths in parallel in the armature, but merely facilitates the collection of the total current, as will be understood by carefully studying the winding diagrams. The
the
winding is usually adopted when the voltage is high and the current correspondingly reduced it is, therefore, rarely necesWhen a greater sary to provide more than two sets of brushes.
series
;
number
it is
of brush sets is provided on a serieswound machine, not easy to ensure that the current will be equally divided between the various sets of brushes. What is known as selective
of lap and wave windings. This leads to sparking troubles unless ample brush surface is provided. each brush set collecting current in proportion to the conductance of the brush contact.ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION 89 commutation then occurs. however. but the length of the commutator must. of course. be increased to provide the brushcontact surface necessary for the proper The external appearance of the collection of the current. and series windings respectively is indicated by sketches parallel and of The observer is supposed to be looking (a) Fig. whether the coils are connected to form a multiple or a series winding. If there are two coil sides in each slot. the number of commutator bars will be the same as the number of armature slots. The fact that there may be only two sets of brushes on a multipolar armature. 30. dynamo does not necessarily indicate a wavewound The commutators of lapwound machines are some times provided with an internal system of crossconnections whereby all commutator bars of the same potential are joined Appearance together. It is. by no means necessary to limit the . This allows of only two sets of brushes being used. (6) down on the cylindrical surface of the finished armature.
and even when the unbalancing effect is small in a new machine. which being The "dead" coil is put 1 will give a wave winding. Fig. but it is not connected up. the total number of coils (and commutator segments) will be 145. The use of dead coils should be avoided as it adds to the difficulties of + commutation. and a correspondingly greater number of commutator bars can be used. and this leads to the rule that a serieswound machine must have a number of commutator segments such as to fulfil the condition: Number in of commutator segments wavewound machine } J . . 31 is a developed view of a fourpole winding. there will be an unbalancing of the generated e. as the total may slot insulation. Suppose that the section A of the armature winding is nearer to the The voltage generated in the conpole face than the section C.90 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of be subdivided. With a serieswound armature. By having one dummy or "dead" coil. the magnetic circuits of the various parallel paths in the lap are not of equal reluctance.fs. it does not follow that it will accommodate a wave winding suitable for all Thus. Equalizing Connections for Multiplewound Armatures. The inequality of the magnetic permeances is usually due to excentricity of the armature relatively wound dynamo to the bore of the poles. slots. it is liable to increase owing to wear of the bearings. 24.m. it may be necessary to have two coils (or four coilsides) per slot in order to obtain the necessary voltage and avoid too great a difference of This means that the number potential between adjacent commutator bars. of coils and of commutator segments would be 146. equal to (48 X %) in for appearance and to balance the armature. which would not be suitable for a wave winding. producing circulating currents through the brushes. the number of commutator bars cannot be a multiple of the number of poles. without modification.p ~ 2 where k If is 1 any whole number. ductors occupying the latter position will be less than in the 1 Although an armature may be provided with an odd number of slots. This point will be again referred to when treating of the of inductors in slot number number commutator bars to the number each of slots. The winding must advance or retrogress by one commutator bar when it has been once around the armature. because this would lead to a closed winding after stepping once around the armature periphery. if a sixpole machine has 73 armature voltages.
To prevent the inequality of voltage in the sparking of the trouble different sections of the windings it is necessary to go to the root and correct the differences in the reluctance of the various magnetic paths. by providing ~T . The net result will be a strengthening of the current leaving the machine at one set of brushes and a corresponding weakening of the current at the other set of brushes.ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION 91 conductors moving through the region A. always be ac complished perfectly or in a lasting manner. but. This cannot. This unbalancing of the current may lead to serious troubles. however. The result will be a tendency for a current to circulate in the path AECF as indicated by the dotted arrows.
but also upon such factors as the number of slots and their crosssection and proportions. About the same amount of insulation as will be necessary for the slot linings will also have to be provided between the upper and lower coilsides in each slot. the total depth of slot including space for binding wires or wedge would be from two and onefourth times to two and onehalf times the width. the larger number amount of insulation.92 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN winding because. the square coil would give the best winding space factor. it may be stated that it is usual to design the slot with parallel sides and make the slot width from 0.. of slots will naturally require the greater and thus reduce the space available for copper. onehalf the pitch) on the armature surface. The space occupied by insulation relatively to the total space available for the winding will depend not only upon the voltage of the dynamo. because the potential difference between the two sets of conductors in the slot is the same as that between the terminals of the machine. while a deep slot is undesirable on account of increased inductance of the windings. but this ratio should not exceed 3J^ because the design would be uneconomical. . In large machines the ratio especially in small machines.e. tooth width 1S frecuentl about LL . Thus if each of the two coilsides were made of square crosssection. In practice the slot depth is frequently three times the width. Again. section With the ordinary doublelayer winding. It is very common to make slot and tooth width the same (i. may be the cause of unduly high densities in the teeth.4 to 0. The difference of potential between the winding as a whole and the armature core may. a wide slot. Although the calculation of flux densities in the teeth will be dealt with later. and the high inductance of the winding might lead to commutation difficulties. and the slot lining must be designed to withstand this pressure with a reasonable factor of safety.6 times the slot pitch. even in machines of large output. however. be very great on highvoltage machines. the voltage generated per turn of wire is comparatively small. and because it may lead to an appreciably reduced iron section at the root of the tooth in armatures of small diameter. Even if the total slot area remains constant. by reducing the tooth width. What has been referred to as the slot pitch may be defined as .
1 The word coil as here used denotes the number of turns included between the tappings taken to commutator bars. Again. and approximately equal to 1 sq.000 amp. two coilThere is. however. i. six. In highspeed machines with large pole pitch. we may speak of four. and that there shall be at least three and onehalf slots in the space between pole tips. with a in lowspeed maximum of four or five of dynamos for high voltages. conductors per slot for machines up to 600 volts. . from 14 to 18 slots per pole would usually be provided. but if tappings are taken from the ends so as to divide the complete coil in two or more sections electrically. In practice onehalf the number of conductors in a slot might be taped up together and handled as a single coil. in. there will be appreciable eddycurrent loss in the pole pieces on account of the tufting of the flux lines at the tooth top.e. pulsations of flux in the magnetic circuit are more liable to be of appreciable magnitude with few than with many teeth. the crosssection of the slot is about constant.. no reason why the number sides in each slot. mutator bars may therefore The number be a multiple of the number com of slots. This corresponds to about 1. of teeth obvious that a small would lead to a reduction of space taken up by insulation and. Potential Difference 27. or more coil sides in a single slot. and when the tooth pitch is wide in relation to the space between pole tips. usual number of commutator segments per slot is from one to B three in lowvoltage machines. In this case there will be one coil per slot. show that there are many points in favor of a large number of number teeth. With the exception of small generators (machines with armatures of small diameter). armature surface periphery divided 93 by the total number 26. on the basis of the current densities to be discussed later. however. notwithstanding the fact that these may be bunched together and treated as a unit when placing the finished coils in position. Machines may be built with a number of commutator bars equal to the number of slots in the armature core. in the cost of manufacture. cal rule is that the number of slots per pole shall not be less than 10. of slots. would lead also to a saving Other considerations. Number of Commutator Segments between Segments. The of coils 1 should not be greater than the number of slots. commutation becomes difficult because of the variation of airgap A good practireluctance in the zone of the commutating field. Unless the air gap is large relatively to the slot pitch.ARMA TV RE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULA TION the quotient. generally speaking. It is Number of Teeth on Armature.
and upon the position of the armature coil under con between neighboring bars. but increases the A large number of bars improves cost of the machine. it follows that the potential difference be . a large diameter of commutator is necessary in order that the individual sector shall not be too thin. not exceed 25 volts. although few designers appear to the pay much attention to the influence of the current in determining number of commutator segments. increasing to J^o in. Machine voltage Volts between commutator segments 1 110 220 GOO 1. between adjacent and the average voltage should be considerably lower than this. In practice the allowable average voltage between commutator bars is based upon the machine voltage and. for machines of 1. The best way to determine the proper number of commutator bars for a particular design of dynamo is to consider the voltage This voltage is variable. It follows that a commutator with a very number of segments is less easily assembled and less satislarge mechanical standpoint than one with fewer the from factory m  segments. it may be stated that the value of 15 volts (average) between segments should not be exceeded in machines without About double this value is permissible as an upper interpoles.5 to 10 5 9 to 18 to 25 Nature and Thickness of Slot Insulation.94 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN commutation. limit on machines with commutating interpoles. the following values may be used for the purpose of deciding upon a suitable number of coils and commutator bars. usually about J^2 thick. The copper bars are insulated from each other by mica. especially if they are provided with compensating poleface windings which prevent the distortion of flux distribution under load. to some extent. The average voltage between bars may be defined as the potential difference between and brush sets divided by the number of commutator + segments counted between the brushes of opposite sign.200 to 6 2. As a rough guide. sideration. Since the average voltage between the terminals of an armature coil does 28. upon the kilowatt output. and depends upon the distribution of the magnetic flux over the armature surface. As an aid to design.000 volts and upward. The maximum potential difference commutator bars rarely exceeds 40 volts.
Cotton braiding is sometimes used on large conductors of rectangular section. This can. Cloth. cotton tape is used in place of the varnished insulation. but it is not suitable for insulating corners or surfaces of irregular shape. Linseed oil is very commonly used in the preparation of these insulating cloths and tapes because it has good insulating properties and remains flexible for a very long time. Vulcanized Fiber. Pressboard. a substantial thickness of insulation must be provided between the armature core and the winding as a whole. and a silk covering is used on very small wires where a saving of space may be effected and an economical design obtained notwithstanding the high A triple cotton covering is occasionally price of the silk covering. Presspahn. In addition to the comparatively small amount of insulation on the wires. The materials used for slot lining are: 1. are good insulators. Mica Paper or Cloth. Micanite. These materials and the pure mica or the micanite sheet will withstand high temperatures. and the reader . covering of cotton tape put on when the coil is being wound. however. Leatheroid or Fish Paper. When Fig. especially when moisture is present. The copper conductors are usually insulated with cotton spun upon the wire in two layers. Sheet micanite is built up of small pieces of mica split thin and cemented together by varnish. etc. used when the potential difference between turns exceeds 20 Conductors of large crosssection may be insulated by a volts. this is done.ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION tween the conductors in one 95 coil cannot be very high. 32 shows a typical slot lining for a 500volt winding. etc. Manilla Paper. being tough and strong. The finished sheet is subjected to great pressure at high tem2. peratures in order to expel the superfluous varnish.. It is common practice to impregnate the finished armature coil with an insulating compound. be modified in many respects. ordinary untreated fairly high temperature. and press it into shape at a 3. Mica. such as Varnished Cambric. Empire These provide a means of applying a good insulating protection to coils of irregular shape. Horn Fiber. are used mainly as a mechanical protection because they are more or less hygroscopic and cannot be relied upon as highpressure insulators. Treated Fabrics. Mica is hard and affords good protection against mechanical injury. all of which.
for every additional working pressures above 500 volts. of one side only. in.I. . The insulation be may placed around the individual coils. In highvoltage machines an air space is sometimes allowed between the end connections.E.e. For For For For machines machines machines machines up up up up to 250 volts to 500 volts to 1.010" before the coils are inserted. % in. 32. Braiding or Tape on. to0. in.06 075 .007" the form of a slot lining. Current Density in Armature Conductors. It is obvious that the insulation should be so arranged as to leave the greatest possible amount of space for Hard Wood Wedge the copper. part of the insuCotton Tape. i. Empire xJloth or Micanite to lation may be put around the Total Radial Thickness about 0. of 0. and this is also the thickness that should be provided between the upper and lower coil sides in the slot.030" coils and the remainder in ^Cotton Covering. Insulation of conductors in slot. add 500 volts. call for a test pressure of twice the normal pertern voltage plus 1. . The standardization rules of the A.E. Thick The following figures FIG. in.013"Single Thicknesji essential thing is to have \PreBspahTi or Fish Paper Dividing Strip.000 volts..000 volts to 1. is missible current density in the armature coils limited The by . 29. in.. This air clearance would be from J^ in.500 volts 035 045 0. a breakdown of insulation % at this point is lining to project at least usually guarded against by allowing the slot For in. In regard to the surface leakage where the coils pass out from the slots.000 volts.020" ered wires and the sides of the slot.OJO'Thick sufficient thickness of insula tion between the cottoncov aper at Bottom of Slot about 0. The . the portions of the coils not to included in the slots. with an addition of J^ in. The finished armature should withstand certain test pressures Y to ensure that the insulation is adequate. for every 500 volts. or in the slot (Slot Lfning of Pressabout 0. beyond the end of the slot. may be used in determining the necessary thickness of slot lining. These figures give the thickness. 'Spahn (Thick If preferred. of about O. in inches. Conductors. for a difference of potential of 1.PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN need not at present concern himself with practical details of manufacture.
of the end connections s of the armature core 6. and the writer proposes the following formula for use in deciding upon a suitable current density in the armature winding: q 3 where A stands for amperes per square inch of copper crossand v is the peripheral velocity in feet per minute.e. say. Length and Resistance of Armature Winding. the slot width. the sketch actually represents and the coils laid out flat. resistance drop and the PR losses in the armature can be calcusection. and a large amount of the heat to be dissipated from the armature core is caused by the iron loss which.ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION 97 perature rise. the additional cooling effect due to the movement through the air will be some function of the peripheral velocity. per square inch.000 ft. 7 s. for speeds up to about a mile a minute the permissible increase of current or. i. 33. above the room temperature. If rest. depends upon the flux density in teeth and core.. after a fullload run of sufficient duration to attain very nearly the maximum temperature. and (2) the end connections. per minute density will be approximately proportional to the increase in speed. lated. The hottest accessible part of the armature. is sin" 1 +d = where clear the slot pitch. q. Before the 30. since the pitch of the coil is measured on the circumference of the armature core. the armature were at the permissible current density would be approximately inversely proportional to the specific loading. in turn. When the armature is rotating. it is necessary to estimate the length of wire in a coil. No definite rules can be laid down in the matter of armature conductor section because the ventilation will be better in some designs than in others. and. The appearance of the end connection is generally as shown in Fig. This length may be considered as made up of two parts: (1) the "active" part. The current density in the armature windings generally lies between the limits of 1.500 and 3. should not be more than 40 or 45C. The angle a which the straight portion makes with the edge X is before springing into the slots. to the ampereconductors per inch of armature periphery. 6. The constants for use in an empirical formula expressing these relations are determined from tests on actual machines. being the straight portion in the slots.000 amp. and * any necessary .
in machines for pressures between 500 and 1. increasing to 1 in. 33.000 volts. The length of the is straight part AC BA (Fig. The total length of coil outside the slots of a lowvoltage armature will therefore be (52) where r must be taken to represent the if coil pitch instead of the pole pitch the winding is of the chorded or shortpitch type. portion of the end connections between the end of the and the beginning of the straight portion AC is about in. . The allowance for the loop where the coil is bent over to provide for the lower half slot The % of the coil clearing the upper layer of conductors will depend upon the depth of the coilside and therefore upon the depth of the slot. ance between the This clearance need be provided only in highpressure machines. If d is the total slot depth. an allowance equal to 2d will be sufficient for this loop.98 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN coils. in lowvoltage machines. End connections of armature coil. in inches. 33) is COS a where BA half the coil pitch. or when it is desired to improve ventilation. the angle a may be calculated from the relation sm a 1.15s = ___ lies In practice the angle a usually between 35 and 40 degrees. For approximate calculations on machines up to 600 volts. A ri FIG. or ~ in the case of a fullpitch winding.
1 PR dynamo dynamo dynamo dynamo dynamo dynamo dynamo 3 1 to 3 8 per 2 6 to 3 2 per 2 4 to 3 2 per 2. . In 200kw. It is not much used . where the manner of calculating the length of these end connections is explained. may now be In arriving at the resistance of the armature readily calculated. cent. cent. . as a whole it is important to note carefully the number of coils in series in each armature path. A small addition should be made for the connections to the commutator. and the number of paths in As a check on parallel between the terminals of the machine. expressed as a percentage of the terminal voltage or of the rated output. or the loss. 1 per cent. 1 . to 2. . 1. cent. and there fore of each electrical path through the armature. but those interested in the matter are referred " to the first volume of "The Dynamo by HAWKINS and WALLIS ( WHITTAKER & Co.8 to 2. 1 The resistance of each coil.ARMATURE WINDINGS AND SLOT INSULATION + is 99 l e where la The average length per turn of one coil will be 2la the gross length of the armature core. the In 10kw. in the armatures of commercial machines. In 30kw. In 1000kw.9 There is another type of end connection. . cent. In 500kw. 1 to 2 . cent.). as the case may be. In 50kw. IR drop. especially if the coil has few turns.8 per 2 to 2 6 per . . . . . is usually as stated below: the calculated figures. known as the involute end winding.0 per cent. In 100kw.
Hysteresis The loss watts per pound = KhB 1 */ where KH is magnetic qualities of the the hysteresis constant which depends upon the iron. Since this flux enters the iron in a direction normal to the plane of the laminations it is sometimes accountable for quite appreciable losses. results in the case of transformers. and moreover there are many causes leading to losses in builtup armature cores which cannot easily be calculated. watts per pound = K 2 e (Bft) where which losses t is is With the thickness of the laminations. The symbols B and / stand as before for the flux density and the frequency. and Eddycurrent Losses in Armature Stampdue to hysteresis in iron subjected to periodical reversals of flux may be expressed by the formula. 31. but when the reversals of flux are due to a rotating magnetic field. the losses do not follow the same laws as when the flux is simply alternating. as in dynamoelectric machinery. Some flux enters the armature at the two ends and also into the sides of the teeth through the spaces provided for ventilation. An approximate expression for the loss due to in eddy currents laminated iron is. the aid of such formulas. and e is a constant proportional to the electrical conductivity of the iron. These additional losses include eddy currents due to burrs on the edges of stampings causing metallic contact in the between adjacent plates. the hysteresis and eddycurrent K can be calculated separately and then added together to This method will give good give the total watts lost per pound. There are also eddy currents produced armature stampings due to the fact that the flux cannot everywhere be confined to a direction parallel to the plane of the laminations.CHAPTER VI LOSSES IN ARMATURES VENTILATION TEMPERATURE RISE ings. For these reasons calculations 100 .
the total iron loss per drawn books of cycle be considered constant at all frequencies. The curve gives average losses in commercial armature iron stampings 0. Such tests are made at different frequencies. By taking pains in assembling the stampings to avoid burrs and shortcircuits between adjacent plates. total iron loss may be considerably reduced. thick. electrical engineers for useful data of this sort. plotted in graphical form. of silicon in the manufacture of the material known as silicon steel has given us a material in which not only the hysteresis. 34.LOSSES IN ARMATURES of core losses should be based 101 on the results of tests conducted with builtup armatures rotated in fields of known strength. but for approximate calculations of core losses. and values obtained from Fig. and for silicon steel (a more material than the ordinary iron plates) the reduction may costly be as much as 70 per cent. and the introduction of 3 to 4 per cent. it is necessary to consider the teeth independently of the section below the teeth. it is suggested that the values obtained from Fig. and the results. This has been done in Fig. the losses will usually be less than would be indicated by Fig. the In large machines. Great improvements in the magnetic qualities of dynamo and transformer iron have been brought about during the last 20 years. . 34 may be reduced as much as 50 per cent. There are great variations of quality in armature stampings. have been very considerably lowered. a separate curve being The reader is referred to the handfor each frequency. give the total watts lost per pound of iron stampings at different flux densities. 34 would not be sufficiently reliable for the use of the commercial designer of any but small machines.014 in. This is because the flux density in the teeth is not the same as that in the body of the armature. but also the eddycurrent losses. 34 which is based on experiments conducted by MESSRS. with a surface which is small in proportion to the volume. In the absence of reliable tests on machines built with a may particular quality of iron punchings. When calculating the watts lost in the armature core. PARSHALL and HOBART and confirmed lately by PROFESSORS ESTERLINE and MOORE at Purdue University. in cases where extra care and expense with a view to re ducing losses are justified. This assumption allows of a single curve being plotted to show the connection between watts lost per pound and the product kilogausses X cycles per second.
and. this assumption is very commonly made. the flux density may be calculated by dividing half the total flux per pole by the net crosssection of the armature core below the teeth. A reference to Fig. for the purpose of estimating the rise in temperature. 34 will give . Although incorrect.102 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The is calculation of the watts lost in the core below the teeth a simple matter provided the assumption can be made that all the flux density has the same value at points of the section midway between poles.
width of tooth at center. The question of vent ducts will be taken up immediately. X t ln = = = = r = tooth pitch. Thus. The tooth density depends upon the maximum value is of the airgap * density sity which is here supposed to be given giv by the expression where la the gross length of the armature core. <1>A on the assumptions if previously made. The length l n is simply the gross length of the armature core less the space taken up by ventilating ducts and insulation between armature stampings.m.92(L  I. the net = 0. For the purpose of estimating the temperature rise. the average " section will be used for calculating the apparent" flux density. are not of uniform section throughout their length. net length of iron in armature. of the total space. therefore. the watts lost in the teeth per TTltn r gausses the dimen By pound referring to the curve of iron can be found. even when a suitable allowance has been made for the spaces between the assembled sections of the armature core. a further correction must be made to allow for the thin paper or other insulation between the stampings.LOSSES IN ARMATURES in the teeth will 103 be again referred to when discussing the m. if la is armature length of and l v the total width the armature core would be core. to necessary provide the required flux. and formulas will be use in calculating the actual flux density in the for developed iron of the teeth. pole arc ratio pole pitch then the number of teeth under each pole is r r A and the flux per $A tooth is The flux density in the tooth. ln of all the gross length of the vent ducts. but.) if the space occupied 1 by the insulation between laminations is 8 per cent. let $ = T the total flux per pole. we shall assume that the whole of the flux from each pole enters the armature through the teeth under the pole (the effect of fringing at pole tips being neglected) and if the teeth .f. The space taken up by this insulation will vary between 7 and 10 per cent. . pole pitch. be sions are expressed in centimeters. Thus. 1 Fig. 34. would.
UPPER LIMITS OP FLUX DENSITY IN DYNAMO ARMATURES (GAUSSES) Frequency. It is desirable to have a high flux density in the teeth because this " leads to a stiff er" field and reduces the distortion of airgap flux distribution caused by the armature current.f.m. but in this case the total weight of iron is relatively small. the losses will be excessive. flux density in the core if the frequency is also high. another disadvantage being the large magnetizing force necessary to overcome the reluctance of the teeth and slots. in the shortcircuited coils under the brush. Better pressure regulation is thus obtained. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Usual Densities and Losses in Armature Cores. / . If the density in the teeth is forced to very high values. The same may be said of the tooth density. especially The accompanying table gives flux densities in teeth and core that are rarely exceeded in ordinary designs of continuouscurrent machines.104 32. The below the teeth will be determined by considerations of heating and efficiency. and higher densities are permissible. especially on machines without interpoles where the fringe of flux from the leading pole tip is used for reversing the e. and also improved commutation.
body of the armature. but of sufficient strength to resist crushing or bending.. but when a large of cool air is passed over a heated surface. and allow the air to pass outward by providing a number surface of the armature. the outer cylindrical surface of the armature is effective in getting rid of a . and does not compensate for the necessary increase in gross length of armature. A narrower opening is liable to become choked up with dust or dirt. be kept within safe limits. but. it will effectually reduce the temperature which may. Still air is volume The rotation of the armature of an electric generator will produce a draught of air which may be sufficient to carry away the heat due to PR and hysteresis losses without the aid of a blower or fan. Radial ducts are .LOSSES IN ARMATURES 33. they are so spaced as to coincide with the center of each tooth. The ventilating plates usually consist of iron stampings similar in shape to the armature stampings. of small openings on the cylindrical Openings must also be provided between the shaft and the inside bore of the armature through which the cool air may be drawn to the radial ventilating ducts. The width of these ventilating spaces (measured in a direction parallel to the axis of in. Selfventilating machines are less common at the present time than they were a few years ago. a very poor conductor of heat. Radial spacers of no great width. Recent improvements in have been machinery mainly along the lines dynamoelectric of providing adequate means by which the heat due to power losses in the machine can be carried away at a rapid rate. by this means. while the gain due to a wider opening is very small. by providing a sufficient number of suitably proportioned air ducts in the. provided by inserting special ventilating plates at intervals of 2 to 4 in. thus increasing the maximum output from a given size of frame. their function being similar to that of the vanes in a centrifugal fan. Ventilation 105 of Armatures. but thicker. The radial spacers on the ventilating plates assist the passage of the air through the ducts. Apart from the ventilating ducts. % % are riveted to the flat plates. machines of moderate size may still be built economically without forced ventilation. or more than in. in machines rotation) is rarely less than without forced ventilation. and so dividing the armature core into sections around which the air can circulate.
When forced ventilation is adopted whether with radial or axial vent ducts it is possible to design the fans they the will otherwise offer too will also and or blowers to pass a given number of cubic feet of air per second. For this reason. which is a poor conductor As a rough approximation. and the higher the peripheral velocity of the armature. radial vent ducts. One advantage of axial ducts which. When axial air ducts are provided. especially when the axial length of the armature is great. air. and the gross length of the through armature plates which. the better will be the cooling effect. When the cooling is by radial ducts. These openings may be circular in section and should preferably not be less than 1 in. because holes The ventilation is punched in the much resistance to the passage of be liable to become stopped up with dirt. and the quantity can readily be checked by tests on the finished machine. the reader is referred to other . in diameter. The design of such blowers does not it come within the scope of this book.106 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN large amount of heat. however. which is a good heat conductor. When forced ventilation is adopted. For a more complete study of this problem. can only be used with forced ventilation is that the heat from the body of the armature can travel more easily to the surface from which the heat is carried away than in the case of radial ducts. but also through the paper or other insulation between laminations. between vent ings The coefficients for use in calculating temperature rise are based on data obtained from actual machines. to be effectual. when assembled. armature may therefore be reduced. it may be said that the of heat. This may asthe action of radial ventilating ducts. the heat due to the hysteresis and eddycurrent losses in the core must travel not only through the iron. must be provided at frequent intervals. will provide a number of longitudinal openings running parallel with the armature conductors. neither is possible to discuss at length the whole subject of ventilation and temperature rise. a fan or centrifugal blower be provided at one end of the armature. the may sist radial ventilating spaces are omitted. or it may draw air through axial ducts. thermal conductivity of the assembled armature stampings is fifty times greater in the direction parallel to the plane of the laminations than in a direction perpendicular to this plane. The thickness of any one block of stampradial ducts rarely exceeds 3 in. and owing to variations in design and proportions they are at the best unreliable.
required to drive the ventilating fan is not very as it depends upon the velocity of the air estimated easily the through passages. ft. will 107 A very good treatment of the subject be found in Chaps. if the difference in temperature between the outgoing and incoming air is not to exceed 19C.000 watts. The surface temperature is actually of little importance and is no indication of the efficiency of a machine. 1.. It usually lies between 40 and 50C. Cooling Surfaces and Specifications for electrical Temperature Rise of Armature.500 watts. As a very rough guide to the power required to drive the ventilating fans. 3. per minute. 1 the heat A is good practical rule for estimating the quantity of essary to carry away based on the fact that a flow of 1 cu. For 1. with higher velocities the friction loss might be excessive.000kw. The permissible rise of temperature over that of the surrounding air will depend upon the room temperature.536 at the heat watts. of Dynamoelectric Ma . of air per minute for each kilowatt of air per lost in the machine. by keeping the surface temperature below a specified limit.000 to 4. when forced ventilation ft. GREEN & Co. 34. dynamo. machinery usually state that the temperature rise of any amount after a fullload accessible part shall not exceed a given run of about 6 hr. 50kw. dynamo.000 ft. per minute and should preferably not exceed 5. used minute will T where T is the rate of 0.000 ft.LOSSES IN ARMATURES sources of information. see that ventilating ducts or surfaces are provided at sufficiently frequent intervals to allow of the heat 1 chinery. The velocity of the air through the ducts The power and over the cooling surfaces is usually from 2. the internal temperatures are not likely to be excessive. away carry number of degrees Centigrade by which the temperature of the air has been increased while passing over the heated surfaces." MILES WALKER: " Specification. but. the following figures may be useful: 300 watts. For For 400kw. duration. Thus. it will be necessary to provide at least 100 cu. and the durability of the insulation upon which the life of the machine is largely dependent will thereby be ensured. dynamo. IX and Xof PROFESSOR MILES WALKER'S air necis recently published book on dynamoelectric machinery. and Design LONGMANS. The designer must. however.
0042 Presspahn The maximum temperatures may to which insulating materials be subjected should not exceed the following limits: Asbestos Mica (pure) 500C. tightly air spaces) wrapped (no 0. conductivity" express the heat flow in watts per square inch of crosssection for a difference of in. across laminations (8 per cent. Material Thermal conductivity Steel punchings. along laminations Steel punchings. it may be assumed that the temperature rise of the end connections will . Empire cloth. and of the combinations of these materials.108 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN being carried away without requiring very great differences of temperature between the internal portions of the material where the losses occur and the surfaces in contact with the air. Temperature Rise of Selfventilating Machines. In calculating the losses and the cooling surfaces of the armature.0031 to 0. 1. empire cloth. . 1C.6 paper insulation) Pure mica Builtup mica 038 0091 0. 90 to 95C. between parallel faces 1 apart. must be known before accurate calculations can be made on the internal temperatures.0063 0. but. The thermal conductivity of all materials used in construction. we shall assume that the current density in the conductors has been so chosen that the end connections will not be appreciably hotter than the armature as a whole. 500C. If ventilating ducts are provided at sufficiently frequent intervals to ensure that the internal temperatures will not be greatly in excess of the surface temperatures. cotton covering. 29. and similar materials more more 130C. it is merely nec essary to see that the cooling surface is sufficient to dissipate the watts lost in the iron and copper of the armature. leatheroid. If this density does not exceed the value as calculated by formula (51) of Art. 125 to or or Micanite Presspahn.0026 . the following figures The figures in the column headed "Thermal are of interest. as an indication of how the insulation tends to prevent the passage of the heat to the cooling surfaces. insulating tape.
LOSSES IN ARMATURES
not exceed 40C., and the watts to be dissipated surfaces of the armature core will consist of:
1.
109
by the
cooling
2.
The hysteresis and eddycurrent losses in the teeth. The hysteresis and eddycurrent losses in the core below
the teeth.
3.
The
PR
losses in the
"active" portion of the armature
winding. All these losses can be calculated in the
explained. the total
manner previously
The copper
loss
PR
be taken into account is not in the armature winding, but is this total loss
loss to
2i a
multiplied
by the
ratio
?
, &i a
?
7
*>e
where
la
is
the gross length of
~T~
the armature core, and le is the length of the end connections of one coil, as calculated by formula (52) of Art. 29.
The
various cooling surfaces
may
and the watts carried
independently. be divided into:
1.
away from
cooling
be considered separately, each surface computed
The
total
surface
may
conveniently
outside cylindrical surface of the (revolving) armature. inside cylindrical surface over which the air passes before entering the radial cooling ducts.
2. 3.
The The
The
entire surface of the radial
ventilating ducts,
and
the two ends of the armature core.
The cooling effect of the external surface at the two ends of the armature core is generally similar to that of the radial ventilating spaces, and it is convenient to think of the two end rings as being equivalent to an extra duct. Thus, in Fig. 35, the
number
of ducts
is
shown
7T
as five,
2
and the cooling surface
of each
duct (both sides)
is
^ z (D
d 2 ).
The
calculations
If
would be
made on
the assumption that there are six ducts.
the
number
of radial vent ducts provided is n, the total cooling surface of the ducts and the two ends of the armature will be
as TrDla
of the
outside cylindrical surface of the armature will be taken where la is the gross length, no deduction being made for the space taken up by the vent ducts. The cooling surface
,
The
end connections beyond the core
is
not taken into account.
is irdla .
The area
of the inside cylindrical surface
110
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
dissipated
The watts
by the
cylindrical cooling surfaces
1 ' 500
may
be calculated by the formula
w
where
TAf 1A
\
*
100,000
W = the watts dissipated.
T =
A =
v
the surface temperature rise in degrees Centigrade. the cooling area in square inches. the peripheral velocity in feet per minute.
is
=
This formula
generally similar to one proposed
some years
ago by DR. GISBERT KAPP.
If w c is a cooling coefficient representing the watts that can be dissipated per square inch of surface for 1C. difference of temperature, we have
Wc=
and the temperature
rise will
1,500
+v
,_..
100,000
be
T =
where
the cooling surface A. The watts dissipated
W
wA
c
W stands for the watts that have to be dissipated through
by the
air
ducts and end surfaces
may
be calculated by the formula
where W, T, and
A
have the same meaning as
before, but v*
stands for the average velocity of the air through the ducts in feet per minute. This velocity is very difficult to estimate in the case of selfventilating machines, but the constant in the
formula has been selected to give good average results if Vd is taken as onethird of the peripheral velocity of the armature. If Wd is a cooling coefficient representing the watts that can be dissipated per square inch of duct surface for each degree
Centigrade
rise of
temperature,
we have
106^55
(56)
Wd
=
and the temperature
rise of
the vent duct surfaces will be
where
W stands for the watts that have to be dissipated through
the surface of area A.
LOSSES IN ARMATURES
for
111
Example. In order to explain the application of the formulas armature heating, numerical values will be assumed for the dimensions in Fig. 35.
Let
D =
= la = n = N=
d
32
23
15
in.,
in.,
in.,
5 (the number of air ducts in the armature core), 400 revolutions per minute,
whence
T77

3,360
and
vd
=
1,120.
FIG. 35.
Section through armature core.
losses,
Let us further assume that the total armature
sisting of hysteresis
con
and eddycurrent
losses in teeth
losses in the portion of together with the ing that is buried in the slots, amount to 7 kw. The cooling surfaces to be considered are:
1.
PR
and core, the armature wind
The
outside
15
=
2.
cylindrical surface
of area
A\ =
IT
X X
32
23
X
15
=
1,510 sq. in. The inside cylindrical
1,085 sq.
in.
surface
of
area
A2 =
TT
X
112
3.
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
The
ventilating duct surface, including the
two ends
of
the armature core, of area
sq. in.
A =
3
^ (32
2

23 2 )
(5+1) =
4,680
The
(54)
and
radiating coefficients to be used are calculated (56); thus, for surface (1),
C
by formulas
1,600^3,360 1
f\f\ f\f\f\
_
V/VrXO\J
and the watts that can be dissipated per degree rise of temperature
are
Wi = w Ai = 0.0486 X
c
1,510
=
73.4
For surface
(2),
1,500
+
wc =
(3,360
>
X ^) =
0.0391
of
and the watts that can be dissipated per degree rise
are
temperature
TF 2
= wA = 0.0391 X
c
2
1,085
=
42.5
For surface
(3),
1.2
X
1,120
100,000 **;" and the watts that can be dissipated per degree rise of temperature are
=
The
are
0.0134
X
4,680
=
63
can be dissipated per degree rise of tem63 = 178.9; whence the rise in perature be to be will expected temperature
total watts that
73.4
+
42.5
+
7,000
ffis
Temperature Rise of Machines with Forced Ventilation. When a machine is designed for forced ventilation, suitable ducts whether radial or axial must be provided in the armature, and the frame must be so arranged as to provide proper passages for the incoming and outgoing air. The fan or blower may be outIt is usual to allow 100 cu. ft. side or inside the enclosing case.
of air per
minute
for every kilowatt lost in heating the
arma
LOSSES IN
ARMATURES
113
ture and field coils of the machine. This will result in a difference of about 20C. between the average temperatures of the
outgoing and incoming air. In order to ensure that there shall be no unduly high local temperatures in the machine, the air ducts or passages must be
When suitably proportioned, and provided at frequent intervals. the paths followed by the air through the machine, and the
crosssection of these air channels, are known, the average velocity Formula of the air over the heated surfaces can be calculated.
(56)
can then be used for determining approximately the
dif
ference in temperature between the cooling surfaces and the There air; but it should not be relied upon for accurate results.
a need of further experimental work upon which more accurate formulas can be based.
is
All 35. Summary, and Syllabus of Following Chapters. necessary particulars have been given in this and the foregoing chapters for determining approximately the dimensions
and windings of an armature suitable for a given output at a given speed. A suggested method of procedure in design will be explained later; but, so far as the preliminary design
of the
armature
is
concerned, the dimensions are determined
by using an output formula (Art. 19, Chap. IV) and deciding upon the diameter D and the length la of the armature core. When proportioning the slots to accommodate the winding, the
diameter should be definitely decided upon, but slight alterations in the length la can readily be made later if it is found necessary to modify the amount of the flux per pole (<I>) or the
D
Once the calculations for temperature rise have been made, and the design so modified if necessary as to keep this within 40 to 45C., the dimensions of the armature will require no further modification. The question of commutator heating will be taken up later; but, in designing the armature for a given temperature rise, the assumption is made that no appreciable amount of heat will be conducted to or from the commutator through the copper lugs connecting the armature winding to the commutator bars.
airgap density (B g ).
The flux per pole necessary to generate the required voltage being known, the remainder of the problem consists in designing a field system of electromagnets capable of providing the required flux in the air gap. This problem is similar to that of
designing an electromagnet for any other purpose^ and
8
it
has
114
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
been considered in some detail in Chaps. II and III. It might appear, therefore, that little more need be said in connection with the design of a continuouscurrent generator, but it must be remembered that certain assumptions were made in order that the broad questions of design might not be obscured by too much detail, and in order also that the leading dimensions of the machine might be decided upon. It was assumed that the flux in the air gap was uniformly distributed under the pole face; but is it so distributed, and if not, how does this affect the tooth saturation and the ampereturns required to overcome the reluctance of the teeth and gap? What is the influence of the airgap flux distribution on armature reaction and voltage regulation, and how can we calculate
the
field excitation required at different loads in order that the proper terminal voltage may be obtained? These and similar questions cannot be answered without a more thorough study
of the magnetic field cut
by the conductors,
at full load as well
as on open circuit.
Again, with a nonuniform field under the poles, the flux density in the teeth may be much higher than would be indicated
by
calculations based
on a uniform
field,
and
this
might lead to
excessive heating.
Perhaps the most important problem in the design of directis that of commutation which, so far, has barely been touched upon. It is proposed to devote a whole chapter to the study of commutation phenomena. These various matters will be taken up in the following order: First, a study of the flux distribution over the armature
current machines
and what follows therefrom in relation to tooth densities, regulation, and the excitation required at various loads; next, commutation and the design of commutating poles; and finally, some notes on the design of the field system, with a brief reference to the factors that must be taken into account when
surface,
calculating the efficiency of a continuouscurrent generator.
CHAPTER
VII
FLUX DISTRIBUTION OVER ARMATURE SURFACE
An experienced designer may go far and obtain good results without resorting to the more or less tedious process of plotting
when his experience him, and when a reasonably accurate method of predetermining the distribution of flux density over the surface of the armature would give him all necessary information.
fluxdistribution curves; but occasions arise
and judgment
fail
A
of designing electric machinery whether continuousor alternatingcurrent generators which involves the plotting of the flux distribution curves, has much to
method
current
dynamos
recommend it, not only to the student, but also to the professional The advantage from the student's point of view is designer. that a more accurate conception of the operating conditions
the unscientific
can be obtained than by using empirical formulas, or making assumptions which are otherwise necessary. The designer will be glad to avail himself of a practical method of plotting flux curves when departures have to be made from standard models, or when it is desired to investigate thoroughly
the effects of crossmagnetization upon commutation or pressure
regulation. 36. Airgap
'
The determination
and
is
Flux Distribution with Toothed Armatures. of the flux densities in all parts of the tooth
average airgap flux density
slot for various values of the
and complicated that it is safe to say no correct mathematical solution may be looked for, although empirical rules and formulas of great practical value may serve the
so difficult
purpose of the designer. The reluctance of the magnetic paths between pole face and armature core can be calculated with but little error for the two extreme cases of very low and very high average flux density over the tooth pitch; but for intermediate values the designer has still to rely on his judgment, based on familiarity with the laws of the magnetic circuit.
To
calculate the
permeance of the
air
paths over one slot
pitch at the center of the pole face, when the density is low, the magnetic lines are supposed to follow the paths indicated in
115
HELESHAW. all as indicated in the figure. S. and a circular arc of radius r. H. 36. H. sides. This is obviously an arbitrary assumption. ALFRED HAY. with parallel lines entering the sides of the tooth are supposed to follow a path consisting of a straight portion of length 5. but it is convenient for calculation and It agrees very closely with the results gives very good results. equal to the actual clearance. obtained by MESSRS.116 Fig. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The tooth is and the magnetic drawn. POWELL in their classic Institution paper 1 and also with the . and P. for convenience.
is have to be vent ducts but the calculation of fringing at the sides of usually an unnecessary refinement. cm.) whole of the never attained a condition which is approached but as the density in the tooth is forced up to higher It is and higher values. for the ventilating ducts are closely spaced. which illustrates the The lines of flux are shown tooth. + 2P 2 (57) where the quantity meters. l P o.FLUX DISTRIBUTION and 2 117 n dr The average permeance at center of pole is. . the gap. the equivalent smoothcore armature.  Pi ^ /. case of a highly parallel over the FIG. might slightly modified. Flux lines entering toothed armature. (t + s) is the slot pitch X expressed in centi The reciprocal of this quantity is the reluctance per square centimeter of crosssection. per square centimeter over the slot pitch therefore. 37. Thus (58) Consider saturated now Fig 37. or the equivalent airgap length 5. slot pitch. or exceptionally wide. as given by formula (58). (High flux density. 1 obviously only when the permeability If 5 t .
This is an extreme. f )( +8) (59) This equivalent when the flux gap includes the reluctance of the tooth itself but does not take account of the It is in the vent ducts and spaces between stampings.e. + + _i_ Ri Rz (* ) = + *(. air flux density is high. taken over the width of one tooth only. . and indeed an impossible. the to permeability of the air paths that this parallelism equal of the flux lines would occur. to which would have to be added another air gap of d (Fig.000 gausses. the joint reluctance of tooth and slot should not be used for tooth densities below 20. ~JL which can be put in the form.j 1 cm. parallel. and the equivalent air gap would of the iron in the tooth 5. therefore. total thickness of iron). seen to depend upon the permeability of the iron. therefore. made for & d The reluctance of the slot portion of the total tooth pitch is. In order to make use of formula (59) a value for the flux density in the tooth must be . /. The air gap of the equivalent smoothcore armature being the reluctance per square centimeter or the reciprocal of the permeance per square centimeter is. the reluctance of the air gap and tooth. as indicated in Fig. assumed. since the actual distribution of the lines of flux in tooth and slot cannot be predetermined. condition. but. Considering 1 cm. and.118 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN becomes equal to unity that is to say. 37. the calculations for very high densities are usually made by assuming the flux lines to be be de = It is when this assumption is low values of the density that appreciable errors are The following method of calculating likely to be introduced. is. A method of working which involves a change in the . only of axial net length of armature core (i. upon the actual flux density in the tooth. 37) to represent the reluctance of the teeth and length slots.
A safe rule to provide an air gap such that the opencircuit ampereturns assuming a smooth core and no would be equal to the ampereturns on the armature at full load.) The length of air gap may be somewhat reduced if cornwhere air mutating interpoles are provided. there will be trouble due to field . n B g may be taken as the apparent flux density in the gap under the pole face on the assumption that there is no fringing. 37.54B. 170. distortion under load. we may write (SI) g = (SI) a where (SI) a stands for the armature ampereturns as calculated by formula This gives for 8 the value: (48) page 80. approximately. or. Length of Air Gap. of course. required for the air gap alone added reluctance due to slots QSJ). Actual Tooth Density in Terms of Airgap Density. smaller (see Art. It is convenient to think of the reluctance of air gap. which will lead to poor regulation and commutation difficulties. teeth. X 0. _ 1 (SD. 50.47T .m. p. and. (For approximate values of B g} refer to the table on page 75. The controlling factor in determining this clearance is the armature strength or the ampereturns per pole of the armature. If the m. The airgap clearance 8 must.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 119 equivalent air gap for various values of the flux density would be unpractical. some sort of compromise must be made. Another factor which may influence the airgap clearance is the possibility of unbalanced magnetic pull due to slight decentralization of the armature. be decided upon before the calculation of tooth and slot reluctance can be made. especially if poleface windings It might be 25 per cent. and . The field ampereturns at full load is should be greater than the armature ampereturns. 2. Thus if (SI) & are the ampereturns per field pole required to overcome the reluctance of an air gap of length 8. This becomes of importance only in machines of large diameter with many poles and rarely necessitates a clearance greater than that obtained by applying the above rule.f due to the armature greatly exceeds the excitation on the field poles. are used. if interpoles or poleface windings are used. since no exact method is ever likely to be developed.
it might be argued that the flux in the ventilating ducts and in the insulating spaces between the iron laminations does not enter the iron of the armature core. This argument is not justified since find their the flux lines in the ventilating ducts will actually way into the core immediately below the bottom of the slots. i.000 gausses. densities exceeding 20. a closer estimate of the correct value of the tooth density may be made by assuming the con dition of Fig.000 gausses the actual tooth density will be approximately equal to the apparent density. 37. required to overcome the reluctance of air gap proper and tooth. B t in the slots. the net length of the armature core (iron only)..(d + 6) = . the total flux entering armature core in the space .m.f required to overcome the reluctance of air gap proper and slot will be the same as the m. (a) the reluctance of the equivalent air gap (as calculated by formula (58) for the center of the pole face). 37. The calculation of this latter quantity depends upon a knowledge slots as consisting of of the actual flux density in the tooth. and the reluctance of the paths followed by this flux would therefore be very high. even if the iron in the teeth is practically saturated.f.. therefore . the density in the slot and air spaces.120 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN two reluctances in series.m. Let the meaning of the symbols be as follows: B g = the average airgap flux density at armature surface.e. one being the pole face and the other being the cylindrical surface passing through the roots of the teeth. The other dimensions If as given on the sketch Fig. and (6) the reluctance of the tooth. The flux density in the air ducts shall therefore We assume two equipotential and spaces not occupied by iron will therefore be the same as the density. surfaces. up practically all the flux entering the armature over one tooth For pitch will pass into the core through the root of the tooth. For low densities in the iron to about 20. that is to say. B. the average density over one tooth pitch of width t B B = t 8 $x ln = s and length la the actual tooth density. lie the assumption is made that the lines of flux in a plane exactly perpendicular to the axis of rotation. + = of one slot pitch. and the m.
now. and ducts. 216). the total flux entering the armature over slot pitch.000 gausses. Correction for Taper of Tooth. The fact that this formula only if the value of B t is t be plotted from the formulas (62) and (63) and a working curve. which shall be a compromise between these two extreme conditions. and solving for by formula (60) in B values of B t ranging between 20. given we get: terms of Bt.FLUX DISTRIBUTION ' 121 B one 1. \  l n t) The total flux entering through one being: slot pitch can also be expressed in terms of Bg . The dimension t in formula (62) Curves may . Thus B g \la = B t tl n + . [Sla of value In)] B. or +t(la ~ (l a B. this is made of two parts: 2. and a curve plotted from which values of Bt can By assuming be found when Bg is known. B. For very low values of B it may be assumed that all the flux entering through one slot pitch passes through the iron of the This leads to the expression: tooth. t (60) Considering. can then readily be drawn. The assumption of parallel sides to the tooth is justified only when the diameter of the armature is large relatively to the slot pitch or when taper slots are used in order to provide a uniform crosssection throughout the whole length of the tooth. The The flux in the iron of the teeth. the corresponding values of B can be calculated by formula (62).(\la ~ tf) (61) Substituting in (61) the value for B. is based on assumptions justified very high should not be lost sight of. 38. This will be done when working out a practical design in a later chapter (p.000 and (say) 26. of value flux in the slots R tln t .
the assumption is then made that the total flux in the tooth remains unaltered through other 1 parallel sections. the armature teeth will usually be wider at the root than at the top.e. as it is important that the density at this point be known. because in that case flux will leak out from the sides of the tooth to the bottom of the slot. by applying formula (62) or (63) as the case may demand. When the field system alternators.000 gausses. in the first place. Having determined the density Bt at the root of the tooth. The case of a tooth with considerable taper.000 gausses in continuouscurrent machines. Taper tooth. and revolves. in which the density at root is in excess of 10.. and at some distance from the bottom of slot (the taper being as indicated in Fig. may be dealt with by the application of SIMPSON'S rule. 38. as in is less in alternators. 38) the total flux in the tooth will be greater than at the root crosssection. be the width of the narrowest part of the tooth. The value of the magnetizing force H (or the ampereturns required per unit length) can then be determined for any section of the tooth by referring to the BH curves for the iron used in the armature. only. FIG. for most modern the purpose of calculating the average density B t and the ampereturns required for the teeth. where the / 1 value of Bm is  7? I D \ ^^ J This is not a correct assumption when the root density is very high.122 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN should. It is sufficient to determine H for three sections Let these values be: H n at narrowest section Hw at widest section Hm at center (i. and but little error will be introduced by taking for t the average width. . it rarely exceeds 25.
If preferred.m. appreciably for other points under the pole shoe if the bore of the field magnets is concentric with the armature.FLUX DISTRIBUTION involved 123 Then. section which it will be seen that Hw if is taken at the would be the top of the tooth " increased from 5 to the equivalent" value formula (58). Permeance 39. 36. SIMPSON'S approximation is. in gilberts required to overcome the reluctance of the tooth is X de where de the equivalent length H . and in the interpolar space. Flux lines in air gap of dynamo. depending on the geometric configuration of FIG. the formula (64) can be modified to give an average value of the necessary ampereturns per inch. pole tips.f. but near the of tooth. it is convenient to think of an equivalent air gap of length d e as calculated by formula (58) of Art. 39. air paths between pole shoe and armature.) the pole pieces. and the m. it will decrease at a more or less rapid rate. Variation of Permeance over Pole Pitch Curve. de the air gap were as calculated by This is recommended as a good practical compromise. and in the following investigation the actual toothed armature must be thought of as being replaced by an imaginary smoothcore armature of the proper diameter to insure that the reluctance of the air gap per unit area at any . and their circumferential width relatively to pole In considering the reluctance of the pitch and airgap length. on the assumption that the portion of the is a parabola. by using formula (57). The permeance per square centimeter of the air gap when the armature is slotted may be calculated for the center of This value will not change the pole face. 38. average BH curve H = Y H + %Hm + Y HW Q n Q (64) Referring to Fig. (One pole acting alone. must be expressed in centimeters.
40. The air gap is of uniform length except near the pole tips.) on the drawings. pole arc 27 cm. 40.. vol. 42 and 43). 995. as indicated FIG.8 cm. 30 (1909).. A section perpendicular to the shaft through 39. L/EHMANN 1 and followed in preparing the flux diagrams (Figs. in other words. Probably one of the most practical and at the same time most accurate methods of procedure is that proposed by DR. In Figs.124 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN point on the periphery shall be the same as the average reluctance per unit area taken over the slot pitch. With a little practice. p. and all flux lines in 1 "Graphische Methode zur Bestimmung des Kraftlinienverlaufes in der Luft." Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift.f. . at center of pole face. the pole shoe and armature is considered. and equivalent air gap of 0. unlimited patience. 39 and 40 an attempt has been the actual distribution of flux lines made to represent (1) for the condition of one pole acting alone without interference from neighboring poles. and ample time in which to perform the work.m. Flux lines in air gap of dynamo. and they will flux lines. diagrams of flux distribution such as those of Figs. 39 and 40 can be drawn. The machine to which these diagrams apply is a continuouscurrent dynamo of pole pitch 37 cm. indicate accurately the actual arrangement of the The method is one of trial and gradual elimination based on the wellknown principle that the space distribution of the flux lines will be such as to correspond with of errors. and (2) for the practical condition of neighboring poles of equal strength and opposite polarity. where it is slightly increased. maximum total permeance. such as will produce the maximum flux with a given m. (Effect of neighboring poles. or.
25 because it consists of four portions in series. all but by altering the direction of the tentative equipotential the work is repeated until the correct arrangement of The tube of induction A BCD (Fig. Thus ANN' will be an equipotential surface between which the intermediate equipotential surfaces It may be mentioned that in Figs. it will not be necessary to make this correction. and making each section Proceeding outward from left of the individual tube of induction exactly as wide as it is long. sidered is 0. but the error introduced substituting the developed armature surface for the actual be taken into account if circle is generally negligible. axially is assumed). proper correction can be introduced in calculating the flux in each tube of induction. and also in the other fluxline diagrams. Its permeance in the particular case confirst to be drawn. The computation of the total permeance between the pole shoe and armature over any given area is thus rendered exceedingly simple. has the same permeance (in example 0. 40 the flux lines have been drawn to ascertain the effect of the neighboring pole in altering the distribution over the armature surface in the interpolar space. The perpendicular NN' has been erected at the geometric neutral point. and may be considered as the surface of an iron plate forming a continuation of the armature surface AN. but since the present investigation is confined to the flux entering the armature from the pole shoe.25) as every other tube. 39) is the lines is obtained. such as EFGH. the actual curvature of the armature this may by preferred. the pole core under the windings cannot properly be considered as being at the same magnetic The potential as the pole shoe. relatively to the armature. At the first trial generally be found that these conditions cannot be fulfilled. . lines measured to right. are then drawn with their boundary lines perpendicular at it will points to the equipotential lines. In Fig. 39 and 40.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 125 the air gap are supposed to lie in planes parallel to this section. and tubes of flux. Although the armature surface is represented as a straight line in the accompanying illustrations. and the polar surface must lie. the permeance of every one of the component areas in the diagram is always unity. and any complete tube. all having the same permeance. each one of which is exactly as wide as it is long (a thickness of 1 cm. Equipotential lines are drawn in directions which seem reasonable to the draughtsman.
126 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN flux density at all points on the armature periphery is calculated when the flux lines have been drawn. ' One Pole only Surface of Armature Core . the fullline curve (case of Fig. with no interference from neighboring poles) except in the interpolar space where the de magnetizing effect of the opposite polarity is appreciable. 39) as in the space AB. 41. and causes the flux to diminish rapidly until it reaches zero value on the geometric neutral (the point N). easily since each tube of induction encloses the same number of mag The netic lines. exactly the same amount of flux will enter the arma ture in the space EF (Fig. the average density over the space EF will be CDAB 7? Uef R V = Bab X jjfp such as Fig. where verses. does not differ from of flux distribution Thus curves be drawn. giving actual distribution of flux for the case of Fig. Thus. If B ab is the flux density in the tube at the center of the pole face. although the magnetic action of any one pole considered alone will extend far beyond each pole tip. 39. its direction re what one would expect to find. Curve of flux distribution over armature surface. because. of effect neighboring poles is likely to extend demagnetizing when the air gap is not constant but increases appreciably in . on account of the shading effect This is In order to ascertain how far the of the neighboring poles. 40. 41 can readily be seen that the dotted curve. this action will not be appreciable beyond the interpolar space. It will Flux Distribution. N FIG.
44 the curve marked " permeance" has been plotted from Fig. (Effect of neighboring poles. 42. 42. pole point In Fig. under consideration are as follows: Pole pitch = 22 cm.3 cm. 43. (One pole acting alone. Pole arc = 14.) shall approximate to a sine curve. the case of a salient pole alternator has been considered.) FIG. Flux lines in air gap of alternator.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 127 length as the distance from the center of the pole increases. FIG. Flux lines in air gap of alternator. The flux lines and equipotential surfaces for an alternator with shaped poles are The object of shaping the air the poles by gradually increasing gap from the center outward is to obtain over the pole pitch a distribution of flux which shown in Figs. Its shape indicates the flux distribution over the armature surface on the assumption that the effect of neighbor . Equivalent air The data of the machine gap at center of pole face 5e = 1 cm. Air gap at other points on armature surface & is the angle (in electrical degrees) = cos 6 where between the center of the and the considered. 42 and 43.
Curves. 42 divided of the tube by the area is of the surface as that of the tube measured therefore. it is evident that this curve of flux distribution will correctly represent the variations of airgap permeance per unit area of the armature surface. exactly the same 0.128 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN ing poles is negligible. 44 shows the limit of the tips. the permeance per square centimeter at the point 7 cm.f. i. per The area of the surface EF is 0. GHEF permeance per square centimeter at the point considered 40. the influence of the neighboring poles is not appreciable except in the uncovered spaces between the pole The vertical dotted line in Fig.m. and m.m. in Fig. from center of pole is the permeance of the tube GHEF EF. The permeance axially.e.f.m. neighboring pole in reducing to pass through zero value at a point exactly halfway between the poles. comparison of the Fig. 43. between pole shoe and armature core being the same at all points on the armature surface. 44 has been plotted from 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Surface of Armature Core FIG. Opencircuit Flux Distribution and M. and shows the the air gap flux and causing full line A even with the greatly increased air gap.. Thus. The m. and the is.f. Curves of permeance. effect of the it flux. pole arc. In order to find a scale for the flux curve it is necessary to know either the total flux entering the armature in the space . The dotted curve marked "flux" in Fig.25 centimeter of depth CDAB.5. flux curves and dotted shows that. 44.
on the armature can be plotted.f. and. results of sufficient for practical purposes can very quickly be obtained. preferably full size. 45. draw the semicircle Bisect QO at the point P and draw BQF with its center at 0. outlined above.f. showing the air gap in its proper proportion. A FIG. the resultant m.f. Practical Method in the Although the method hands of an experienced designer who can afford the time must be expressed in gausses. tending to send flux from the pole to any point on the armature is known. as calculated for the center by using formula (58). The " developed" armature surface may be used. such as 10. gives excellent results lines. the curve of resultant m. Draw the perpendicular tangent to the pole tip. the flux density can be calculated because.m. where the ordinate of the m. curve at any at all points point. This has been done in Fig. This construction is indicated in Fig. is simply 10 M= g JQ where the orT/r^Tp' dinate 10 B of the flux curve 41. 45. between pole shoe and armature. it is required to map out the actual paths of the flux not suitable for general use in actual designing work. is drawn to a sufficiently large scale.FLUX DISTRIBUTION of If 129 a pole pitch or the m. By adopting a simple construction which assumes a certain flux distribution and avoids the drawing accuracy of equipotential lines.m. in A lines AM OR which case the construction is a little simpler because radial may be shown as perpendiculars erected on the horizontal datum line representing the armature surface. Thus. through the first point of is tangency Q. of Predetermining Flux Distribution. necessary to overcome airgap reluctance at center of the pole is known.f. if the m.) X permeance per square centimeter.f.f.m.m. The distance of the pole face the "equivalent" air gap. 44. B= flux per square centimeter = (m.m. section through onehalf of the pole shoe. BC ODEF flux G H Approximate paths between pole and armature.m. PD at an angle of 30 degrees .
e.. DP to 0' where erected on AD at the point B. while the flux line line (the shortest distance) until it from H is continued as a straight meets the pole perpendicularly to the surface. desired number of lines can very quickly be drawn in manner. and lines from points between D and F must be put in by the eye so that their curva ture shall be something between the circle through F and the One of these intermediate lines has straight line through D. therefore. Over the region beyond F all flux a FIG. now. Between the points i. but with a slope determined by the position of the point 0' through which they it with OQ.130 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Produce meets the perpendicular which the length and direction will be approximately correct can now be drawn. 46. been drawn from the point E. From the point F the equivalent flux line will be the arc of the circle described through the point Q with the radius OQ. Flux lines of will pass if produced beyond the pole face. and they may be thought of as the center lines of "equivalent" tubes of flux of uniform crosssection over their entire length. It is. B and D the lines will be considered straight. the reciprocal of this length will be the permeance per square centimeter between pole shoe and armature at the point considered. verticals erected on the datum line. If. an easy matter to plot a permeance curve similar to the one Any this . p d Effect of neighboring pole in modifying flux distribution. be drawn as circles described from the center and continued beyond the vertical OR until they meet the pole in a direction normal to the surface of the iron. Thus the line from the point G is completed by an arc of circle with its center at the junction of the line OR and the flat surface of the polar lines will projection. All the lines from points on armature surface lying between A and B will be considered perpendicular to the armature surface. the length of any one of these imaginary flux lines be measured in centimeters.
because the value of its ordinates cannot be determined unless either the m. 131 This curve. connecting the point on the permeance curve directly over the geometric neutral to the point S immediately under the pole tip.FLUX DISTRIBUTION shown in Fig. the total . Practical construction for deriving flux curve from curve. on the assumption that one pole acts alone without interference from neighboring poles. This method of plotting the resulting fluxp will be pm distribution curve should give satisfactory results in the space Or FIG. by drawing the straight RS. which represents the permeance centimeter of armature surface between pole and per square can evidently be thought of as a fluxdistribution curve armature. representing the flux distribution on open circuit.f.m. then the flux at any point pn. 46. For the practical the writer recommends the designer approximation indicated in Fig. it may be argued that if two neighboring poles each acting alone would produce a flux distribution as shown respectively by the fullline and dotted curves of Fig. 47. 44. but it does not provide for the gradual change in the flux distribution near the pole tips where the shading effect of the masses of iron becomes important. In regard to the actual flux distribution for noload conditions. or the total flux per pole is known. permeance between pole tips. 47 where The flux curve line P is is derived therefrom the permeance curve previously obtained. In designing a machine. By subtracting from the ordinates of the curve P the corresponding ordinates of the triangle ORS. the curve OA'N obtained. is This curve has yet to be calibrated.
curve of Fig. and the factor will be the ampereturns on the poles necessary flux per pole will unknown to produce this flux. 48 a permeance curve has been drawn. The height of this rectangle will be a measure of the average density over the pole pitch. 44 (Art. 42.m. Nov. R. but a method of accounting for this variation will be explained in the following article. Before considering the effect of the armature current in altering the distribution of magnetizing force over the it will be necessary to examine briefly how the degree of saturation of the teeth may be taken into account and a correct fluxdistribution curve plotted. or indeed the reluctance of any part of the magnetic circuit other than the air gap. The fact that the reluctance of the teeth at different points under the pole face is dependent upon the flux distribution tends to complicate the problem. 39). pole pitch in centimeters. to be explained is due to PROFESSOR C. it is probably more easily applied and less tedious than an equally scientific method more recently proposed by DR. 1 In Fig. 44. 44. Since the permeance curve as obtained by either of the methods here explained does not take into account the reluctance of the armature teeth. If this curve (Fig. 1913. It has the . HAT: "Predetermining Field Distortion in Continuouscurrent Generators. which should preferably be replotted.f." Electrician. This is known to be B where < (average) = 4> ^ = T total flux per pole in the air gap. The curve of resultant m.132 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN be known at this stage of the work. ALFRED HAY. Opencircuit Fluxdistribution Curves. la gross length of armature in centimeters. 41. 21. The method about armature periphery. In this manner a scale is provided for the flux curve OA'N.m. Measure the area of the curve OA'N and construct the rectangle OO'N'N of exactly the same area. 1 same meaning as the curve marked " Permeance" in Fig. the actual ampereturns necessary to produce the required flux will be greater than the amount indicated by the maximum ordinate of the m. as Influenced by Tooth Saturation. MOORE. 72. 283285. 48) has been A. over armature surface can now be derived as explained in connection with Fig.f. pp. and it may be obtained for any given machine in the manner described in Art.
PC Pa b Ampere. as the case demands.m.urns Required for AirGap. for a given value of m.f. between pole and armature. 38.m.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 133 calibrated to read airgap permeance per square centimeter of armature surface. all as explained in Art. For any value of the airgap density B g (considered as the average density over a slot pitch) there is a corresponding value of the tooth density. FIG. 49. 48 at d t but in order to get the flux into the armature core the reluctance of the teeth must be considered.)d X value of ordinate of Fig.f. P P Saturation curves for air gap. Permeance curve. B which can be calculated by formula t. 49 . teeth. Teeth and Slots FIG.T. This value can be plotted in Fig. (62) or (63). it follows that. and slots. and the ampereturns required to overcome the reluctance of the tooth can be found. the flux density at any point as for instance d will be Bd = (m. 48.
the correct .f. 51. such as (d). and slots. is given by the length of the ordinate ee'. Any other curve. clude a sufficient number of points on the armature surf ace. 48 bears to the ordinate at a. 49. as already obtained. Let proper Add the be curve for the a at center of pole. and the height of the ordinate at this point. The curves for the air gap will all be lines when straight plotted in Fig. teeth. 44) then. on open circuit obtained as explained in Art. manner the flux curve A of Fig. Opencircuit m.m. and then adding thereto the ampereturns for the The curves of Fig. 51 is obtained. Find this value on the horizontal scale of Fig. is obviously a measure of the total flux entering the armature between those points. 50. Let the curve of Fig. 49 should inteeth. at any point such as 6.f. 40 (Fig. is obtained by first drawing a straight line OQ such that PQ bears to PR the same relation as the ordinate at d in Fig. against the corresponding values of B g and the resulting curve shows the excitation required to overcome tooth reluctance for all values of the airgap density. which gives directly the ampereturns required to overcome reluctance of air gap.f. for all values of the airgap density. and when the resultant m. 49.f. between armature points and pole is also fluxdistribution curves can readily be plotted. The required flux per pole is . OR the point and obtain curve (a).m. The area of this curve. 50 represent the distribution of the resultant field m. taken between any given points on the armature periphery.m. which can be plotted as ee' in Fig.134 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN . where it meets curve e (which is not drawn in Fig. known. the m.m. 49). is the In this flux density. curve. It will be understood that the ordinates represent the average value of the airgap density at armature surface \a b c d e \ FIG. over a slot pitch. ampereturns required for the teeth.
must be altered by flux curve plotted. Z = total number of conductors on I = current in each conductor. the ampereturns per field the curve of Fig. 51. then 1 ZI C pr la The gross length of the of the pole shoe by an amount equal to twice the air gap. as represented and a new not equal. 50. of which the area must indicate the required flux. 43. where q stands for the specific loading or the ampereconductors per unit length of armature circumference. 51. 1 ( average) as with that of curve rectangle of height Bg be compared eter. its area can A by measuring with a planim If these areas are pole. 41. a practical allowance is made for the fringe of flux which enters the corners and ends of the armature core. 52) are q(b a). by asA extend to the extreme ends of the armature. r t usually known. Opencircuit flux distribution.f. of Fig. Let p c = number of poles. and the effect of the armature current in modifying this distribution may be ascertained by noting that the armature ampereturns between any two points such as d and d' on the armature circumference (see Fig. T = pole pit = armature surface. 51 to suming the flux distribution as given by curve armature core usually exceeds the axial length Thus. is Bg where la (average) = $ ^ By drawing the dotted is the gross length of armature. The field distribution of m. 50. as explained in Art.m. shown in Fig. 5. FIG. Effect of Armature Current in Modifying Flux Distribution. . over armature surface when the and poles are acting alone has already been calculated plotted in Fig.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 135 The average density over the pole pitch.
the effect of the armature m.* maximum is value which always occurs in the zone com. The combination armature m. as represented The curves F graphically in Fig.m.m. Magnetizing effect of armature inductors.f. R. at d' upon the pole S will be exactly the same as N ^ FIG.f.m.4 ZI. due to the field coils only. mutation Armature m. In order that a curve may be plotted on the same basis as the resultant field m.). The actual value of the flux density at the various armature points under load conditions can therefore be obtained by using . per pole at all points. with the m.m. per pole which is = (66) formula (48) of Art. per pole at the point d upon the pole N.f.f.136 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN flux and the armature m.m. 80) expressed in gilberts instead of ampere turns. then the effect of the armature m. 50.f. These are the two components of a resultant m. at d the m. is carried out and A represent field and armature ampereturns (or m. 53. Let the distance between the points d and d' be equal to the pitch r.m.f.m. curve. 52.m. it is necessary to know the armature m. and may = be expressed as (Armature Its >a) 2pr of (65) m. the ordinates of which are a measure of the tendency to send flux between any point on the armature surface and the pole shoe N.f.f. curve. 20 of this (p.m.f. if preferred).(b 7T  a) between the points d and d'.f.m. by Fig.m.f.f. tending to modify the field due to the poles alone is 0. .m. in gilberts.
words. it includes not only direct demagnetization. but also crossmagnetization which by producing distortion of the flux circuit flux 50. to distinguish it from the opencircuit curve A and also from the flux curve B.F. the curve F of Fig.under Load Condi tons Brush Shift Fia. 51) by using the values of Figs. of In other course. which. obtained by increasing the field ampereturns.m. The final flux curve for the loaded machine is generally similar to curve B. curves A and B is a measure of the flux lost through armature reaction.M. This new fluxdistribution curve may be called curve C. leads sometimes to local concentration of high and reduction of total flux owing to saturation of the iron in the armature teeth.FLUX DISTRIBUTION 137 the curves of Fig. Addition of field and armature m. has too small an area to generate the required voltThe amount by which the ordinates of curve F should be age. The procedure is exactly the same as when obtaining the open curve (Fig. 53. curve such that the new R curve resulting from its combination with the existing curve will produce a new flux curve similar to B. . although a load curve. 53 has to be replaced by a new opencircuit m. but of the required area. 49 and plotting the values of airgap density corresponding to the ampereturns read off the curve R of Fig. 49 and but the new curve of flux distribution which may be called curve B. but it is generally possible to estimate the necessary correction to give the required result. 53. This increased area is.f.Field SI per Pole 'Resultant M.fs. to distinguish it from the opencircuit flux curve A gives the distribution over armature surface for a given brush The difference in area of position and a specified output. A increased may be found by trial.m. Max. except that its area must be such as to indicate that distribution densities the desired voltage will be generated.
A. that has to be increased in a given proportion. and the necessary additional ampereturns for this correction are arrived at approximately by making PJPc (as indicated on Fig. and opencircuit terminal volts (being also the noload developed volts). The The loss of pressure loss of pressure due to armature reaction.138 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN field The added 1. and series field windings. It is the ampereturns necessary to raise the airgap density its from its average value over curve B to average value over curve A. which should be measured for the purpose of checking with the required area. The latter method is recommended as giving more nearly correct results in the case of continuous current designs with high values of tooth density. 49 (i. 222) generally as here indicated except that the additional field ampere turns are calculated on the assumption that it is the maximum value. The average flux density must be increased in this proportion. The correction for (1) consists in bringing the total flux up to its value on open circuit. called for. 49) such as to increase the airgap density in the ratio of E' to E. This is the correction for compounding. Area Area of flux curve of flux curve C A _ ~~ E' E In this manner the required area of curve C is obtained. then. ampereturns may be thought of as compensat ing for two distinct effects: 2. portions of the flux curve measured below the datum line being is example (p. due to IR drop in armature. An approximate method of mak ing this correction is to find on curve (a) of Fig.e. brush contacts. it compensates for all internal and must include overcompounding if this is If loss of pressure. and not the average value of the open circuit flux curve. is that comprised between the points on the armature surface which correspond with the position 1 of the brushes on the commutator. The method followed in the numerical . 1 The area of the final curve C. E' = E= required fullload developed volts. The correction for (2) consists in increasing the flux per pole to such an extent that it will generate the increased voltage. the curve corresponding to point a at center of pole) the ampereturns PbPa required to produce the difference of flux density BbB a when OBb = average flux density over curve B } and OBa = average flux density over curve A..
3. Item (3) may be esti mated and is at (4) will from onefourth to onehalf the armature drop. The extra ampereturns required to overcome the reluctance of the armature core. 4. and adding thereto the required difference between the terminal volts at full load E' is and at no load.m. magnetic . Item be discussed later. Item (2) may be estimated at from onefourth to onehalf the armature drop. The amount by which the area of the fullload flux curve C must exceed the area of the opencircuit flux curve A may be determined approximately by estimating the probable voltage drop in the series winding (if any) and at the brushcontact surfaces. The ampereturns C of this particular area will not be far short of the total ampereturns on the field coils at full load... The balance of the e. the fullload developed voltage the required area of curve C is therefore: and obtained. because the air gap. to be developed at full load consists of: 1. (if in series field any). By totalling these items of internal loss of pressure. Area of opencircuit flux curve A X E' ~w jbi where E is the opencircuit terminal voltage as previously necessary to produce the curve defined. higher at full load than on open circuit. or even 10 per cent.FLUX DISTRIBUTION considered negative. voltage may cent. The terminal then be 5 per 2. teeth and slots have considerably greater reluctance than the remainder of the circuit. The The The The IR IR IR IR drop drop drop drop in armature winding. magnet limbs. 139 and deducted from the area measured above the datum line. it will be known at the outset whether the dynamo is to be flatcomis is pounded to when or overcompounded. In the case of compoundwound machines. in interpole winding (if any). Item (1) can readily be calculated since the armature winding has been designed. at brushcontact surface.and frame will be considered later when dealing with the magnetic circuit as a whole and the fieldmagnet windings. practically constant for machines of widely different voltages and outputs. but it may be estimated at 2 volts.f. Overcompounding the drop in the circuit fed by the machine resorted likely to be high.
M is usually small with reference to TF. The time commutation. t c . it is tc possible to express the time of commutation as = that jr Vc . its direction 140 . the time taken by any point on the commutator surface to pass under the brush is approximately the same as the duration of the shortcircuit. is e = X R = 0. A continuouscurrent dynamo is provided with a commutator in order that unidirectional currents may be drawn from armature windings in which the current actually alternates in direction as the conductors pass successively under poles of opposite kind.. and during the short lapse of time between the closing and the opening of this shortcircuit the current in the coil must change from a steady value of +/ c to a steady value of Ic .CHAPTER VIII COMMUTATION 44. surface velocity of commutator in centimeters per second. Introductory. when no current is flowing in the coil the e. in the coil should be e brushcontact resistance be neglected. It is during this time. thickness of insulating mica in centimeters.f. by the brush.m. W M V Since c may then be written. it is evident that the = I c X R at the commencement of At the instant of time when the current is changing i. Let = = M Fc = of W surface width of brush (brush arc) in centimeters. e. that the in commutated coil must pass through zero value from the full armature current of value \I c to the changing full armature current of value Ic If R is the resistance of the shortcircuited coil.f. and if any possible disturbing effect of current in the .e. in seconds. W generally is to say. As each it is coil in shortcircuited turn passes through the zone of commutation. At the end of the time commutation.m.
ARNOLD 3 formed the nucleus around which the bulk of our commutation literature clung. LAMME'S end 1 conception of the phenomena of commutation. 23592404. this theoretical value that sparking is liable The theoretical investigation of commutation phenomena is admittedly difficult. in the coil should be e = e. The nature.of commutation. sometimes aimlessly. likely to An attempt assume when clothed in mathewill be made to obtain a clear conception of the physical phenomena involved in the theory of commutation. XXX. The writer's is simplicity or clearness.f. The end he attains is approximately the same as that attained by any other reasonably accurate method of analysis. vol. E. LAMME: "A Theory of Commutation and Its Application to Interpole Machines.m. LAMME'S paper 1 the methods of DR.m. provided all factors of importance are included. 2 "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering. writer has deliberately departed from the usual method of treating this subject because he believes that it is possible to put the fundamental principles involved into a somewhat simpler form than they are matical symbolism. by getting nearer to the true physical conditions in the zone . pp. A. because it is almost impossible to take account of the many causes which lead to sparking at the brushes. on a sea of abstract speculation." ." 3 "Die GleichstromMaschine. It is when the amp. G. E.. STEiNMETz 2 and DR. even if the less important factors B. 141 series when the coil is just about to be thrown in with the other coils of the armature winding carrying a current of Ie I C R. he saves us from drifting. MR.f in the coil has .COMMUTATION tc . but. LAMME'S paper has the great merit of putting the more or less familiar problems of commutation in a new light." Trans.. E. Some of the problems to be dealt with are of a purely mechanical and it is necessary to make certain assumptions and to disregard certain influencing factors in order that the essential features of the problem of commutation may be studied. the e. and the difficulties he encounters are of the same order and magnitude as those encountered by other investigators. I. some value other than to occur. Before the publication of MR. Although the presentation of the subject as given in this chapter has undoubtedly been suggested by the reading of paper. yet its aim is not so much to furnish additional material for the designer as to give the student a clear MR.
" In the iirst place.m. ideal or " straightline" commutation will be assumed.f. in the second place. produced by the cutting of the actual magnetic field in the neighborhood of the wire. because e is the only e. but its equivalent has not been overlooked. . such as vibration. seeing that the magnetomotive force due to the current in the coil is a factor in the production of the flux actually linked with this current at the instant of time considered. the instantaneous value If .. including as it does more conditions than making the problem appear than the problem appear more makes simpler formerly 1 complex. and.m. I. At the instant of time the total flux of induction passing through the coil is maxwells. "instead of sary to produce this in order that a multitude of generally desirable result investigated.f. in the circuit tending to produce flow of current. and at the instant of time t = t c sec. . p.142 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN method are entirely ignored. A. developed in the time tc is y x * coil during the interval of ^t? v e is any instantaneous value of the e.R is the ohmic resistance of the coil and of the current in the coil is i = T> . Trans. through the coil is that the flux links equally with every turn in the coil.. LAMME'S own words. are usually included. . XXX. and the conditions neces.f. E. vol. the total Then on the assumption $* maxwells. The usual conception of a distinct flux due to the current i producing a certain flux linkage known as the selfinductance of the circuit is avoided. and influencing factors of relatively small practical importance will be either disregarded or but briefly referred to. while. Consider a closed coil of wire of t T = c turns moving in a magnetic field. etc. E. insufficient or excessive brush pressure. in MR. Theory of Commutation.m. By working from the simplest possible case to the more complex it is thought that the object in view a physical conception of commutation phenomena leading to practical ends will best be served. 45. more or less arbitrary assumptions may not obscure the problem in its early stages. it may be stated that considerations of a mechanical nature. cannot be dwelt upon here. uneven or oily commutator surface. his of analysis. 2426 (1911). It is not suggested 1 Reply to discussion. the average f 4>o flux + value of the e.
The dotted rectangles show the position of two consecutive field poles. to calculate that component of the total e. especially when mathematical analysis mutual induction is resorted to. A method that may be followed in predetermining .f . If ferent causes into several this does not prevent our speaking of flux linkage per ampere of current as inductance expressed in henrys and using the formula e = L ~r. is usually he who has the clearest vision of the physical facts involved in the problem under conthe term selfinduction calls up a mental picture of magnetic lines. The direction of slope of the shading lines indicates whether the flux is positive or negative. in a circuit the current which would have a real existence if the field due to i in the wire were alone to be considered. be denied that selfinduction and mutual induction are frequently thought of as different from other kinds of induction. this flux being the result of the magnetizing forces of field coils and armature windings combined. It cannot. LAMME. Following the lead of MR. The splitting up of the magnetic induction resulting from dif components is frequently convenient and should not be condemned except in certain cases when iron is present in the magnetic circuit. expressed in magnetic lines or maxwells. being a certain component expressed in maxwells of the total or resultant flux of induction in a circuit. 54 the thickline rectangle represents a fullpitch armature coil of T turns undergoing commutation. the wires in the coil undergoing commutation will be thought of as cutting through a total flux of induction. but the practical engineer or designer who produces the best work. especially in departures from standard practice. The ordinates of this curve indicate at any point on the periphery the density of the flux entering the armature core. In Fig.m. but it tends to obscure the issue when seeking a clear understanding of the physical aspects of commutation.COMMUTATION that the orthodox 143 method of introducing selfinduction and as separate entities endowed with certain properties peculiarly their own is not without advantages in the solution of many problems. and the shaded curve represents the ascertained or calculated flux distribution over the armature surface. We are indebted for this state of things to some writers whose familiarity with mathematical methods renders a clear physical conception of complicated phenomena unnecessary. sideration. however.
and measurements on the horizontal axis may represent either distance travelled or lapse of time. Diagram showing ideal armature coil in commutating zone. of field coils .144 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN interpolar space. 43. drawn are the result of the combined and armature windings. 54. 54 is supposed to be moving from left to right. and the fluxdistribution curves of Fig. with brushes moved forward from the geometric neutral br noload commutation position until a neutral commutating zone is again XX FIG. found. 54 might have been obtained in the same manner as the flux curve C referred to in Art. of the fields and the fact that the small portions of the flux curves near the .m. 41. the conductors on the righthand side of the shortcircuited coil have been moved through the neutral zone from a weak field of positive polarity into a weak field of negative polarity. During the time of commutation. Owing to the symmetry under the poles of opposite kind (i. since the armature is revolving at a uniform speed.. including the was outlined in Chap. 42 and 43). t c which. The case considered is that of a dynamo without commutating poles.e. the similarity in shape and equality in magnitude of the shaded flux curves). into a weak field of positive polarity. The coil of Fig. while the conductors on the lefthand side of the coil have moved from a weak field of negative polarity flux curves as The m. VII (refer to Art. if we neglect the effect of mica thickness. the flux distribution over the armature surface.fs. is the time taken by a point on the commutator to pass under the brush of width W.
being such as will cause the current to flow in the oppoof the flux required to bring about this condition is only a small percentage 1 of the flux cut by a coil under the main poles in the same interval of time. at every instant of time during the period of commutation. 1 The flux density where the coilside enters or leaves the commutating zone (the positions t = and t = tc of Fig. until flux and current are the middle of the commutation period.5 per cent. the resultant flux cut by the two coilsides joined in series by the end connections may be represented by the shaded area in Fig. from the commencement of shortcircuit. r resents the flux distribution in the direction of this flux is commutating zone. 55. because the site direction. where positive values are measured above. 50 to 100 kw. and. and negative values the horizontal axis. an e. the small amount of flux cut is by the shortcircuited conductors of the same kind as that previously cut by the conductors. satisfactory commutation will result. it is the average value of the flux entering the armature over the commutating zone with which the designer is usually concerned. 0. tending to produce a current in the required direction. when both of zero value.f. and the straight line BB repbelow. of the average density under the main poles. 55. 10 . while from the time t = t c /2 until the end of commutation (t = t c ) the flux is of the opposite kind. because this is the ratio of the armature IR drop to the developed voltage in a welldesigned dynamo of moderate size say.COMMUTATION 145 neutral point may be considered as straight lines. Intervals of time are measured horizontally from left to right. The amount resistance of the armature windings is always low in comparison with the resistance of the external circuit. that is to say.m. If the brushes are so placed as to bring the shortcircuited conductors in a neutral field. when FIG. as a matter of fact. 55) would be about 2. The such as to develop in the shortcircuited coil. t Flux distribution in commutating zone of ideal armature coil.
when the current i in this coil is passing through zero value. and the cutting of fluxes by these end portions of the coil has not been considered. the value of the current per path of the armature circuit and is the resistance of the shortcircuited coil. On the assumption uniform current density over the surface of the brush. it is Returning to a consideration of the case represented by Fig. the brush contact resistance need not be taken into account. 56 shows a of the commutator. When we consider the end fluxes. or the effect of commutating inter to the direction of travel of the poles. as will be clear from the following considerations. then the flux cut by the shortcircuited conductors at any given part such as the center of the "active" portion. several brush of width segments covering The total current entering the brush is 21 C} and since the density of a W . where /<. it is most emphatically true " that the coil as a whole is moving in a neutral field/' i. must not be overlooked that the armature coil there shown not of a practical shape.146 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN 54.e..f. the end connections are shown parallel coil. especially when these are not equal in number to the main poles or do not extend the full length of the armature core. of their total length whether on a smooth core or in slots may have an appreciable value. the to direction parallel vwvwwv <  * > FIG. a resultant field which its is is either of zero value (when the sum of all is correctly taken) or of which the direction components of travel of the conductors. Fig. but if we consider the total flux cut by all parts of the wire forming the commutated coil. 56.m. field in At the beginning and end of the commutation period the which the coil moves should be such as to produce an e. in the shortcircuited coil of the value e is R = I C R. Diagram of coil and commutator during commutation.
and the voltage drop ia Ra is seen equal to the drop ibRb> It follows that the only e. to be developed in the shortcircuited coil when uniform current distribution is required will be e (i) = iR. This leads to the equation e = iR + ibRb  iaRa (67) and Rb are contact resistances depending upon the where areas of the surfaces through which the current enters the brush. and cancel out from equation (67). The instantaneous value of the current in the coil under going commutation can be expressed in terms of the brush width and the distance (w) through which the coil still has to travel W before completion of commutation. 56.m. because. and the currents ia and 4 are therefore also It follows that the voltage drops i a R a and ib Rb are equal equal.f. i = X ^ /W 2w lc Ic  2I C \ W and . Under the conditions shown in Fig.COMMUTATION is 147 constant over the surface of contact. consider the sum of the potential differences of AabB which is closed through the material in circuit the local when the the brush. The relations between the currents and the surface resistances are then obtained tities in Ra by expressing these quan terms of the contact surface. the current entering the cr brush through any surface of width culate the volts e that S is 21 c X ^' To cal must be developed in the coil of resistance distance yet to be travelled before the end of comR is mutation w. The same is true in the later stages. thus: ia ii = w X ki = Sb X ki ^ ' where to be ki still and k z are constants. of commutation when Sa is no longer equal to Sb but to the portion w of the brush which remains in contact with the segment A. the contact surfaces Sa and Sb are equal.
In this study of the voltage to be developed in the coil undergoing commutation in order to produce a uniform current distribution over the brush surface. moment commutation in its broader aspect greatly simplifies the problem. 55. and in those parts where the density attains very high values the excessive heating leads to pitting of the commutator surface even visible sparking does if not occur. especially Although the assumption of a smoothcore armature very when an effort is made . the resistance of the brush itself has been considered negligible. we have what is called "straightline" or ideal commutation. the current \i straightline law. but because it is the only means by which the current density can be maintained constant over the brush It is generally the aim of surface of the usual rectangular form. manner. Referring again to Fig. but with the assumption of a uniform current distribution over the crosssection of the brush the actual resistance of the brush material. because unequal current density leads to local varia tions of temperature and resistance in the carbon brush. It will fall pj from the value will also c obey a +/ to zero in I c at the end of the the time ^ and rise again to the value 2 period t c according to the simple law expressed by the straight If the change of current actually occurs in this line in Fig. even if it is = relatively high. The straightline law will therefore be assumed. if the flux curve BE' may be con sidered a straight line. will not appear as a modifying factor in the general formula (68). the maximum commutation. 55. it is usual to assume law connecting the variable current i with the time t phenomena being in fact the whole problem is the location. . but the thing of immediate of followed.148 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of W e At the beginning and end or to zero. The commutation is then ideal or perfect. or the creation. when w is equal to value of the required voltage is IC R. the designer to maintain this current density as nearly constant as possible. of a neutral zone where the actual resultant flux cut by the coil undergoing commutation will be zero. not only because it relieves the designer of much intricate and discouraging mathematical work. is Whatever method of study ing commutation some and then investigate the causes which will bring about this condition.
Effect of Slot Flux. by the usual convention of magnetic lines. which sometimes leads to confusion of ideas. if not to inaccurate conclusions. the portion of the armature flux cut by a conductor undergoing commutation when no reversing flux is provided from outside is that which passes up through the roots of the teeth included between the two extreme positions of the shortcircuited coil. In Fig. and it will be seen that the conductors in which the current is being commutated are cutting the flux set up by the armature as a whole. it magnetic seems preferable to consider a machine with toothed armature because this is the case which has generally to be dealt with by the practical designer.. This picture of the conductor cutting the field set up by the armature 1 For the sake of simplicity. The calculation of the "equivalent" slot flux will be taken up later. 57 an attempt has been made 46. the point midway between two (sym and the magnetic lines leaving the teeth will metrical) poles cross the air spaces between armature surface and field poles and so close the magnetic circuit. and the current in the conductor just leaving the brush on the 7C The armature is supposed to be rotatrighthand side is ing. ductor while travelling between the two extreme positions during which the shortcircuit obtains is not only the flux passing into the air gaps from the tops of the teeth included between these extreme po'sitions of the conductor. a single conductor is shown at the bottom of each slot and the whole of the slot flux is supposed to link with it. It is important to note that the flux cut by a con. In other words. should therefore not be disregarded in any modern theory of commutation. The position chosen for the brushes is the geometric neutral i. which crosses the slot above the conductor 1 and leaves the armature surface by teeth which are not included in what at first sight may seem to be the commutating zone. to represent. and it .COMMUTATION to picture the actual distribution of the 149 flux. but includes also the flux due to the currents in the shortcircuited conductors..e. or what is known as the slot flux. The brush is supposed to cover an angle equal to twice the slot pitch: the current in the conductor just entering the lefthand end of the brush is +/<. and moreover it is exactly this question of teeth. the current in the conductor under the center of brush is zero. which enters or leaves the armature periphery in the interpolar space when the field magnets are unexcited. . the flux due to the armature current alone.
all combining to produce the actual or resultant flux. 57. Flux in commutating zone near leading pole tip.m. The main poles have been excited and the brushes moved forward until a satisfactory commutating . as will frequently be found convenient. 58. Flux in commutating zone due to armature m. by considering the separate FIG. tending to reverse the current in the shortcircuited conductor.f. component FIG.150 currents PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN is especially useful when calculations are made. 57 is never such as to generate an e. It is not difficult to see that the flux shown in Fig. 58. only.f.m. Consider now Fig. fluxes due to distinct causes.
and it must be provided by the leading pole shoe if brush shift is resorted to. 47. the resulting flux distribution in the commutating zone will be somewhat as shown in Fig. Here the flux cut by the conductors during commutation is represented by eight lines only. enters the teeth comprised between the two extreme positions of the shortcircuited conductors.m. the effect This flux. It is represented by 12 lines in the diagram Fig. must be armature in a neutral field. which at the instant of time t = j. or by the commutating interpole when this method of cancelling the armature flux is adopted. Effect of End Flux. the direction of this commutating flux being such as to maintain the current during the earlier stages At a of commutation and reverse it during the later stages. which of the end connections is entirely negligible. the position of the point neutral field on the surface of the armature does not correspond with the correct position for the center of the brush. as the case may be). is neither more nor less than the slot flux (or equivalent slot flux. When the effect of the tions of the end connecarmature be the cannot armature coils neglected. is actually below a point on the periphery where flux is entering or leaving the teeth. flux cut by this portion of the shortcircuited coil must be cancelled in the same manner as the slot flux. * With the excitation of the leading mainpole tending to send flux through the armature core from right to left. that is to say. 58.COMMUTATION 151 zone has been found where the fringe of flux from the leading pole tip is sufficient to neutralize the flux due to the armature windings. Thus the conductor. 57. an 1 The reader is supposed to understand the phrase "a flux neutralizing " a flux to be equivalent to the more scientific but less convenient expression "the magnetic force due to one magnetizing source being of such magnitude and direction as to neutralize the magnetic force due to a second magnetizing source. and the armature e. observed that the correct position for the brush is in advance of the "apparent" neutral zone. that is to say. 58. is midway between the two extreme positions the conductor It should be cutting no flux. thus causing the resultant flux of induction to be of zero value. and the current is therefore zero." . as in the present instance. and this condition occurs even when. tending to produce a flux distribution generally as indicated in Fig. That is because the slot flux must enter through the upper part of the teeth if it is not to be cut by the conductors during commutation.f.
152 equal PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN amount of flux. two distinct curves have been drawn. fluxes cut by coil during the actual interpolar flux.m. Diagram showing component commutation. developed by the cutting of the end fluxes. reprethe flux distribution due to the armature windings acting senting alone. 54. Z. F. This will be made clearer by reference to Fig. must enter the armature from the leading pole tip or interpole. because of possible saturation of portions of the iron circuit such as the armature teeth and pole tips. but. but of opposite sign. The addition of these two fluxes at every point will not phery due to the always reproduce the actual flux curve of Fig. 59. representing flux distribution over armature perifield coils acting alone. which is generally similar to Fig. except that. the one. in the commutating zone. 54. and this component of the compensating flux will actually be cut by the conductors in the slot. and the other.f. the method of adding the several imaginary components of the . 59. thus neutralizing the e. instead of FIG.
may be is tions of the coil undergoing commutation. it will tend to oppose the reversal and must therefore be compensated for by a greater brush lead or a stronger commutating pole. armature flux Z\ that is to say. and a is the arc covered by the brush. 59 N not objectionable. if preferred. be used for correcting the ordinate of the curve Z at the of the end point 0. Similar arguments apply to the end connections A'B'C' at the other end of the armature. of current fore.f ABC . 59) in the time t c is ABC $c = Be X x X or $> e length of ABC = B e Wa sin a X length of ABC where a is the angle between the lay of the end connections and the direction of travel. the flux cut by the portion connections (see Fig. due to the cutting of the end slot conductors CC fluxes will be of the same sign as that due to the cutting of the f .m. A means of calculating the probable value of the effective end flux will be considered later.B. The portion BC of the shortcircuited coil will be cutting flux of the same nature as the armature flux cut by the and the e. all as indicated by the direction of the shading lines. thereof the field cut by the end connections is known.* a X or. but for the present it may be assumed that the average value of the density B e It may. since the portion of the field flux represented by the distance between the point and the datum line is neutralized by the armature flux at Let ABC represent the position of the end connecthis point.f. length le . The equivalent flux density B a which has to be cut by the slot conductors A A' to develop the Ba Wa X length same average voltage is obtained from the AA = B e a sin a X length ABC r relation W which gives B. and the direction of this flux will be the same as that represented by the curve Z. Thus. gthAA (69) R Ba ~ Be R 2(BH) (A A') . W expressed in centimeters of armature periphery.COMMUTATION actual flux is 153 in Fig. and the active conductors A A' considered as moving in a field of which the density is represented by the length MN. then the portion cutting end flux due to the armature currents in all the end con AB nections.
making the armature flux. when made. NE method of locating the correct brush position when commutating poles are not used.fs. because it would be foolish to compliis commutation if the correction.m. and it . and referred to as inductance. it appears to lack the sense of proportion.154 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN may be plotted in Fig. when made. is of a small order of magnitude. is one of real practical importance. the machine will not commutate perfectly without the addition of a commutating interpole. and although it cannot be calculated exactly. It is true that we do not concern ourselves with the end fluxes when calculating the useful voltage developed in the active coils. but. With this attitude of mind the present writer has no sympathy. expressed in henrys. the practical problem of commutation. as indicated in Fig. the correct determination of the field in which the shortcircuited coil is moving. would surely be a waste of time and mental effort to introduce refinements if the percentage correction. it is not difficult to see that the e. and always will be. on the assumption that the whole represent flux of this component is cut by the "active" portion of the This coil . The question of end fluxes. apart from the fact that in this connection the amount of the end flux is relatively small.f. and this suggests a graphical NE The question of relative magnitude of these end flux e. or considered merely as any other magnetic field. whether this conception of the magnetic condition is buried in the symbols L and M. deserves some attention.s generated in the end connections as they cut through the end fluxes due to the armature currents balance or counteract each other and have no effect on the terminal The conception of the end connections cutting through voltage. of little practical moment. the end flux in actual machines is not of negligible amount. because what may be called the equivalent neutral zone is found when the conductor A A' occupies a position such that the length is exactly equal to OM. If this position cannot be found without passing under the tip of the pole shoe (represented by the heavy dotted rectangle). from whatever point of view it is approached. is. 59 as the ordinate OE. It is claimed by some writers that refinement of analysis and calculation is always commendcate the problem of able even when built upon a foundation that is admittedly a mere approximation. Apart from any considerations of a mechanical nature. 59. it is a factor which should not be left out of consideration. however.m. the flux due to the armature as a whole.
will be taken as 45 degrees. Calculation of End Flux. 59. the angle a of Fig. E.. 60. R." Therefore. as shown in Fig. With a view to calculating within a reasonable degree of accuracy the flux density in the zone ABC of Fig. real magnetic flux resulting to a given circuit.. 28. 2 C. and it would be erroneous to add an e. he ". a careful study of the problem will show that the flux cut by one commutating coil during the period of short circuit being the difference between the number of lines threading the coil immediately before and immediately after commutation is almost entirely due to the changes of current that have taken place in the coils under the brushes during the period of commutation. and is more helpful to the understanding of commutation phenomena. but it is not suggested that the one method is necessarily superior to the other so far as practical results are concerned. 1 While moving from the position at the commencement of the commutation where the current is +I C to the position at the end of commutaJ 6 the shortcircuited coil has cut tion where the current is flux of selfand mutual induction through the the through whole of it. not merely through certain components of the total This is well expressed flux in the particular region considered. : induction. and the developed view it of the end connections. MENGES in the London Electrician. which. taken into account. of selfinduction.COMMUTATION 155 seems more natural. when the from all and its 48. the selfinduction is already included. . The further assumption will be made that the armature is of large diameter. than what might be termed the academic method. 1913. because it is not possible to determine this value with scientific accuracy even when the exact shape of the armature coils and the configuration of the surrounding masses of iron are known. In the first place.f. 2 MR. it is necessary to make certain assumptions and to use judgment in applying the calculated results.m. Selfinduction is in MENGES when says by no way distinguishable from other coexistent electromagnetic . can therefore be considered as lying in the plane of the paper. L. The flux in the zone occupied by the portion of the coil undergoing commu AB 1 As a matter armature total of fact. 59. in which more or less reasonable assumptions are made in respect to self. although perhaps slightly greater than the average on modern multipolar machines. has the advantage that permits us to treat the wires AB and BC as being at right angles to each other.and mutual inductances. are relative changes causes. Feb.
.156 tation PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN is due to the currents in all the neighboring parallel conductors comprised in the parallelogram ADVC. 60. a conductor such as EF will produce not only a stronger component of the resulting field in the commutating zone than the wire GH. while the more distant wire will produce a weaker field over a length equal to GH only. Developed view of armature end connections. and the extent to which this wire will be effective in producing a field along AB will depend upon its length.. The direction of flow of current in these parallel conductors is indicated by the arrows. to the distance of the wire considered. I 1 I Ijl I I 1 1(1 I I I l[l I I I Ml FIG. being outward (i.e. but a field of which the extent is measured by the length EF. Thus. from A to E) on the lefthand side of the communicating zone. and inward (from B to A) on the righthand side. Thus the effect of the more distant wires in building up the flux over the commutating zone decreases very rapidly with increase of distance. The intensity of the field produced on by AB any one of these wires. if the lines of force are assumed to be circles in a path consisting entirely of air (the proximity of masses of iron being for the present ignored) will be inversely proportional .
are moving relatively to the space under consideration.COMMUTATION 157 Let a be (as previously defined) the brush arc expressed in centimeters of armature periphery. then the space moved through a sin a. each carrying a current of I c amperes. conductors of value: may be considered as containing ampere where n T and = No. to and it will be convenient to substitute this value in the above \/2 expression. = No.. whence: in space of ampere conductors width dy field intensity 1 _ /% mr c (<ty\ I \r) maxwells per The average (or flux density in . 61..e. in space AC = r) onehalf the number of inductors per slot). The conductors. 61. The 7= length BC is equal to T sin a or. W W sin FIG. as by a conductor during the time of commutation is W W which includes merely the portion A DEC of Fig. It is desired to develop a formula giving the total flux entering the shaded area of length AB and width a sin a.e. 60. (i. since a = 45 degrees. and any element parallel to A B of width dy centimeters and length EF centimeters (see Fig. of slots per pole of turns per coil (i. indicated by the shaded strip in Fig. 61).
it may be considered as being at an average distance y from EF. is: The flux due to all the conductors in the space T ABC will there fore be W V Q. it follows that the total with which we are now concerned is four times the amount given by the above formula. the total flux in the zone in the space considered. or AB + A'B'. from a straight n = and is 0.2nTI *=** V2 ' /vi_ e : _r ^p(^y) \V2 V TV JJ&L j V~2dy / \ (70 ) I 2\/2 which becomes N/2 This is IFAB V V* ADB AB will not the total end flux in the commutating zone.2 X a current in amperes y since the width W a sin I ( W7^\ of the zone of commutation or a ) relatively small. since the assumptions made cannot in any case lead to an accurate formula. a coil sides + end flux .2\/2nTI is c dy and since the length of EF /= y. 60) in the space produce the same amount of flux in the zone of length and width right W a sin of AB. Again.158 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN air) at square centimeter in conductor is : a distance y cm. because the conductors parallel to (Fig. 61) is therefore: 12 e = Q. The field intensity due to the ampereconductors in the space of width dy (see Fig. a as the conductors in the space ABC to the Moreover since the flux to be cut by each effect of "active" conductor in the commutating zone to annul the end flux must be equal in amount to that cut by the AB BC. set up by the ampereconductors EF of width dy.
generated in the shaft for a short distance end connections of the short circuited coil.V. and also to the fact that the conductors actually remain parallel to the beyond the ends of the slots. Inserting the value of B e given by formula (73) and making the required simpli. = 2v/2r. in centimeters per second.2 and 3. = ^. and the final formula then becomes: (72) The average by dividing flux density over the zone considered sin is obtained this quantity by 2(AB)Wa a = rWa . in which D is the armature diameter in centi The 8 is the speed in revolutions per second. T = number of turns in shortcircuited coil.be desired to calculate separately the average value of the total e. The value of 3> e will actually be greater than as given by formula (72) unless k is given a value greater than unity. the formula for voltage becomes . N fications. we have p where le Bji. the latter value being taken when the end connections lie on a steel or iron supporting cylinder against which they are held by bands of steel wire.f. and factor \/2 is the necessary correction to give the component of the velocity at right angles to the conductor. This is due to the proximity of the pole shoes to the armature where the end connections leave the slots. meters. = speed of cutting.COMMUTATION simplification 159 may be introduced by assuming the quantity W "v 2r to be negligibly small relatively to unity. c if we keep to the assumption of angle a = 45 degrees. whence (73) The constant k has to be introduced in these formulas because the flux paths are not through air only as assumed in order to simplify the problem. and F.m. Should it . The numerical value of k in multipolar machines of modern design will usually lie between 1.T c ~10^ armature slots (both ends) = total length of coil outside in centimeters.
The above assumption of a fullpitch pitch winding. and there will be a further gain due to the shortening of the end connections (ABC and A'B'C' in Thus the voltage generated by the cutting of the end Fig. and conclusions are based on the winding. 57 and 58) will make clear the fact that. will be slightly less than the value calculated by formula (74). effect of the end connections is neglected. then E. this flux must be provided by the main field pole toward which the brushes are shifted to obtain perfect commutation. With a chorded or short A commutating zone even when the reference to the diagrams of flux distribution in the (Figs. 49. fluxes. and for the quantity (log e \ ^ W = a 1) ' put the numerical value 2.) 8 (log. The point on the armature periphery where flux neither enters nor leaves the teeth may be found by drawing curves representing the magnetomotive forces exerted by field poles and armature windings at every point on the armature periphery.160 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN k iTf X Q. be moved forward beyond this point until the reversing flux entering the teeth comprised in the brush arc has . or by the approximate formula (75). must. first approximations the formula may be put into simpler Let A c stand for the ampereconductors per pole pitch of armature periphery (A c = 27W C ). (approximately) where  (75) V is the peripheral velocity of the armature in centimeters calculations per second. which applies to a fullpitch winding. Let k = 2.sVZnlcT X T c (*DN.1 (being an average value). 59).5. * ^yy a * l) 10 For form. and where the sum of the ordinates of such curves is The brushes zero the surface flux density must also be zero. because in order that the shortcircuited conductors shall not cut the slot leakage flux. with a short pitch winding. the average flux density in the commutating zone will be slightly reduced. the center of the neutral commutating zone is not the point on the armature periphery where flux neither enters nor leaves the teeth . however. Calculation of "Slot Flux" Cut by Coil during Commutation.
because the total number of lines crossing between the sides of adjacent teeth does not link with all the wires in the coil. the straightline law of commutation readily arrived at. the small amount of flux that may follow a curved path from corner to corner of tooth at the top of the slot will be Refinements of this nature may be introduced. usual assumption is made that the reluctance of the iron in the path of the magnetic lines is negligible in comparison with the slot reluctance. The lines of the slot flux will be supposed to take the shortest path from tooth to tooth.. the small portion of slot flux in the space dx (Fig. to compensate for the end fluxes.e. In such cases the actual conditions must be studied. 1 In practice. and the whole of the slot space to be filled with 2T conductors.COMMUTATION <l> . long axially (i. 1 2 With shortpitch windings. 2 If the desired. when we wish to calculate the volts generated in the coil of T turns by this slot leakage flux. 62) considered 1 cm. the amount of the slot flux must be calculated for the instant when the coil enters or leaves the commutating zone. X dP X the permeance of the air path. /Y fj/v* * d3> = 0. (this follows from the assumption of a fullpitch winding). all the conductors in the slot may not be carrying the full armature current when the coil enters or leaves the commutating zone. each carrying a current of I c amp. or when there are more commutator bars than there are slots on the armature. when solving the problem for a concrete case.47T (2TI C) d s In the case of shortpitch windings. if neglected. It will be convenient to assume the same number of slots as there are commutator bars. in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper) is d$ = where dP is m. 161 the value 3> e as given by the formula (72). may be assumed in order to estimate the current values in the coils passing through the intermediate stages of commutation.f. where the slot flux will not pass through the material of the conductors.m. an average value for the slot flux being If necessary. 11 . This flux will depend not only upon the dimensions of the slot but also upon the current carried by each conductor and the position of the latter in the slot. Thus no account will be taken of the fact that a small space occurs between upper and lower coils. or when there are several coils per slot. plus the total slot flux 8 which is twice the leakage from tooth to tooth in one slot when the conductors are carrying the full armature current. it is the equivalent slot flux that must be considered. Thus.
which would generate the same slot. and the equivae. if but this flux links with only lent slot flux. is cut by all the conductors in the therefore (equivalent) and ^(equivalent) ~ .f.m.162 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN 2T X ^ conductors.
linkage and therefore the developed voltage have not the same value in the two cases. The total slot flux. 3>a Knowing the slot flux 3> es and the previously calculated end flux cut by the conductors of the shortcircuited coil while travela the correct brush position is found when ling over the distance W . In such cases the slot flux must be calculated for the coils that are differently situated in regard to the brush position and an average value selected for use in the calculations. only 3> e . it is not possible to consider all special cases. although it must be remembered brush." inequalities occur which complicate the problem and make it impossible to obtain ideal commutation with every coil on the armature. the component of the total flux entering the commutating zone merely supplies the leakage from tooth to tooth across the slot. and commutation formulas of general applicability cannot be developed. problem of commutation. + The flux actually cut by the one coilside is.COMMUTATION 163 This is generally true. and when there are "dead coils. It is slot flux is the basis of the assumptions previously made. is not of general application. tating zone of width W . is what has been . of this chapter. Jo is "d r (79) . referred to as the equivalent slot flux. The presence of the slot flux undoubtedly tends to complicate the &ea the slot flux this value. which links with all the conductors in the slot. It should be noted that $ea if calculated by formula (77). on the flux. would develop the same voltage in the coil as the actual The flux cut by the coilside may be separated into two parts: (1) the flux passing through the teeth into the armature. The condition of fulfilled is that the be to importance simply "equivalent" flux cut by the coilside in the reversing field shall have the value $*. slot flux develops in the actual winding. the reversing flux entering the teeth comprised in the commua is approximately & e8 $<? maxwells. that the formula (78). however. and (2) the equivalent slot important to note that although the total or actual same whether it enters the top or the root of the the flux tooth. in common with other formulas preWithin the limits viously derived. When there is more than one coil per slot. a flux of cut by an imaginary concentrated winding of T turns. that if is to say.
.. 62). in this particular instance. = 2la r Sv Jo I* . The total flux entering the teeth comprised commutating zone should therefore be 3<'es = + flux passing directly into armature core through the teeth..47T (2TI e ) no longer link with 2T . therefore '.. X Jo dx d x)dx (so) (" f^rtjfi : or just half the equivalent slot flux as given by formula (77). but <'<> + <><? = <..164 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN being one and onehalf times the equivalent slot flux given by formula (77). $c <*>es + <*>e (82) where $> is the equivalent slot flux as originally calculated and expressed by formula (77). where $ is. it may be calculated thus: The magnetic lines represented by the expression d$ = x dx x 0. Thus <D C = = 2*' e8 + *e (81) or. if preferred. The question now arises What is the necessary total flux enter ing the tops of the teeth comprised in the commutating zone to develop the proper voltage component in the shortcircuited A total slot flux as given by formula (79) has the "equivalent" value as given by formula (80) that is to say. coil? ^ ^ . The equivalent flux when the total slot flux enters the tooth top instead of passing through root of tooth is no longer expressed by formula (77). it is on the basis of the assumptions previously made three times as great as the equivalent in the $> c flux.. flux passes into the The equivalent flux. the equivalent value of the total flux to be cut by the "active" portion of the shortcircuited conductors. but with j Cv o a 2T ^ conductors (see Fig. conductors. when no part of this is armature core below the teeth.
COMMUTATION 165 The flux actually entering the armature teeth in the commutation zone should therefore be equal to the sum of the end It is because this conflux $ e and the equivalent slot flux ^ e8 clusion is not obvious that it has been deduced from the fore going arguments. this armature flux is unaffected by the excitation of the main poles its value depends only upon the armature ampereturns and the reluctance of the air paths . interpoles will probably be necessary. With the brushes on the geometric neutral line. of the armature windings will enter or leave the armature core by the teeth included in the commutating zone. . obtained the method outlined in Art. to . or the machine must be redesigned. as before. the calculated density commutating zone. In the event of B c being in excess of this value. Assuming the same number of Interpoles. as there main are interpoles poles. commutating poles must be provided. Having determined the value of the flux <f> c which must enter the teeth comprised in the commutating zone of width a it is evident that the average airgap density in this zone. Chap. If the flux distribution curves B c required in the (83). and an axial length of interpole to that of the main equal pole.rn. W produce perfect commutation. Commutating which enters the armature teeth included zone of width a is.$ e in the W commutating . as expressed by formula be compared with the average airgap density under the main poles. and this flux will be cut by that portion of the slot conductors which is not covered by the interpole. provided carbon brushes are used. 3> e f. then some flux due to the total m. must be * Bc = 3>c W^XTa by By referring to the final flux distribution curve. as is usually the case. the interpole face does not cover the whole length of the armature core. may have not been drawn. VII. If. If the required density does not exceed onehalf of the average density of the main flux taken over the pole pitch. the flux from each interpole 50.f. it may easily be seen whether or not the desired field can be obtained in the If the required field is greater than fringe of the leading pole tip. that obtainable in the interpolar space. it will usually be possible to obtain satisfactory commutation in the fringe of the leading pole tip. 43. C.
Many of the symbols used in the previous calculations will be employed. &e = $a = $. when the axial length l p of the interpole appreciably less than the gross length la of the armature core. C. The flux entering and leaving the surface of the armature commutating zone. but it is proposed to alter the meaning of some of these because it will be more convenient to think of the slot flux per centimeter length of slot instead of the flux over the whole length of slot as in the previously developed formulas. 63. equivalent slot flux per centimeter. Chap. if magnetic lines pass outward from armature core through root of teeth $' = (two slots). Commutating pole: showing direction of flux at armature surface. over area of width a and length l p W . it will in the is be advisable to define clearly the various flux components to be considered. 43. . = total end flux (one total slot flux slots). 63. as indicated in Art. Before calculating the flux which must enter the armature teeth from the commutating pole. per centimeter of armature length (two equivalent slot flux per centimeter. This slight change will probably lead to less confusion than if a complete new set of symbols were to be introduced here. $>c = total flux entering armature teeth from interpole.166 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN between the armature surface and neighboring masses of iron. FIG. VII. if magnetic lines pass inward from air gap through top of teeth (two slots). It can be predetermined within reasonably close limits by plotting the fullload flux curve. is indicated in Fig. end of armature).
63). comparing the previously developed equations (77). (80) and Thus. flux to The equivalent must equal the neutralized. which leaves teeth over the commutating zone of width a and length $ = armature la  W lp (Fig. (79). which enters armature core through root of teeth.COMMUTATION $d 167 = portion of interpole flux per centimeter length. flux per centimeter length. . $c we get lp) = $slp + $e + $a(la ~ + $>es(L  lp)  &eslp (84) This equation may be simplified by expressing to total slot flux $a and the equivalent slot flux 3>'ea in terms of the equivalent slot flux $ e The relation between these quantities is obtained by .. total of all the flux be cut by conductors under the interpole components that have to be This leads to the equation from which a value leaving interpole is for $d can be calculated. as previously mentioned. M Rewe get lp) inserting these values in equation (84) $c = $e + $es la + $a(k ~ (85) wherein the symbols $ ea and $0 stand for flux components per unit length of armature core. involves keeping the width and axial length of interpole small. its crosssection can be decided upon and the necessary exciting ampereturns calculated. Knowing the amount of the flux to be provided by each inter' pole. *. to allow of increase on overloads. This (6) The leakage factor should be as small as possible.000 gausses corresponding to" fullload current).. = = %* and *'. bearing in : mind the following requirements (a) The average airgap density should be low (about 4. The total flux Inserting for <!><* in this last equation the value derived from the previous equation.
parallel circuits should be avoided because of the possibility that the (K) all If the total current is current may not be equally divided. 1 The diverter should be partly inductive. however. are. if possible. but the width of brush should not be determined independently of the interpole design. if possible. be an exact multiple of the slot pitch (either once or twice the slot pitch) as this tends to reduce the magnitude of the flux pulsations in The effects of these flux pulsations. of the total. because the ampereturns required to overcome the airgap reluctance rarely exceed 25 per cent. the resistance being wound 1 The use known as a of a resistance as a diverter field will shunt to the series field winding usually be referred to again later when considering the design of the magnets. especially when the air gap under the main poles is made smaller than it would have to be if interpoles were not used. (g) Series. The gain resulting from a small air gap is.or wavewound armatures are to be preferred on m. . of the PR total output). too great. A similar condition exists in the armature core.168 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN (a) thus conflicting with condition difficulties of and presenting one of the commutatingpole design. the ampereturns and the length per turn should be as small as possible. the balance being required to oppose the armature A reasonably large air gap has the advantage of reducing the flux pulsations referred to under (d). it is important to see that the resulting flux density in this part of the magnetic circuit is not excessive. The total line current should. that is to say. (/) The effect of the interpole being to increase the flux in that portion of the yoke which lies between the interpole and the main pole of opposite polarity. pass through the interpole windings in series. a portion may be shunted through a diverter. losses in the series turns on (e) In order to keep down the the interpole (usually amounting to less than 1 per cent. but this does not usually determine the limits of the allowable average flux density below the teeth. usually of no great practical importance. however. (c) the minimum width of pole face must be such that the equivalent pole arc (which must include an allowance for fringing) shall cover the commutating zone of width a (d) The equivalent pole arc should. caused by the interpole. W . variations in the reluctance of the interpole air gap. not great.f.m. machines with commutating poles.
The limiting factor in this connection is the saturation of the iron (mainly of the interpole itself) in the local circuit. The I 2 R loss in interpole windings is to some extent compensated for by a reduction of the ampereturns on the main poles when shorter air gaps are used. gap field distortion per se has nothing to do with commutation. thus allowing of greater output notwithstandthe slight reduction in width of main poles necessary to ing accommodate the interpoles.f must be compensated for somehow if satisfactory commutation is to be obtained. the interpole winding will not take its proper share of the total current when the change of load is sudden. whether interpoles are used or not. It is not suggested that field distortion is unobjectionable when the brushes are on the geometric neutral or when interThe concentration of flux at one side of the main poles are used. the advantages of commutating poles may be menAmong tioned the fixed position of the brushes and the fact that fairly momentary heavy overloads can be taken from the machine without destructive sparking. and the specific loading (ampereconductors per unit length of armature periphery) be increased. being less effective than in the case of noninterpole machines. pole may lead to flashing over the commutator surface (an effect often attributed to unsatisfactory commutation.COMMUTATION 169 on an iron core in order that the time constants of the main and shunt circuits may be approximately equal. though rarely due to this cause). if the fringe from the leading pole tip is not to be used for counteracting the effects of end flux and slot flux on the coil undergoing commutation. Deeper armature slots may be used than in the case of machines without interpoles. It . and this is aggravated by the large percentage of leakage flux due to the proximity of main and commutating poles. because of the building up of the commutating flux with increase of load. and this may lead to destructive sparking. . but the chief objection to a large number of armature ampereturns per pole is the fact that the flux in the zone of commutation due to this m. The maximum output of the may machine with commutating poles is usually determined by the the ventilation heating limits. If this is not done.m. the unequal flux distribution under the main poles due to crossmagnetization does not affect the field at a point midway between two main poles. With the brushes on the geometric neutral and an air which is small relatively to the space between pole tips.
Fig. One the function of which effect of the Center Line of Pole Compensating Main Exciting Cofl Interpole Winding FIG. and so . In the case of the interpole machine. that slots in the pole so The connections between the poleface compensating coils are made that the current in these will always tend to neutralize coils. the magnetic effect of the currents in the armature prevent distortion of the flux over the pole face. have been constructed under the THOMPSONRYAN patents. is to neutralize the magnetizing armature winding and maintain an approximately constant flux density over the pole faces. there is much to be said in favor of poleface windfor ings. and carry the pass through current of the machine. of the attractive features of such designs is the fact that the winding on the commutating poles need be no greater than that required to overcome the reluctance of the air gap and send the requisite flux into the armature teeth comprised in the commutating zone. Compensating poleface winding. has its maximum value. and. A poleface compensating winding coils full is shown in The balancing face is to say. the windings necessary to compensate armature crossmagnetization are an objectionable feature.f. The writer has in mind machines such as those which.m. 64. 64. for the last 20 years. except for the added cost and tendency to interfere with ventilation. are in series with the connected commutatingpole windings they and the compounding series turns (if any) on the main poles.170 is PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN exactly in the zone corresponding to the brush position that the armature m.
giving two turns between adjacent in.5. Number of slots per pole n = 20.5 in.COMMUTATION 61. main poles p = 6. Assuming the same number of commutating poles as there are main poles. Number of Total number of slots = 120.p.800 maxwells. (There are four coilor two coils. = 28 cm. and they must not be considered representative of modern practice. multiple. the flux entering the armature teeth in the commutata should have the value given by formula (85). R. Armature core length la = 11 in.4\/2 X 2 X 4 X 76 X 20 X = 64. ing zone of width The end flux cut by the shortcircuited coils is given approximately by formula (72) in which the coefficient k may be given the value 2.785 in. 500. Assume the leading particulars of the machine will to be as follows: Output Volts = = 200 kw. Total number of conductors Z = 120 X 8 = 960. commutator bars. commutator bars = 240.~ = 0. = 0.262 in. Slot pitch X Slot width s Slot depth Style of winding: fullpitch. Number of bars covered = 0. Current per armature path I c = 76 amp.) Diameter of commutator = 20 Pitch of commutator bars = ~. W X 3.1] = 0. ~ 440. Thus: W 3> e = QAVzkTLnWa [(log 2n) .5 = 0. Number of conductors per slot = 8. 171 The numbers and dimenof Interpole Design. Number of sides per slot. sions used to illustrate the method of calculation outlined above Example be chosen without reference to an actual design of interpole dynamo. d = 1.69  1) . = 0.262 Thickness of brush (brush arc) Brush arc referred to armature periphery by brush = 3. t 3.916 in. Armature core diameter D = 30 in.5 X (3.m.39 in.
the I . 65. at In regard to the slot the beginning or end of commuta tion (depending upon the position of the coil in the slot) the conductors in the slot affected are not all carrying the full armature current. when the position of the affected slot relatively to brush and interpole is as indicated by the dotted lines. therefore. straightline law of current variation being assumed. 65. in The slot flux $et formula (85). At this instant the current in the coilsides B and D 1. At the end of commutation. which is the "equivalent" value . where coil is just about to be shortcircuited by the brush. This will A is (consisting of two turns) be seen by reference to Fig. but I c X / . assume the slot flux to is average value be produced by a current of which the o Q 428 not 7 C = 76 amp.172 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN flux. the current in all four coilsides is 7C . Illustrating example of interpole design. * d^[fi!!7^%?^!!!i!li!!^v^ j\ ' ~ K FIG..= 65 amp. We i may.75 0.428/c as indicated by the diagram sketched on the brush of width W covering three and onehalf bars.
There will be no directly demagnetizing effect due to brush lead since the brushes will remain on the geometric neutral line.400 gausses. calculated on the assumption that there are no interpoles.COMMUTATION 173 assuming the total slot flux to pass outward from the armature core through the teeth.by formula (77). let the curve Fig. 43.000 maxwells. lated without interpoles.  l ***TI. 47. is. 3s 11 whence. the total is flux which must pass from interpole into armature teeth BW a (la  l p) .67T X 1. _ 1. derived in the manner outlined in Art. 66 represent the fullload flux distribution over FIG.39 X 2. Chap..) (Calcu armature surface. This is the flux curve C.54 = the armature. therefore . this being the equivalent slot flux taken over the full length of Turning now to the flux leaving the armature in that part of the commutating belt which is not covered by the interpole.Flux curve showing density on geometric neutral line. The flux density at a point midway between the two poles has the value B which for the purpose of this example may be assumed to be 1. VII. 66. t If lp = axial length of interpole (not yet determined).5 X 4 X 65 X 3 X 0. but with the brushes left in the noload position.
to Fig.300 gausses. to be 12. . of 1. QJa q + BW a (la  lp) whence . the armature ampereturns per pole are 1ZL _ 2 p If (120 X 8) X 76 2X6 6.800 (86). the interpole flux enters the armature through the teeth 1 and 2. in. + . Referring it will be seen that when the coil A is about to be short circuited..375(11  5) 186. 65. p. The fullload might ampereturns required to overcome airgap reluctance will therefore be Y 0. 36. the fullload density in the would be 7. B p p Wa = l *. _ W a (B p + BWglg + B) or.m. interpole suitable value for the average airgap density under fullload conditions is assumed. 115. $c = = + 47.54 X 4. required to overcome the reluctance of the interpole core.400 X 6.500 ~QA^~ = 2 72 ' To this must be added the ampereturns If to oppose the armature is m. 5 is in. therefore.f. the total ampereturns on each l we See Art.174 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN which is simply formula (85) with the armature flux per centimeter of length expressed as The axial a instead of a of the face be determined if a length lp can.9 Assuming a leakage factor pole winding of (5 core of the interpole and a crosssection under inter sq.000 + X 1%) 1. long. Let B p stand for this value. then BW < .m.400 maxwells. Calculation of Ampereturns Required on Interpole. The total flux in the interpole air gap at full load then.3 in. and if Bp is taken as 4.500 gausses. If the flux densities are expressed in gausses. it may be calculated by any of the approximate methods. teeth 3 and 4.45 X 1.f.05 cm. the length lp is found. say. the reduction of current in the shortcircuited coils neglected.080 = neglect the very small m. by formula 64. At the end of commutation this flux enters the The permeance of the air gap of length 5 may 1 vary slightly with the change in the position of the armature teeth. in. the dimensions must be in centimeters.3 X 2. the equivalent air gap Assuming an actual air gap be 0.
455 = 19. Fig. Prevention of Sparking Practical Considerations. knowing well that. page 146 the effect of the brushcontact resistance was considered. and it was seen that the value of this resistance has no effect on the problem of commutation provided the change of current in the shortcircuited coil takes place in accordance with the "ideal" or straightline law. carbon brush to give sparkless commutation even when the con" ditions depart appreciably from those of ideal" commutation. and if the current in would be put on the interpole of this necessary a diverter would be provided to adjust accordance with results obtained on test. The interpole should be 2.000 f. The designer aims at obtaining "ideal" commutation under certain load conditions. The extent to which the ideal condition can be departed from without producing destructive sparking is not easily determined except by experimental means.800 *.COMMUTATION 175 6. The diagram. even when serieswound commutating poles are used. It is 52. In and the required number of turns is 8. when " " commutation is obtained. it is necessary to consider the effect of the brushcontact resistance when the current density is no longer uniform over the entire surface. 67. FIG.720 fullload current of the machine is 200. is gener .080 = 8. we wish to examine the condinecessarily uniform. Armature coil near end of commutation period. the distribution of the straightline current over the contact surface of a brush of rectangular section is If.. The reason is that. the required conditions cannot be exHe relies on the resistance of the actly fulfilled at other loads. now. In Art.800 at full load. tions of commutation when the changes of current do not follow the ideal straightline law.440 = 455 amp. 45. 67. not suggested that the method of considering commutation phenomena as outlined above covers the subject completely. + practice about 21 turns machine.35.
R lc (&w  A) as it now. = maximum permissible current density over the surface of the brush tip of width w. over the brushcontact surface. of the set of brushes measured A = amperes per square inch. in ohms. 67. e If. Let R be the resistance. the Summing up the e. in inches. If preferred. we c get. and we may therefore write. this equation may be put in the form e = ICR  tf c A(/c  1) (87) . still to be travelled before the removal of the shortcircuit is w. in inches. which is supposed to be only a small per The centage of the total brush arc W. in the shortcircuited coil at the end of the commutation period. 56. we can write. for the value of the volts developed in the shortcircuited coil at the instant considered. except that the coil connecting segments has moved nearer to the edge of the commutation zone. the second term on the righthand side of the equation becomes of relatively less and less importance. we imagine w to become smaller and smaller ap proaches zero value. the density over the surface Sb of the segment parallel to the axis of rotation.fs.m. e = iR = Ic + &R C &W R C But i ia spection of Fig.&w wR . i in = Ic &wl c w Substituting in the previous equation.176 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN ally similar to Fig. (Fig.f. 67). = IC R . the average current density. = the total length.m. and A B distance. It will also be. wherein the meaning of the symbols will be evident from an This last equation may be written. of the coil connecting the commutator segments A and B. R lc c the contact resistance of the brushes per square inch of area. e = I CR R c (k w  A) which gives an approximate value for the permissible e. approximately. and potential differences in the path of the shortcircuit (the resistance of the material in the body of the brush being neglected). in B A.
calculating the equivalent slot flux. the allowable variation in the commutating flux $c as given by formulas 82. is usually assumed to be stationary in space. tion is permissible. by about 1. but with 12 . or for A w has been determination but once a safe value for k .m. and all T c is the number of turns in the shortcircuited coil.m. but it is not always easy to obtain large spacing between bars. the local currents in the copper would alter the distribution of the slot flux and call for a reversing field differing slightly from the field calculated by the aid of the formulas given in this chapter. With solid conductors of When made large crosssection. Again. in the shortcircuited coil may differ from the ideal e.f. With few teeth and a brush covering a fractional number of bars. and 85. it follows that the amount by which the flux entering the teeth in the commutating zone ideal value is 1. This might in many cases be made considerably thicker than the usual ^2 m with advantage in the matter of sparking. a case for experimental volts.5'k may differ from the X C 10 8 2T 3< c X T 10 8 c 4 maxwells (88) wherein tc is the time of commutation in seconds. the oscillations of the armature field (of small magnitude but high frequency) may have some slight effect on commutation. Apart from tation can be improved considerations of a mechanical nature.COMMUTATION 177 wherein k is the ratio of the permissible density at brush tip to the average density over brushcontact surface. the voltage drop R c&. if the value of k may be as high as 2. and thick mica insulation is otherwise  objectionable. It follows that. page 167 may If the assumed value of 1. to the square inch. determined. the actual e. with carbon brushes.5 This is. This is practically true when the number of teeth is large and the brush arc is a multiple of the bar pitch.5 volts variareadily be calculated. commuby increasing the thickness of insulation between commutator bars. the assumption virtually supposes the slot to contain a large number of small wires all connected in series.f. however. For values of A above 30 amp.5. the field due to the armature m. is usually about 1 volt.f.m. page 164.
so as to allow of examination and adjustment while running. The brush should cover from \Y to 3% commutator bars. and understand how these flux components may be calculated within limits of accuracy that are generally satisfactory in practice. he asks for more physics and less mathematics. The quality of the carbon used for the brushes.. Having determined the width of the brush. desires what he is doing. per square inch of contact surface. The designer. per square inch of brushcontact surface. rise. the usual width of brush (brush arc) being in. A sufficient cooling surface is thus shall provided from which the heat developed through friction and I 2 R loss may be radiated. he is working in the dark. will determine the heating due to friction. and when a greater length of contact surface is required. Even in small machines. the number of brushes per set should not be less than two.178 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN a better understanding of the main principles underlying commutation phenomena these and similar modifying factors of secondary importance tend to assume a less formidable aspect. he will have a working knowledge of the phenomena of commutation which should be especially valuable in cases where test data cannot be relied upon. and the length of the commutator decided upon. The final check in the matter of commutator design will is the probable temperature be considered in the following article. The pressure between brush and commutator is usually adjusted by springs so that it be from 1 to 2 Ib. In general. If he uses formulas of which he does not know the derivation or physical significance. and decided upon a suitable current density. the dimensions and proportions of the commutator. The individual brush rarely exceeds 2 in.. several brush holders are provided on the one spindle or brush arm. together with the pressure between brush and commutator surface. In order to avoid excessive temperature rise. If he can picture the shortcircuited coil cutting through the various components of the flux in the commutating zone. and \Y in. the current density is rarely allowed to exceed 30 or 40 amp. to see clearly who must of necesssity be an engineer. which . to some extent. 63. and therefore. measured parallel to the axis of rotation. the total axial length per brush set may be calculated. Mechanical Details Affecting Commutation. and as a further something between the limits check on the desirable dimensions. the width should not exceed % Jfo of the pole pitch referred to the commutator surface.
Amperes per. 69. 68.5 Ib.0. 68 and 69. Square Inch FIG. Figs.COMMUTATION 179 The curves.02 20 30 40 50 60 70 Current Density. quality of carbon. carbon brushes. carbon brushes. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 SO Current Density Amperes per Square Inch FIG. and the other to the much softer electrographitic carbon which has a lower resistance and may be worked at a higher current density. .05 !0.04 20. Pressure drop at contact surfaces. Contact resistance. give respectively the contact resistance and drop of potential for different current densities. Two curves are plotted in each case: the one referring to a hard .03 '0. An average pressure of 1.
6 volts. For the same and also to ensure more even wear of the journals and In bearings. averaged for the The and + resistances given in Fig. 68 brushes.004 X 150 = 0. very will A perfectly true cylindrical commutator surface is essential to sparkless running.180 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN per square inch between contact surfaces has been assumed in order to avoid the plotting of a large number of curves. The resistance of the contact between brush and commutator is then much lower On than with carbon brushes and the current density may be as high as 200 amp. fact that the temperature rise of the negative brushes is greater than that of the positive brushes. large machines it is not uncommon to provide some device. For highvoltage machines. the harder quality of carbon will gener be found most suitable.0028 ohm common value). there is a tendency for the mica to project This naturally leads slightly above the surface of the copper.0007 and per square inch. In other words. per square inch of contact surface. The contactsurface resistance may be anything between 0. the total loss of pressure at the brushes be 0. which is usual with carbon brushes. It is an interesting. economy may frequently be effected by using the graphitic brushes with current densities as high as 60 amp. in the form of an electromagnet with automatically controlled exciting coil. lowvoltage dynamos. If the current the calculating at surface is 150 amp. . to ensure that the desirable longitudinal motion tator reason. a safe figure for the purpose of brush losses being 0. The different sets of brushes should be "staggered" in order to cover the whole surface of the commu and so prevent the formation of grooves. per square inch (a the contact density 0. but not very clearly explained. to the square inch of contact surface. an occasional soft bar will invariably lead to sparking troubles because of unequal wear. The degree of hardness of the copper used for the commutator segments is a matter of importance. the watts ally lost are greater when the current flow according to the popular it is from have been conception is from carbon to copper. For low voltages.002 ohm. when the current to be collected is very large. some end play should be allowed to the shaft. than when copper to carbon. of the rotating parts shall be obtained Owing to the hardness of the mica insulation relatively to that of the copper bars. copper brushes must be used. instead of about 2 volts.
: a uncommon width in modern interpole generators being 0. carbon commutator and As tion of this electrical loss. as a general rule. The losses to be dissipated consist of: 2 1. Heating it is of Commutator Temperature Rise. The loss due to friction of the brushes on commutator surface. The sur face width of commutator bar may be from 0. 69 can be used. below the surface. of the armature diameter. may be as high as 0.000 ft. commutator. The the current passing into uneven distribution of current density will increase the losses. is by high speeds. The I R loss at brushcontact surface. where / This assumes an is the total current taken from the machine. parts of brush may be said that the lighter the and holder.2 in.8 in. while. output. The watts lost under item (1) are approximately 27. As the effects of any irregularities on the commutator surface are accentuated velocity of the possible.5 in. to 0. leaving an air space as the insulation between the bars. per minute when The diameter of the commutator in large machines in small machines. an allowance should be made for this. . the better the conditions in moving to when the surface of the commutator is not regard sparking absolutely true. In some cases keep necessary to provide special means of ventilation to the temperature of the commutator within reasonable but as a rule a sufficiently large cooling surface may be obtained without unduly increasing the size and cost of the limits. The PR loss in the commutator segments is relatively small and can usually be neglected. total the for 2 volts potential drop between average value of more exact determinaFor a brushes. this ratio generally about 60 per cent. 54. The design of brushes and holders is a matter of great imnot it portance. the assumed condition of uniform current density over brushcontact surface will not be fulfilled in practice. all the positive brushes includes the shunt exciting current. 2.78. cutting down the mica about J^ in. the curves of Fig. This undercutting process may have to be repeated as the commutator wears down in use. 181 and it is not uncommon to groove the between commutator bars. on machines for 300 to 600 kw. it is usual to limit the surface commutator to about 3. Moreover.COMMUTATION to sparking troubles.
7rD c N is Vc= N "12" The friction loss. The watts that can be dissipated per square inch of commucoefficient of friction The as 0. = A = C vc the total inches) . but the influence of high speeds on the cooling of revolving cylindrical surfaces is not so great as might be expected. but this factor is of less importance when the axial length of the has commutator is considerable. area of brush contact surface (square = the peripheral velocity of the commutator in feet per minute. in pounds per square inch of contact surface (usually from l^.. to the values of voltage drop as read off the curves of Fig. but this coefficient is not reliable as it depends upon many factors which cannot easily be accounted for.48. tator surface will depend on many factors which cannot be embodied in a formula. The design of the risers i.3. the copper connections between the commutator bars and the armature windings much to do with the effective cooling of small commutators. is 12 X 746 X 33.17 and as high as 0. The losses under item (2) are less easily calculated because the coefficient of friction will depend not only upon the quality of the carbon brush but also on the condition of the commutator surface. The peripheral velocity of the commutator surface will undoubtedly have an effect upon the cool ing coefficient. the coefficient of friction. 69.000 c with carbon brushes may be as low The value of c for a good quality of carbon brush of medium hardness might lie between 0. to 2 Ib. and the number of revolutions per minute.e.2 and 0.182 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN it will and be advisable to add about 25 per cent. expressed in watts. increasing to 2J^ Ib. . If D c is the diameter of the commutator in inches. Let P= the pressure of the brush on the commutator. then the friction loss is cPAv c footpounds per minute. with coppergraphite brushes).
assumed that the risers add to the effective cooling surface up to a limiting radial distance of 2 in. as indicated in Fig. where l c is the total axial length of one set of brushes. will therefore conthe cylindrical surface irDcL c . FIG. the surface of the exposed ends r (if any) of the of copper bars. and the allowance the brush holders. Cooling surface of commutator. the area beyond this distance will be considered ineffective in the matter of dissipating heat losses occurring at the commutator surface. in.. 70. . The sist of 7 cooling area. empirical formula here proposed for calculating the temperature rise of the commutator is The W=TA 0. commutator when calculating temperature it is but this leads to unsatisfactory results in the case of short commutators.. the surface of the risers (D r 2 D 2 c ). if the risers are longer than 2 in.COMMUTATION Some of the 183 designers consider only the outside cylindrical surface rise. that is to say. 70.025 (0. (90) . In the formula here proposed. The external surface of the carbonbrush holders is helpful in keeping down the temperature and it will be taken into account by assuming that the cooling surface of the commutator is increased by an amount equal to 2l c b sq. and b is the total number of brush sets. of value 2l c b for (D c z JV).
because.. the cooling area computed as above (square inches). segments should include an allowance of as the commutator must be large enough in diameter to allow of its being turned down occasionally without reducing the crosssection of the segments to a dangerous extent. This dimension of the copper as their discussion is sufficient radial to in. to prevent displacement of the bars or loosening of the mica insulation owing to vibration or centrifugal action. A depth of commutator bar must be provided in order that the strength and stiffness may be sufficient to resist the effects of centrifugal force..e. the temperature rise in degrees Centigrade.) the bar would be mechanically unsatisfactory if the thickness were reduced below this limit. T= The allowable temperature rise. The mechanical considerations are the controlling factors in this % % connection. the peripheral velocity of the cylindrical surface of the commutator in feet per minute. however. length steel rings which can be slipped over the surface of the bars and shrunk on. with the mica of the usual thickness (0.2 in.184 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN where W vc = A = = the total watts to be dissipated. and when the peripheral velocity exceeds 4. as the crosssection is usually ample to carry the required current. . The mechanical construction of the commutator is a matter of great importance. is it For instance. i.03 to 0.000 ft. These mechanical details must. for wear. The pitch of the bars at the commutator surface should not be less than 0. special means may have to be adopted to ensure satisfactory operation. if the axial may be necessary to provide one or more great.035 in. be studied elsewhere not included in the scope of this book. the limiting value of T in formula (90) is 50 to 60C. per minute.
Once the total develop the required voltage is known. y. Magnetic circuit of multipolar dynamo. and a. and for this reason the subject will be dealt with very briefly in this chapter. 71. of the flux paths per Fig. respectively. by referring to the BH curves of the materials used in the construction. ' . The Magnetic Circuit of the Dynamo. 71 know pole in the yoke. pole cores. and armature. Chap. c. The greatest part of the total reluctance 185 is in the air gap and . Ill). shows the flux paths in a multipolar dynamo.CHAPTER IX THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT DESIGN OF FIELD MAGNETS EFFICIENCY / 55. easily calculate the ampereturns necessary to overcome the reluctance of these portions of the magnetic circuit. it is an easy matter to design the complete magnetic circuit and provide it with a suitable winding in order that the required flux per pole necessary to flux shall enter the armature. The method of procedure is similar to that adopted in the design of a horseshoe lifting magnet (see Art. SECTION THROUGH 1 AB FIG. If we the flux density in the iron at all parts of the magnetic circuit and the average lengths. we can. 16.
the length of the equal to the length of c of Fig. page 133.47T X 875 (92) = 286 (approximately) For a preliminary calculation of the ampereturns required for the complete magnetic circuit. teeth. putting 875c in place of (SI) gt we get the relation 2. if we assume a depth of winding on the field coils of 1% in. but the and slots. 49. now. teeth. then. per square inch of copper crosssection.000 amp. A value of the airgap of Fig. 356 for overcompounded machines. quired.54 X 8. teeth.5 . 71) will depend upon the number of ampereturns reand therefore on the length of the air gap. we may write: and. we make the further assumptions that (SI) gt is 50 per cent. Leakage Factor in Multipolar Dynamos. but the length of the pole core (the dimension c in Fig. 71) winding space (which would be: is approximately If. to Apart from the useful flux entering the armature core..000 X 1. 0. which must be decided upon at an early stage in the design (see end of Art. Let (SI)gt be the ampereturns required at full load for the air gap. a length of winding space rather greater than as calculated by formula (91) or (92) may or be selected. and that the airgap density Bg = 8. and slots. in every . 51 (for open The necessary crosssection of iron in the various parts of the magnetic circuit is readily calculated if the leakage factor can be estimated. greater than the ampereturns necessary to overcome the reluctance of the actual air clearance of length d in. is suggested. and may be read off the curve a of Fig. This dimension will be subject to modification if it is afterward found is insufficient that the cooling surface of the field windings prevent an excessive rise of temperature.000 gausses. page 119).5.186 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN amount of excitation required to send the flux air gap. a winding space factor of 0. has already been calculated. A length equal to 305 for flat compounded machines.. 36. there will be. 66. The airgap density to be used in obtaining this component of the total through field ampereturns will be the maximum density as obtained from the flux curve circuit conditions). and a current density of 1.
II. The balance of the total ampereturns is easily calculated since the lengths and crosssections of the various parts of the magnetic circuit are 1 See p.14 1. 39." . teeth and slots. Leakage flux in multipolar dynamo.3 to 1. may be adopted for the purpose of determining the necessary crosssections of the pole cores that the leakage factor does not vary appreciably in designs of multipolar dynamos.26 to 1. output of dynamo 20 to 50 50 to 150 150 to 250 250 to 400 500 and larger 57.m. Chap. 40 and 43) Magnets. It will. VII (see Arts. curves obtained by the method followed in Chap. 72. give the ampereturns per pole required to overcome the reluctance of the air gap. some such method of estimating the leakage flux must be adopted.l6 of Total Ampereturns Required on Field The maximum values of the m. methods are used by designers 1 and. but it can be approximately predetermined by applying the conventional formulas of Art.10tol. Leakage coefficient Kw.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 187 design of dynamo. 72. 326 of WALKER'S "Specification and Design of Dynamo electric Machinery. in a plane normal to the axis of rotation.19 1. in the case of radical departures from standard types. Calculation 1.15 1.f.23 to 1. VII.13 1.11 to 1. The amount of this leakage flux is not easily calculated. be found FIG. Chap. or by the graphical method Other approximate graphical as outlined in Art. some leakage flux between pole shoes and between pole cores which. 5. and the following values modern and frame. however. will follow paths somewhat as indicated in Fig.
the maximum is density in armature core to be used in the calculations Atidln op 7 where ln stands. understood that the density to be used in the calculation is the maximum flux density at the section midway between the poles. The flux path of average length is indicated in Fig. because the flux density must necessarily be low to avoid large losses due to the reversals of magnetic flux. It is.025 in. therefore. 16. With semiclosed slots. on the assumption that the flux is is is uniformly distributed over this section. . 71. the eddycurrent losses in solidpole be very small. a more accurate value for the ampereturns will be obtained than if the length were measured along the curved path shown in the illustration. and a suitable leakage factor table the preceding article. 71 be taken as onethird of the pole pitch T. It is. The method of procedure is exactly as explained in connection with the design of a horseshoe lifting magnet (see Art. having open slots if Solidpole shoes are rarely used in connection with armatures slots. of course. a thickness of 0. something of a refinement to take account of the unequal distribution of the flux in the armature core. as before. sary to overcome the reluctance of the armature core (apart from the teeth) are but a small percentage of the total. to construct the complete pole of sheetsteel stampings.188 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN may be selected from the in known. the ampereturns necespoles and yoke. because the flux density will be less uniform in this part of the magnetic circuit than in the As a matter of fact. and it will be again fol lowed in detail when working out a numerical example of continuouscurrent generator design. The thickness of the steel sheets used to build up the pole pieces is usually greater than the air gap may that of the armature punchings. for the net axial length of the armature. There may be some doubt as to what is the proper value to take for the length of the path a in the armature core below the teeth. page 52). as this dispenses with the labor cost of fitting a separate builtup pole. if <i> the useful flux per pole entering the armature core. but laminated pole pieces are now the rule rather than the exception. or even with open shoes is large. Thus. and R d the radial depth of stampings below the teeth. being In small machines it is sometimes economical fairly common. but if the length of the path a of Fig. piece on the solid pole core.
the fullline and Ampere Turns per Pole FlG. the connection between field am we know the pereturns per pole and the terminal voltage on open circuit. 73 is the opencircuit characteristic It gives of the whole machine. it will be more convenient to plot a curve connecting field ampereturns and e.m. Here OE is the termifull OE t is the terminal voltage at . but the vertical scale has been altered so that the corresponding value Eo as read off the dotted curve of Fig. corresponding to the value B a of the maximum airgap density (Fig. but instead of giving the relation between total ampereturns per pole and the airgap density. and produce G where it meets the horizontal line representing full . yoke. and armature core. 0. nal voltage on open circuit. in Fig.e. teeth slots.f. Thus. it shows the relation between the ampereturns required for air gap.m. load (the machine is assumed to be overcompounded) and OE d is the necessary developed voltage at full load. 73 now stand for the volts developed in the armature by the cutting of the flux. the voltage that must be generated in the armature conductors by the cutting of the flux in order that the terminal voltage at full load shall be OE Draw a straight line connecting the origin.f. the point this to F corresponding to the noload voltage. 49 on page 133. of the curve and t. 73. 49.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 189 Referring to Fig. This noload saturation curve for the complete machine has been redrawn in Fig. instead of the airgap density under the center of the pole face. The fullline curve of Fig. on the understanding that the speed is constant. The additional ampereturns required to overcome the reluctance of the field poles. account for the space between dotted curves. i. This can easily be done since total flux per pole and the generated e. the curve (a) was plotted by assuming different values of airgap density. generated in the armature. 49).. arid the airgap density over the slot pitch at the center of the pole face. 73 the distance OPa is the same as in Fig. are now in a position to plot an opencircuit saturation curve which shall include the ampere and We turns necessary to overcome the reluctance of all parts of the magnetic circuit. 74.
Then. page 133). 49 (Art. since the ampereturns on the shunt at no load are OA.190 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN load terminal voltage. These ture current. The ampereturns necessary to produce the required fullload flux will be OC. but the field excitation must be greater than this in order to balance the distortional and demagnetizing effects of the armaIt was found that the ampereturns necessary to counteract the effects of the armature current were represented by the distance P b P a in Fig. they will obviously have increased to OB at full load on account of the higher terminal voltage (the "long shunt" connection is here assumed). 42. Ed E t Eo 1 < .
and a sufficient number of contacts should be provided to avoid a variation of more than J^ to 1 per cent. In a welldesigned machine. This field rheostat allows of the excitation being kept constant notwithstanding the fact that the shunt winding will not have the the same resistance when cold as it will have when a continuous run of several hours duration has raised the temperature of 7 the coils. the PR losses in the shunt field winding should not greatly exceed the values given below. in compensate for the effects of temperature changes may be determined by reference to the saturation curve as drawn in Fig. Even when the machine is compounded by the addition of a series winding. 10. With shuntwound dynamos. Shunt Field Rheostat. because the fanning effect of the rotating armature is some extent beneficial. Chap. of the total terminal pressure. It will generally be found desirable to connect the windings on the poles in series. change of voltage when cutting in or out sections of the rheostat. The amount by which the excitation has to be varied apart from the requirements to full load.for a given voltage may be proceeded with exactly as explained in connection with able cooling surface to the winding of magnet coils (see Art. or. to provide for the required speed variation. The size of wire for the shunt field coils should therefore be calculated on the assumption that the impressed voltage is 15 to 20 per cent. it is usual to provide an adjustable resistance in series with the shunt winding. but it will be convenient to consider the heating effects of the shunt and series coils together. II). the field rheostat plays a more important part: it must be designed to give the required variation in field strength between no load and all the case of a motor. less than the terminal voltage of the machine. and the question of cooling coefficients for use in predetermining temperature rise will therefore be taken up later.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 191 determined. the calculation of the size of wire. where the loss is : expressed as a percentage of the rated output of the dynamo . 74. The rheostat also allows of final adjustments being made after the machine has been built and tested. In compoundwound generators it is customary to allow a voltage drop in the rheostat amounting to 15 or 20 per cent. at constant speed. The allowis not quite the same as for the coils of lifting magnets.
be left for the series winding at the time when the dimensions of the shunt coil are decided upon. 3.0 1. Space must. carries the The series winding on the field magnets main current from the machine and thus adds to the constant excitation of the shunt coils a number of ampereturns Series Windings. but this may be done in small machines. in a machine with revolving armature.7 1.5 1 3 to 1 . useful information regarding the insulation of windings will be Chap.4 2. or more commonly near the yoke ring.C. but also because the cooling effect of the air thrown from the rotating armature will be greater if the field windings are stepped out in this manner. are frequently made to project from the pole core farther than the coils near the pole shoe.192 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Output of machine. The current density machines will usually in the fieldmagnet windings of D. partly because the space available between the poles increases with the radial distance from the center.000 and larger . therefore. or. generally in accordance with the demand for a stronger field. JOHNSON (LONGMANS & Co. if this is unimportant. The total winding space available may be divided in proportion to the ampereturns required on the shunt and series coils respectively.400 amperes per square inch. The construction and insulation of field windings deserves careful attention. . either up against the pole shoe. The series turns are usually placed at one end of the pole.5 3. FLEMING and R. kilowatts Exciting current. the temperature rise will be the determin1 Much in found A.6 1. The coils near the yoke ring. his The size of conductors for use in the series winding may be determined by considerations of permissible voltage drop. and the chief points requiring attention are the proper arrangement and the insulation of the start1 ing and finishing ends of the coils. The pressures to be considered in D. designs are not high. but for details of this nature." by M. IV of "Insulation and Design of Electrical Windings.C. the designer must rely largely upon the practice of manufacturing firms and own common sense. It is not usual to wind the series turns on the outside of the shunt wire.0 2.). be between 900 and 1. P. percentage of total current 10 20 50 100 200 300 500 1.
000. crown of turns in turns required per pole the series winding can easily be calculated.. This is merely a reThus if the sistance connected as a shunt to the series winding.. Since 6> of 7><2 turns. looking down through the The cylindrical surface of the armature. 75 which is supposed to show a portion of the FIG. the winding may consist and the current required through the coils is. gage. On account of the 59. cottoncovered wires of square or rectangular section are commonly used. It may not be possible to put this exact number on the pole. the coils may be made of flat copper strip wound edgewise by means of a special machine. Temperature Rise of Field Coils. must be shunted through the diverter. unless the series turns are next to the pole shoe. 75. the resistance of which is easily calculated after determining the resistance of the series coils from the known crosssection and computed length of the winding. unless the diameter is less than that of No. & On S. in which case a slightly higher density would be permissible because of the better ventilation. there may be an odd number of turns per pair of poles.000/7. the round wire being rarely employed. required series ampereturns per pole are 2.5 = proximity of the shunt and series windings. If the current to be carried exceeds 100 amp. there 267 amp.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT ing factor. fore. This will easily be understood by referring to Fig. provided. account of the method of connecting the series coils be tween adjacent poles on a multipolar dynamo. the excess of current being shunted through a diverter.66. the number yoke ring onto the of ampere greater number of turns is. For smaller currents. 8 B. 2. 13 it is advisable to . will 193 In the latter case. [the calculated number of turns per pole is 6. and the current 300 amp. therefore. Diagram of series field winding. and a slightly number being known. The balance of 33 amp. of poles. or a whole number plus a half turn on each pole. the allowable current density be about the same as in the shunt coils. turns will not be sufficient.
A applies to machines with wide spacing between and good ventilation.009 ! . the total external surface two ends and also the inner surface . watts per square inch per degree rise.005 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Peripheral Speed of Armature .oo7 OQ.194 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN surface. but The this has been taken into account in the curves of Fig. where the heating of magnet coils was discussed.006 0. poles interfere with the free circulation of air round the main being windings. including the the same. The problem of keeping the temperature rise of field coils within safe limits (40 9 to 45C.008 I 1 PT o. while the curve B should be used when the main poles are close together.g 0. consider the joint losses in connection with the entire cooling The reader is referred to Art. 76. Cooling coefficients for field coils of dynamos.Feet per Minute FIG. 0. or when commutating curve marked poles.011 Q 0. II. The coefficient obtained from the curves. Chap. but the cooling surface considered is of the winding. is the reciprocal of the coefficient ft 'used in the chapter on magnet design. 76. 11.) is complicated by the fact that the fanning action of the rotating armature will have an effect upon the cooling coefficient. namely.
THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 195 near the iron pole core. It is almost impossible to predetermine these quantities accurately. and therefore the weight. the weight of the rotating parts. The efficiency of a or. apart from the of the actual surface velocity. similar to the one being designed. but since the volume. but also between the inside of the coils and the pole core. an estimate has to be made power lost through windage and bearing friction. not only between the subdivisions of the winding.of the total output. The fric the case of new tion losses will increase with the surface velocities. of the rotating armature machine of given output will decrease with increase of speed. but the cooling coefficients given in Fig. The loss due to air friction will depend upon the design of the armature and arrangement of poles and frame. dynamo is the ratio of power output to power input. if possible. 76 would not be applicable to such designs without modification. Each manufacturer has his own data to guide him in total cost new designs. in designs or departures from standard types. and it should. The cooling coefficient will necessarily depend upon the type and size of the machine. Efficiency = output 7 r~nlosses output + In computing the total losses. and this percentage will not vary greatly in machines of different outputs and speeds. while the bearing friction will depend upon the number and size of the bearings. but even if such data were available for publication. The gain is not always proportionate to the and space required. be determined from tests made on machines generally The modern tendency in toward increased output by improvements in the Field qualities of materials and in methods of ventilation. Efficiency. The factors to be taken into account are so numerous and so difficult to determine that. it would be of little value without the experience which enables the designer to apply it intelligently to a practical case. it is found that the total friction losses may be expressed as a percentage . design is all coils are now frequently built with sectionalized windings so arranged that the air has free access. it is usual to group these losses together and make a reasonable allowance for them in the calculations of efficiency. and the method of coupling to the prime mover. his calculation of 60. the method of lubrication. The of a .
37. derived as explained in Art. VII.) 10 30 60 100 200 500 Large machines 3. the value of which can be read flux the fullload distribution curve. the question arises as to what particular value of the actual tooth density should be taken for the purpose of calcu lating The tooth might be divided into a imaginary sections concentric with the shaft.3 to 2. but this would be a lengthy and tedious process. 5 1. or the taper of the tooth considerIt is the this method will not yield very accurate results.0 2. Rated kw. 43. together with the frequency. actual tooth density which. 37. output Friction losses (per cent. and the tooth is in the zone of maximum air off gap density. First calculate the actual flux density at the root of the tooth (see Art.7 to 2.7 to 1. " namely. and then again.5 . The tooth density with which we are concerned in the calculations of power losses. 5 to 3. that the average value of the apparent tooth density be used in calculating the iron loss in the teeth. VII. When is very high.8 0. able. and the iron losses.3 1. Chap. and this actual tooth density may be read off a curve plotted from the formulas derived in Art. page 119). of number the following approximation will usually give results of sufficient accuracy for practical purposes.0 to 4. 31 (page 103). When its the tooth not of the same crosssection throughout length. of Hysteresis and Eddycurrent Losses in For the purpose of calculating the armature losses with sufficient accuracy to determine whether or not the temperature rise is likely to be excessive.0 2. Armature Art.0 1 to 1. and the watts lost in the elemental sections could be calculated and totalled. it was suggested in Closer Estimate Teeth. Chap.196 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN following figures indicate approximately the losses due to wind age and bearing friction in modern types of dynamos. near the top where the circumference of the equivalent" . at two other sections. will the tooth density determine the losses per pound in a given quality of steel punchings.0 to 2. is C. is this will occur when obviously the maximum density.
8 89. A of field distortion. As a check on tables may be referred to. 34.2 91. it is important that all the losses in the machine be taken into account. If.6 88. now. FULLLOAD EFFICIENCIES OF DYNAMOS Kw. the efficiencies in the following fair average of design. page 122. high tooth density is an advantage from the point of view It can easily be understood that a high flux density. by saturating the teeth. 20 30 40 50 75 100 200 500 and larger 86.7 90. These must include the losses in rheostats or diverters. A complete list of the losses to be evaluated when predetermining the efficiency will be found in the following chapter. power In predetermining the efficiency. per cent.0 93 to 95 . output 10 Efficiency. 38. the iron loss in watts per pound is read off the curves of Fig. and also at a point midway between these two extremes. These sections are shown in Fig. will represent. the average loss per pound multiplied by the total weight of iron in the teeth. which may be considered as part of the machine.THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT 197 smooth core armature would cut through the tooth. for the three selected values of the tooth density.0 87. will have a tendency to resist the changes in the airgap flux distribution. and it is losses therefore advisable to check the approximate estimate of tooth with the results obtained by the more exact method of calculation. within a reasonable degree of accuracy.3 91. page 102.6 92. and if the assumption is made that no flux lines either enter or leave the sides of the tooth. the densities at the middle and top of the tooth can readily be expressed in terms of the root density since they will vary inversely as the crosssection of the tooth. where a numerical example will illustrate in detail the steps to be followed in designing a dynamo. brought about by the crossmagnetizing effect of the armature currents. the total loss in the teeth of the machine. They represent a what may be expected in a machine of modern calculations.
198 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN DYNAMOS WHEN NOT DELIVERING FULLLOAD CURRENT EFFICIENCIES OF .
C. be suitable for produce the work it has to perform. GENERATORNUMERICAL EXAMPLE Since the procedure about to be followed numerical out a example in dynamo design is not working the to meet with approval of every practical designer. The point that must never be lost sight of is that.CHAPTER X PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF D. value. and adapt these to the requirements work on fundamental He of the specification. it must be remembered that the method has an educational. The experienced designer will be able to skip many of the intermediate steps here purposely included. it illustrates the application of theoretical principles to a conshall The various crete case. and shows how the practice of engineering is largely a matter of scientific guesswork. in principles and show how these principles detailed design of dynamoelectric in the be may applied here method The presented is one that will yield machinery. in all respects. Introductory. it likely is well to remember that an attempt is here made to base the 61. very satisfactory or when no account need be taken of existing patterns or tools. results when developing new types of machines. The practical designer is usually compelled to use stock frames and armature punchings. and of which the cost and efficiency be generally in accordance with presentday requirements.C. the conditions. steps in the electrical design of a D. he is always able to check 199 . generator will be followed in logical sequence. manufacturing the is that made designer is given a free hand to assumption machine that a shall. because he will be able to rely on the engineering judgment he has acquired during years of practice in similar work. when an engineer makes a guess in respect to a dimension or any quantity of doubtful or indeterminate value. and if the work appears unnecessarily detailed and drawn out. apart from a practical. between the ideal design must effect some sort of compromise and a design that will comply with In the method here followed.
and be shown in sufficient detail to be selfexplanatory. Design Sheets for 75kw. although the particular arrange ment here adopted need not be adhered to rigidly. It is to be beltdriven at a constant speed of 600 revolutions per minute. Multipolar Dynamo. satis The particulars contained in the following design sheets are more than sufficient for the needs of the practical designer. The calculation of items of which the numerical values are ob viously derived from previously obtained quantities will not always be shown in detail. and it will be found convenient to calculate the required dimensions and quantities generally in the order given. without commutation factory 62. . of comparatively small output. The terminal voltage on open circuit is 220. duration. The design sheets should be fol lowed item by item. The machine is therefore overcompounded. while is reserved for the corrected final values. and scientific accuracy in the results is not claimed. Two columns are provided for the numerical values. VIII). All numerical calculations have been worked out on the slide rule. 51. Chap. Since the design of commutating poles was treated at some length in the chapter on commutation (see Art. The they will actual calculations will follow the design sheets. and where the method of calculation is not clear. after a fullload run of not less than 6 hr. The items are numbered for easy reference. but they serve a useful purpose as a guide in making the calculations. The temperature rise is not to exceed 40C. but it is required to raise this to 230 at full load in order to compensate for loss of pressure in cables between the dynamo and the place where the power is utilized. and they are supposed to be filled in as the work proceeds. The first of these columns is the last column to be used for assumed values or preliminary estimates. the succeeding pages may be consulted for explanations and references to the text. The machine to be designed is for a continuous output of 75 kw.200 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN the accuracy of his estimate by satisfying himself that the results obtained accord with the known laws of physics. it is proposed to select for the purpose of illustration a machine and endeavor to obtain the addition of interpoles.
C.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF D. GENERATOR 201 DESIGN SHEET FOR CONTINUOUSCURRENT GENERATOR SPECIFICATION .
202 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Continued DESIGN SHEET FOR CONTINUOUSCURRENT GENERATOR. .
GENERATOR 203 DESIGN SHEET FOB CONTINUOUSCURRENT GENERATOR. COMMUTATOR DESIGN Continued .PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF D.C.
.204 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Continued DESIGN SHEET FOR CONTINUOUSCURRENT GENERATOR.
Item (14): Armature Diameter.3 per cent.5 and 0.000 X 475 X 0. Items (12) and (13): Line Current = 7500 3 o = 326 amp.4 amp. in. 19. With only 220 volts to be generated. (43) as 7 Using the output formula developed in Art. (see Art. la =  = 0. machine might current. approximately. we can use formula (46) to get la terms of D.. we shall adopt a simplex multiple winding which. page 192).PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF this case D. In some doubt exists as to whether a wave or lap winding should be adopted. 23.567D P whence 7 560 ' and D = external diameter. will probably have a value between 0. 23. If the pressure were higher say 500 volts a series. Let us therefore decide upon armature punchings of 19.63 in.45 X 7T 2 X 60 X10 X 8. winding would be preferable. Item (11): Apparent Airgap Density.5 . The ratio I O /T.000 8 600 in now to page 77. will give us four armature circuits in parallel. especially as it will allow of cylindrical pole cores being used. Refer to the table on page 75 in Art. 58.9.72 X 75. we have: D2 ___ 6.023) = 83. GENERATOR 205 Item (10): Type of Winding. for an economical design of machine of this size and number of poles. For a square pole face. page 84. 19 (page 74). and select B g = 8. With the square pole face. The current in each armature conductor will be onequarter of this (Art.000. Referring  rr and this seems a good proportion to aim at. Refer Art. page 87) if we neglect the shunt exciting The shunt excitation of a 75kw. % amount to 2. 19.C. or twocircuit. with our fourpole machine. so that the fullload current per qOA conductor will be j (1 + 0.
34 X 0. if Z has the value as calculated for item (16). d _ _ 3650 djbc Refer Art. Chap.206 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN and Item (16): Number of Inductors. : Refer Art. page 74. 228. ' 122 gq .290.1. Or (say) = 2X8. 18. TT X 19. page 74. .72 : = 11.34 J. : Pole Pitch.in.290. is 220 X 60 X 4 X 10 4X600X350 8 = 6. page 119.5 X 475 _ irDq Z = sf j c = Q^j 00. be something 11. page 72.4 Refer Art. practical may lead to a the core discs.6. Art. and the axial length of pole face will or less. (23) and (24) Dimensions of Air Gap. or (say) 11 in. page 79. Item (20) page 78. /tern (17): Fullload Armature Ampereturns.000 maxwells. Item (21) Pole Arc. Items (22).Length of Air Gap. The flux per pole on open circuit. and a corresponding change in the amount of flux entering the armature. page 74 and Art. Refer formula (38). 19.5 = 15. $ 6. 36. are. 2X4 Item (IS) '. pole shoe.000 = ' * in ' Item (19): Maxwells per Pole. page 72.05. These axial both of armature and dimensions. = 350 (approximately) Refer Art. IV. . 19. where change in the number of inductors (Z). T X = TT 1  19. 20. subto correction after the actual ject winding details have been because the considerations settled. 19.000 = whence la l cm in. (say) 10. 20. however. to avoid the large amount of flux which would otherwise curve round into the flat surface of = 12 Ki = it would cause eddy currents. r X r = 15. Refer Art.
It would seem advisable to have a winding with six conductors per slot. O = 0. 16 mils total to its thickness. Conductor and Slot Dimensions.5 (see Art. Had page 92). say. page 97. it have been advisable to increase the number of teeth. 23. The number of slots would then be approximately. page 92 for definition). conductors in each slot. page 85 and there must be an even number of A winding consisting of 44 or 45 slots. If we adopt the arrangement of con ductors in the slot shown in Fig.076 4. Art.5 in.03 figure been less than 3. GENERATOR By 207' Item (25) Crosssection of Armature Conductors. each with eight conductors.  11 = 1. It is neces sary to find by trial the best arrangement of slots and conductors to provide approximately 350 inductors (item (16)). 25. but the slot pitch would be large with so few slots.0402 sq. .3. or might widen the space between pole tips. would be a possible arrangement. = 58. we and Art.C.(Ji 2)0?5 of crosssection to (31): 83 4 nl. cotton covering on each conductor would add. or. slots slot. but since* it is" usual to provide the armature punchings of fourpole machines with an uneven number of slots. and the slot insulation will be about 0. 26. this (see Art. the width of each conductor The will be onethird of the total width available for copper. Z = The number of teeth between pole 15. 77. In order to determine the actual dimensions of the armature conductors. 25. (51). so that the armature core can be used for a twocircuit winding. page 93). page 93). 35 Either 14 or 15 slots per pole would be suitable for a parallel winding. say. in. 26. 0.34 tips is. is. % shall adopt a winding of 57 slot pitch (refer making the corrected value of The with six conductors per 57 X 6 = 342. The number of slots per pole should not be less than 10 (Art.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF : D. This should be about onehalf the slot pitch. formula A = whence area Items (26) 5^000 + 3^0 = = A. it will be found convenient to assume a width of slot.035 in.
Item (37) : Net Length of Armature. Hardwood wedge. say. or.2) = 9. page 96). 11 in.5 = 0. Items (32) to (34) : Tooth Diof tooth s mensions.1  1. 032 624 0. page 105. or 0. Item (38): Net Crosssection of Teeth under Pole.035 0. page 103. The required slot depth made up as follows: . below. say. which should be about 200 in.039 sq. (0. and the corrected value for item (25) is 0. long.312). the dimension d in Fig.5. wide. or. therefore 0. 77. ln Refer Art. 9.466. 31. in.(0.961 1 in. at a point halfway up the tooth. Before finally adopting these dimensions. These are the dimensions called for under item (26). it will be necessary to see that the flux density in the teeth is not excessive (item (39)). 77.521 X j X 0.322.5  57 0. Not more than three ducts should be necessary in an armature Each duct might be 0. for in. the width of tooth at the root is r : X 17.92 (11.72 48 6  n  .1 in. in. in. at the top The width is t = X = 0. The circle circumference of the through the is IT the slots X bottom of 17.125). The crosssection of iron in the teeth under one pole.048) for copper is + conductor this will is onethird of this 0. 28.5 .07 0.4 in. Refer Art. is. Copper .576. Arrangement tors in slot of conduc the slots have parallel sides.1 X 0. 105 in. (0. Cotton covering on wires (twice 0. Items (35) and (36) Cooling Ducts. and the width of each amount.208 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The space left thick (see Art. % 6 in. 33.125 is = 0.127. The depth 0402 Q125 = 0. and between the coils = 3 X 0. Insulation above. and since FIG.016) .312 X 0. = 0.382. Let us make of the (rectangular) conductor = % be in.
000 maxwells. page 102. GENERATOR 209 Item (39): Flux Density in Teeth. Referring to we have. but it is not likely to be excessive. = sm * whence 1. because the number of face conductors (Z) has been changed.C. 6. 31. it will be seen that a maximum tooth density of 22.1 to exactly 11 in. D. reducing the net length accordingly. therefore.. Thus. the teeth.6 X = 20 500 gausses > ' Referring to the table on page 104.15 X 0. Coil. This will account for the corrected values of items (37) to (39) in the last column of figures of the design sheets.5  a = 32 and cos a 20' = 0.000 6. Refer Art. page 109.3 in. to (45) : The 14 total length of Armature Resistance.290. flux density at the center of the tooth. page 104.45 48. At this stage it might be well to alter the gross length of the armature core from 11.845 By formula (52). and we may proceed with the design. le  Therefore the total length per turn 65.000 X OKQ = 6. = le + 2la = 43. Refer Art. 30. $ = The apparent 6. 34.  0337 Items (42) 97.000 is permissible when the frequency is 20. page one turn of the armature winding is . We do not yet know what will be the actual flux density at the root of the teeth under fullload conditions. is under opencircuit conditions. Before calculating the flux density in 32. page 98. Item (40): Length per Turn of Armature Art. 30.430. page 97. : to Total Armature Copper.3 + 22 = Item (41) Ratio of Copper in Slots Refer Art. it is necessary to correct the figure for flux per pole (item (19)).430.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF and Art.15s " 1.
570 watts. or 0.970. We may assume this voltage drop to be onethird : of 4. but since the losses in the teeth are likely to be below the average because a 1in. Refer Art. : 43. the resistance at about 0. to (55): Flux Density in Armature Core.7 or. Refer Art. 60C. 53. for different Items (52) Diameter. its value which occurs is. 230 + 4.7 + 1. in the Item " (50) the portion of this total loss of the armature. The volts to be developed at full load are. wherein the factor 0.6 volts. 32 (page 104).75 X 0.75 turns in series in each armature circuit. with the approximate figures given on compares favorably fore page 99.4 X 4) = 1..000 gausses would be satisfactory.337 is item (41) of the design sheets.430.04 per cent.000 may .000 maxwells. active" copper 1570 X 0. or 2. onequarter of this amount. : Items (49) and (50) Watts Lost in Armature Windings.039 X 7T There are Z/2 or 171 turns in the armature winding. The IR drop in armature winding is 0.6 + 2 = 238. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN and by formula be (21) page 36. A density of 14.337 = 530 watts. densities Internal Usual flux frequencies are given in the table in Art. ' 6. will R = _ J^5.00132 = 0.00132 ohm. depth of slot is small for a machine of this size a density of 15. 1. of the fullload terminal voltage.= X 10 6 0.3 The fullload flux must therefore be. at Brushes. PR = El = 4.0564 X 83.7 This volts.210 65. .3 in. Item (51) Flux Entering Armature at Full Load. and of item (44). Refer Art. say.= 6. page 135.7 (83. (43) page 139.4 = 4. Item (46) Pressure Drop in Series Winding.0141 ohm. and there171/4 = 42.0564 ohm. page Total is Assume two volts. Item (48): Pressure Drop 179. The value of item (43) is therefore 42.000 X 238 3 .
and total watts = 3 X 428 = load flux with fullSimilarly. 0. but if the temperature rise will not be necessary to reduce the flux 2.5)  2 (9. for the teeth (item (59)) we get a loss of 390 watts. of the output. = 3. 20 _ 15.45 X 15. 34 on page 102.521 X 9 X 57 = 75 Ib.970.674 watts. The total iron loss of 1. Refer Art.000 1.820 . we have. sq.C. The copper loss to be added to the total iron loss is the amount of item (50). for the armature core we have.5 9. in. D.5) ] = 428 Ib.5) X 11 = X 11 = . RdXLX whence Kd 6. : Cooling surface item (62) Cooling surface item (63) Cooling surface item (64) sq. Refer Art. being is rather higher than the average on page 104. GENERATOR flux in the 211 Bearing in mind that the is maximum arma ture core onehalf of the total flux per pole.000 6. ] X 4 = 1. Item (61): Total Loss to be Radiated from Armature Core. Items (62 to (64) Cooling Surfaces. in.28 X 9 X 2  [(17.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF be tried.45 X 15. 34.(9. and the total weight of iron in the core below the teeth will therefore be 0. thus. 31. = TT X = w X =  19. it densities.000 = __ 2 X 9 X 6.000 1. 34.5 2 [(19. Item (57): Weight of Iron in Teeth. The watts per pound are read off the curve of Fig.23 per cent.284. page 109. as given in the table is not excessive.000 Item (56): Weight of Iron in Core. inch of iron is The weight of a cubic 0.5) 675 329 2 sq. page 107.28 Ib.000 Bf X whence watts per pound 1. in. Items (58) to (60): Iron Losses.28 X 1 X 0. Refer Art.
will be 6. page 129.2X850 nmno and the temperature exactly as followed in the example on page 111. Before completing the drawing of the pole shoe as shown in Fig. radiating coefficient for the cylindrical surfaces Refer Art.= Q8 0.45X11X1. = 0. 36.. page 107. by formula ' . may be Y written. The is. The permeance of the pole face of the air gap over one slot pitch at the center where the actual clearance is d = in. we shall assume a lower value.076 .212 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN i Item (65) (54). the cooling coefficient for the ducts and ends will be. rise is found to be 37C. Wd= The procedure is 1. by formula (56). which is within the specified limit of 40. 34.78 cm. Refer Art.0457 0.. Item (68): Drawing of Equivalent Flux Lines. Temperature Rise. as given and the equivalent by formula (58). making v d = 850. Refer Art. as . it should be noted that the radial depth of the armature stampings is large because of the wide polar pitch. = 98 air gap.307 in.03 w = c 1UU. For the outside surface For the inside surface w = c ' nn n lUUjUUU ' ' = = 0. Items (66) and (67): Equivalent Air Gap.UUU 1 nn In the case of the ducts. page 117. and instead of taking the velocity of air through the vent ducts as onethird of the outside peripheral velocity. 78. 41. Thus. it is well to estimate the crosssection of the pole core.
The is onehalf surface. except in the neighborhood of the pole tip. approximately. 78. A suitable. in. measured on the armature face of the cylindrical pole core. radius. GENERATOR 213 be helpful in deciding upon the most suitable shape of if the pole shoe.000 maxwells. and 56. and measures 7.15 (say) 10 in.67 in.000 we assume a leakage coefficient of 1. The reference points on the armature surface have been chosen for convenience at intervals of 10. being % in.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF this will D. laminated pole shoe of the shape shown in Fig.370. The density in the core may be as high as 16. extreme point of the pole shoe is rounded off with a Jf gin. . item (21). and the crosssection is therefore 8. If the pole core is made of circular 16. maxwells.2 (Art. the flux to be carried by the pole core is 8. Diameter = 81 X  = 10. so that the air gap increases from the point / outward. while al is onehalf of the pole pitch r The tip of the pole is shaped (item (20)). 78 will be The stampings would be riveted together and at FIG.970. where the selected points are only 5 apart. The fullload flux per pole (item (51)) is 6. tlie tached by screws to distance of 0.000 gausses..370.C. or 5.45 crosssection. page 187). The greater at the ends of the pole arc than at the center.5 in.000 X 6. Graphical construction for calculating permeance of fiux paths.000 = 81 sq.
214 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of the flux lines is The construction 129. page the drawing have the follow ing values: Points on armature . and the measurements taken off as explained in Art. 41.
it will be found convenient to prepare a table similar to the one below. B .C. GENERATOR 215 B g and B at high densities.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF t D.
in the formula results of is therefore taken as 0.216 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN and t root. 26000 25000 in. 81.466 calculation are of Fig. of the tooth. or narrowest part. in the upper dotted curve The this 24000 23000 22000 21000 20000 19000 * I 18000  17000 ^16000 $ 15000  14000 13000 H 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 . shown graphically (item 34).
25) + Bg . by applying SIMPSON'S rule (Formula 64). being (1 0. the correction for the taper of teeth should be applied.307 = 0. and Art.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF line in Fig. . t Third column: in Art. 81. page 121. The magnetizing force H.0. page 132. example. . 49.C. and Slots. as explained Fourth column: The ampereturns required Hd. GENERATOR 217 which very closely expresses the true relation between the tooth density and the average density over the slot pitch. 42. Item (71): Saturation Curves for Air Gap. 81). calculated. The results of the calculations for the teeth are shown in tabular form. Teeth. Refer Art. being X 2. the meaning of the different columns of figures being as follows: Assumed values of airgap density First column: B g including the highest value likely to be attained. 38. Second column: The corresponding values of the density B at the bottom of the tooth (read off the fullline curve of Fig.943 in. page 133. We are now in a position to plot curves similar to those of Fig. in order to obtain a proper value for the ampereturns necessary to overcome the reluctance of the teeth. when necessary. and.54 where in this d. D. is the "equivalent" length of tooth. 38. its numerical value. for the entire range of values from zero to the highest attainable. to overcome the reluctance of the teeth.
307 in. This gives us the line marked A in Fig. The values of H. however. and we may write. Average which is H= 700 2X310 H ^ ^ + 144 g = 347 at the section appreciably higher than the value of halfway between the two extremes. in any case.943) = 0. Bm = of 18.100 section. 2. H n = 700 At middle.466 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN + (0. are: 22. the straight line for the airgap proper can now be drawn for the points under the center of the pole face where the equivalent air gap is 8e = 0. This difference will. because the ampereturns required to overcome tooth reluctance are then. c.100 X = 18. 41. Refer Arts. The addition to this curve of the ampereturns for the teeth and slots. which may be used for all points under the pole where the permeance has the same value as at a. 80 The corresponding values H.000. since HI air. Having plotted in Fig.11 X 0. and the density at this point is Bw = At the halfway and Fig.307 X 2.62E. By formula (64).47T 0. /. for B a = 8.100 off = 20.218 0.54\ / 0. From the point R on the permeance curve . Hw = 144. 82 the curve for the teeth only. Items (72) to (76): Flux Distribution on Open Circuit. '0. 42. we have. 82. in the above table. 40. and 42. results in the curve marked a. B has the same value as H in = = QAvSI. At bottom. as read the BH curves. 6. Obviously. Hm = 310 At top. but a small percentage of the airgap ampereturns.100 Fig. d. e. The curves for the other points on the armature surface may now be drawn as explained in Art. and H indeed the somewhat tedious work involved in the above calculation is quite unnecessary with small values of tooth density.000 and B g = 6.57. hardly be noticeable on low values of tooth density. are those corresponding to the average values of the tooth density (Bm ).
C. in order to obtain the curve A immediately of flux distribution on open circuit. 41). 79) D. Measure the area of this flux curve.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF (Fig.000 ~ its numerical value is B g (average) = g 45 ^ 15 34 \x 11 5. Saturation curves for airgap. The height of this rectangle represents the average airgap density over the pole pitch. and slots. this length as Using a scale for measuring other ordinates of the . the dotted rectangle of equal area.910 gausses. GENERATOR 219 straight line to the point on the datum line below the pole tip.430. teeth. and 6. 82. all as explained on page draw a 131 (Art. and draw 11000 10000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Ampere Turns per Pole FIG.
83. The ampereturns between pole and armature.M.F.F. Curves showing distribution of m. the value of B g at all points on the armature periphery can be determined. have at every point on the armature surface the value SI 0. b c d e f ghijk i m Reference Points FIG.m. due to field excitation on open circuit. The actual figures are given in the following table. (Full Load) 2 s 7000 \ leooo 5000 o 4000 \ &3000 2000 1000 Brush Pos tior 1000 2000 Directio n of Tra el of Co due 8000 / kj ihg f e d c bo. Point on armature surface .f.M. between pole and armature.F. (Open Circuit) \ Field M.M. permeance per square centimeter 9000 sooot M. Curves Resultant nUFull (Full Loa Load) Ampere Turns per Pole Field M.4rr X B.220 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN flux curve.
Referring again bottom circuit.m. of slots) it will be seen that..m. the maximum addition being 200 ampereturns. to overcome tooth reluctance amounts to a little over 200 ampereturns.m. This corrected curve may now be used to plot with the aid of the magnetization curves of Fig. must exceed this value.f.840 gausses under the pole face. curve of Fig. for a density of 7. GENERATOR 221 the m. between pole face and armature core. when the effect 1ZUOO .f. in m.f.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF open (i.C. 82. 82 the actual distribution of flux over the armature surface. 83 may therefore be increased throughout the proper proportion.e. The ordinates of the dotted to Fig. D. the m.
The e. . the number 106.f. The total additional excitation its is indi cated by the distance SS' in Fig. the flux curve area of which ampereturns (brush shift). the measured between brush and brush is found to be 99.800 to 7. page 137. 106.m.3 are calculated by assuming that the airgap density under the pole must be raised from 7. to be developed at full load is 238.m. cm.X 220 238..m. The ampereturns necessary to bring up the flux from the reduced value under curve B to the original value under curve A. cm.3 being item (74). 82. of the required amount 5. Items (80) to (83): Corrected Fullload Flux Distribution. 83.f.= 7. Refer Art. are airgap density under the pole 99 5 has changed from 7. 43.650 ampereturns (item (17)).3 = 115 cm.800 gausses to 7.f.m. In order to estimate the probable increase in field excitation to obtain this increase of flux. Refer Art.. curve sq.800 X 238 3 22Q = 8. 83.5 sq. 43. The curve of armature m. Had there been an appreciable difference between the calculated and measured areas of the found to check within (average Bg = flux curve. The average airgap density is therefore less than before current was taken from the armature. C should therefore have an area of . and replot the flux curve A of Fig. may now be The point k has been selected for the brush position because the (positive) field m. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN SI corresponding to each known value .f curve of Fig.800 b. and the loss of flux is due partly to distortion (tooth saturation) and partly to the demagnetizing sultant m. while curve A measures 107 sq. and (48). 84. From the re B of Fig. has here about the same value as the (negative) armature m.m.f.m.910 gausses). .f. 84 by dividing the area under the curve by the length is as obtained of the base 1 per cent.3 . of the airgap Bg The average ordinate of the curve A in Fig. calculated by assuming that the X and the ampereturns necessary to increase the developed volts from 220 to 238.450 gausses. to the fullload terminal voltage. 3. it would have been necessary to correct the m.3 volts. we may follow the method outlined on page 138.222 values of density. Al <. The final flux (46). obtained by adding the numerical values of items (45). 84 is plotted. of which the maximum drawn value is in Fig. Items (78) and (79): Flux Distribution under Load. curve. value being about 900 .260 gausses.
32 sq. which can be made up of six The spaces between brushes (which will depend upon the type of brush holder) and the : in. y The lc = 4. Refer Art.1. brushes each 1 in. the current density over brushcontact surface does not usually exceed 40 amp. we shall have to provide 57 X 3 in practice. 83. 84. This must be added to the opencircuit m.m. or (say) 6 in.f. ^ )/ In order to improve communication it will therefore be necessary to have a smaller number of turns between the tappings. in. brushes of the same sign will be Items (93) to ^ in.247 X the brush covers three bars.66 sq. % . soft quality of Unless a very(99): 'Dimensions of Brushes. may now be used : to plot the final fullload flux curve C of Fig.f. the width 3 = 0..5 and 10 volts (page 94).volt machine. per minute.23.66i0.m. Items (84) and (85) Diameter of Commutator. by Item (100) Length of Commutator.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF D. This dimension is subject to correction if the thickness of the individual bar does not work out satisfactorily. per square inch. the contact surface of all 326 = 9. 53.f.5 in. making vc = 1 Q P\ 3. page 181. which is not within the limits obtained be about Items (86) 27. or 4.741 in. The new resultant m. If we provide the same number of commutator bars as there are slots on the armature.C. carbon is used. the average voltage between the segments at full load would 230 X 4 = 16. curve ob by adding this fullload field m. If will be W = 0.. tator segments.130ft. Let us make this dimen sion total length of brushes per set.m. page 93. per brush set. to the armature m. Refer Art. A diameter of commutator not exceeding threequarters of the armature diameter will be suitable. Taking 35 as a suitable value. GENERATOR 223 ampereturns.070 X TTT^ = 2. curve of Fig.75 = 6.f. to (88): Number of Commutator Bars.m. measured in a direction parallel to the axis of the machine.. the potential difference between adjacent commutator segments might be anything between 2. On a 220. all the ordinates of which must be increased in the ratio tained '  . will then be in. Let us try a diameter D = c 13. and since the number of turns in each coil is not 171 commudivisible by 2.
54 = 3. it is of such a value as to develop I C volts in the shortcircuited coil.11 volt. $ e.4. by formula (83) B< = 1. Items (103) and (104) Average Flux Density in Commutating Refer Art. by formula (80). The equivalent slot = 1. 48.  ll 31. R one turn is 0.224 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN " " clearances at the ends. at the end of commutation.4 X ^ X 2.f. Refer Art.o 7 oxi2X2.730 maxwells. The flux to be cut by each coilside to develop this voltage is: Maxwells per centimeter of armature periphery volts X 10 8 rate of cutting. Refer Art.75 [ (log. + 31.730) is.54  = 11. The resistance.055 volt in of the coil of each coilside.4 X 3 X 83.00132 X 83. After the current in the shortcircuited coil has passed through zero value (a condition attained only when the coil as a whole is moving in a neutral field). 49 and 85. or 0. : The average density therefore. including an allowance for staggering the brushes. Also Art. 49. R. p.4 = 0.4\/2 X 2. if interpoles are to be provided.45 = 712 gaUSSeS : " Commutation. page 164. Item (101): Flux Cut by End Connections. $c = (2 X 11. in centimeters per second = 0. the field should increase in strength until.6 XirXl X3 X : 83. 171.300 maxwells. 51.00132 ohm (item (42)).760 maxwells.083 XUX 6. is . Item (102): Slot Flux. and the e. will probably require a minimum axial length of commutator surface of 7^ in. Items (105) and (106) Flux Densities at Beginning and End of The value of item (104) is the density of the field at magnetic the middle of the zone of commutation. to be developed in the coil at the beginning and end of commutation is therefore 0. flux. the value k = 2.m. we have: 3>e = 0.300 = 54.530 . Assuming for the constant in formula (72) on page 159.055 X 10* X 60 3. By formula (81) page 164: Zone.4 X 11 X 6X05 2.
GENERATOR 2 54 225 3 530 a density of 126 8 ausses> The ideal flux density at beginning of commutation is therefore 126 = 586 gausses. 712+ 712 126 = 838 gausses.45= 1^20 gausses.083 X 11X6.000 1. j i h g Flux distribution in zone of commutation. 6000 h 1000 k FIG. 52. 85 to a larger scale. 84 has been rein Fig. $ = The % x 0.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF and this corresponds to D. and the flux density required 15 . mutation. and at the end of commutation. 85. in seconds. A drawn portion of the fullload flux curve C of Fig. brushes of variation in flux density which is permissible when carbon medium hardness are used. Item (107): Sparking Limits of Flux Density in Zone of ComRefer Art. is approximately tc = ^ = = 2 130 X = 12 sec > anc*> formula (88) page 177.C. will therefore be 132.00176 X 10 8 132.000 maxwells. The time of commutation.
Items (109) to (112): Brush Resistance and Losses.2 (item (93)). It will be seen that there should be no difficulty in obtaining sparkless commutation at full . it would not depart materially from the line drawn in Fig.25 = 181. of the line In these. calculations. flux cut by the two sides of the coil is very nearly the same at any given instant.00556 X 326 = 1. load with the brushes in the selected position (over the point k) but the brush might be moved with advantage 4 or 5 nearer to the leading pole tip. 53 and 54. 85. Refer Arts. and the apart. the displacement referred to therefore corresponds. making this item 2. From Fig.226 to PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN obtain ideal commutation. In connection with Fig. In the design under consideration the pole pitch is equal to 11J4 times the slot pitch. and some previous. 68 (page 179) we find the surface resistance of hard carbon brushes to be about 0. The calculated IR drop is 0. al though the final flux curve C would be slightly modified. (item (94)) and the .025 ohms per square inch for a current density of 36. Item (108) Brush Pressure. as suggested on page The loss is 326 X 2. together with the permissible variation from this value. It is true that an allowance should have been made for the shunt exciting . Refer Arts.00556 ohm. in. The lb. 1M area of all brushes of the same sign is is 9 sq.25 volts. are indicated on the same diagram. to a movement of 2 to 2% actual space degrees.81 volts. The angular degrees referred to are socalled " electrical" de grees. but the method illustrated by Fig. in a fourpole machine. 53 and 54. total brush resistance therefore 2 = 0. 85 can. of course. and. PR 730 watts. while the two sides of the coil would probably be spaced exactly 11 slot pitches This is very little short of a fullpitch winding. 85. Assume : per square inch. be used for determining the proper brush position with shortpitch as well as with fullpitch windings. it should be observed that it is only in the case of a fullpitch winding that both coilsides will be moving through a field of the same density at the same instant of time. because the pole pitch has been divided into 180 parts. which should be increased by about 25 per cent. the value current (item (12)) has been used in place of the total current passing through the armature windings.
in diameter has been decided upon (item (68)). Refer Art. 54.. page 183.. making % D surface considered. Item (113): Brushfriction Loss.C. The fullload ampereturns per pole for air gap.2 in connection with the shaping of the pole shoe (item (68)). but these should not be necessary the type and size considered. of this item was estimated at 1.  0463 > whence T = 492 v = 0463 which is permissible. the brushfriction loss (89) is 0. but this D. and the total cooling amount to e in. it might have been necessary to increase the axial length of the comthis Had mutator. page 186.000 78.5 X X 746 TT ^ D by formula .45" yoke ring X X = 16 5 ' gausses/ Item (122): Radial Length of Pole.3C.5 X 18 X 600 X 13.  is 025 + 2 4 6.54 6. In some cases special ventilating ducts are provided inside the commutator.25 X 1.. = 17% in. in. r height of the risers will be about 2 in.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF current. Items (118) to (121): Flux Density in Pole Core.25. making The radial depth of the exposed ends of the copper bars might = 12 in.54 sq. to 492 sq. as given in formula (90). in a machine of Item (117): Leakage Coefficient. The radial of Commutator. Refer Art.2 6. in. Refer Art. Then. teeth and slots amount to about 6. or reduce the losses by' using a soft quality of carbon brush and perhaps a lighter pressure at the contact surface. on the basis of . GENERATOR 227 is usually an unnecessary refinement.000 00 =324 watts. 56. Items (115) and (116): Cooling Surface and Temperature Rise Refer Art. calculated temperature rise exceeded 60.970. cylindrical pole core 10 in. 12X33. 55. worked out as explained on page 182..000 (see Fig. 83). A. Assuming a coefficient of friction of 0. 54 and Fig. great accuracy in results is not attainable because the resistance at the brushcontact surface is always a quantity of rather doubtful value. The value The area of crosssection is therefore 78. amounts The radiating coefficient.. and when brush calculating losses. 70. and the is fullload flux density in the pole core near the 1. page 186.
the crosssection will be 6.000 2 X 1. as shown in Fig. Also Art. The dimensions can now be determined. the ampereturns for the complete magnetic circuit are calculated exactly as explained in . 86. are shown in the accom panying table. Refer Chap.45 43. = 01 O 6. Let us make the cylindrical pole yoke core 7 in.f.. IX. One of the values load conditions.f. Items (123) to (127): Dimensions of Yoke Ring. 56. the length of winding space should be something nfiO ' greater than . Assuming a density of 15.m. in.970.85 in. 16 of Chap. and the lengths flux of the paths obtained from Fig. Arts. 86. and 57. ring.2 sq.228 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN ft formula (91). 86. long. 55. which will determine the inside diameter of the This will have to be about 38 in.000 gausses in the caststeel yoke ring. III. under fullIt is not necessary to make the calculations very low voltages because the reluctance of the iron parts magnetic circuit is then negligible.2 X 15.m. FIG. Magnetic circuit of fourpole dynamo. to obtain points Suitable values of terminal voltage are selected on the saturation curve. The calculations of the total ampereturns on each pole of the machine. for of the should be slightly higher than the developed e.000 X 6. For each selected value of the developed e. Item (128): Opencircuit Saturation Curve. to develop on open circuit a given voltage.
Ill. ing of which is that the density in the pole core is calculated on the assumption that the leakage factor is 1. OPENCIRCUIT SATURATION (Table for Calculating Ampereturns per Pole for Total Magnetic Circuit) .133 instead of 1. the approximation suggested in Art. 16 (page 60) may be used.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF Chap.C. in D.2# p . for use in calculating the ampereturns required. and.133# p the mean. in the case of the pole cores. Art. as used for estimating the flux in the frame. net. The B In this instance c Bv = 1.2. whence B = c 1. The average value of the polecore density. 16. GENERATOR lifting 229 connection with the horseshoe mag useful flux entering the armature must be multiplied by the leakage factor to obtain the total flux in the yoke ring.
84.180 >170 160 150 140 130 120 . The ampereturns for the air gap. /. as suggested in Art. 3 (page 17). The length of the iron path in the armature core is taken as onethird of the pole pitch. of Fig.230 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN are read off the upper curve of The ampereturns per inch Fig. 82 (page 219). for the density corresponding to the maximum value of the flux curve A of Fig. teeth and slots are read directly off the curve a. 86. d> e. 6. and the lengths of the various parts of the magnetic circuit are taken from Fig. c. It is assumed that 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 . 57.
is obtained from Fig. Items (133) to (137) Shunt Field Winding. and 7 X J^Q = (\ *?nn 553.. as explained on page 222. amounting to 400 ampereturns. The resistance of all the four coils in series is 38. making the average diameter 1234 in.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF D. This is only 1. 13 B. By formula (26) on page 42. we have: Referring to the wire table on page 34. the standard size of wire of crosssection nearest to this calculated value is No.36 X 020= 230 4. from which it is seen that 1. where this number of ampereturns is seen to be necessary to raise the flux density under the center of the pole from 7. & S.4 per cent. We shall suppose that the shunt rheostat absorbs 15 per cent.360 X 4 X 2. which might perhaps be increased in order to reduce the amount of copper in the field coils if the temperature rise is not excessive. Items (139) to (142): Series Field Coils. The length of winding space for the shunt may be determined by dividing the total length available for the windings in the proportion of the ampereturns in shunt and series coils respectively. The length of the cylindrical core is 7 in. II. 82. and the net length of for the shunt coils might be. Refer Art. Some allowance for external insulation. and at load (item (136)) it is 4. page 192.000 is ^' a = Q 4. This can be used if the rheostat is arranged to reduce the voltage across the winding in the proper proportion. 58. 5 in. under opencircuit conditions. The series turns may be placed at either end of the pole. The number of turns per inch is 11. which leaves 187 volts across the shunt winding.36 The current. IX. Chap.8. The inside should be made diameter of the winding might be 10^ in.360 turns can be wound in the space available.800 gausses..5 in. 58.. full amp. gage.. .56 amp. : Chap. and Art. This correction. of the line current. Let us winding space assume the total thickness of winding to be 2 in. of the voltage on open circuit.260 to 7. a low value. 10.C. Refer Art. 38. and the mean length per turn.328 12 X = 4 ' 5 hmS ' at 6 1. say. GENERATOR 231 demagnetization and distortion.5 X 1.
890 in. depth of winding might be about the same as for the The mean length per turn would then be coils. temperature rise will therefore be 0.5 = 843 watts. This winding may consist of flat copper The total shunt strip wound on edge. 76 (page cooling coefficient. Items (143) and (144) Temperature Rise of Field Coils. the crosssection would be 300 = 0.. making a total The T This i' 095 0. i.095 watts. The total cooling all the windings therefore 679 X 4 = 2.25 sq. or 318. and we shall assume for the present that the crosssection is exactly 0. in. 59. and make the final adjustment series by means of a diverter.. Refer Art. 38..56) X 40. Chap. in. is 2 X TJ _ + 2 _ 2 T (14 field 10 ) = is 151 sq. at 60C. which.5 in.UUU = 0. in.5 X 38. The current through the winding will therefore be L . = o.25 sq.e. The number of turns ' per pole is = 5.0028 ohm. and the PR loss in the series coils is (300) X The 0.25 sq. is and the 194). will 890 then be Q1Q nnn olo. crosssection.200 amp. and the total length. The area of the 14) approximately 7 X ir(10 the series winding : two ends surface of in.720 sq. per square inch. in. being be increased if it is found that the temperature very small..06. The resistance. with an allowance for connections.009. = 252 watts. and if the cooling coefficient could be relied upon for the accurate prede . Let us put 5J^ turns on each pole. The drop in volts in is therefore 0. any other shape of conductor of this two or more conductors of some stock size can be connected in parallel to make up a total crosssection The space available is more than sufficient. 2 in.o 300 amp.5 = 847 or.0028 X 300 = 0.009 X _ " 44 8 o C 2. IX.720 is a little higher than the specified limit of 40. or of If preferred. as given by curve A of Fig. say. The area of the two cylindrical surfaces is = 528 sq..232 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The space available in a radial preferably near the pole shoe. 4 X 5.000 circular mils. direction is about 7 5J^ = 1J^ in.0028 loss of 1. 2 approximately. 2 PR loss at full load in the shunt winding is (4.84. in. Assuming a current density of 1. of about 0. may rise is appreciably below the specified limit.
4. assumption density part that flux neither enters nor leaves the tooth up to a distance d e from the bottom of the slot (see Fig. Each column stands for a particular output. be The X Items (148) and (149): Efficiency 60.. it D. the mean value being total weight of iron in the teeth (item (57)) is 75 lb. A resistance slightly greater than this should be provided. IX. Bm 34 to (page Referring Fig. 4. which includes the corrected tooth It will actually loss is the calculated fullload value.. The latter course would be the right one in this case since the copper loss is not by any means excessive. 60.8 = 360 watts. of the fullload The core loss output (see page 196). or to sectionalize the windings so as to improve the ventilation. respectively. Item (147): New Calculation of Losses in Teeth. Refer Art.100.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF termination of the temperature rise. The windage and friction loss is taken as 1. and it would be desirable to reduce rather than increase the amount of copper in the field windings.8 per cent.5.C. the series current passing through the diverter will be 30.8.100 gausses. Assuming the "long shunt" connection.0275 ohm. is 23.' a The terminal voltage as fraction of rated full load. and 5. corresponding to these den Bw = sities to 4.870. Refer Art. of a material and crosssection capable of carrying at least 40 amp. without undue heating.56 amp. The corresponding tooth This is the density. The maximum value of the airgap density under fullload conditions may be read off curve C of Fig.000. GENERATOR 233 would be necessary either to increase the weight of copper in the coils.1. 38. as read off Fig. vary somewhat with . at Any Output. find the watts per pound Bn = = 18. and the resistance of the diverter must therefore be : 0. Items (145) and (146) Resistance of Diverter. page 122).800 gausses. IX. 84 (page 221) where it is seen to be 10. 81 (page 216). Chap. and 102). On the at the narrowest of the tooth. expressed is line calculated on the assumption that it conforms to a straightlaw based on the known fullload and noload voltages. The efficiency table on page 235 requires but little explanation.8. Chap. we 23. the tooth densities at the three sections considered are 21. The final adjustment can then be made when the machine is on the test floor.0028 OQA X 3Q5g = 0. and the corrected total loss in the teeth is 75 4.
318 watts.915. Fig. the efficiency curve plotted from the figures in the and judging by the shape . Total = 3. The constant Brush losses are made up friction as follows: 0. carry the full armature current. The fullload current in the armature is the line current plus the shunt current (item (136)). 69 and 25 (page 179) adding per cent. 324 watts. to the calculated losses. is known (item (44)). but for practical purposes be assumed constant. and the series field losses will therefore be PR directly proportional to the copper losses in the armature.234 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN may the load (and developed voltage).350 watts.o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Output .000 friction (item (113)) Iron loss in core and teeth (item 60) = = = 1. 1. 88 table.018 Windage and bearing = X 75. and since the armature resistance i. together.644 watts. Efficiency curve. 88. The brushcontact loss is obtained by referring to Fig. which means that the series winding and diverter will. is The fullload efficiency is 0. the PR loss in the armature at different loads can readily be calculated.( Percentage of Full Load ) FIG. PR We shall assume the "long shunt" connection.
C.92 will probably be obtained with an overload of about 25 per cent. the D. GENERATOR 235 maximum efficiency of 0.PROCEDURE IN DESIGN OF of the curve. EFFICIENCY TABLE Load output .
This figure denotes the number of watts that can be radiated per degree Centigrade rise of temperature from every square inch of the entire external surface of the enclosed motor.236 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN conditions under which they have to operate. and somewhat higher may be selfcooling. a cooling coefficient of 0. On account of the dynamo machines when used as motors are more often totally enclosed than when used as generators. is allow The temperature rise is then equalized throughout the machine. A able inside the machine but this rise of means that the temperature the enclosing case must be considerably less than this. by thermometer.009 may be used. In the absence of data on the particular type of enclosed motor under consideration. say 30 or 35C. In the case of the larger units forced ventilation would then be resorted to. temperature rise of 60.007 to 0. . but the smaller sizes largely surface temperatures are allowable than in the case of opentype machines.
and the fact that the voltage regulation depends not only on the IR drop. dynamos.m. the rotor. with its shortcircuited windings. The writer has explained elsewhere the principles underlying the 1 1 working of these machines.f. This type of machine is essentially an induction motor reversed. but also on the power factor of the load. the importance of the inductance. In the continuouscurrent dynamo the function of the commutator is merely to rectify the armature currents in order that a machine with alternating e. 237 . and current. on the phase displacement of the current relatively to the e. not only of the armature itself.m. Introductory. and D. machines as nearly as possible on the lines followed in the D. however.m. being mechanically driven.C. which have no part in the design of a continuouscurrent dynamo. Among these may be mentioned the effects due to changes in wave shapes of e..e. proposed to treat the design of A. designs. the changes caused by the addition of the commutator being considered in the second place.CHAPTER XI DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 65. The problems to be solved being somewhat less simple than those connected with continuouscurrent machines. It may therefore be argued that the design of alter natingcurrent generators should be taken up before that of D. The design of asynchronous generators will not be touched upon.C. In order to avoid unnecessary repetitions. particular attention being paid to the points of difference between A." WHITTAKER & Co. but also of the circuit external to the generator.C. and since they ALFRED STILL: "Polyphase Currents.f. many matters of importance to be considered in connection with an alternatingcurrent generator. generated in its windings shall deliver unidirectional currents at the terminals.C. the writer believes that the arrangement of the subject as followed in this It is book is justified. There are. references will be made to previous chapters and stress will be laid on the essentials only. i.fs.C. machinery.
with. Machines with salient poles. and since multipolar polyphase generators with stationary armatures are more common than any other type. the idea is high enough for lighting purposes while being allow of the same circuits being used occasionlow to sufficiently for ally power purposes also. generator is that the frequency of the former is specified. .C. but the case of the highspeed. and may attain 24. whereas.000 ft. they will not be considered in detail. It is well to between two classes of alternators: distinguish 1. being that this Synchronous Generators. the number of poles is small. they will receive more attention than the less frequently seen designs. 2.238 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN commonly met book will are of a type not referred to. belt.000 ft.000 ft. for a given speed. the chief point of difference between an A.000 and 8. or oil or to water turbines. In Europe a frequency of 50 cycles per second is common. this is a matter which concerns the manufacturer only. driven at moderate speeds by 66. In these machines the field system is always the part that rotates.C. the cylindrical field or directconnected magnet with distributed windings is more common. in which the peripheral velocity usually exceeds 12. Machines directcoupled to highspeed steam turbines. will also be considered. A lower frequency is usually to be preferred for power schemes. steamturbinedriven units. The peripheral speed of the roengines. is commonly about 18. and the standards in America are 25 cycles for power purposes and 60 cycles for lighting. Such differences as occur in the electrical calculations will be pointed out as the work proceeds. in the latter. gas. per minute. Classification of to reciprocating steam. and although salient poles are sometimes used on the lower speeds. but since these are beyond the scope of this book.000. It follows that. Apart from the absence of commutator. per minute. The me chanical problems encountered in the design of these highspeed machines are relatively of greater importance than the electrical problems. the field tating part (usually magnets) will generally lie between the limits of 3. with a small number of poles and distributed field windings. they will not again be The remainder of this be devoted to a study of the synchronous alternatingcurrent generator. per minute. and this fact necessarily influences the design. the number of poles is determined by the frequency requirements. and D.
In this case the commutator is replaced by two or more slip rings connected to the proper points on the armature winding. and. whereas the insulation of the alternatingcurrent circuit may have to withstand high pressures. or threephase. the design with stationary armature is the more common. It should also be observed that the insulation of the slip rings for the comparatively low voltage of the exciting circuit offers no difficulty. dynamos. again. but these machines.e. with a erally similar to those of single exciting coil (as in the "MORDEY" flatcoil alternator). thus. that is to say. latter type is known as the inductor alternator. and since two rings only are necessary if the field rotates.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 239 speeds. without any windings on the rotating part. because it is the most commonly met with. Referring again to the type of generator to operate at moderate it is not necessary for the field to rotate. out as they Whatever may be the type of machine. may be built generally on the D. currents does not appreciably affect the design. are generated therein. Whether a machine to supply singlephase. but the points of difference in the electrical design of singlephase and polyphase generators will be pointed arise. and small units. In the succeeding articles it is the threephase genof phases is small. built in the past with windings on alternate poles only. i. is low. all the Machines have been poles are provided with exciting coils. with rotating armatures and an external crown of poles. is very great and is Number of Phases. The calculations on a machine for a large number of phases are not more difficult than when the number of the singlephase generator is. somewhat less simple than that of the polyphase machine.fs. dynamos.C. have the disadvantage that the magnetic leakage the design therefore uneconomical. we may consider the armature conductors to be cut by the mag .. 67. For a threephase generator three slip rings are required. especially when the voltage same lines as The field magnet windings of salient pole alternators are gen D.C.m. in fact. The theory erator that we shall mainly have in mind. Iron projections on the rotating part so modify the reluctance of the magnetic circuit through the arma ture coils that alternating e. twophase. or number of poles. together with those having single exciting coils. dispensing with slip rings for the collection of either alternating or continuous current. and the The field winding is then put on the stationary armature core.
armature windings. the system of alternate threephase. A and B. In the middle diagram there are two distinct windings. and diagrammatic representation In each case. in order that the e.f. but this is only done to simplify the dianetic lines in the in Fig.240 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN manner indicated of Here we have a singlephase. attention being paid to the manner of its connection to the succeeding coil. 89.m.fs. and threephase. windings.m. gram. will be generated. twophase.m.f. move is to across the armature conductors supposed pole pieces in the direction indicated by the arrow. It will be noted that the conductors of each phase are shown connected up to form a simple wave winding. FIG. and it will be readily understood that each coil may contain a number of turns. so placed on the armature surface that the complete cycle of e. twophase. variations induced in . Singlephase. generated in the various coils shall not oppose each other. 89. The upper diagram shows a single winding. in which an alternating e.
The actual speed best suited to a given size of unit will depend upon the make of the turbine. ft~.m. and For usual speeds the reader A. at the instant corresponding to the relative positions of coils and poles as indicated on the diagram.500 hp. as when the generator is directcoupled to a slowspeed steam engine or lowhead waterwheel. As an example. under a head of 1. Number of Poles. This would be suitable for direct coupling to a sixpole 25cycle generator. the values there given being applicable to In hydroelectric work the generator is usually directcoupled to the waterwheel. while in B and C it is of a smaller value and the in the opposite direction. therefore. Frequency. can. speed in revolutions per Thus p = minute. In the bottom diagram the arrangement of three windings is shown. In the case of steam turbines with a blade velocity of about 5 miles per minute the speeds are always very high. the speed of which will be high in the case of impulse wheels working under a high head. but the following table gives the approximate range of speeds covered by modern steam turbines.f.C. in A is at its maximum. A is at its maximum. From these two B through zero value. The speed may be very low. Usual Speeds of A. in diameter. running at 500 revolutions per minute. where N stands for the must Since / is usually either 25 or 60. number of poles will necessarily For a given frequency depend upon the speed. obtain twophase currents with a phase displacement of 90 electrical degrees.C. This diagram shows the positions will also of the poles at the instant it is passing while in when the e. machine of a given kilowatt output should be driven will depend upon the prime mover. or onethird of a cycle.C. is when the generator on page both D. Generators.000 ft. referred to the table 81.f in . would have a wheel about 5 ft. 16 . machines. it follows that be some definite multiple of the number of poles p.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 241 A be induced in B. Higher speeds are obtained when the generator is beltdriven or directcoupled to highspeed steam or oil is N engines. It will be seen that. Very high speeds are necessary directconnected to a steam turbine. The speed at which a 69.m. 68. with a windings we phase angle between them of 120 degrees. but after an interval of time reprea senting quarter of a period. from which threephase currents can be obtained. the e. a PELTON waterwheel to develop 1.
toll N X p and the flux cut per The average value of the e. the form factor. the virtual value of the e. the always be determined when the flux distribution is known. but. Except in the case of a sinewave flux distribution.500 900 to 1.200 to 2.11 times the mean value. the form factor may depend largely upon whether the winding is concentrated or distributed. or ratio T value . and the curve of induced e. a winding with only one slot per pole per phase would be thought of as a concentrated winding. 1Q8 If the space distribution of the flux density over the pole pitch follows the sine law.m. In practice.f. . flux per pole (maxwells).242 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Output. all the wires that are connected in series will not be moving in a field of the same density at the same instant of time.000 2. revolutions per minute 2. If each coilside may be thought of as occupying a very small width on the armature r..f .m.m. there are two or more slots per pole per phase. developed in each armature conductor must therefore be E c (mean) = $pN 6Q x volts.800 20. The wave shape of the developed voltage can said to be distributed.000 70. periphery.f..m. is 1. in the case of a sine wave. When winding is and since the conductors of any one phase cover an appreciable space on the armature periphery. then 3> The flux cut per revolution is is second &p ^. mean i .s.000 1.m.000 to 4. or 1. .000 3. the arrangement would constitute what is usually referred to as a concentrated winding. . would necessarily be of the same shape as the curve of flux distribution over the armature surface.000 10.11. = number of poles. and if the coilsides of each phase winding are spaced exactly one pole pitch apart.000 5. kilowatts Approximate range of speed.f..000 to 6. In other words. Developed in Windings. all conductors in series in one phase would always be similarly situated relatively to the center lines of the poles. E. With a winding of this kind. is value 2\/2 Concentrated and Distributed Windings. . Let $ = N p = revolutions per minute.
..... It is therefore merely necessary to add together. Thus. .. and what may be called the distribution factor is k AD = Qr The value of this distribu FIG.... there will be six slots per pole pitch.... each representing the e.. divided by 2. .11....... if there are two slots per pole per phase in a threephase machine.....0 2 .. number of inductors in series per phase..... with three slots per pole per phase.... (per phase) = gi X 5 form fact r (93) the sine wave assumption.. k : of Blots per pole per phase 1 .. Vector construction to determine distribution factor. 0....966 3 ... With a fullpitch threephase winding. the graphic construction would be as indicated in Fig... 90 where length AB = length BC = length CD. it is usual to assume that the pole shoes are so shaped as to give a sinusoidal distribution of flux over the armature surface. 90. .. volts (on sinewave assumption) (94) Values of k can easily be calculated for any arrangement of slots and windings..... The result. unity...DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 243 in the preliminary stages of a design...... the form factor if preferred.. .. The calculation of a correct ing factor for distributed windings is then very simple. the angular distance between 180 them being ~. 1. Number will have the following values Distribution factor.. .... be used in the form is 1.960 4 . or less than..m..... tion factor If is Z = the total therefore always either equal to. developed in a single conductor. will be the average voltage per conductor of the distributed winding.. . ..f..958 Infinite 955 ... 0.= 30 electrical degrees... the is: final formula for the developed voltage E On formula may........ two quantities having a phase displacement of 30 degrees... 0. and the E (per phase) = ^ fc.. the distribution factor. vectorially. As an example..
to that induced by the entering magnetism.m. because the magnetism which passes out of the armature core induces an e. Collection of three phase currents from bipolar ring armature.m. and connect them respectively to three points on the armature winding distant from each other by 120 degrees. Moreover. Star in amount. and occupies the same amount of space on the periphery of the armature core. and closed upon itself. the machine will become a threephase generator. . in the conductors exactly opposite. If we now connect two points of the winding from the opposite ends of a diameter to a pair of slip rings. the machine will be capable of delivering an alternating current. The diagram. required to obtain threephase currents. will occur suc cessively in the three sections at intervals corresponding to onethird of a complete period. Consider the armature an ordinary continuouscurrent twopole dynamo. but equal 71. shows the three equidistant tappings from armature winding to slip rings. 91. and if the windings and field poles are symmetrically .1 j n r arranged.f.244 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of and Mesh Connections. there will be no circurents of lating current. In this manner polyphase curany number of phases can be obtained. Fig.f. the winding whether the armature be of the drum If the or ring type will be continuous. 91. the variations in the induced e. winding If we imagine the commutator of such a machine to be entirely removed. It is evident that the potential difference be tween any two of the three rings will be the same. there will be no circulating current in the windings. of armature be revolved between the poles separately excited field magnets. This method of connecting up the various armature circuits of a polyphase generator is known as the mesh connection. FIG. since each section of the winding has the same number of turns. In the case of threephase currents it is usually referred to as the delta connection. If we provide three slip rings.
 tween the currents /i and the vector construction of Fig. or \/2>I a where Ia is the current in the armature cos conductors. two. 93 is the corresponding vector diagram. they to represent the equivalent" sine function. phases. relations in deltaconnected threephase generator. and (Fig. Fig.e. when used in connection with irregular " wave shapes. 92 is a diagram of connections referring to a deltaconnected threephase generator. but in practice. 93. the threephase load is usually balanced] i. Diagram of connections for deltaconnected threephase generator. FIG. showing how the current in the external The circuit may be expressed in terms of the armature current. 93 gives 01 as the line current. current leaving the terminal A h. especially in the case of power circuits. Its value . each phase winding of the machine provides onethird of the total output. is I = 27 30. 92. 92) is Ii since there will be a difference of 120 electrical degrees be/2. here is made balanced and that the cur rent variations follow the sim It is well ple harmonic law.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 245 The load may be connected across one. other condition can the phase angle have any definite meaning. or three. and Fig. The assumptions are that the load Vector diagram of current FIG. to bear in mind that vectors and vector calculations can be used only when the variable quantities follow the sine law .. must be supposed because under no .
as in the case of the previously considered meshconnected machine.f. In the threesaid ture windings are is also referred to as the connection. we see that the voltage between lines 1 and 2 E 2} which leads to the relation E = \/3Ea where E is is Ei FIG.246 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN If the Star Connection of Threephase Armature Windings. the line current is exactly the same as the current in the armature lines being windings. however. the armato be starconnected. and. phase machine this are connected to a common Y The outgoing merely a continuation of the phase windings. Effect of Star is There The wave shape of the terminal voltage is not necessarily the . The voltage between terminals is. 94. or neutral point. and Ea the phase voltage as measured between any one terminal and the neutral point.m. one difference resulting from the method of connecting the phase windings of a threephase generator which should be mentioned. There is little to be said in regard to the choice of armature connections in a threephase generator. Vector diagram showing voltage relations in Yconnected threephase generator. Referring to the vector diagram Fig. with a starconnected machine. 94. for heavy current outputs. except that. the of a of all phase windings polyphase generator starting ends junction. for the connection has the advantage of a lower higher pressures. it follows that. the terminal voltage. no longer the same as the phase voltage. the Y voltage per phase winding. This has reference to the wave shape of the e. the A connection has the advantage of a smaller current per phase winding. and Delta Connections on Third Harmonic.
94). respectively. Since a phase displacement of 60 degrees of the fundamental wave is equivalent to a phase displacement of 60 X 3 = 180 degrees of the third harmonic. are absent from the voltage measured across the terminals of a starconnected threephase generator. it follows that the third harmonics cancel out so far as their effect on the terminal voltage is concerned. and all multiples of the third harmonic. produces distortion of the wave shape. when superimposed on this fundamental wave. Power Output of Threephase Generator. it cannot make its appearance in the current leaving the terminals of the machine. similarly. which. E = V$Ea and I = la Assuming unity power Output factor. in the Yconnected machine.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS same 247 as that of the e. . The same arguments apply to the line current of a mes/iconnected polyphase generator. in the Aconnected machine. and let Ea and Ia stand for the phase voltage and armature current.m. By the third harmonic is meant a sine wave of three times the periodicity of the fundamental sine wave. voltmeter placed across the terminals of a starconnected generator measures the sum of two vector quantities with a A phase difference of 60 degrees (see Fig. The general rule is that the nth harmonic and its multiples cannot appear in the terminal voltage of a starconnected polyphase generator of n phases.f. the nth harmonic of the current wave can circulate only in the armature windings. E = Ea and while. 72. what is known as the third harmonic. we may write: of Aconnected machine = 3(EaIa) ~ V3 and. developed in the armature windings. Let E and / be the line voltage and line current. then. Thus.
74. Pole Pitch and Pole Arc. 73. machines. The quantity cos is the power factor when both current and e.v. Large A.m. of the threephase generator on a balanced load is: The total W = \/3EI cos 6. machines can be wound for higher voltages than D. as in D. In this country. a very common terminal voltage for threephase generators to be used in connection with stepup transformers.248 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of Output Yconnected machine = 3(Ea Ia ) output is. stepup transformers are used. generators may be wound to give as high a pressure as 16. of a phase winding and current in the winding. the size of the machine will depend upon the product of volts and amperes. the actual output. being dependent upon the power factor of the external circuit. involving as it A does a large number of ampereconductors per pole. but it is rarely economical to develop much above 13. where is . tator. avoidable. in watts. when higher pressures are required.200 or 6.). with their commutation difficulties. of course.C.a.600 volts. Alternatingcurrent generators are therefore rated in kilovoltamperes (k.C. very large pole pitch. is objecWhere it is untionable. as for long distance power transmission.f. If the power factor is not unity. the angle of lag between terminal e. the output.f. is either 2. a large air gap must be provided in order to prevent . and not upon the actual power output.C.C. Owing to the absence of the commuA. Usual Voltages. while the copper windings must be of sufficient crosssection to carry a given current.000 volts at the terminals.m. the effects of field distortion and demag netization are apparent in the voltage regulation of alternatingcurrent generators.Since the magnetic circuit of an alternatingcurrent generator has to be designed for a certain flux to develop a given voltage. in order to avoid heavy currents in the machine and between the machine and the primary terminals of the transformer. and should be avoided if possible. designs. in kilowatts. waves are sinusoidal.000 volts in the generator. Although there can be no sparking at the sliding contacts. the higher voltage being adopted for the larger outputs. the same in both cases.
being very common. as used for determining the proportions of dynamos. The value of k. Y D = diameter of armature = number But of poles. machines will be settled largely by considerations of peripheral velocity and pole pitch.C. overpowering the field excitation. r. 7. to limit the armature ampereturns per pole to 10. The speed of the machine which is usually a factor in determining the peripheral velocity has an appreciable influence upon the choice of pole pitch. and the designer must make some sort of a com promise to get the best proportions.000. In 25cycle generators. the pole lies between 6 and 12 in. pitch usually is (95) always large in steam In 60cycle machines running at moderate speeds. is not so readily applicable to the design of alternators. thus: is a function of the peripheral speed and TrD T:= where p (inches) . pole cores of approximately circular or square section are not always feasible or economical. because the armature diameter in A. and and f J " p*L 120 where v peripheral velocity of armature in feet per minute. the proportions of the pole face being a secondary matter. when possible. but this The pole pitch.. The output formula. It is usual. 249 the armature m. the frequency.m.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS leads to increased cost. or ratio  ^ .f. which will determine the maximum permis . is therefore determined largely by the limits of peripheral velocity. a pitch of 8 to 10 in. the pole pitch might measure from 10 to 20 in. It follows that "W which explains why the pole pitch turbinedriven alternators. which may lead to a smaller diameter and greater axial length than would be strictly economical if the weight of copper in the field coils were the only consideration.
. means per inch of armature periphery. is by no means uncommon.) 50 100 200 500 1. 75. but this limit must sometimes be exceeded. of poles.. depend upon the instantaneous value of the currents in the individual conductors. gener Average value of q ator (k.e. Machines with a small number of poles usually ha.000 400 430 470 520 570 625 670 The proper value on several factors. with the size be used in a given design will depend Apart from the fact that its value increases of the machine.v. An attempt is usually made to obtain sinusoidal distribution. and the current considered the virtual. it will depend somewhat upon the of q to following factors: (a) (6) (c) Number Voltage.m. The pole arc is a smaller portion of the total pitch than in continuouscurrent machines.C.000 5. q ductors of all a = nTJ a = TJ r The conis phases are counted. as found in commercial machines: Output of A.a.55.250 sible PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN value of the pole pitch.ve a small armature diameter and a large pole pitch. Frequency. but mainly to pro vide a proper distribution of flux over the pole pitch. A very common value is 0. as in the case of steamturbinedriven machines. In modern steamturbinedriven generators (a) .6.000 10. The magnetizing effect of the armature as a whole will. The following are average values of q. at any moment. while it may frequently be as low as 0. calling for a small value of q. value of the armature current.65. Specific Loading. in which a pole pitch of 3 to 4 ft. but the of obtaining this will be explained later. the defined as the number of ampereconductors is specific loading. As in the case of D. machines.s. the ratio T"Wn f* j f\ T*f* \ T~u) rarely exceeds 0.C. q. or r. but this matter will be taken up later. the value of r (i. The reason for the smaller circumferential space occupied by the pole face is partly to avoid excessive magnetic leakage.
a tendency to use high values of q in order to armature (and increase the critical speed) and also to increase the armature m. lower tooth densities must be used tooth and in order to avoid excessive loss. the value of q may be about 20 per cent. because this will determine the maximum density in the iron of the teeth.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS there is. the insulation occupies less space. The frequency being usually higher than in D.000 in 60cycle . on the above assumption. it is convenient to think of the maximum value of the airgap density. Flux Density in Air Gap. with a view to lowering (6) the shortcircuit current.000 gausses. Since the pole shoe is shaped 76. greater than in polyphase machines.500 to 5. (c) permissible. As a check.800 gausses. and either With low frequency it is easy to keep the iron loss small. low frequency..f. The allowable flux density in the air slot. more copper.m. nearly as possible a sinusoidal distribution of flux density over the pole pitch. it may be stated that the tooth density in alternators gausses in 25cycle machines. 60. and for copper without section of the armature teeth. For a frequency of For a frequency of These values of pitch. the highest values being used only when there is a combination of low voltage. there more room unduly reducing the cross The approximate figures given in the above table may be increased or reduced about 20 per cent. it is advisable to see that this density will not lead to an unreasonable value for the apparent tooth density. is which determines the axial length of the armature The . maximum u after deciding upon the tooth and slot proportions. 251 limit the length of the however. we have: assumed to Area of pole pitch $ = p "9 core. depend upon the proportions of but the following values may be used for pregap will liminary calculations. In singlephase machines.f.000 to 5. and large number of poles.C. If 25. ~ Bg and and 16. is airgap density.m. to give as. machines. low. Bg = Bg = 4. is If is the e.000 gausses rarely higher than 18. Bg $ = the total stand for the average density over the pole number of maxwells per pole. or a greater current density in the conis ductors. and the is shape of the flux distribution over the pole pitch be a sine wave. 3.
The inherent regulation of a generator. due mainly to the greater weight of copper in the field coils. will be discussed later. machines. Length of Air Gap. and keep the shortcircuit The distribution of armature current within reasonable limits. seeing that it leads to increased magnetic leakage and higher cost. especially as efficient automatic field The inherent regulation of comregulators are now available. the length of air gap shoulcl depend upon the armature m.f and therefore on the pole In salientpole machines.5. therefore. A good system of forced ventilation is then imperative. In large turboalternators this ratio may be as low as 1 to 1. uneconomical to aim at very good inherent regulation. face The and armature surface at the center clearance to be allowed between pole of the pole may be de termined approximately by making it of such a length that the opencircuit field ampereturns shall be not less than 1. ma77. A large air gap has the effect of improving the regulation of the machine.m.. or higher. in order to reduce the weight of copper on the rotor. mercial machines usually lies between 5 and 9 per cent.f.C. the ampereturns per pole may be taken as ^ In no case should the air gap be less than onethird to onehalf the slot opening. and the specific loading.25 to 1. at any given load. just as in the center outward. D. with a view to reducing the size of the rotor. in order to produce the required distribution A practical method of shaping the pole face will be of flux. power factor.252 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Higher densities are used in some steamturbine machines. Inherent Regulation.m. but will increase from chines. at full load on unity power factor.75 times the fullload armature ampereturns. m. but otherwise it is objectionable. with normal fullload current taken from the machine. on 85 per cent. This very marked effect of . It is. driven machines. the speed and field excitation remaining from the power connection of induction motors on alternatingcurrent circuits. q. while it may easily be 20 per cent. the air gap will not be of constant length. but. it is practically impossible to design a generator of which the Owing to the low factors resulting inherent regulation is so good that auxiliary regulating devices are unnecessary. may be defined as the percentage increase in terminal voltage when the load constant.C. is thrown off. explained later. pitch. In A. r. for the purpose of estimating the air gap.
and this is sometimes objectionable. are now purposely designed with large armature reaction and highly inductive windings. in which the pole pitch gap frequently exceeds 1 in. Not only must the armature be weak regulation. electric smelting. to 1J4 m long. the air  external to the generator. Many of the largest units. generator (with fullfield excitation) is about three to five times the normal fullload current.500 k. causing the armature ampereturns which on unity power factor have merely a distorting effect to relatively to the field.000 revolutions per minute. but since these cannot be made so small as to dispense entirely with external regulating devices. are usually installed to prevent the current attaining a dangerous value before the automatic circuit breakers have had time to operate. Machines of three times this output are now built with air gaps from 1 in. but the inductance of the armature windings should be small Thus the regulating if the inherent regulation is to be good. 15 to 20 times the normal fullload current. but in connection with the larger units. qualities of an alternatingcurrent generator depend on both armature reaction and armature reactance. but it may be stated here that the effect of a lagging armature current is very similar to that of a change of brush position in a continuouscurrent dynamo. For certain electrometallurgical work. units.000 k. steamturbinedriven units.v. and on systems dealing with large amounts of energy.DESIGN OF ALTERNATORS 253 a low power factor will be explained later in detail. but notwithstanding these features of recent introduction.000 to 30. or . in order that they may be able to withstand momentary shortcircuits without mechanical injury. the momentary shortcircuit current in may be of the order of some of the 20.C. the designer rarely aims at getting very good inherent become partly demagnetizing. in The writer knows of a machine. With the exception of highspeed. with the single air gap 3J4 in* long. designed for an output length.v. driven at very high speeds by steam turbines.a. at a speed of 1. the shortcircuit current in modern A. and a frequency of 33J^. Whether or not the designer was justified in trying to obtain satisfactory regulation by this costly and somewhat crude expedient is at least questionable. of 5. powerlimiting reactances. always very large. is With steamturbinedriven machines. Good inherent regulation means that the current on shortcircuit may be very large.a.
a powerful armature reaction and magnetic leakage are useful.254 as. with a decrease in the resistance of an electric furnace. . In other words. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN for instance. the electric production of calcium carbide. but if this _ increase of current causes a falling off in the pressure at the generator terminals. an alternator with poor regulation is desirable. the current will rise. where a constantpower machine is needed. the power consumed will not increase to any appreciable extent.
With this style of winding. and. 26. slot. but it has little to do with the principles of electric design." MILES WALKER: "Specification and Design LONGMANS & Co. high pressures. is really a study of the most convenient and economical way of connecting together the active conductors in the slots.C. given to these different windings. which is an advantage. Much excellent matter has been published on the practice of armature 1 winding. the number of conductors per slot must be a multiple of two. the coils being generally of the same shape.CHAPTER ARMATURE WINDINGS LOSSES. not for suitable therefore. This is practically identical with (a) Doublelayer Winding. but on the other hand. but the funda mental principles underlying the generation of an alternating e. (6) Singlelayer windings. page 85). machines were illustrated and exof Beyond this it is plained in the preceding chapter (Art. and alternator windings may be divided into: (a) Doublelayer windings. or to the names that may be. but instead of tappings being taken to a commutator. of There is almost no limit to the number of styles winding that can be used on alternators. the phase windings being kept separate until finally con nected star or mesh as may be decided. winding (see Fig. All coils are of the same size and shape. the end connections are rather close together. AND TEMPERATURE RISE 78. not proposed to say much regarding the actual arrangement of armature windings in alternatingcurrent generators. One great advery of the vantage doublelayer winding is that it lends itself readily each 1 chines. 255 of Dynamoelectric Ma . the coils are connected together in the proper order. Fundamental winding diagrams for and two. the usual D. can be studied without a detailed knowledge of the many practical types of armature windings. Windings. in the end.m. There is one broad distinction that can be made. 67). and there must coilsides in also be substantial insulation be tween the two This type of winding is. Types single. threephase. and are.f.
m. however. with the result that tooth harmonics in the e. and necessary in order that the end connections may clear each other. FIG. therefore. 96. other phase windings would be similarly arranged in the re maining slots. Several shapes of coil are Winding. the ends projecting beyond the slots being shaped . in which the two sides of a coil are not similarly placed relatively to the center lines of the poles. Threephase. three slots per pole per phase. suitable for high voltages. With this winding there is only and the number of conductors per slot be either odd or even. singlelayer winding. 96 there are four slots. in two equal parts.256 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN to fractional pitch lap windings. a slot. the full number of turns per pole may encircle one pole only as shown in Fig. while in The coils of the Fig. coils than for a doublelayer winding. as shown in Fig. four slots per pole per phase Considering each phase winding separately. sometimes outweighed by the fact that the total number of coils in the machine is smaller. (b) Singlelayer one coilside in may. or they may be divided between a pair of poles. single layer winding.f. therefore. 95. this involves a larger number of special tools or formers and are. 95. 95 there are three slots. In Fig. and the singlelayer winding a larger number of spare These disadvantages is. 96. per pole per phase. Good insulation is easily obtained because the end connections may be separated by large air spaces. Threephase. wave may be almost eliminated. Both diagrams show one phase only of a threephase generator. FIG.
C. as they tend to simplify the end connections. the filling of additional slots merely increases the resistance and inductance of the winding. Having mentioned this point. End connections of singlelayer armature winding. a matter of importance to see that there is no phase difference between the e. should be so disposed in the available slots that they cut the same amount of flux at the same instant of time. would be used. Spread all machines. machines. generated in the conductors of parallel In other words. the conductors of parallel circuits circuits. with distributed windings (more than one slot per pole per phase). without any This is appreciable gain in the matter of developed voltage. In singlephase machines. FIG. 97. of Windings. nothing is gained by winding all the slots on the armature surface. the number of slots per pole is divisible by 2 for a twophase generator. is n~ 180 Q = 60 degrees for a threephase machine. 97.ARMATURE WINDINGS or bent so as to clear the other Fig. Shortpitch windings are very common in twopole machines. and ing. 257 generally as shown in one phase are usually connected in It then becomes but sometimes parallel circuits are used.fs. and by 3 for a threephase generator. All the conductors of coils." or space occupied by each phase wind1 80 = 90 electrical degrees for a twophase machine. In twophase and threephase the slots on the armature are utilized. Thus. 79. series. as in D. it does not appear necessary to enlarge upon it. after a certain width of winding has been reached. the "spread. With 1 fullpitch windings. 1 17 .m. In this case the doublelayer winding.
and many difficulties have to be overcome that do not trouble the designer who is dealing with pressures of the order of 5. Fig. to obtain a The modified machine will be capable singlephase generator. where slot insula discussed. a special study has to be made of the problems of insulation. the limit being reached when the copper losses become excessive. and the posed to be distributed diameter of the semicircle represents the resultant generated made e. and since the same insulating materials are used in alternators as in dynamos. while only a portion of this surface is utilized in the singlephase alternator. which is if all the slots are is series).258 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN clear in the vector diagram. some manufacturers to have the very common because this is obtained by conof . of giving something more than twothirds of the output of the polyphase generator. there is little to be added It is the practice 1 was here. If. only 75 per cent. The tion reader is referred to Art. voltages. and connect the two remaining phases in series. of Armature Windings. filled with conductors (connected in usual in practice. the resultant e. Given a threephase machine. 98.f. 28 of Chap. in polyphase machines. V. 98.000 80. of the slots are utilized. A spread of 120 degrees is necting in series two of the phase windings of a threephase generator.m. the whole of the armature surface is available for the windings.f. will be AB. in the two cases are in the proportion arc The fact that. With very high such as are used on many power transmission schemes.000 to 10. Vector diagram illustrating "spread" of armature winding in singlephase alternator. Insulation volts.m. The winding is supin a very large number of slots. as 1 not much shorter than AC] but the length and weight of copper A Kr ^Ljj^s . These problems then become of extreme importance. it is merely necessary to omit one of the phase windings entirely Fia. accounts for the fact that the output of the latter is less than that of the polyphase machine for the same size of frame. the spread of the singlephase winding will be about 135 electrical degrees.
up to a peripheral speed of 8.000 4.045 0. the air is warmed to some extent in passing over the heated surface of the field coils. 81.12 0. and moreover. in. in.. The current density in alternator armatures usually lies between 1. and then advise the designer of the machine regarding the space to be allowed to accommodate this insulation.27 in. per minute speed of the rotating field will : A^ + The symbols have the same meaning J (96) as in formula (51) 97. with consequent high internal .500 and 3. and the writer proposes the following empirical formula for current density in the armature windings of alternators with rotating field system. in.000 8.060 0. The cooling effect of the air thrown against the conductors by the rotation of the field magnets is not so great as when the armature rotates. v. in.000 amp. Tooth and Slot Proportions. on page by assuming 82. per square inch of crosssection. the peripheral velocity. because the fanning effect be greater at the higher velocities.ARMATURE WINDINGS 259 question of insulation studied by experts who decide upon the most suitable materials to withstand the particular conditions under which the machine will have to operate. the permissible current density in the conductors will depend to some extent upon the peripheral magnets.19 0.000 ft.000 2. In deciding upon the number of teeth on the armature. the slot lining. a compromise must be made between a very small number of teeth which involves the bunching of conductors. the total thickness of insulation between the conductors and the side or bottom of the slot. Although the armature may be stationary. in. If highclass insulating materials are used.080 0. should have the following values: Terminal voltage 500 1. being calculated that the armature is rotating instead of the field. i.e. The formula previously used in the design of dynamo armatures requires some modification.000 12. Current Density in Armature Conductors.000 0.
1) in. stands for the pressure between terminals in kilovolts. machines. if the air is gap large.C. the high pressures generated in some machines. and the crosssection of the coil will be a factor in determining the length taken up in bends at the corners of the coil. is so arranged that the width of slot not such as to reduce the tooth section beyond the limit corresponding to a reasonable flux density in the iron of the tooth (see Art. a deep slot is sometimes objectionable because it leads to a high value of slot leakage flux. but. for the purpose of calculating the resistance and With weight. although deeper slots can be used. and may. and a higher cost Although larger slots are permissible in A. in D. Length and Resistance of Armature Winding. or even 3J. the number of slots may greatly exceed these figures. la the length per turn of the winding will depend upon the voltage and also upon the slot dimensions. the straight projection of the coilside (and insulation) outside the slot would be at least J (k.260 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN temperatures and high inductance and a large number of teeth. In large turboalternators. a slot pitch (X) greater than 2.. T. and the length of a mean turn estimated as closely as possible . The depth of the slot should preferably not exceed three times the width. bearing in mind the higher cost of a large number of coils. the number of slots per pole per phase usually from 1 to 4.v. and the gross length of armature core. involving more space taken up by insulation.5 in.v. but in turboalternators.C. with large pole pitch. is not recommended. 83. on the other The conductors must be hand. in. indeed. A rough sketch of the coil should be made. Apart from the pitch. The upper limit might be 2. but in such cases a slot wedge built up of laminated iron plates is generally used. the slot pitch may be as large as 3 in.75 in. The voltage will determine the amount by which the slot insulation should project beyond the end of the armature core. than generally. it is necessary to carry the slot insulation a considerable distance beyond the end of the slot in order to guard against surface leakage. On . while the lower limit is determined by considera tions of space available for conductors and insulation. and although no definite rules can be laid down to cover all styles of winding. is In a threephase machine. 76 of the preceding chapter). where + k. thus virtually reducing the slot opening and equalizing the flux distribution over the slot pitch. be desirable in cases where poor inherent regulation is deliberately sought.
and the an alternator power factor of the load. Chap. is referred to Art. The vector diagram. load of unity power Fig. The fan for forced In large ventilation may be inside or outside the generator. spaced 2 to 4 84.f. dynamo.v. where the ventilation of dynamos . was discussed. tween net and gross lengths of armature core will then be Even when axial ducts are used. If radial ducts are used. they are from to in. 33.92Za one or more radial openings at the center of the core are sometimes provided so that the cool air may be drawn in at both ends of the armature and discharged at the center. and as a very the mean length per turn in inches.5r + 2 k. The current is in phase with the terminal voltage OE ' t } but the developed volts are OEg and not .C.. The losses in the armature core at full load will depend upon the developed e. The reader units the external fan is generally to be preferred. the length of the core can be reduced. (See Fig. The of pressure that has to be generated in the armature windings for a given terminal voltage. Ventilation. + 6 (97) The crosssection having been previously decided upon. If there are no radial openings between the armature plates. 35. end of core would have a mean value of about 3^ where r is + 3 + ^). must be taken into account when calculating the developed voltage. would be rough estimate. the closer spacing being used when the axial length of the core is great and the peripheral velocity low. apart. 261 the actual overhang beyond (k. the inductance of the armature windings. 2la + 2. On this basis. The % % in. wide. 85. 99. in the last formula) will gross length of the armature core (la depend upon the space taken up by the radial vent ducts and insulation between stampings. and this The relation beis always desirable in highspeed machines. but also on the IX drop. the resistance per phase of the armature winding can readily be calculated. axial vent ducts are being used in place of radial ducts. which is not quite so easily calculated as in the case of a D. the pole pitch in inches.m.) In turboalternators. VI. In other words. Full load Developed Voltage.v. approximately l n = 0. page 111. will depend not only upon the IR pressure drop.ARMATURE WINDINGS the basis of an average size of slot. refers to a machine working on a factor.
that must be developed to obtain a constant terminal pressure must.f.f.m.f. be greater on low power factor. is not the chief cause of poor regulation on low power factors. 100. inductive. component necessary to counteract the reactance drop in the armature windings. 99.262 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN be the case if OP as would The vector the IR drop only had to be considered. 100 all it is chiefly accountable for but unity power factor. noninductive In Fig. E (IX Drop) Internal Power Factor Angle FIG.f.m. load partly the armature ampereturns which poor regulation on spection of Fig. Vector diagram for calculating developed e.m. load. represents the e. therefore. however.f. because the developed voltage is then simply the arithmetical sum of the terminal voltage OEt and the impedance drop E Et ternal powerfactor angle . From an inwill be seen that the greatest difference between developed and terminal voltage occurs when the exis the same as the angle E Et P. the external powerfactor angle is 6 (power factor of load cos 0). This. The construction shows how the reactance = voltage (IX) becomes a factor of greater importance on the lower power factors.. is zero. . there is an angle ^ between the current vector and the vector which of the developed may be termed the internal powerfactor angle. The e. 100. Al PEg though the external powerfactor angle e.m. it is the demagnetizing effect of (IX) A FIG. Vector diagram for calculating developed e.m.
ARMATURE WINDINGS 263 In connection with the predetermination of temperature rise. especially on low power factors. in so far as it affects regulation. The inductance of the windings. and its numerical value would therefore be ~~7 times the voltage between terminals. It is not always easy to separate armature reactance (X) from armature reaction (the demagnetizing effect of the armature ampereturns). it is hoped that the difficulties of the subject may. being actually by the conductors beyond the ends of the slots: the provided by the main poles. a balanced load being assumed. Inductance of A. the vector OE t would stand for the voltage between one terminal and the neutral point. 99 referred to as the reactive voltage component (the vector EgP and 100) is really due to the cutting of the end flux slot flux.or deltaconnected. Armature Windings. the losses in the armature core may well be calculated on the assumption that this condition is fulfilled. keep in mind the actual physical conditions. By departing from the conventional methods of treating this part of the subject. The length of the vector EtP in Figs. be removed. Consider first what is to be uno!er PE stood by the term armature reactance. in a later article.f. It does not then matter whether the phases are star. 99 and 100 is easily g) calculated. of . and striving to 86. The vector diagrams should always be drawn to show the relation of the variable quantities in one phase of the winding. this portion of the slot flux which.m. does not enter the armature core below the teeth. VIII when treating of the flux cut by the coil undergoing commutation. where what is usually in Figs. Both cause a drop of pressure at the terminals under load. XIV. but the numerical value of IX (the vector is not so easily estimated. to a great extent. will be taken up again in Chap. and for our present purpose which is mainly to design an armature that shall not attain too high a temperature it is not proposed to add much to what was said in Chap.C. is referred to as the "equivaprojecting lent flux" shouM not be thought of as producing an e. The same conditions are met with in the alternator. in the case of a starconnected generator. and since the greater part of it is not cut by the armature inductors. by picturing the armature conductors cutting through the flux lines. A distinction was then made between the slot flux and the end flux. except that.
deep. 101 let T represent the pole pitch of a threephase generator and V the average axial extension of the coils beyond the ends of the armature core.f.m.264 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The slot flux selfinduction in the windings. Illustrating flux cut by end projections of armature coils.f. as shown crosshatched in Fig. wide by V cm. where E gP is the e. may be consider and it will able. in other words. an approximate value for l' t based on the assumptions made in Art. Without attempting to go into the niceties of mathematical analysis which would apply only to one of the many different arrange ments 1 of coils it can be shown that the flux produced through The equivalent projection of a coil that is bent up to clear the coils of other phases might be considered equal to the projection of the same coil if flattened out. 99 and 100. core loss will depend upon the flux necessary to develop the e. With T expressed in inches.m. inherent the on effect regulation of the have an appreciable machine.f.m. is V = 1.v. In Fig. Calculation of Armature Inductance. on experimental data are generally used for predicting the probable value of the inductance of the armature end connections. but the point here made is that the slot leakage flux does not induce a counter e. 83. OE of Figs. the currents in all the conductors which project beyond the ends of the armature slots is very difficult to calculate. by The flux cut by 87. + 7 cm. 101. . in the space r cm. induced in the The in the conductors outside the slots created by the cutting of the flux lines the phase windings. the voltage developed by the cutting of this flux can readily be calculated. especially on a heavy load of low power factor. 1 If the total flux produced by the armature currents. armature windings. and empirical formulas based a FIG. where the component E gP is the reactance voltage drop due to the flux linkages of the end connections only. of the conductors in the slot accounts for the fact that a certain percentage of the flux in the air gap does not enter the armature core below the teeth.m.27(k. can be estimated. 101.f. The m. or.
be 2f$ e pT a n a X 10~ 8 which would be correct . Ia k = the armature current per conductor (r. value). = (2r approximately the total length in centimeters per turn of wire in a coil.s. V le = = number the number the of inductors in each slot. ^r= 7l f O where logic (12rc/) (98) T 8 n. and for the calculation of the total end flux per pole (both ends) in the case of a threephase generator the writer suggests the empirical formula flux . the relation being a logarithmic function of the pole pitch r and dependent on the number of slots. of conductors per phase is pT8 n 8 and the average value of the voltage developed in the end connections by the cutting of the . the amount of the depend not only on r but also on V would seem to be a slot projection I' beyond the ends of the more important factor than the circumferential width of the coils in determining the end flux.11. the arrangement of the windings. and the proximity of masses of iron tending to increase the induction.m.ARMATURE WINDINGS air 265 paths by the currents in the axial prolongations of the slot conductors will depend mainly upon the number of ampereconductors per pole on the armature. The $ e = kTJJL. whether the winding is concentrated or t distributed. i. approximately unity. the total number . the projection of coilends beyond end of slots. end flux will to be 1. and on the amount of the projection V. quantities 6/(w. of slots per pole per phase. less the slot 41') + = portion. depending upon the design of the machine. and for the fact that the projection V of the coils will influence the total flux to a greater extent than the end length T which appears in the expression for the total length l e If p is the number of poles of the machine. 5) and logio (I2n a l ) are factors introduced mainly to correct for the increase of flux with a con The + f centrated winding. There will be no exact proportionality between ampereconductors per pole and flux. produced by the connections running approximately parallel to the circumference of the armature will Thus.e. Assuming the form factor if the flux distribution were and substituting for <i> e the value given by formula . in centimeters. sinusoidal. constant.
000 gausses at rarely 25 cycles. since it includes the slot leakage flux in the neutral zone. the formula agrees well with the average of tests on machines of normal design. Total Losses to be Radiated from Armature Core.Z') XL X 10~ 8 (99) This quantity is usually referred to as the reactive voltage drop per phase due to the inductance of the end connections. 10. 31). is modified by armature distortion and slot leakage.500 gausses increasing to iron. load by the core below the teeth The is flux to be carried at full that which will develop the necessary e. culated will by assuming a reasonable flux density in the usually be between 7.e. Higher densities may have to be used occasionally. as obtained from the vector construction of The radial depth of the armature stampings is calFig. upon the power factor of the load.C.m. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN the voltage component developed per phase winding by the cutting of the end flux is E = e (2. but also upon phase displacement. The maximum value of the tooth density will depend upon the maximum value of the airgap density. generators. in order to avoid excessive temperatures. 99 and 100. but the amount of flux enter ing the teeth under each pole face is greater. Then. and a sinusoidal . as previously mentioned. lower being appreciably machines. in than D. the amount of which deits pends not only upon the current in the armature.266 (98). 100.22fc) be taken as 2. VI (Art.000 or even in 60cycle 11. The flux that must enter the core and be cut by the armature inductors is known. losses in the iron stampings teeth and core are calculated as explained in Chap.22fc) fpT 8 He X/ta ~4 v "' logic (12n. again. in turn.f. the apparent flux density at the middle of the tooth may be used for estimating the watts lost per pound.000 gausses at 60 cycles and 18. the maximum value of the airgap flux density depends not only upon the average density.4. This machines.000 and 8. tiplier (2.000 in 25cycle permissible density in the teeth. i. and this. It will not be to into details of this nature for the necessary go purpose of estimating the temperature rise of the armature. The 88. exceeds 16. but also on the shape of the flux distribution over the pole pitch. If the mulit appears as the vector PE g in Figs. The but special attention must then be paid to the methods of coolThe tooth density ing..
but it is usual to laminate the copper in the slot so that the eddycurrent loss due to the slot flux is very small. m armature. expressed as a percentage of the becomes of importance in welldesigned machines only is when the pole pitch very small. be overlooked in large units. Iron losses 50 per cent. The external cylindrical surface of the armature core will have no air blown against v in it (in the self. but these values will depend upon whether the copper or the iron losses are the more important. machine).. and the In regard to the radial The amount total flux per pole. however. of the slot leakage flux. the whole of the copper loss should not be added to the iron loss. and special means may have to be adopted to avoid eddycurrent loss in the armature conductors. 89. As a check on the calculated core loss.e. containing the factor v (the peripheral velocity). on the relative proportions of iron and copper in the machine. The gap density A calculation of slot leakage flux will be explained later. perature 34 of Chap VI. making the maximum air ~ times the average value over the pole pitch. i. it may be necessary to make some allowance for eddycurrent loss in the armature conductors. The cooling coefficient.e.. connection with the design of D.ventilating value of 1 the formula will be zero. and its 1 effect may for the present be neglected. Temperature Rise of Armature. i. may be used. the figures of Art. The cooling surfaces are calculated in a similar manner. When computing the total losses to be carried away in the form of heat from the surface of the armature core. This loss might be considerable if solid conductors were used. dynamos. This point must not.C. but with the stationary armature and internal rotating field magnets. but only the portion of the total PR loss which occurs in the buried part of the winding. the belt of active conductors is the inside cylindrical surface of the . and this is cooled by the air thrown against it by the fanning action of the rotor. . just as if the armature were rotating instead of the field magnets. in excess of the average values given on page 104 would not necessarily betoken inefficiency or a high temperature rise. 32 (page 104) may be used.ARMATURE WINDINGS flux distribution 267 may be assumed. The probable temrise of the armature is estimated as explained in Art. in the "active" conductors of length la In the case of large machines.
500 and 4. the quantity of air required to carry (see Art. A safe rule is to provide ducts or pipes of such a velocity of the air will not exceed crosssection that the mean per minute. and this effective in carrying off the heat. however. the cooling is not quite so good as when the armature but a blast of air is driven through the ducts. are usually totally enclosed. The average velocity of the air the ducts of machines provided with forced ventilation through is usually between 1. the air passages being suitably arranged to prevent the outgoing (hot) air being mixed with the incoming (cool) air. A temperature rise of 45 is usually permissible.000 ft. it is usually possible to keep within this limit by carefully designing the system of ventilation. accuracy that the formulas (53) and (55) of Art. 34. page 112) off the heat losses must be estimated and the size and conthe various air of must be carefully studied figuration passages with a view to preventing very high air velocities and consequent increase of loss by friction.268 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN rotates. Large ducts must be provided for conveying the air to and from the machine. and that the temperature rise as calculated by the application of these formulas be increased 20 per cent.000 ft. In designing steamturbinedriven machines with forced ventilation. mining cooling coefficients that shall The difficulty in deterall be applicable to sizes way of obtaining great in of the calculation temperature rise. Highspeed machines such as turboalternators. per minute. 2. This velocity should preferably not exceed 5. per minute. is vent ducts. 34 (page 110) suggested of and types machine stands in the be used. . It is. when provided with forced ventilation.000 ft.
5. The pole face would extend about 56 degrees on each side of the center. made equal to cos a where a is the angle (electrical space degrees) between the center of pole and the point considered. the pole tips being rounded off with a small radius. Shape of Pole Face. it would generally be a circular arc. In practice the curve of the pole face would probably not conform exactly with this cosine law. not concentric with the bore of the armature.CHAPTER XIII AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION WAVE SHAPES When an alternator is provided 90. and the (Electrical) FIG. the opencircuit flux distribution over the pole pitch can be made to approximate to a sine curve by suitably shaping the pole face. with salient poles. at center of pole face is calculated as explained in Art. 102. but with the center displaced so 269 . VII (formula 58). The "equivalent" air gap. Method of shaping pole face of salient pole alternator. One method of increasing the airgap reluctance from the center outward is illustrated in Fig. 36 of Chap. is equivalent gap at any other point under the pole 5. 102.
the proper distribution of flux over the armature surface being obtained field coils over the periphery of the cylindrical 15 to 25 per cent. 103 may be "stiffened" by using high flux densities in the teeth. 103.270 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN that the air gap near the pole tip would be approximately as determined by the method here described. which allows of Central Wedge being pressed down while the Steel Liners are driven in Detail of Slot and Wedge FIG. slotted. a section through part of the rotor of a fourpole The rotor of a twopole machine may be constructed in the same way. with radial slots. but it can be left solid if it is desired to reduce the re The by spreading the rotor. One feature of equally spaced slots over the surface of the rotor is that there are no sudden changes in the airgap permeance the average value of which is then the same at all points on the periphery. An argu ment is in favor of slotting the field unwound portion of the pole face that the Fig. but parallel is . luctance of the air gap at the center of the pole face while yet retaining the cylindrical form of rotor. From Alternative ThreePart Wedge. Rotor of fourpole turboalternator. cylindrical field magnet it is not usual to shape the clearance between the tops of the teeth on armature and rotor would have a constant value. With the pole face. with radial slots. of the pole pitch is left unwound This unwound portion is usually at the center of the pole. turboalternator.
104 are sometimes used. shown The in Fig.C. 49 should be drawn. magnet will be taken FIG. effect of tooth saturation The " apparent" flux density. and the flux lines in Fig. 43 are therefore such as would enter the armature of a salientpole alternator on open circuit. . design.C. the tooth densities are lower in A. than in D. 42 and 43 is shaped in accordance with the cosine law as explained in the preceding article. This was explained in Arts. design (Art. 39 and 41 of Chap.C. 45 has been carried out on a pole of similar shape. can generally be used without introducing any appreciable error in A. machines. can be drawn exactly as in the case of the B. and a set of curves such as those of Fig. designs. and the effect of saturation of the armature teeth is therefore less noticeable. The pole shoe in Figs. 44. Rotor of twopole turboalternator. Variation of Permeance over Pole Pitch Salientpole Machines. calculated for a point half way down the tooth. On account of the higher frequencies. The practical construction of Fig. with parallel slots.C. VII. type of field The of windings for the cylindrical up in Art.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION slots as 271 calculation shown in Fig. 104. and nothing more need be added here concerning the manner of plotting a permeance curve similar to the one may be dealt with also as in the D. 93. 42). 91. The curve representing the variations of permeance between pole face and armature core over the entire pole pitch.C.
because. but the design of a salientpole machine to give a sine wave of e. the effect of low flux densities in the teeth is to discount their influence on the distribution of the flux short cut is distribution of density over the armature surface. a sinusoidal distribution of flux density over the armature surface can be obtained on open circuit. slots. and an air gap of constant length due to the fact that the bore of the stator or armature is concentric with the (cylindrical) rotor the shape of the m. as explained in (page 221) under items (72) to (76). Case of Cylindrical Field Magnet with Distributed In the case of a slotted rotor carrying the field coils. In deriving the curve of m. curve due to field excitation alone can readily be found without resorting to the somewhat tedious process of getting the permeance between pole and armature points.f. of and the reader design. Machines. will be considered after taking up the special case of the cylindrical field magnet. from the opencircuit flux distribution curve (A).m. This Chap. as described and recommended for salientpole machines. and is by no means a simple matter. and 42. If the whole surface of the rotor is provided with equally 93. The effect of the armature m. This condition is represented in Fig.f. very for different relative positions satisfactory results can be obtained .f. By carefully shaping the pole face. The flux lines can be supposed to be made up of straight lines over one tooth pitch of field and quadrants of is worked out circles. This constant average airgap permeance can be calculated within a close degree of approximation by mak ing conventional assumptions in regard to the path of the magnetic lines.m. Special spaced stator the average permeance of the air gap between will have a constant value for all points on the armature periphery.f. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN M. and Flux Distribution on Open Circuit SalientThe procedure here is still the same as in D.m. and rotor if by the dotted the center portion of the pole. pole is referred to Arts. under all conditions of loading involves other factors.m. the modified method.C. X often permissible in predetermining the airgap flux an alternatingcurrent generator. Chap. VII. of width TF. as was done in the case of the salientpole machines when deriving formula (57) (page 117) giving the permeance at center of pole. and if the permeance and armature.f. is slotted as indicated lines. 105. Winding. 41.m. may be used. 40. as previously mentioned.272 92.
curves such as those of Fig. over pole pitch. From these values of the permeance per square centimeter of armature surface. and C and D (Fig. From all points on the armature between A and B.M. and again in the position of least permeance.F. 49 (page 133) can so as to include the reluctance of the armature teeth. Under this condition of constant airgap permeance. due to distributed field winding.f.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION by this 273 method. The average of these calculated values. will give the average value of the airgap permeance = m. the permeance curve. It will usually suffice to make the calculations for one tooth pitch in the position of greatest permeance.M. the flux distribution on open circuit will follow the shape of the m. r Over the central portion it would have the value EE while. M.F. the average airgap permeance would have the value A A'. Thus. per square centimeter. would be generally as shown in Fig.m. instead of being a straight line of which the ordinates are of con stant value. of the pole (Fig. divided by the area of the tooth pitch in square centimeters. it may be assumed to have an intermediate value as indicated by the ordinate BB'. but. 105. Curve for Field Winding only \ FIG. X the m. 105) is not slotted.f. if the portion W M. distribution is known.m. permeance per curve. be drawn. W y 18 . since B flux can the curve always be obtained when square centimeter. 106). 106.f. in the neighborhood of the points B and C. in any case.m.
may be combined with the curve of armature m. machines variations in the opencircuit be obtained only by shaping the pole shoes so as to alter the air gap over the pole pitch in a manner which is not easily determined except by trial.f. the m.m. and those in the smallest coil by CD. Fig.m.f.274 If the PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN depth of the slots in the rotor has been decided upon of ampereconductors in each slot determined. The flux curves for opencircuit and loaded conditions can then be derived by proceeding exactly as in the case of the salientpole designs.F.m. over armature surface for a given value of exciting current. which takes care of fringing.f. In a continuouscurrent machine the current has the same value every point. those in the middle coil by BC. This curve. 106. 105.m. over armature surface due to the field winding can readily be plotted as in the lower sketch of and the number Thus the ampereturns in the coil nearest the neutral zone are represented by the height AB. tion is if With salientpole flux distribution can the desired flux curve is known (a sinusoidal distribu usually best for alternatingcurrent machines).M. to obtain the resultant m. in Alternatingcurrent Generators. 94.f. under loaded conditions.f. the distribution of m. at the ratio of the flux density to the permeance per square centimeter. and represents the average effect.f.f. being the opencircuit distribution of m.m. EEC Distribution of airgap permeance in turboalternator when unwound portion of pole face is not slotted.m. The spacing and depth of slots can then be arranged to produce a magnetizing effect as nearly as possible the same as that of the ideal curve. The broken straight line so obtained is best replaced by the dotted curve. an ideal m. A FIG. Armature M. but with the field winding distributed in slots it is not difficult to arrange the coils to give any desired distribution of m. .m. since. and if the average permeance per square centimeter of the air gap has been calculated. curve can is easily be drawn. Thus. over the pole pitch.
all consisting of straight lines of varying slopes.e. shows how the value of the current in phases (1) and (3). is illustrated in Fig. i. provided the phase displacement or position of the conductors carrying the maximum current relatively to values. 107. for any instant of time. The angle of 60 degrees between vectors representing threephase currents of the (upper) figure with a phase displacement at terminals of 120 degrees is .f. and the magnetizing effect of phase (1) or (3) is therefore exactly half that of phase (2). and assuming a sinusoidal current wave.f follows a straightline law over a zone equal to the pole pitch. between brushes referred to armature surface.m. Considering first the polyphase synchronous generator.f. 53.m. The vector diagram on the righthand side its has reached maximum value. at present we are concerned merely with the distribution.. it is an easy matter to draw all a curve representing the armature m. where the upper diagram shows the distribution of m. If this will the position of maximum of current.f. The average of all these curves will be a sine curve of which the position in space relatively to the poles is constant. and equation 65 (page 136) shows how the armature m. of the armature m. The method drawing the curve of armature m.f. a number of curves be done for different time be obtained.m.m. this being the distance . can no longer be represented graphically by straight lines as in Fig. will be exactly half the maximum value.m.m. at any particular instant of time. conductors is under the center of the pole face.f.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 275 at all times in all the armature conductors. with the when the belt of simultaneously voltage maximum. and exactly 90 electrical space degrees behind center line of pole is known. and this effect will be explained later. In alternatingcurrent and polyphase generators the curve of armature m. as shown in the diagram. A low power factor would cause the current to attain its maximum value only after the center of the pole has travelled an appreciable distance beyond the center of the belt of conductors. over the armature periphery of a threephase generator at the instant when the If the current in is phase (2) power factor the current maximum will occur unity (load noninductive). because the value of the current will not be the same in the conductors included in the space of a pole pitch. and magnitude. at the instant considered. the length of which relatively to the pole pitch will depend on the number of phases for which the machine is wound.
. Instantaneous values of armature m.fs. diagram would cause it to lead vector (2) by 120 degrees instead behind by 60 degrees.(S7) a FIG.f. when the poles have moved to the left (or the conductors to the right) 30 electrical space de . (SI) a Direction of Travel of Poles Current=0 (3) (lyur (2) . i.866 I max. the reversal of the vector (1) in the (2) (3) (1) / cos 80 { Kmax. and the reversal of the vector (3) would cause it to be 120 degrees behind (2) instead of 60 degrees of lagging ahead. onetwelfth of a period later.m. The lower diagram of Fig.276 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN accounted for by the fact that the angular displacement between 1 80 = 60 electrical degrees.e. Thus. 107.866 I max I cos 30 j = 0.m. 107 shows the armature m. adjoining belts of conductors is only 5 but the connections between the phase windings are so made as to obtain the phase difference of 120 degrees between the respective e.m.f. (3) Current =0. in threephase generator.
C.f.m. The maximum value of the armature m.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION grees. 108 (assumed to be a sine curve) give the value of the current in the various conductors distributed the over the armature surface. but it is constant in value for any given point on the armature surface considered relatively to the poles.m.Machines FIG. it will instantaneous values of m. must occur at the points and 0' where the current is a maximum. Thus. in a threephase machine.m.f. be negligibly small.m. at any point on the that found be armature the periphery (considered relatively to the poles) differs the average value.f. 277 The taneous value in (3) is zero. equal to the ampereconductors in the space . Corresponding to Brush Shift in D.f. while the current If several curves of this kind are drawn. occurs at the points A and B where the current has zero value. of a polyphase generator may conveniently be studied by assuming a large number of conductors. will. and a number of phases equal to Lab of Current Behind Open Circuit E. Method of obtaining armature m. 108. It is understood that the current in each individual conductor varies according to the simple harmonic law. from curve of number of conductors in the space of one pole pitch. curve current distribution. and also in order to shorten and simplify the work.m.866/maz .F. the armature m. therefore.f. current in phases (1) and (2) now has the instani = Imax cos 30 = 0. while the zero value of m. the pulsations from little very of flux due to cyclic changes in the m. while the direc tion of the current in the adjoining sections of width r would be upward. the ordinates of curve I of Fig.m.f.. The direction of the current in the conductors between the points A and B may be considered as being downward.M. For this reason. in other words. The value of the is armature ampere turns per pole at any inter mediate point C.
curve of Fig..f. The ampereconductors in the space of width d& OC. 108) of this curve relatively to the center line of pole depends upon the "internal" power e. of conductors. 108 will be a sine curve when the current variation follows the sine law.COS0X pir ture periphery where Z' stands for the total number of inductors on the armaThus is expressed in radians.m. OC.. The angle (3 is not very easily predetermined.m. but.m. C'O'.f. because the magnetizing the space the space CA is are Z. The maximum value by putting of the armature ampere turns is obtained = whence = vp I max = irp Ia (100) where Ia stands for the virtual or the armature conductors.C. and also upon the displacement of the wave of developed a displacement or distortion which is due to crossmagne^ tization. and Z' .m. max Sin 6 Jo This expression indicates that with an unlimited increase in the number of inductors (and phases) the armature m.s. by putting it in the form Maximum m. . 1 = _ n . carrying currents in a positive direction. machines.. the curve can be drawn in the correct factor.. M . of conductors carrying the same average amount of current in a negative direction.11 (gilberts) per pole X 2p The angle of displacement /? (Fig..278 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN effect of the (upward) current in balanced by that of the (downward) current in AC' of equal width. Ampere conductors] = I max in space OC / f pir fit \ I I COS 6 d6 . r. This formula may be compared directly with formula 66 (page which refers to D. value of the current in 136). (all phases). V2Z'I a <*p ~ QAirZ'I 1. leaving as the effective ampere turns per pole at the point C a band. and an equal band. = Z' I irp . once known or assumed.f.
netizing effect of the loaded armature will be pulsating. Curve of Singlephase Alternator." of the armature flux due to "hunting" when synchronous parallel. unless of very small size.M. over the armature surface can be obtained exactly as for the directcurrent machine (see Fig.f.f.f. curves at of studying an effect of this definite intervals of and then average the values so obtained for different points . If the change of current in any given conductor be considered over a complete cycle. and also prevent the sweeping back and forth. therefore. When singlephase currents are taken from an armature winding. even if the pole shoes and poles are laminated. the armature windings produce a pulsating field of double the normal frequency. running parallel to the shaft. The most to satisfactory way kind time. 98. due to this winding as a whole must necessarily be of zero value at the instant of time when the current is changing from its This suggests that the magpositive to its negative direction. or "swinging. that is to say.m. and if at the same time the position of this contively to the field ductor relatively to the poles be noted. it will be seen that. pulsate to any appreciable extent. it Returning to the magnetizing effect of the singlephase armais. No modern singlephase alternator. whatever may be the phase dis placement of the current relatively to the developed voltage. alternatingcurrent machines are coupled in ture. 53. An approxi mate method of predetermining the displacement angle j8 for any load and power factor will be explained in Art.m. in the faces of the field poles. it cannot be of constant strength at any given point considered relatively to the poles.f. These consist of copper conductors in holes or slots. because the tendency to vary in strength at comparatively high frequencies is checked by the dampening effect of the field coils. the average or resultant armature m. They are form a joined together at both ends by heavy copper connections.m. Armature M. or damping grids.F.m.. The actual flux component due to the armature currents will not. page 137). and the resultant m. considered relatively to the poles with which we are mainly concerned. and " squirrel cage" of shortcircuited bars which damp out the flux pulsations. should be built without amortisseur windings. the m. relamagnet system.m. however. is draw the actual m.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 279 position relatively to the curve of field m.f.
where the windings are shown is covering 60 per cent. each corresponding to 18 electrical degrees.f. relatively to the poles.f. 109. This process is repeated for the other positions of the coil throughout a complete cycle. It is seen to M . corresponding to this position of the windings.m. of course. in singlephase alternator. and the resultant m. drawn. because the current (which is supposed to follow the sine law) now has a smaller value.. Instantaneous and average values of armature m. 109. when the current has reached its The armature is then supposed to move 18 is degrees to the right of this position. and a second m.m. the position of on the armature these points being considered fixed relatively to the field poles. curves at the point considered.f.280 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN surface.m.f. and the distance r one pole pitch. maximum value. of the armature surface. Its first maximum ordinate is. curve FIG. The thick line represents the armature m. for any point in space (i. less than in the case of the curve.m.e.m. This distance is divided into 10 equal parts. In this manner the curve of Fig. considered stationary) is found by averaging the ordinates of the various m. This has been done in Fig. 109 is obtained.f.
m.f. developed in the conductors.f. over the armature periphery for any condition of loading.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION instantaneous 281 be a sine curve. 108 is not so easily determined.f.f.m. curve in singlephase alternator. Referrring again to Fig. together with formula (102) may be compared with the formulas (100) and (101) for polyphase generators. a displacement which depends not only on the power factor of the load (i.e. of the resultant ampereturns per pole is.m. before combining the curves of armature and field pole m. 108 (representing armature m. it will be necessary. assumed modified formulas should be derived in a similar manner. center of the pole is /3 90. In the to determine the relative positions of these two curves. . it can be combined with the field M .f.m. directcurrent machine. the position of maximum armature m.m. at armature surface from which can be derived the flux distribution curves under loaded conditions.m. pole m. 108.m. but also on the strength of the field relatively to the armature. and it may be used exactly in the same manner as the in Fig.f. The maximum value therefore. on the lag of the + current behind the terminal potential difference). X where J of = 7 ~XJ 1 < 102 ) Z is the total number armature face conductors. _ QATr\/2IgZ 2 j X 2p (103) which. curve to obtain the resultant m.f.f. of which the maximum ordinate is about half the maximum m. If the " spread in this calculation. is. per pole of the singlephase winding. because this relation determines the position (relatively to the center of the pole) of the 1 maximum " of the e. Ex pressed in gilberts.. the formula Maximum ordinate of armature m. of a polycurve phase machine) that is to say. Slot Leakage Flux. but the point B in Its distance from the Fig.f. if we wish to derive a curve of resultant m. winding is different from the 60 per cent..m. J/. coincides with the brush position.m. 1 95.
110. It suggests that a certain electromotive force is generated in the conductors. and since this includes the slot leakage flux. will depend upon the flux in the air gap. is when an attempt is made to realize the physical meaning of armature reactance.The field m. armature core a mistake of little practical import . thus causing a flow of current which. still further reduces the useful flux when the machine is loaded. and the voltage actually developed in the "active" portion of the armature windings will be reduced in proportion to the amount of flux which.C. and is referred to as a reactis liable to lead to confusion This term. 108. Apart from the action of the armature winding as a whole. The whole of the flux entering the tops of the teeth is not cut Fia. is diverted from tooth to tooth. however.282 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN . although very convenient. instead of entering the armature core. and determine the value. the current in the individual conductors. generator under open circuit conditions. produces the flux of selfinduction and a reactive electromotive force. by the conductors buried in the slots. This is incorrect and leads to a mistaken estimate of the actual amount of flux in the ance voltage. Flux entering armature of A. causing a reduction of the total flux crossing the air gap from pole face to armature teeth.f. This loss of voltage embedded usually attributed to the reactance of the of the portion windings.m. it will be necessary to consider the meaning. by producing a leakage of flux in the slots themselves. of the slot flux before attempting to calculate the angle ft of Fig. in turn.
AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 283 yet tending to obscure the issue when considering the problem of regulation. It is unnecessary to consider the leakage flux in the slots under the pole face. when no ture conductors. 111. 1 which passes from tooth to tooth and generates no By neutral zone is meant the space between poles on the armature surface where the lines of magnetic flux are parallel to the direction of travel of the conductors. l . generator when the conductors are carrying current. 110) and under load conditions current flows in the armarcut by In the first case. the whole teeth passes into the armature core and tors. as that portion of the total flux leaving the pole shoe. (Fig. 110 and 111. 111). and standing in the way of a clear conception of the flux distribution in the air gap. This conception of the slot flux. tooth. of the flux entering the tops of the is all the conduc In the second case the magnetomotive force due to the DirecCion of travel of pofea FIG. disposes of the difficulties encountered by many engineers when faced with the necessity of calculating the slot inductance. which crosses the air gap but does not enter the armature core below the teeth. The effect of the current in the buried conductors will be under stood by comparing Figs. which since armature current diverts a certain amount of flux from tooth to it does not enter the armature core is not cut by all the conductors. where the dotted lines indicate roughly the paths taken by the magnetic flux under opencircuit conditions (Fig.C. but it is important to know the amount of flux in the neutral zone. Flux entering armature of A.
and induction. showing effect of armature current in producing slot leakage. affects only the wave shape (and form factor) of the generated electromotive force. it would generate a component of electromotive force lagging onequarter period behind the main component (on the assumption of (in electromotive force in the conductors.and (J5) in Fig. case the tendency would be to increase the total useful flux. the simplest to obtain a quantitative value for the slot reactance is to calculate the total flux which leaks from tooth to tooth in the way Diagrams (A). and in no way alters the average value of the developed voltage. The effect of slot inair ductance being generally to reduce 1 the amount of the total Ifes::"" \ \ N xv N v N ^. (A) when the current in the slot conductors is zero. ioTce will it in vector diagrams as if it can therefore conveniently be represented were an electromotive force of self The quantitative calculation of this electromotive be considered in Art. gap flux which is actually cut by the conductors. Flux entering teeth in neutral zone. Although only brief mention has been made of the leakage flux in slots other than those in the neutral zone. and (B) when it has an appreciable value. 'MtMtfb s / ! ^ FIG. 97. The amount of flux diverted from the armature core into the leakage be paths referred to neutral zone. 96. 112. sinewave form). The difference between the total flux entering the armature teeth from each pole face and the amount of the slot flux (or the equivalent slot flux) in the neutral zone represents the flux actually cut by all the conductors on the armature. may in Except in the case of a condenser load and leading current. it is not suggested that this flux is negligible in amount. whatever may be its distortion.^i3 s'SSs 's ' ' ^^rff. 1 which . 112 indicate the approximate paths of the magnetic lines in the neutral zone.284 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN If this leakage slot flux the neutral zone) were actually cut by the conductors. but the flux distribution under the pole face. Calculation of Slot Leakage Flux.
$2 crossing the space above the windings. any of the conductors.. is d^ = m. The portion however. ia is the current per conductor in amperes. in Fig. Whence where T8 is the number of conductors per slot. usually occupied by the fluxes: $j passing wedge. is The if it pressure " B) is cut by T8 (dl due to the fact that it is x)/dl conductors. 112. i. If the conductors were concentrated as a thin layer at the bottom of the slot. 113) of 1 cm. where dP is the permeance of the air path the reluctance of any iron in the path of the lines being neglected. a portion of which will be cut by some of the conductors.f. would develop an electromotive force equal to the actual loss of pressure. the loss of voltage due to reduction of core flux (see Fig. 113. the loss of not cut by TsX/d^ conductors. of cal may The amount be calculated as follows: of flux in the small strip dx deep (Fig. perpendicularly to the plane of the paper. 113. Thus.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION calculated 285 by assuming the current in the slot conductors to be acting independently of the field magnetomotive force. however. therefore be (equivalent) = XT d l Thus (equivalent) x*dx 3s . this flux element (see I Fig. if cut by all the conductors. culating slot 1 method age flux.m. 112) could be calculated by assuming that the useful flux is reduced by an amount equal to the slot flux. $1. 113) are in centimeters. in Fig. axial length. did not link with equivalent" flux to cause the same loss of pressure would. X dP. requires the lations to be based calcu on an equivalent slot flux which. 113 the total slot flux is the sum of three component through the space occupied by the copper. Since. and 3> 3 which leaks from tooth top to tooth top. and the dimensions d and s (see Fig.e. be ing cut by some of the con ductors. This flux Illustratin FIG.
) The vector 07. let OE t represent the required terminal voltage if the machine is meshconnected. is therefore the voltage actually developed in the slot conductors. or the cor and the demagnetizing effect of the armature then both have reached their maximum value. it will be advisable to determine what 97. that is to say. winding. The area of the required flux distribution curve is a measure of the total flux per pole in the air gap.f. It is therefore proposed to determine what may be called the "apparent" developed e. responding potential difference per phase winding if the machine is starconnected. 5.286 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN of the air paths of the component fluxes can be calculated fairly accurately (See Art. In the vector diagram. Fig.f.m. Before a method of drawing the curve of airgap flux disconsidering tribution under load. Chap. " length of the armature core in centimeters. 114.f.f.OS + P + Ps) 2 I (104) Leakage on Fullload Airgap Flux.m. that would have to be developed in the armature windings on the assumption of all the flux passing from pole face to armature teeth being by all the conductors. Consider first the condition of zero power factor. the e. because it contains the component to balance the voltage OE PE . drawn 90 degrees behind OE t. if la is the axial II).m. and reaches its maximum value in the conductors situated midway between poles. that would be developed in the armature windings under load conditions if it were not for the fact that some of the flux in the air gap leaks across from tooth to tooth in the neutral zone. and PEg at right angles to 01 to represent the reactive pressure drop per phase in the end connections. Then. Effect of Slot should be the area of this curve. (In a threephase Yconnected generator OE t would be 7= v 3 factor.. and it would be possible to express this in terms of the opencircuit flux distribution curve if we knew the e. the total equivalent/' slot flux in the neutral zone is The permeances 3> 3 $2 and ' .m.. The slot leakage will flux. Let them be P% and P 3 respectively. The current actually cut then lags 90 degrees behind the e. times the terminal voltage. and is not actually cut by the conductors. is the armature current on a load of zero The impedancedrop triangle is constructed by power EtP drawing parallel to 01 of such a length as to represent the IR drop per phase.
114. PE " have this little effect on the pressure drop. OE'g. on open circuit. flux. the terminal voltage under I FIG. assumption negligible. 114. actually cut by the armature conductors. The length of the vector E E f in Fig. power the total reactive drop (E' P) because. and the component E*P to overcome the ohmic resistance of the windings. owing to the relative smallness of and the fact that its direction is such as to t the assumed load conditions would be E . Thus when the resultant magnetomotive force in the magnetic circuit is such that E' a volts would be developed on open circuit. and represented by OE' g in Fig.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 287 PE generated by the cutting of the end flux. is then the electromotive force that would have been developed in the armature windings if the slot flux had actually entered the core instead of being diverted from tooth to tooth by the action It is therefore also a measure of the current in the conductors. actually develop this electro motive force in the armature. Vector diagram of alternator operating at zero power factor. Now produce so that g E' g represents the voltage that would be g to Eg E developed by the slot flux if this were cut by the conductors. the total flux per pole in the air gap under load conditions will be $ = < a + 2$ es . If a is the flux per pole actually cut by the < conductors. 114 can be calculated from the known slot flux $ ea as given by formula (104) of the preceding article. The flux 2$ ea maxwells is the portion of the total airgap flux which. the error introduced by is . would generate the electromotive force referred to as the "apparent" developed voltage. is no longer cut by the armature This total if . and the magnetizing ampereturns necessary to produce this flux would. which may be called the apparent developed voltage. of the total flux passing through the air gap into the armature teeth. under load conditions. It is usual. when the t loss of this factor is to consider pressure as equal to zero.
114. The angle \l/' shows the lag of the current behind the "apparent" developed voltage. winding is therefore E'(average) = or. value. Inserting this value of in formula (104) and substituting 10~ 8 in formula (105) we get E. were permissible to assume the alternating quantities flux distribution in the air gap to be sinusoidal. Thus The power slot flux in the neutral zone will be a the current i.288 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The average value of the voltage lost per phase conductors.n. the actual change with varying angle of lag being in accordance with the sine law. by . but as a practical and apIf it and the proximate method it is powerfactor angle the angle of lag between the current and the e. or the displacement (0 90) of the + .m. Method by an amount approximately equal to PE' g sin i'. maximum on zero factor when equal to the maximum approximately producing value of the armature current. of Determining Position of Armature M. te> esJ(T8 it is Assuming the sinusoidal wave shape. since }Q 8 >< QQ Np = 120/ E (average = . the construction of Fig. we are still unable to determine the angle 0. This does not take into account tooth saturation and distortion of the current wave. 115. Here ^ is power factor.pZa7(!g + P + PS) X 2 (106) This quantity is usually referred to as the reactive voltage drop per phase due to the slot inductance.4Tr.s.f. OE' 0} and it will be seen that the combined effect of end flux and slot flux is to reduce this voltage 98.f. 108 (page 277). or to \/2I a i. it is . These assumptions involve the idea of a slot leakage flux diminishing with increasing power factor. = 27T/ X 0. Turning again to Fig. actually developed in the armature conductors.m. and cos $ is the "internal" is The vector diagram for any permissible.m. then as shown in Fig. 1 14 might be repeated for conditions other than zero power factor. It appears as the vector E' g E g in Fig. necessary to multiply to obtain the r.
can be expressed as OM the opencircuit Arts.f. owing to armature distortion.m. 115 shows merely the lag of the current behind the apparent developed e.wave functions must still be made. and since vectors are used. the fullload flux distribution curve (from which the voltage is derived) will not be symmetrically placed relatively to the center line of the pole. in a position relatively to the field m.m.. With the aid of the vector diagram Fig. Vector diagram of alternator on lagging power factor. 108. t Fig. 116. it will be displaced in the direction of OE'g motion of the conductors. to the right in Fig. 92 = f)T? r (open circuit SI per pole) X ~7ypT field excitation and 93.f.m. OE and OE' g have the same meaning as in component PE' g being the total reactive voltage drop both of end connections (formula 99) and slot leakage (formula 106). which will be approximately correct for any given power factor of the external load. is not actually in accordance with this simple law.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION maximum armature m.f.f beyond . 289 the center line of the pole. 108 which will enable us to place the curve of armature m. Draw the vector OM in phase with OE' g to represent the resultant m. the the conductors. Now draw OM being calculated as explained in a exactly 90 degrees behind O/. but the final check on the work will be made later when the flux distribution curves are plotted. the assumption of sine. this m. (formula . 115. The construction is shown in Fig.e. but..f.f. This is where an error is introduced. especially with I FIG. salientpole machines. 115 we can. be cause the angle ty' of Fig.m. to represent the 19 maximum value of the armature m. i. 115. If we neglect the effect of increased tooth saturation. however.m. because the distortion of the flux curves.m. necessary to overcome air gap and tooth reluctance when the airgap flux is such as would develop OE' g volts per phase in the armature if it were cut by all The vectors 01.m. obtain a value for the angle ]8 of Fig.f.
290 100). mined the value 99. VII).fs. Airgap Flux Distribution under Load. since it is based on assumptions that are of the is It not rarely justified in practice. resultant m. ordinates adding The procedure is then the same as was followed in the D. except that the drawing of the flux curve B as an intermediate step will not now be necessary. the developed voltage will be OE OJ where the point E is the intersection of and the prolongation of .C. this satisfies the condition U1VL The maximum value of the e. for any condition of loading can be obtained by the of the field and armature m. MM OM OM the line PE' g because . PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN This must be balanced by the field component as the required field excitation at full load. required angle of displacement. Having deterof the angle /? (Fig. 116.m. Chap. 108.m. where the displacement of the The curve of armature m. de sign to obtain the load flux curve C (Art. If the giving load' is now thrown off.f. The final check is obtained by measuring the area of flux curve C.m. seeing that the effect of armature distor tion and demagnetization has been taken account of in the vector construction of Fig.f. brushes. curves. machine.f. page 277). OE will be generated in the conductors immediately opposite the center of the pole face. strictly is determined by the movement must not be overlooked that this method accurate. Vector diagram of alternator m. 116.m. between center line of pole and position of conductor carrying the maximum current may thus be calculated.m. which must satisfy the condition Area Area of fullload flux curve C of opencircuit flux curve A _ ~~ OE' g OE t .f. /3. 43.C. the curve of Ma FIG. and the fullload flux curves plotted as in the case of the D.
m. by using the flux curve C of airgap distribution. by the vector amount of flux in the air gap. although the referring to Fig. Fig.m. 115.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION If 291 the approximate value of the field ampereturns. Developed E. the curve of airgap flux distribution. By be seen that. The shape of the e. wave from 100. is obtained. wave is therefore not modified to any great extent by the slot leakage flux. and in order to obtain the waveform of e. the wave shape of the "apparent" developed e. Ill (page 283) to slot leakage appears at first sight pass between the pole and armature core through the the the conductor. obtained. waveshape is not necessarily the same as the wave threephrase generator in each shape developed phasewinding by the cutting of the flux in the air gap. but. where OE g is the "apparent" developed voltage (assuming all the flux lines in the air gap to be cut). and a new curve of resultant m.m. It is unnecessary to introduce refinements with a view to determining the exact wave shape of the e. it is an easy matter to obtain a curve of e. f This is shown in the diagram.f.m. a correction must be made. 116.f due to the cutting of the flux by the armature conductors. the average value of the developed voltage must be less than it would be if all the flux entering the tops of the teeth were cut by the conductors. with the armature winding.f. it is necessary to add the corresponding ordinates of two starvoltage waves plotted with a .m. as given of Fig. This was explained in Art. 71 (page 246). Having plotted the curve of airgap flux distribution for any given condition of loading. and OE g is the actual developed voltage. Form of . it actually enters of the slot leakage flux which is it will teeth.f. from which the correct OM fullload flux curve is plotted. at the terminals of a Yconnected generator. does not produce the proper. actually developed in the conductors because. but also on the amount not cut by the conductor.m.m.f. It is important to bear in mind that the obtained at the terminals of a Yconnected e.f. It may be argued that it is not quite correct to derive the e. it all links with the exception of the slot flux in the neutral zone. unless the armature current is zero in the conductors passing through the neutral zone. because the flux actually cut by each armature conductor at a given instant depends not only upon the value of the airgap density. and with the aid of equivalent sinewaves (to be explained later) the terminal voltage can be calculated with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. and. Wave.m.f.m.f.f.
10 8 (107) where Ba average value of flux density. Method of deriving e.g.m. in a field of density BB'. wave sKapes can always be in the manner in Fig.. the actual the center line C of this phasewinding occupies the position shown field of in Fig. 117. phase winding. thus producing the dotted curve V. while the conductors in slot rve B moving in a are moving Fia.m. number of conductors in series per phase. 60 electrical Whatever may be the number and spacing of the slots on the e. wave from curve of airgap flux distribution. m tms . armature surface. . the conductors in slot A are density AA'. r plotted as CC to a suitable scale.e. phase displacement of onethird of a pole pitch degrees). armature diameter in centimeters. These conductors are all in series. = AA' + BB' ^ _ instance. N la = D= = Z = This value of revolutions per minute. e.f. 117 where the full line indicated plotted curve may be any one of the flux curves previously obtained.292 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN (i. and the process is repeated for other positions of the armature slots. in gausses. of one of the armature At the instant when tion. armature length total e is (axial) in centimeters. and the instantaneous value of the voltage per phase winding will be 60 X .f. 117. Draw A and B to the two in this illustraproperly spaced represent slots. the ordinates of which are a measure of the flux density in the air space near the surface of the armature. representing the electromotive force .
AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 293 that would be developed in the windings if all the flux in the air gap were cut by the conductors in the slots. The instantaneous value of the averillustrated in Fig. which includes fractional pitch windings. and the instan The relative positions of the slots may Curve of Volts ( e ) Plotted Relatively to Position of / . ) 2n and the center of the coil (P) be marked on a separate strip of paper that can be moved to any desired position under the flux curve. 118. is general solution. . n slots flux for per pole per phase is density age c b Ba = (a + + +  The )  ' ( fl + b' + C '+ .
e. e.f. is the readily obtained by measuring its area with a planimeter and Positive Lobe O Negative Lobe FIG. 119. Illustrating calculation of r. If the armature windings wave Fig.s.m. 101. 120. while time (or distance of travel) is measured by the angular distance between the vector considered and the axis OX. the wave representing terminal voltage may be obtained by adding the ordinates of two such e. Form Factor. 117 and 118. the pole If another curve is plotted by squaring the ordinates of pitch. placed 60 electrical degrees apart.. will not appear in the graphical work. waves the fluxdistribution curve of the e. be obtained by the process represented in Figs. where the radial .to be more convenient distance from the point represents the instantaneous value of the variable quantity.s.m. or virtual value to mean value of an alternating e. 119.m. The ratio of the r. shape are starconnected. with the one exception that the " ripples known as tooth harmonics" which are generally present hi oscillograph records. The general case of a variable quantity plotted to polar coordinates is illustrated in Fig.m. it is merely necessary to take the square root of the average ordinate of this new curve in order to obtain the virtual value of the alternating quantity. however. i.f. . value of variable quantity plotted to polar coordinates.m. plotted to polar coordinates. Wave of alternating FIG.m. or current is the form The average ordinate of an irregular wave such as may factor. the original curve.m. The effect of the distributed winding in smoothing out the irregularities of is very clearly shown by the in 118. It will.f waves will yield surprisingly accurate results.f. replot the original curve to polar coordinates. then dividing this area by the length of the base line.f.294 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN . This stepbystep method of drawing the e.
m. the effects. 102. It will of course be understood that. Whenever vector diagrams are used. and the reference axis.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION If r be the length of the vector. wave obtained by the graphical method previously we have outlined. in many cases. and the virtual value of the alternating e. and enable us to express the power factor as the cosine of a definite angle. for instance. 12 (area is therefore ~ .f.one of lobe) measured with a planimeten thus obtained has merely to be divided by the previously calculated average value in order to obtain the form factor of the irregular wave. the alternating quantities must be sine functions of time. in Fig. and when applied to practical calculations involving irregular (i. in this diagram. The angle moved through during the half period is x radians. The radius vector (moving covers the complete area of one lobe when it has moved through an angle of 180 degrees. 120 a representation of an e. we may write 295 the angular distance from Area of triangle OSP = Y^r X rdB and the area included between any given angular limits and a is Area OAB (shaded) = r 2 whence average value of Applying or 'current. but transferred from rectangular to polar coordinates. in a counterclockwise direction. Equivalent sinewaves are a of the curve is easily The area and the value of E great convenience in power calculations because they permit the use of vectors. the electrical degrees are correctly represented by the actual space degrees.e.f.m.f. because.f.. wave plotted to polar coordinates. they must be thought of as representing "equivalent" sine functions. the substitution of a sine curve for the actual not permissible. Equivalent Sinewaves. This may be thought of as the actual e. /^ (average value of r ) twice area of curve 2 = 2 Y r*de 2 X (p ) ~^ this rule to the case of a periodically varying e.m. of the higher harmonics on a condensive load cannot be annulled by is wave form . nonsine) wave shapes.m.
C.wave may be defined as a sinejustified.296 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN imagining the actual wave to be replaced by a socalled equivalent smooth wave. can generally be An equivalent sine. but factor.wave of current would produce the same heating effects as its mean value. Irregular wave and equivalent coordinates. but the use of equivalent sinewaves for power calculations on practical A. Let d = the diameter of the equivalent circle (or value of the equivalent sinewave) the area of one lobe of the irregular polar coordinates. A sinewave plotted to polar coordinates will be a circle. may sinewave is easily calculated since the equivalent wave must FIG. and therefore also the same area when plotted to polar coordinates. and therefore its form be different. sine wave plotted to polar have the same rootmeansquare value as the nonsinusoidal wave. 121. circuits. wave of the same periodicity and the same virtual value as the An equivalent irregular wave which it is supposed to replace. of which the diameter representing the maximum value of the the irregular wave. = + SI (108) . sine. maximum plotted to and then let A = wave whence a .
M. The line irregular The wave OM is then drawn.. such as the geometrical neutral line. 121. but it has Q now been determined with greater accuracy than could be M OM . the position of the equivalent mately determined.m. the angle a can be measured.F. but by so placing the equivalent sine. 121 replotted to rectangular coordinates.m. This is will wave may be approxibe better understood by referring and its plotted to polar coordinates. the proper position of the dividing line being found when the shaded area of the irregular Actual E. it may be thought of as the average displacement of the distorted e.f.AIRGAP FLUX DISTRIBUTION 297 The next point to consider is the position of the equivalent sinewave of maximum ordinate d. This is easily done with the help of the planimeter. has the same meaning as the angle of Fig. relatively to some particular value of the irregular wave. It is obvious that neither the maximum nor the zero value of the two waves must necessarily coincide. to Fig. used in connection with the irregular wave. wave is exactly equal to the unshaded area.f. 116. dividing this area in two equal parts. or the pole center. maximum and when This angle represents the displacement of the value of the equivalent wave beyond the pole center. 122. Curves of Fig. which will be symmetrically placed about the center line of the pole. This angle a. behind the position of opencircuit e.wave relatively to the irregular wave that each quarter wave of the one has the same virtual value as the corresponding quarter wave of the other. Wave Equivalent Sine Wave FIG. area measured with the aid of a planimeter. If the irregular wave has been correctly plotted relatively to some reference axis. It is upon this line (OM) that the center of the equivalent circle of diameter d (see formula 108) must be placed.
f. and again in Chap.m.f. when working out a numerical example. 121 except that the e. 122 illustrates the same condition as Fig. methods of calculation involving vector constructions should be avoided.298 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN expected of the vector construction. Fig. but by multiplying together corresponding instantaneous values of e. . and current will be the denominator in the expression : COS v _ average true power per phase winding : '. The phase angle between equivalent sine waves of voltage and current is correctly defined as the angle of which the cosine rand this is not always exactly the same voltamperes as the angle that would be obtained by the approximate method here described. The product of the virtual values of the e. waves have been replotted to rectangular coordinates.m. If the distorted waves depart very considerably is the ratio > from the sinusoidal form. in which the loss of pressure due to armature distortion was assumed to be in accordance with the sine law.m. : 77 * apparent power per phase winding practical application of equivalent sinewaves in predetermining the regulation of an alternatingcurrent generator will The be taken up in the following chapter. XV. and current a power curve can be plotted and the average watts determined. .f.
. the procedure for calculating the size of wire required is the same as would be followed in designing any other shunt coils (see Art. II When estimating the voltage per pole 58. it is well to allow about 1 in. The Magnetic Circuit. Except for the fact that the field magnets usually rotate. dynamo. of course. The exact amount of excitation required under any given condition of loading can. 123 may be used for selecting a suitable cooling coefficient. because the cooling is more effield coils A higher current fective. of radial length of winding space for every 1.500 ampereturns per pole required at full load (i. In determining the amount by which the pole must project from the yoke ring. Chap IX). and the voltage of the continuouscurrent circuit from which the exciting current is obtained (usually about 125 volts). 10. density may be allowed in the copper of rotatin than ing stationary coils against which air is thrown the of rotation the by armature. a suitable allowance must be made for the pressure absorbed by the rheostat in series with the field and Art. 299 A . as before. the difference being especially noticeable at the higher In the absence of reliable data on any parperipheral speeds. the curve of Fig. windings. ticular type and size of machine. the design of the complete magnetic circuit of an alternatingcurrent generator differs little from that of a D. Given the ampereturns required per pole. be determined only after the complete magnetic circuit has been designed. The cooling surface considered includes. being an average of tests on different sizes and shapes of coils on rotating field many magnets. An effort should be made to keep the radial projection of the poles as small coil. Chap.C.e. the It is to tained from Fig.CHAPTER XIV REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY OF ALTERNATORS 103. estimated maximum excitation). in addition to the outside surface of be understood that the cooling coefficient obis approximate only. 123 as possible in order to prevent excessive magnetic leakage. across the field winding. the inside surface near the pole core and the two ends.
. required useful flux per pole being known.100 and 1.) Degree pppp per o.300 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN radial length of pole greater than two or two and onehalf times the width of pole core (measured circumferentially) would be a poor design. The current density in the field magnet windings of salientpole rotatingfield alternating current generators is usually between 1. because the gain in winding space due to increase of radial length would be largely neutralized by the greater amount of flux per pole due to leakage.600 amperes per square inch. The carried ppp Rise (Cent. the flux to be by pole core and yoke may be calculated if the leakage The calculation of the permeance of the air factor is known.
f i 1 . .32 to 1. to be selected when pole pitch is small. 57. although by some designers. length of pole core. but that the reduced to half its actual value. Chap. Low values. has no scientific basis. X). IX.32 \ / . in mind the abovementioned points. indeed. for pole pitch 8 to 12 in.ZZ J These leakage field coefficients apply to the case of alternators with excitation to give approximately normal voltage at terminals on open circuit.. The large modern units driven at high speeds by steam turbines are. the maximum value of which at the instant the shortcircuit occurs depends rather upon the armature reactance than upon the demagnetizing or distortional effect of the armature current. the effect of the distributed leakage may be taken care of by calculating the ampereturns for the pole core on the assumption that the total leakage flux is carried by the pole core. 77 Chap. 301 1. This approxused imation. the opencircuit Bearing saturation curve connecting ampereturns per pole and resulting terminal voltage can be calculated and plotted exactly as in the length of the pole is case of a continuouscurrent dynamo with stationary poles (see Art. purposely designed to have large armature reactance in order to limit the shortcircuit current. XI to the regulation of alternatingcurrent generators. and item 128 rotating armature and of Art. Reference has already been made in Art. 104. and it is important to know exactly what the term " armature reactance " should include. Regulation. 1. Chap. These considerations tend to empha size the importance of correctly predetermining the inherent regulation of machines.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS High values.. 63. and it was pointed out that the designer does not always aim at of producing a machine with a high percentage inherent regulation. in order .22 to 1. lO to i. for large pole pitch and small radial . Although the flux density in the pole core (of uniform crosssection) will fall off in value as the distance from the yoke ring increases. the crosssection of the poles and yoke of good dynamo steel may be calculated for a flux density up to 15. because it is recognized that automatic field regulation or some equivalent means of varying the field ampereturns is necessary in order to maintain the proper terminal voltage under varying conditions of load and power factor.500 gausses. Provided a reasonably high leakage factor has been used.42 Average values. and length of winding space about equal to width of pole core. and radial length of pole core great in proportion to width.
It is therefore proposed to con what is The upper curve is the open circuit saturation characteristic. thus eliminating the less easily calculated effects caused by crossmagnetization and the consequent distortion of the wave shapes.302 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN that the probable shortcircuit current may be estimated. The lower curve is the load characteristic corresponding to a given .sider in the first place th * best that can be done with ^uratio'nTurvTr""" the aid of vectors on the usual assumption of sinewave form. and in any case the plotting of the actual ''' flux and e. 124. but of the cause the problem is thus presented in its simplest aspect: the very fact that vectors are used assumes the sinusoidal variation of the alternating quantities. Inherent regulation ob. or the substitution of socalled equivalent sinewave forms for the actual wave shapes. be upon the exciting field. departures are made may lead to incorrect conclusions.f. 124 may be considered as having been plotted from actual test data.m. The curves in Fig.turns on field FIQ. The usual methods of predetermining the regulation of alternators involve almost invariably the use of vectors or vector algebra. the omission of these factors. giving the relation between the number of ampereturns of field excitation per pole and the pres sure at the terminals. On the other hand. This is convenient. curves is Ampere. herent regulation The in when the field excitation is of the constant . and afterward show how a greater degree of accuracy can be attained by using curves representing the actual flux distribution in the air gap. especially when from standard types. not only after the armature ampereturns have had time to react also at the instant when the impedance armature windings alone limits the current. armature current and a given external power factor. and to some extent helpful. corresponding to the required load conditions. which in this case is the same as the electromotive force actually developed in the armature windings. "* ^ of great value to the designer.
electro due to changes in airgap flux distribution. while the form of the e. 105. or. (6) (c) The ohmic resistance of the armature windings. This means that the measured terminal voltage depends not only upon the amount of flux cut by the conductors but also upon the motive distribution of flux over the pole pitch. expressed as a percentage of E the lower voltage. Factors Influencing the Inherent Regulation of AlterBy enumerating all the factors which influence the terminal voltage of a generator driven at constant speed with constant field excitation. and be well to consider exactly how the resultant flux cut by the armature windings varies when load is put on the machine. OEiOEt OE l Thus the error in predetermining the inherent regulation depends upon the degree of accuracy within which curves such as those shown in Fig. together with the magnetomotive force. These factors are: (a) The total or resultant flux actually cut by the armature windings (this involves the flux linkages producing armature reactance).m. nators. it will be possible to judge how nearly the methods about to be considered approximate to the ideal solution of the problem.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS value 303 OP is divided by therefore the difference of terminal voltage Ei the load voltage EI. The alteration in wave shape of the generated force. for the following reasons. the armature current produces crossmagnetization and distortion of the resultant field. Considering first the flux cut by the active belt of conductors under the pole face.f .m. accompanied usually by a reduction of the total flux owing to increased flux density in the . determines the resultant magnetomotive force and the actual distribution of the flux in the air gap. value. because the amount of flux cut determines the average value of the developed voltage. this is not usually the same under load con By ditions as on open circuit (the field excitation remaining con stant). it will most important items are included under (a).s. When the power factor of the load is approximately unity. 124 can be drawn before the machine has been built and tested. The current in the armature fieldpole windings produces a magnetizing effect which. wave determines the relation between the mean value and far the the virtual or r.
the electromotive force generated by the cutting of these end fluxes may be represented correctly as a vector drawn 90 degrees behind the current circuit. wherein it is clearly shown that. the armature magnetomotive force tends to oppose the field magnetomotive force. The maximum value of the armature magnetomotive force occurs at the point where the current in the conductors is zero.e. and on the assumption of a sinusoidal flux distribution. and is negligible For a given output and power factor. being stationary in space if the armature revolves.. i. . because in the former the tooth density is rarely so high as to approach saturation. The effect of the individual conductors in producing slot leakage was discussed in Art. this flux is set up almost entirely by the magnetomotive force of the armature windings. and / is the frequency. and on zero its effect is wholly demagnetizing. on open flux in a vector. by those portions of the armature winding which project beyond the ends of the slots. and illustrated by Figs. the end polyphase generator is fixed in position relatively to the field poles. as current is taken out of the armature.m. the total flux cut by the active conductors is less than at no load (with the same field excitation) by the amount of the slot flux or equivalent slot flux which passes from tooth to tooth in the neutral zone. wellknown effect of an increased flux and a higher voltage is power factor The effect known as armature reaction. with lagging current. On low power factor. the electromotive force developed by the cutting of the end fluxes under . and if the inductance. The effect is. 95 of Chap. as distinfrom armature reactance. thus greatly rethe resultant With a leading current the ducing airgap flux. Turning now to the flux cut by the end connections. load conditions is given by the wellknown expression 2irfL I c where Ic is the virtual value of the current in the armature windings.304 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN armature teeth where the airgap density is greatest. XIII. is therefore dependent not guished on the amount of the armature current but also largely only obtained. It is therefore permissible to consider this e. however. L e of the end windings is known. and a sinusoidal flux distribution assumed.f. 110 and 111. upon the power factor. . com ponent as a reactive voltage such as would be obtained by connecting a choking coil in series with the "active" portion of the armature windings. less marked in alternatingcurrent than in continuouscurrent generators.
and expressed in formula (99). creased ampereturns on the field poles give rise to a greater leakage flux. On these low power factors with lagging current the phase displacement of the armature current causes the armature magnetomotive force to be almost wholly demagnetizing. to be equiva20 cent. will be e " X 10* In practice. it directly opposes the magnetomotive force due to the field windings. for the same voltage with fullload current on zero power factor. 87. slots. in henrys. Let curve A of Fig. the leakage flux would t be approximately &i field of field M the number of the number and (M + M ampereturns on open in the fullload current armature. Chap. the calculation being based upon an amount of end flux per pole ($ e ) given by the empirical formula Although the writer likes to think of the cutting of the (98). then. a is ampereturns per pole due to the armature current. XIII. 94. If it is deend flux . may be preferred by others. and its effect in reducing the flux in the air gap is readily compensated (on zero power factor) by increasing the field excitation so that the resultant ampereturns remain unstatement is not strictly correct because the inThis changed. machine able by providing number of induction tional or crossmagnetizing effect being negligible. by the conductors projecting beyond the ends of the the idea of fluxlinkages and a coefficient of selfinduction. a ) is zero. the ampereturns with M the factor The quantity demagnetizing power being = $j (  vv J where is circuit.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS 305 This quantity was calculated in Art. any 106. If the estimated leakage flux for a given developed on voltage open circuit is $ maxwells. sired to substitute the terms of the formulas (98) and (99) in the expression 2TrfL e I CJ the value of the coefficient of selfinduction. Chap. so that the calculations can be checked when the as a load for the generator a suitmotors running light. that is to say. and this alteration should not be overlooked. 125 be the opencircuit saturation curve 20 . especially when working with high flux densities in the iron of the magnetic circuit. XII. Its maximum value per pole is given by formulas (100) and (101) of Art. is considered factor below usually power per lent to zero. L e expressed in henrys. the distoris built. Regulation on Zero Power Factor.
Assuming all the alternating quantities to be simple harmonic functions. . while and E' g E g stand for the reflux actance voltage drops due to end and slot flux respec tively. age E' g obtained from Fig. and must therefore be compensated by an equal number of ampereturns on the field pole. will be entirely demagnetizing. as previously explained. 125. the terminal pressure will rise to E and the percentage regulation for this particular current output on zero power factor will theret t or> fore be 100  ^r This simple construction enables the de litt. 103. 126) can be drawn as explained in Art. and in this way the dotted curve A' of Fig. . and can be plotted only after the magnetic circuit external to the armature has been designed. 126 . 96. referred to in Art. ampereturns required The terminal voltage is. 125 can be drawn.. ing saturation curve for zero power M M t. and oiE' g E g from formula (106) of page 288. it is the curve for the complete machine. which. It shows the voltage components for one phase of the winding the vector . and the distance E' g are to develop this electromotive force. Now draw NR parallel to the horizontal axis to represent the total number of ampereturns per pole due to the armature current. rected noload saturation curve or OM' shows what exciting A' in Fig. . This is merely the opencircuit saturation curve corrected for increased leakage flux due to the effect of additional field current required to balance the demagnetizing a given armature current. N of the triangle MNR. PE EP t g being the IR drop.306 of the PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN machine. Thus E R or OR' is the field excitation necessary to produce E volts at the terminals of the machine. If the load is now thrown off. . E gP The apparent developed volt. only E which gives the point Method of constructFIG. The numerical value of MR Ampereturns per pole can be obtained from formula (99) page 266. the vector diagram (Fig... . 125. on the corgives the point factor. Knowing the increase of flux in pole and frame the magnetomotive force absorbed in overcoming the increased reluctance of these parts can be calculated. however.
^ vol. vol.f. p. 1913. 126. T. "Regulation of Definite Pole Alternators. OE It should be realized that the fictitious reactance drop. H. 1 S. component on the field poles will generate the additional voltage in the phase words. 126." Trans." Trans. and B. field pressure OE t under load conditions at zero power factor when the excitation is maintained constant. SR. 1903. it may conveniently be if it were due to an equivalent or fictitious reactance capable of producing the same total loss of pressure if the magnetomotive force of the armature had no demagnetizing or distortional Thus. A. the vector diagram shows the difference between the opencircuit pressure OE and the terminal effect. 497. by producing the line PE' g to E in Fig. A.. A. Ibid. 32. I. E. so that PE is equal to RS of Fig. McCoRMiCK in discussion on "A Contribution to the Theory of the Regulation of Alternators" (H. I FIG. MNR ference of pressure.m. p. 330. hence when the load is thrown off.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS 307 signer to predetermine with but little error. MORTENSEN. 126. 23. The complete load characteristic O'R is quickly obtained by sliding the triangle 1 The difalong the corrected noload saturation curve. I. E. cannot be predetermined until the whole of the . the balancing m. although treated as it is made up partly of real reactance drop and partly of armature reaction. 1904 . Also B. corresponding to any particular value OR' of field excitation (Fig. 21. the regulation on zero power factor provided he can correctly calculate the reactances required for the vector quantities of Fig. PUNGA). HOB ART and F. BEHREND. Vector diagram for zero power factor. E. 125) is called the synchronous react ance drop because. in other it tends to set up a magnetic field displaced exactly 90 degrees (electrical space) behind the current producing it. 789. M.. 126. E. 125. The additional (ficti tious) reactance drop E E' g is correctly drawn at right angles to the current vector because on zero power factor the effect of the armature magnetomotive force is wholly demagnetizing. vol. p. E E' Q of Fig. " The Experimental Basis for the Theory of the Regulation of Alternators.
of the total difference of DR P voltage depends on the slope of the line MS. Ic of the armature current. Thus FG in Fig. Now magnetomotive force of the armature windings will be almost wholly demagnetizing. It is far from being constant (except over the linear part of the opencircuit saturation curve) and must be measured off the diagram for each different value of the field excitation. to a suitable scale. 127 is constructed for any assumed It shows that when the value. The vector triangle Fig.308 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN circuit of the magnetic machine has been designed. 125 is the loss of voltage corresponding to E' g of Fig. 127 Vector diagram of shortcircuited armature. . and is approximately constant for a given armature current. The amount Dt(ends) of the shortcircuit current is in timately connected with the regulating qualities of a machine. 127 and 128. but force has had time to react on the field and has actually reduced the flux of induction in the air gap. and in large generators becomes a matter of importance. and is thus some function of the degree of saturation of the iron in the magnetic circuit. and by drawing. of the armature current at the instant a shortcircuit occurs depends mainly on the induc tance of the armature windings. the ordinate GJ equal to the assumed armature current 7 C excitation . the resulting current may be fairly accurately calculated when the armature magnetomotive by using the construction indicated in Figs. . 128 is made equal to the maximum armature ampereturns. 125) shows very clearly the advantage of high flux densities (magnetic saturation) in portion of the magnetic circuit. terminal voltage is zero. the ordinate OE' g being the generated voltage as determined by the vector diagram. The maximum value IRdrop FIG. The distance in Fig. the flux in the air gap must be such that the pressure OE' would be developed in the armature conductors on open circuit. however. The portion D. 128) of the ampereturns necessary to produce this flux in the air gap is thus obtained. This diagram (Fig. 126. it is correct to assume that the field since the excitation must be increased by an amount equal to the maxi mum armature ampereturns per pole in order that the resultant may be OF. Shortcircuit Current. if JX(slobs) some good regulation is aimed at. 107. The value OF (Fig. the machine being shortcircuited.
but by the intelligent use of vector quantities (involving as they do the assumption of simple harmonic curves) very satisfactory results can be obtained. Regulation on any Power Factor. "Electrical Machine Design." Electrician. the relation between the shortcircuit current and the is fieldpole excitation is also linear. the field excitation OL giving a pressure OE on open the shortcircuit current will be LK. is that given by best to the author method known curve for any power factor may PROFESSOR ALEXANDER GRAY. 1914. 90. it is impossible to predetermine the regulation accurately when the power factor differs appreciably from zero. 73. J and recently embodied Standardization rules of the gineers. Unless the effects of crossmagnetization are taken into account. p. GRAY. 128.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS 309 the point / on the shortcircuit current curve is obtained. The by which the load saturation be drawn. CLAYTON 2 has also suggested a similar method. 108. X 2 in the American Institute of Electrial En A. E. vol. Method of constructing curve of armature current on shortcircuit. FIG. without resorting to flux distribution and waveshape analysis. A. } When circuit. . By repeating the construction for any other assumed value of the current it will be seen that so long as E' g lies on the linear portion of the noload characteristic.
and in regard to the relation between the terminal voltage Et and the opencircuit voltage E when load is thrown off. 129. and OR' (Fig. From E and so that P is the required powerfactor as center describe the arc of a circle of radius t mE R'S mE t 129) equal to the opencircuit voltage. 130 draw the rightangled triangle EtPE such that represents the armature resistance drop per phase with fullt t load current. tion provides for the proper angle between terminal voltage and current. which may be plotted as R'Q in Fig.310 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Let the external power factor be cos 0. The fullloadcurrent zerosaturation curve O'R has been drawn as previously powerfactor If then it is possible to determine the point Q on described. 0. This constructage. 129. it will be seen that the total synchronous reactive drop has . Then OE t will be the required terminal vol(Fig. 129) the constant field excitation which would. any load and of indefinite length angle 0. and EoP the corresponding synchronous reactance drop. 129. From E draw the line Et m 0' R' FIG. as given by SR in Fig. E the fullload saturation curve for power factor cos the required OS percentage regulation may be expressed as 100?^>7" PE In Fig. Method of constructing saturation curve for power factor. and cutting produced at 0. on open circuit. develop the pressure represented by R'S.
when the disposition and windings of the slots in the rotor have been determined. Armature current Vector diagram showing construction to obtain terminal voltage for any load and power factor. and of which the direct effect on regulation is proportional to the sine of the angle of lag a not unreasonable assumpThis gives good results tion. and for highspeed generators with air gap of constant length.m. although it has been elaborated by the writer. This virtually assumes the demagnetizing and distortional effects of the armature current to be equivalent to a fictitious reactance drop capable of being treated vectorially like any other reactance drop. the previously described methods of predetermining regulation are satisfactory. From these flux curves. though scientifically inaccurate. An attempt will be made to outline as briefly as possible a method of study which. correct results can be obtained only by taking into account the alteration in the amount of the useful flux due to crossmagnetization and the changes in the e.f. 130. liable to FIG. 130. in machines of normal design.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS v t 311 been used in the impedance triangle E PE of Fig. The method about to be described salientpole is based on the fact that for machines approximately correct fluxdistribution curves can be drawn when the width and shape of the pole shoe have been decided upon. but in the case of new or abnormal designs of machines. waveshapes due to flux distortion. is not essentially new. indeed. 109. . So long assumed both on open circuit and under load conditions. Influence of Flux Distribution as a sinusoidal airgap flux distribution can be on Regulation. It is when departures are made be from standard practice that such approximations are abused. it is probably used in a modified form by some designers when aiming at a closer degree of than can be expected from methods based on the usual accuracy practical sinewave assumptions.
the displacement of the armature m. Fig.m. the e.11. . waves and their form factors can be obtained.m.f. and correct for the internal pressure losses ohmic and reactive. . curve may be determined approximately. for any given external power factor. 131 let the curve F represent the distribution of magnetomotive force over the armature surface tending to send flux from pole to armature on open circuit.f.m. which is Jiit actual working out of the problem is not quite so simple as this statement may suggest. Let BD be the magnetomotive force due to armature current only. and the ampereturns required to overcome the reluctance of the remaining parts : t of the magnetic circuit are also readily ascertained since the total flux per pole (the area of fullload flux curve (7) is known. 116.f. BD If will also be a sine curve. on the degree of distortion of the resultant airgap flux which. Let E be fullload terminal voltage obtained by this method.e. Waves. correcting for the form factor of the developed voltage if this departs appreciably from the assumed value of 1. XIII. on open circuit. all as explained in Arts. i. since its exact shape cannot be predetermined). In Fig. Now obtain the actual flux distribution and corresponding fullload' 'apparent" developed voltage for a given power factor. The field excitation for air gap and teeth is known for the particular condition considered. the load current be sinusoidal (an almost essential assumption..312 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN whether representing opencircuit or loaded conditions. was distributed symmetricThe manner in which ally about the center line of the pole face. was explained in Art. . curve relaThe position of this curve tively to the center line of the pole. the internal depends upon powerfactor angle and also upon the phase displacement of the generated electromotive force under load conditions. Outline of Procedure in Calculating Regulation from Study of E. It is therefore merely necessary to read off the opencircuit characteristic the voltage E corresponding to the ascertained value of the total field excitation in order to determine the E Et i i i . and the problem of regulation may be summed up as follows Plot the opencircuit saturation curve for the complete magnetic circuit.m. 100 and 101 of Chap. 110. regulation. 98 and illustrated by the vector diagram. the chief difficulty being that a The knowledge of the external powerfactor angle is insufficient to determine the exact position of the armature m.f. the maximum ordinate CD of which will .
f.m. required to overcome the reluctance of the polecore and yoke ring has not been taken into account. considered relatively to the poles. Distribution of m. 98. 132 can be plotted. displaced exactly The point B is therefore the position on the armature surface. 131. } The correct solution of the problem involves the actual wave shapes of the developed electromotive forces.f.f. Having calculated the permeance of the FIG. where the current is a maxi AB or /?. The areas of these are a of curves measure the total respective airgap flux under the two conditions. magnetic circuit for various points on the armature surface. curve F while curve C. being approximately as explained in Art.f. Add the ordinates of curves F and D to get the curve which gives the resultant magnetomotive force under the assumed mum.m. Assuming . but we cannot say that the actual ampereturns on the field will be the same in both cases. curve M. because the component of the total m.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS 313 be displaced beyond the center line of the pole by an amount depending upon the power factor of the load and the distortion of the resulting airgap flux distribution. which represents opencircuit conditions.m. showing the flux distribution under load. and the maximum armature current will be carried by the conductor 90 degrees (electrical space) from the point C. the length M conditions of load. is derived from the m. over armature surface. This will occur where the current in the conductors maximum is value zero.m. is plotted from the m. which depends largely on the power determined factor. the flux distribution curves A and C of Fig. The first.
102.fs. value of the irregular wave. 100 101.m. to cos"" 1 ( The current wave (assumed to be 7 ) . but its time phase relatively to any denned instantaneous value of the irregular wave is not so easily determined. The maximum value of a socalled equivalent sine wave is \/2 times the r. position relatively to the center line of the pole. XIII. . " the wave shapes of the apparent" developed e. (C) under load. but a to be preferred. The ft electrical degrees beyond actual fullload e.f. can be drawn.f. Chap. consists in ob \apparent power/ a sine curve) from which the m. curve BD of Fig. . wave can also be drawn in the correct taining the average value of the true power and making the displacement between electromotive force and current vectors equal true power \ / _. by multiplying the corresponding instantaneous values of electromotive force and current. 132. of the pole. ) when load is method polar coordinates as explained in Art.s.m. The terminal voltage which must be known before the regulation can be calculated is most readily obtained by using vector diagrams.m. and. the power curve can be drawn and the average . and (A thrown off. Flux distribution.314 all PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN the flux in the air gap to be cut by the armature conductors. but this involves the substitution of " " equivalent sine curves for the irregular waves. 131 is derived would have its maximum value at the point B. The approximate amount of this phase displacement can be obtained from the irregular curve when plotted to and FIG. and their form factors calculated as explained in Arts. although more tedious.m. A. displaced the center.
. representing the phase of the opencircuit voltage. 131. and join the with E g and E t respectively. by using the vector construction on the assumption of sinewaves throughout. IX (slots) Eg IX (ends) Fia.f. E g Eg and Ef to represent the reactance drops per phase in slots f and end connections respectively. 133 Vector diagram for determining the inherent regulation of an alternatingcurrent generator. Draw is OE' g equal cos" l in length to the calculated e. and so ( j. thati/'' = j /where the watts referred to are calculated of E' g set off by multiplying the corresponding instantaneous values and Ia From E' g drop a perpendicular on to OI a and . value of the "ap parent" developed voltage under load conditions. 133. . to be used as a reference line of from which the phase angles can be plotted.m. but. The im portant point in connection with this method of analysis is that the external powerfactor angle and the terminal voltage Et can be calculated for any value of the armature current I a when the voltage phase displacement of the latter relatively to the opencircuit is assumed.. The angle E OI a and the point of the vector OE t may not correspond with the exact length t values of external power factor and terminal voltage assumed when the angle /3 was originally estimated. is The ratio of this quantity to the voltamperes equal to the cosine of the angle $' in Fig. E OIC equal to current behind /3 Fig. a very close estimate of these quantities can be made. e. This vector diagram can be constructed as follows: Draw OE i. the center of the pole.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS value of its 315 ordinates calculated. Draw PE t parallel to OIa to represent the resistance pressure drop per phase. This the opencircuit Make the angle the estimated lag of electromotive force.
is the phase difference between equivalent sinewaves representing opencircuit voltage and "apparent" developed voltage under load conditions. The meaning of the other quantities in Fig. 129 and 130. 108.316 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN field ampere turns necessary to produce the terminal voltage diagram Fig. and so indicates one important difference between the construction of Fig. 133 may be summed as follows: . that the problem of regulation may be studied most conveniently and correctly by a method such as that here described. 133 and that of Fig. value of the voltage per phase actually developed in the armature winding by the cutting " of the flux linking with the active" conductors. The use of vectors and vector constructions. angle E OE' g or a.s. it is easy to read the corresponding opencircuit voltage from the noload saturation curve of the machine. waves. turns. 130.m. in which the assumptions made are not universally E applicable. and armature core.f. represented by the ampere gap The OE t of the vector ordinate of the curve F of Fig. being represented by the area of the curve C of Fig. 133 on PE g produced. 133) at the terminals. such as were first described. It is in the case of abnormal designs. The vector The angle Eg OIa or \f/ is difference in length between the internal powerfactor angle. turns are readily calculated because the total useful flux per pole is maximum known. but it does not necessarily fall on this straight line.m. The OE and OE' g is the voltage drop due to armature demagnetization and distortion. together with the turns ampere required to overcome the reluctance of the poleThese additional ampere core. or when the conditions are unusual. cos 6. total ampere turns per pole which are to OE volts t give necessary (of Fig. It is the result of The flux distortion due to the armature crossmagnetizing ampere OE g gives the r. 131. The point f is shown in Fig. which is subject . will usually give sufficiently accurate results without the expenditure of time and labor involved in the plotting of flux curves and e. 133 are made up of the turns for air and armature teeth. yoke ring. In this manner the Having determined the regulation corresponding to a known external power factor. can be calculated with greater accuracy than will usually be obtained by the method outlined in Art. and illustrated by up Figs. 132.
v. bearing friction. per cent. 317 if and may be elaborated In the writer's opinion.a. which cannot easily be predetermined.. IX.0 per cent.0 0. approximate values for these in arriving at a figure for the total Very little need be added to what has already been said in Art.8 1. Windage and bearing friction losses are never easily estimated. (50 Turboalternators: forced ventilation (exclusive of power to drive fan) .000 per cent. and eddy currents. losses. per cent. He should also consult the working out of the numerical example under items (148) and (149) in Art. but the following figures reliable data. current generator before it is built. and it is therefore necessary to include dynamo. per cent. to which the reader is referred.5 1. . and make a list of all the losses occurring in the machine at the required output and power factor. in the case of the the same difficulties occur as There are always some losses such as windage. may be used in the absence of more APPROXIMATE WINDAGE AND FRICTION LOSSES EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGE OF FULLLOAD OUTPUT K. and not the rated k. Efficiency. 200 500 and larger 0.5 1. per cent.v..000 10.9 2. per cent.000 20.REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS to modification in matters of detail desired.2 1. In the ratio efficiency =  output + losses > it is the actual output of the generator at a given power factor with which we are concerned. 60 of Chap.a. 63. per cent. output. output fcSgfcSi 1.5 1.. which are always liable to be abused when familiarity with their purpose and construction leads to forgetfulness of their meaning and limitations.000 15. a further advantage of the method of and waveform analysis lies in the fact that the designer obtains thereby a clearer conception of the factors entering into the problem of regulation than he is ever likely to obtain flux distribution if he confines himself to the use of formulas and vector diagrams.000 5. In estimating the efficiency of an alternating111.
With narrow. but with low frequency machines the density in the teeth may be carried well above the "knee" of the BH curve. The losses in the teeth can now be calculated with greater accuracy than before the fullload flux curves were drawn.35 to 0. The brushfriction loss is usually small. but in the case of large machines with heavy conductors. it is usually un196). necessary to calculate the actual tooth density because the " apparent" tooth density may be used in estimating tooth losses. the brushfriction loss will be approximately vA j^ watts. because the maximum value of the tooth density will depend upon the maximum value of the airgap flux density as obtained from the flux distribution curve for the loaded machine. If is the total area A of contact. The flux entering the sides of the teeth through the top of the slot. and it would then be necessary to determine the actual tooth density as explained in Art. v is between brushes and the peripheral velocity of the slip rings. leakage flux which the armature conductors themwhen the machine is delivering current to the The loss due to (1) is independent of the load. as explained in Art. but occasion arises when it is advisable to laminate the conductors in the upper part of the slot to avoid appreciable loss due to this cause. slots. it is negligible. 2. The I 2 R loss in the armature copper may be calculated when the crosssection and length of the winding are known. of the rated fullload output of the generator. 37 of Chap. The hysteresis and eddycurrent losses in the iron can be calculated for any given load because the required developed voltage. and would be of importance in the case of solid conductors of large crosssection in wide open slots. and an allowance should then be made to cover this.318 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN The power required to drive the ventilating fan for turboalternators will generally be from 0. 60 (page Unless the density in the teeth is high. or partially closed. the eddycurrent loss in the "active" conductors may be considerable. . are known. The eddy currents in the buried portions of the winding are due to two causes: 1.5 per cent. and in feet slip rings per minute. and therefore the total flux per pole. in square inches. VII under dynamo design. The slot selves produce circuit. Eddy Currents in Armature Conductors.
REGULATION OF ALTERNATORS
Item
(2)
319
if
may
lead to very great additional copper losses
solid conductors of large crosssection are used in narrow slots of considerable depth. The calculation of the losses due to the
if it
reversals of the slot leakage flux could be made without difficulty were not for the fact that the dampening effect of the unequal
distribution of the current density through the section of the solid conductor actually decreases the amount of the slot flux
and
so reduces the loss.
The
best and most thorough treatment
of this subject known to the writer is that of PROF. A. B. FIELD in the Trans., A. I. E. E., vol. 24, p. 761 (1905). The remedy in the case of heavy losses due to slot leakage flux through the cop
per
is
to laminate the conductors in a direction parallel to the
copper strip is used, it must not be placed on edge in the slot, but should be laid flat with the thin edge presented to the flux lines crossing the slot, exactly as in the case of the
flux; thus, if
armature stampings, which are so placed relatively to the flux from the poles. Owing to the fact that the leakage flux is considerably greater in amount near the top than the bottom of the slot, the losses due to both causes of flux reversal in the space occupied by the "active" copper are of more importance in the upper layers of conductors than in those near the bottom of the For this reason, the upper conductors will sometimes be slot.
laminated, while the lower conductors are left solid. When the method of lamination has been decided upon, the probable increase in loss can be obtained from figures and curves published by PROF. FIELD in the paper previously referred to; but it is suggested that, for the purpose of estimating the probable
the calculated PR loss in the armature windings be increased 15 per cent, in the case of slowspeed machines of medium size, and 30 per cent, in the case of steamturbinedriven units of large output. This addition is intended to cover not only the losses due to eddy currents in the armature windings, but all indeterminate losses in end plates, supporting rings, etc., which increase with the load.
efficiency,
CHAPTER XV
EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN
112. Introductory. The principles and features of alternator in as the foregoing chapters, will now be applied design, given
and illustrated in the working out of a numerical example. A steamturbinedriven threephase generator will be selected, because this design involves greater departures from the previously illustrated D.C. design than would occur if the slowspeed type
of alternator with salient poles were selected. It is true that the difficulties encountered in the design of turboalternators especially of the larger sizes, running at exceptionally high speeds are of a mechanical rather than an electrical nature; but this merely emphasizes the importance to the electrical engineer of a
thorough training
engineering.
in the principles
and practice
of
mechanical
man who is not in the first place an exmechanical engineer to design successfully a modern perienced turboalternator. These machines are now made up highspeed to 30,000 k.v.a. output at 1,500 revolutions per minute (25 cycles) and 35,000 k.v.a. at 1,200 revolutions per minute (60 cycles). Larger units can be provided as the demand arises it is probable that single units for outputs up to 50,000 k.v.a. at 750 revolutions per minute will be built in the near future. With the great
It is not possible for a
;
weight of the slotted rotors, carrying insulated exciting coils, and travelling at very high peripheral velocities, new problems have arisen, and these problems should be seriously studied by anyone proposing to take up the design of modern electrical machinery. Engineering textbooks may constitute a basis of necessary knowledge; but, with the rapid advance in this field of electrical engineering, the information of greatest value (apart from what the manufacturing firms deliberately withhold) is to be found in current periodical publications, including the papers and discussions appearing in the journals of the engineering societies. Since it will not be possible to discuss the mechanical details
of turboalternator designs in these pages, a
size (8,000 k.v.a.) will
machine of medium be chosen, and the peripheral speed of
the rotor will not be permitted to exceed 18,000 ft. per minute. The mechanical difficulties will therefore not be so great as in 320
EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN
some
ties,
321
and the
of the larger machines running at higher peripheral velocielectrical features of the design will be considered
alone, reference being sion may arise.
It is
made
to mechanical details only as occa
proposed to work through the consecutive items of a design
sheet, as was done for the D.C. dynamo; but the sheets will include fewer detailed items, more latitude being allowed in the exercise
judgment and the application work done on previous designs.
of
of
An
knowledge derived from the attempt will be made to
render the example of use in the design of slowspeed salientpole machines, and, with this end in view, references will be made to the text when taking up in detail the items of the design sheet.
For the same reason namely, to make the numerical example of broad application the writer may take the liberty of digressing sometimes from the immediate subject, if matters of interest suggest themselves as the work proceeds.
113. Singlephase Alternators.
Since the selected design
is
that of a polyphase machine,
or
it
seems advisable to state here one
two matters
of special interest in the design of the less It is easier to design
common
singlephase generator.
a singlephase alternator, although this fact is nized, even by designers. Many of the singlephase machines in actual service are less efficient than they might be; but the
a polyphase than not always recog
problems which are comparatively little used at the present having been mainly
distribution
peculiar to singlephase generators receive attention because these machines are rarely time, the development during recent years
in the direction of
currents.
power transmission and
by polyphase
It is the pulsating nature of the armature m.m.f., as explained in Art. 94, Chap. XIII that leads to eddycurrent losses that are practically inappreciable in the case of two or threephase
machines working on a balanced load, that
is
to say, with the
same current and the same voltage in each of the phase windings, and with the same angular displacement between current and e.m.f. in the respective armature circuits. Sometimes the polyphase load is not balanced, and in that case pulsations of the armature field occur as in the singlephase machines, the amount
of the pulsating field being dependent upon the degree of unbalancing of the load. The effect is then as if an alternating field were superposed on the steady armature m.m.f. due to
the balanced components of the total armature current. Without going into detailed calculations, it may be stated that
21
322
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN
the remedy consists in providing ammortisseur or damper windings on the pole faces, as mentioned in Art. 94, Chap. XIII. A simple form of damper is illustrated in Fig. 134, where a number of copper rods through the pole face and on each side of
FIG. 134.
Shortcircuited damping bars in pole face of singlephase alternator.
the pole shoe
of copper.
are shortcircuited at both ends
by heavy bands
to sudden or periodic changes of flux through any portion of the pole face is checked to a very great extent by the heavy currents that a small change of flux will
Any tendency
establish in the shortcircuited rods.
114.
Design Sheets for Alternatingcurrent Generator.
SPECIFICATION
Output, k;v.a Number of phases Terminal voltage
8,000 3 6,600
Power
factor of load
Frequency
0.8 60
Type
of drive
Steam turbine
1,800
Speed, r.p.m Inherent regulation
Exciting voltage Permissible temperature rise after 6 hr. fullload run
Within 25 per cent, rise when load is thrown off. 130
full
(by thermometer)
Ventilating fan
45C.
Independently driven (not part
of generator).
GENERAL OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE
(a)
(6)
(c)
Design armature. Design pole faces.
Draw
flux distribution curves.
field
Obtain wave shapes and form factors.
Regulation, and shortcircuit
(d)
Complete
current.
Efficiency.
system.
Opencircuit saturation curve.
(e)
EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN
CALCULATIONS
323
324
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESlGtf
CALCULATIONS.
Continued
EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN
and
325
if we select the star connection of phases, this is also the current per phase winding (item (7)). Referring to Art. 75 for values of the specific loading (page 250) we find that the average value there suggested is q 650 but
;
greater in turboalternators than in slowspeed salientpole machines, because it is desired to keep the axial length as short as possible, and the greater losses per
the peripheral loading
is
unit area of cooling surface can be dealt with by a suitable system of forced ventilation. may therefore select a value for q
We
even greater than, the proposed equal cooled machines. Let us try q = 650 X 1.25
to, or
maximum = 812.
for self
The
pole pitch (item (11))
is
7TX40 =
4
31.416
in.
and the approximate armature ampereturns per pole (item
will
(8))
be
CM).
=

12,750
Referring to Arts. 76 and 77, Chap. XI, we can get a preliminary idea of the required length of air gap as explained in Art. 77. We shall, in this design, deliberately select a high value for the
airgap flux density, and if necessary saturate the teeth of the rotor while keeping the density in the armature teeth within realoss.
sonable limits to prevent excessive hysteresis and eddycurrent .Let us try B g = 6,000 gausses, which is higher than the
upper limit of the range suggested in Art. 76. The principal advantage of using high flux densities is that the axial length of the rotor can thus be reduced but if it is found later that the
;
selected value of
teeth,
it
leads to unduly high flux density in the will have to be modified.
of the airgap density
Bg
The probable maximum value
circuit is
on open
X
6,000
,
=
9,450 gausses; and, assuming the ratio of
,
m.m.fs. to be 1.25,
9,450
we have
d
X
X
2.54
=
1.25
X
0.4^
X
12,750
whence
d
=
0.835 or (say)
%
in.
In the case of mediumspeed salientpole designs, the peripheral velocity would not be decided upon by merely selecting the upper limit of 8,000 ft. per minute as given in Art. 66 (page
this generator by means of axial then. 70.2 X X 2.600 X 10 8 \/3 = length of 62. required on open ft 1 For the purpose of calculating the flux circuit. air ducts only. of 6. 74). there are no radial air spaces. a preliminary keeping with what seems to be a reasonable pole pitch. ' where Eper phase = 3 V/. Items (17) to (20). we may use formula (94) of Art.42 in diameter. (Art. the axial be ~ This is 62.62 in. and if the field winding can be accommodated in the space available.958. slots per pole per phase.2 X 10 6 . the net length of iron in the armature core will be approximately in. but these dimensions cannot l n = 0.326 238) . ^r Lm  For item we have X = = = 2. Whirling Speed of Rotor. but a short armature for a machine with a rotor 38.22 X 0. The required flux per pole is therefore 6. " 6. the design should be satisfactory.45X31.25 in.958 X 60 X 48 10 6 maxwells. A few rough calculations will very soon show whether or not the tentative value of T will lead to a suitable axial length of armature core. be finally decided upon until the slot proportions and tooth densities have been settled. A matter of considerable impor . it is what we are aiming at. On the basis of q conductors per phase would be = 812. giving a cor rected value for peripheral loading of q 700 2 ^ X 3 = 800 approx. PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN This has to be considered in connection with the pole pitch diameter of rotor being selected in (see Art.000X6.8 We shall attempt to ventilate If. the number of *!* With four each slot.000 gausses for With the assumed value armature core will B g. 84).92Z a = 46.. and fc = 0. Items (13) to (16). and three conductors in we have Z = (15) 3X4X4=48.
because 190 it is approximately V Deflection in inches In turboalternators the whirling speed is generally higher than the running speed. below. it will be seen that the smaller deflection By making . causing chattering in the bearings and abnormal stresses which may lead to fracture of the shaft. in turn. first place the permis* would be . The maximum deflection of the rotor due to its own weight together with the unbalanced magnetic pull (if any) can be is calculated within a fair degree of accuracy when the position of the bearings and the crosssection of the shaft are known. in revolutions per minute. the whirling speed is commonly lower than the normal running speed.0198 a very rough estimate of the rotor weight and the between span bearings. = 1. A the whirling speed should be either 1. The vibration will then be excessive. good rule is to arrange for the whirling speed to be either 25 per cent. Without attempting to go into the mechanical design of shaft and bearings. it should be pointed out that the size of shaft in turboalternators determined mainly by what is known as the whirling speed. the running speed. the frequency of the bending due to the weight of the rotating part will correspond exactly with the natural frequency of vibration of the shaft considered as a deflected spring. causing vibration of the rotor. Taking as an example the design under consideration. The whirling speed of a rotor with steel shaft.800 or 1.800 25 per cent. In such cases it is necessary to pass through the critical speed.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN 327 tance in the design of highspeed machinery is the particular speed at which vibration becomes excessive. (2^50) \ 2 = ' 00714 in. above. or 25 per cent.350. but this is not a necessary condition of design. n > anc * * n t ^ie OCQ) (190 = 0.. can then be calculated. where the provision of a commutator calls for the smallest possible diameter of shaft. which. but this is not a serious objection. every time the machine is started or stopped.250. depends upon the deflection of the rotor considered as a beam with the points of support at the centers of the two There will be one or more critical speeds at which bearings. and in directcurrent steamturbinedriven dynamos. = 2. In the sible deflection + 25 per cent.
page 267.92 in. We shall assume a solid rotor in this design. without a through shaft). There is no definite rule for the most suitable current density in the armature conductors. It is not proposed to go further into details of mechanical design.000 amp. The specific loading will obviously have some effect on the allowable current density in the copper. the conditions of cooling in an enclosed machine with forced ventilation are not the same as In a turboalternator there is for a selfventilating generator.600. Chap. being less than one and onehalf times the diameter. usually plenty of room for the armature conductors. the permissible copper crosssection being dependent on the length of armature core.000 <7 which gives us for item (22) a current density of 2. in the bearings. including the cotton insulation. 81. (i. page 318). is stiff er than a laminated rotor with through shaft. per square inch of armature copper. windings cannot be determined by the empirical formula (96) of Art. the position and area of the vent ducts. % .. per minute. in. The slot each sq. but attention may be called to the fact that a rotor forged solid with the shaft. would indicate the feasibility of a rotor built up of steel plates. 78. per There will be 12 copper strips in each slot. we shall decide upon a single layer winding The current density in the armature (see Art. and Art.35 conductor..328 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN (corresponding to the higher critical speed) is easily attainable. Ill. although the length of the rotor body (about 49J> in. which may have to be worked at a high current density. and 10J^ in. It is well to laminate the conductors in a direction parallel to the slot leakage flux (see Art. the chief trouble being with the rotor winding. 88. the total thickness. and we may build up each conductor of four flat strips by 0. because this is not applicable to speeds higher than 8.14 in. On account of our having an odd number of conductors per slot. giving a total crosssection of 0. we may use the formula 1.000 ft. and. as a guide in making a preliminary estimate. near the rotor body.e. Items (21) to (27). and in any case. the diameter of the shaft being of the order of 13 in. XII).). being about 1. and the supply of air that can economically be passed through the machine. or a solid rotor with the shaft projections bolted to the two ends.
EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN insulation should be about 0. \ . 329 or ^2 m > thick (see Art..16 in. deep. and the total slot space for winding and insulation The thickness of wedge might will be 1 in. 80. wide by 2J/ in. page 259).
from the top.45 X = 46.62 X 51 D \la 14 3 would be B. will have a diameter of 44 in. = ' or by an amount equal to (say) circumference average in. page 251).. The actual radial depth should be greater than this to allow for the reduction of section due to the presence of axial vent ducts. the net radial depth will be X 10 6 2 X 8.330 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN tance might have been obtained by using a smaller width and greater depth of copper conductor. The width of copper strip was selected to fit into the 1in.1 46. 135) has the advantage that the eddycurrent loss in the armature inductors.500 cu.500 = 537. On the B g = 6. .. but. In this of iron in the stator ring will be approximately 12.8 12.005 of ducts crosssection air volume + X X 107.5 .000 gausses.5 sq. Let us make the depth Rd (item (29)) = 14 in. armature core (see Art. and the of tooth will slot. and the total if (48.500 X 6. seeing that the width of tooth will probably be sufficient. 76. will be very small.000 X 2.005 case the X cubic inches of iron in stator below slots. Chap. in.25 12. the "apparent" tooth density (item (27)) TT TT X 6. gausses 2 X 1. In this particular machine it is proposed to ventilate.88 in. and X The _ .500 gausses 88. Ill (page 318).8 = 107.. in. the stator tooth. because this seems to provide a suitable crosssection for Thus. of stampings below the slots 62..8 which is not too high (see Art. XII). average width basis of be j~  1 = 1. 136. the proposed design of slot (as shown in Fig. and a sinusoidal flux distribution over the pole pitch.5 . ^ provide vent ducts arranged generally as shown in Fig. from both causes referred to in Art.1) in the stampings should be 0. An adequate supply of air will probably be obtained if the total crosssection of air duct through the body of the stampings (in square inches) is not less than 0. actual radial depth of stamping below the teeth can be calculated by assuming that the air ducts reduce the gross depth 537. with axial ducts only.1 m. 537.88 X 46. and a fairly large crosssection of air passages must therefore be allowed. if possible. = ' Items (28) in the to (32).2 Assuming a flux density of 8. or (say) 2 in. a section halfway down the tooth.
331 each 1% in.a.1 and 3. in. of the rated output. Items (33) to (36).8 X  20 )  (48 X 1 X 4.9001b.28 of iron in core (item 30) [7r(38. The weight 0. which is not excessive although quite high enough for a machine of 8. in diameter.25) 2 X 10 X 48 = is 589 sq. approxi mately.125 is X 46.2 X X = 30.589] = 28. capacity. teeth.000 k. or 1.. In a machine of so large an output as the one under consideration.900 respectively.24. page 102.000 lb.125)] = 4. 34. and in the core below the 28. and referring to the ironloss curve.1 and core 4. making a total of 120 kw.8 X . The loss in the teeth is therefore 3.000 watts. FIG. making a total of ^ (1.v. The weight 0. Taking the approximate flux densities as previously calculated (items 27 and 28). turboalternator.a.125 ) X 46. the iron loss per pound for carefully assembled highgrade armature stampings is found to be 6.000 = 90.000 watts. Fig.v. Armature stamping of 8000 k.125 .EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN where there are 10 holes per slot. the weight and cost of copper should be .28 of the iron in the teeth Citem (31)) [7r(24..2 watts in teeth 6.5 per cent. 138.
a.8 in. . The phase (21). by formula 210 V 24 The IR drop per page 36..v.26 per cent. (see Art.01135 X 700 = PR per cent. XIV) to cover sundry indeterminate load losses.a. which is about what this loss usually amounts to in a turbogenerator of 8.000 k. ^QQQ = 0. The loss in armature winding (item 36) is 3 X 0..35 sq.700 watts.42) + (2 X 6. and we For the other symbols we have: shall assume the value k = 1. or 445. or 0. or (say) 8. output.4 volts in order to include the effect of eddy currents in the conductors. n. of the rated fullload k. was or. Chap. and assume the length per turn of armature winding (item (33)) to be fully (2 X 51) + (2.01135 X 2 (700) = 16. which should be increased about 25 to 30 phase (item (35)) 0. is is 7. The length l e is therefore 210 = (210 .95. .01135 ohm. wherein the symbols have the following numerical values. capacity. we shall use the formula (97) of page 261. The constant k will be fairly high in turboalternators. 1. Since this design is being worked out for the purpose of illustration only. /= p T. The reactive voltage drop per phase due to the cutting of the end flux cannot be predetermined accurately.5. crosssection of the conductor (four strips in parallel) is The number of turns per in.54 = 275 cm. Ill. but we may use the empirical formula (99) page 266. is. Items (37) and (38).5 X 31. be safer to use the figure 210 in.102) X 2.000 circular mils. The total fullload armature copper loss may therefore be estimated at 21 kw.332 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN determined by making a drawing of the armature coils and caremeasuring the length required. for this mean length all the coils will probably be bent back and secured in position by insulated clamps in order to resist the mechanical forces which tend to displace or bend the coils when a shortIt will because circuit occurs. the mean length per turn (item assumed to be 210 in. 0.v. and the resistance per phase at 60C. 24.6) +6 = 199. Ic = = = = 60 4 3 4 700 (33)) 2Z In regard to l e and I'.
with fullload current per phase. the numerical value of PS would be greater than 0. tors are carrying fullload current. spaces above the conductors can be calcuNeglecting the widening of the slot to accomof the slot modate the wedge. E = 9 189. quantities are: the gross core length la = 51 X dj = 2^ in. above the winding 2. per centimeter length of arma ture core measured parallel to the shaft. we get for the volts lost by slot leakage when the armature conducof the rotor teeth. or (say) 190 volts. and of length X Thus = P = 7X1 g y 2 62 3 % Q334 This last quantity cannot have a numerical value smaller than as calculated by this method. but we are assuming a solid steel rotor (which is customary). p.54 = 129.m. The loss of pressure due to the slot flux can be calculated as explained in Art. wherein the quantities /.334. . 2. the permeance (see Fig... If the rotor teeth were built up of thin plates like the stator. the value for P 3 as here calculated will be about right. space of radial depth 5 = in. 333 beyond ends of slots measured along whether straight or bent (see page 264) is j*) 4 4 The reactive voltage due to cutting of end flux.62 in.5 cm. . of one armature slot to set up the flux in an air = 2..8) X 700 X 10~ 8 116 volts.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN The average the side of the projection coil. By inserting all these numerical values in formula (106). and s = 1 in. The permeances P% and P 3 of the flux paths in the air lated as follows. 135) is PZ = 2X1 = . 97 using formula (106) on page 288. The permeance of the path from tooth top to tooth top may be calculated by assum ing the m. The remaining as in the formula for endflux reactive voltage. is then (24\ gj logio (12 X4X = 28. and as a sudden growth of leakage flux is impossible in solid iron owing to the demagnetizing effect of the eddy currents produced. and for this reason it will be best to neglect the flux paths through the iron We are concerned mainly in providing enough armature reactance to keep the shortcircuit current within reasonable limits.f. T8 n s and I c have the same numerical values .
115 for any powerfactor angle 0.v.4 volts.810 volts as measured between terminal and neutral point) the required developed voltage will be a maximum when the external powerfactor angle is equal to the angle E g E generated will then be E t P t Eg because the additional voltage to be which.a. 137.810 EP PE t g EgE'g 190 For a given terminal voltage of 6. 99) we have: "Apparent" developed voltage = OE'a = V(0) + 2 (BE' g )* . turboalternator. as mentioned in the specification. amounts to V(8. 137) is where and OEg = = OB OA + AB = OE BEa = BP + PEg = OE '~ t cos sin t + EP + PE t .4 = 116 3. the angle will be 36 52'. for calculating the fullload flux per pole (see Art. power factor. Vector diagram for 8000 k. c FIG. We are now in a position to draw a vector diagram similar to Fig. Similarly. in this particular example.4) 2 + (116) 2 = 116. = = = = 8. and the developed voltage per phase winding (see Fig. the effect of the armature resistance being negligible as compared with the reactance of the end connections.600 (or 3. For 80 per cent.334 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN Items (39) and (40). . the calculated numerical values of the component vectors being: OE.
875 volts (item (39)) volts. 103 (page 270).06 in. Let us try a rotor as shown in Fig. 103.. . leaving two slots without winding at the center of each pole. . in. the we have decided upon variation of flux density over the pole pitch must be obtained by distributing the field winding in slots on the rotor surface.2 X 10 s X 4. the pole face should be shaped as explained in Art. The crosssection of the pole cores would be determined as in the case of continuouscurrent dynamos by calculating or assuming a leakage factor (see Art. in inches. Since 3. Chap. . . . If t r is the average width of rotor tooth. . which indicates that a slot 1% f' pole. the opencircuit flux 6 (item (17)) which passes through a total of eight teeth is 62. Item (17) X OE' g _ 62. the tooth width t r will be 2. 90 (page 269).500 gausses). Items (42) to (44). The slot v ^8 2^ " =3. a cylindrical rotor. .000 The fullload flux per pole (item (40)) is therefore.000 OEt = Item 41. v TT . Before deciding upon the depth of rotor slot.93 in..76 in.000 or 15. and the approximate dimensions of the pole core should be decided upon with a view to providing sufficient space for the exciting coils.. but in the design of salientpole machines. The slot width may be decided upon by arranging for a fairly high density in the rotor teeth.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN Solving for the numerical values. OE' = 4. Thus. Neglecting leakage flux.2 X 10 maxwells. This dimenpitch (item (43)) is therefore OTT~ oZ \ sion expressed in terms of the stator diameter is *X 12 ~ = 3.. it will be advisable to calculate the equivalent air gap in order that the field ampereturns and necessary crosssection of copper may be determined. the average tooth density in maxwells per square inch is B" 62. . . .000. with eight slots per pole.810 65.2 X 10 6 . ~ to obtain the apQ \x t ^ A(\ K> which must be multiplied by & o X IT A V0 proximate maximum density in the teeth near the center of the " . XIV) and deciding upon a flux density in the iron (about 14. and assuming B ma = 120. wide will probably be suitable.2 X 10 6 maxwells. only six of which are wound. 335 we get: OE g = and 3.
XIII. per square inch. 135) is due to section near the top of tooth (the width the contents of one slot plus the wedge and the portion of the W tooth above the section considered.000 Ib. Although we are not designing a singlephase turboalternator. The approximate paths of the flux shown in Fig. 135. that is to say. The calculation of the average permeance of the air gap between rotor and stator is carried out as explained in Art. it may be stated here that a convenient means of providing amortisseur or damping windings on the rotors of singlephase machines (see Art. the component flux paths may be thought of as made up of straight lines.cases a and c).. the slot proportions being modified if this stress exceeds 14. 113) is to use copper wedges in the slots and connect them all together at the ends by means of substantial copper end rings.336 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN thickness of wedge for keeping the field windings in posishown in Fig. per square inch for cast steel or 16. 93 of lines are Chap. The calculated nu . and rotor stator between flux the ance of each section of path over a space equal to the rotor slot pitch is easily calculated as explained in Art. and if we neglect the slightly increased reluctance due The to the angle of the tooth sides under the wedge. while the pull at the narrow in Fig. no account is taken of the curvature of the air gap. careful calculations should be made to determine the compression and bending stresses in the wedge. the tooth pitch on the rotor being made exactly equal to 1. actual air gap from tooth top to tooth top (item (9)) is 8 = 0..000 Ib.875 in. The allowable working stress for manganesebronze or phosphorbronze wedges is about 14.000 Ib. 135 which is a " developed" section through the stator and rotor teeth. II (. per square inch for mild steel. the question After the of stresses in the rotor teeth should be mentioned. the centrifugal pull on the rotor tooth should be calculated and the maximum stress in the determined. or of The permestraight lines terminating in quadrants of circles. Chap. Items (45) and (46). but as the cen The by the copper in the slot may be very great on account of the high peripheral velocity. including the wedge.5 times X.93 in. slot depth has been decided upon. The total centrifugal pull at the root of one tooth is due to the weight of the tooth plus the contents steel tion might be about 1% in. namely 3. While discussing the matter of rotor slot design. 5. or 10 cm. as trifugal force exerted upon it of one slot.
25 in. instead of the center lines of two slots as shown in Fig. Chap. using formula (62) of Art. the permeance of each part being calculated separately.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN measured axially are: 337 merical values of the permeances .245 =3.655. 135. Thus. 135. and the mean of the two calculated values will more nearly correspond with the average airgap permeance. The total of 0.5725 0.49 0. Item (47). 37 for obtaining the apiron proximate relation between airgap and tooth densities when the is nearly saturated. A curve must be plotted for the rotor teeth as well as for the stator teeth indeed it is in the rotor teeth that the difference between "apparent" and actual density in the iron will be most marked. 138 have been carried out in the same way as for Fig. meance ends. X). Let us assume that this has been done and that a reasonable value for the average 5e " equivalent" airgap is = 1. a similar set of calculations should position of rotor now be made with the relative and stator teeth slightly changed so as to bring the center lines of two teeth to coincide. 63.408 1. 81 (item (70).per centimeter of air gap Path Path Path A = B = B = PathC = PathD = Path E = Total 0. The calculations for the curves of Fig.3408. Art.408 0.245 is obtained by cated by the taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reluctances. Should any difficulty be experienced in calculating the perof a flux path such as E. r 1>15 ^ and the equivalent * n> gap is is d = 3408 2 94 ' Cm *' ^ great accuracy required. and the permeance of E 2 is 0. In practice it will rarely be neces.39. since it is there that the flux density will attain the highest values. .2845 0. with curved flux lines at both it is always permissible to divide it in two parts as indiletters EI and E 2 in Fig. in the example which has just been worked out. the permeance of EI is 0.408 crosssection of air air The permeance per square centimeter ' gap is therefore fcl 1 = Q 0.
v. Tooth densities in terms of airgap turboalternator.a. be introduced by using the " apparent" tooth density in the calculations. density 8000 k. 138. because with the comparatively low flux densities 25000 24000 especially in 60cycle machines no serious error will 28000 22000 21000 20000 i 19000 18000 17000 16000 15000 14000 13000 / 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 6000 8000 10000 Air Gap Density Bg 12000 14000 16000 18000 ("Gausses) FIG.338 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN sary to take account of the effects of saturation in the stator teeth of alternators. The depth follows: of slot in rotor can be approximately determined as .
The numerical value of the symbol d in formula (62) should be and it is in. radial vent ducts in the rotor. between something greater than the actual clearance of the tops of the teeth on armature and field magnet. 42 X6.%Q use in formula (62) will be take the tooth width at a point halfway % in. however.0 in.93.45)X2 X 1. 1. 125 in/ 1. may. the unwound including portions of the Item pole face around the rotor only one satura . on a power factor less than unity. = Stator d t Rotor d = = = = = 1. As the*e are no or one and onehalf times the stator slot pitch.2X10 XT "(51X31.89 in.4 * which makes the ampereconductors per 24 000 slot ^% = 8. deep will provide sufficient space for the field winding. and since the difference between the equivalent and actual air gap is in. neither does it take into account the considerable increase of exin the copper citation with fullload current The current density tion.25X2. the slot pitch for the rotor has been taken as X = 3.000 amp. the field ampereturns on open circuit to overcome the reluctance of air gap only will be 62. from both stator and rotor. per square inch of copper crosssecprobable that a slot 5 in. the ratio in f &a formula (62) may be taken as Axial length of rotor ~ 49. Since we are considering the airgap density over the surface of the stator.0625 in.64 in. be carried up to 2. 4.25 in. and an assumed sinusoidal flux distribution. % % we may suppose the effect of slotting the surfaces to be equivalent to removing Jf 6 in. This does not include the ampereturns to overcome the reluctance of the teeth and the remainder of the magnetic circuit.000.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN With an equivalent air 339 gap 8e 1.54 0. f. 5.. the symbols in formulas (62) and (63) have the following values: 8 t m in.500 or even 3.5 Gross length of armature 51 slots With equally spaced (48). Thus the numerical value of d for down If we 1J^6 the tooth.
formula 64) is used in calculating the ampereturns required for the rotor teeth at the higher densities. case flux in the flux entering the is somewhat greater than the useful armature. 63. 138. Art. and turboalternator. the mean value of the tooth density may be used in determining the ampereturns required. This constructed as explained in Art. X). slots 8000 k. the construction having previously been illustrated in connection with the example in dynamo design (item (71). 139) The ampereturns per inch length of tooth are read off Figs. and he from the BH uses this value in getting an approximate average value of H curve. Saturation curves for airgap teeth. and SIMPSON'S rule (see Art. 42. In regard to the stator teeth. 3 and 4. Chap. 1 body of the rotor may 1 In most cases. 38.340 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN and slots tion curve for air gap. no correcIt is true that the total tion for leakage flux has been made.a. . 139.v. but the omission of this correction be set against the fact that the tooth density calculations an unnecessary refinement. the practical designer who cannot afford to spend much time on refinements of calculation calculates the density at a section onethird of the tooth length measured from the narrowest end. the application of SIMPSON'S rule being in this 10000 9000 (a) ^8000 7000 ajeooo :5000 04000 3000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22000 24000 26000 28080 Ampere Turns per Pole FIG. teeth need be drawn. In calculating the tooth reluctance for plotting the saturation curve Fig. is curve (Fig.
139 the ampereturns corresponding to the required airgap density and to plot this over the center of the corresponding tooth. the reluctance of the stator teeth being negligible as pared with that of the 1^in. the shape of this curve being such as to produce the desired flux distribution (see Art. a sine curve of which the average ordinate 62. ~  g2 If a larger section of iron should be found necessary.e.. 135. a measure of the total gap flux on open The of the flux density in the air gap over the center of a rotor tooth. 140 shows the It is ideal fluxdistribution curve for opencircuit conditions. as it leaves hardly sufficient section of iron at the root of the tooth. The curve marked "air gap.f. XIII). thus causing the actual density at the narrowest part of the tooth to be something less than the calculated value.2 is X10* DQ 6.625 = 1. it can be obtained by reducing the size of the slots at the center of the (i. com Items (50) and (51). immediately below the noload flux curve. air path.416 X 51 and of which the maximum value is is therefore H X 6. those which carry no field coils) but this question can be settled later. 93. 140 is obtained. The previously estimated depth of 5 in. The practical approxi .m. Chap.450 air gausses. The area of this curve circuit (item (17)).2 in. and slots" in Fig. teeth. It is merely necessary to read off the curve of Fig. In this manner the lower curve of Fig. By providing a datum line and vertical scale of ampereturns by 180 electrical degrees has been divided and the height of the vertical lines is a measure pole pitch represented into eight parts.010 = 9. teeth. The width of the tooth at the 9>5) 7r(38>2 bottom is therefore 1. 139. it becomes a simple matter to plot an ideal curve of m. The departure from the airgap line (the dotted straight line) is due almost entirely to saturation of the rotor pole face . for the rotor slot seems rather large. shows what excitation is required to produce a particular density in the air gap. The upper curve of Fig. as dimensioned in Fig. We shall therefore reduce this depth to 4^4 in.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN make no allowance for the flux lines of the tooth into the iron at the 341 which pass from the sides bottom of the slot.45 X 31. distribution over the pole pitch.
22.m. be . but such a procedure would be very uneconomical and unsatisThe best thing to do will be to increase the permeance factory.a. curves turboalternator. or by partly filling up these slots with iron wedges so shaped as to produce the effect of a tooth with parallel sides. of the center tooth. 8000 k. a condition which might be remedied by putting 5. either by reducing the width of the two slots on each side of the center tooth. Ideal fluxdistribution and m.f. 140.f.5" 45 67. with 9.342 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN this ideal m.v.m. These slots should.000 ampereconductors produce a flattopped fluxdistribution curve. in any case.5 .90 Electrical Degrees FIG. This would curve. distribution mation to would be the arrange ment shown by the stepped in each slot.000 ampereturns in the empty slots at the center of the pole face.
000 amperecon 11000 ^ b .EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN filled 343 with material equal in weight to the copper and insulation in the wound slots. which can be calculated in the same in. in order to improve the balance and equalize the stresses at high speeds. except that the correction for taper of teeth (SIMPSON'S rule) has not to be applied.at manner If as the curve previously drawn.2 in. and the proportion of magnetic to nonmagnetic metal can be so adjusted as to obtain any desired tooth reluctance. This calls for an additional curve in Fig. wide with parallel sides. 139. we decide upon a rotor winding with 9. ^ If we provide wedges having a thickness of the bottom of the slot. we can get the equivalent of a center tooth 2.
f. on the assumption that it is a true sine curve similar to the one of Fig.. but these minor effects will not be considered.01 X 18 = 108 sq. In this connection it should be noted that the " fringing" of flux at the tooth tops tends to round off the sharp corners of the flux The m. At the same time. where the figure 4. 140.f. the curve 142.m. cm.000 is the length of the vector OE'g of Fig.Electrical Degrees Fia. 142. and on the basis of unit squares with sides equal to 1 cm. curves for 8000 k.m.m. curve and so justifies the use of smooth curves in method of study. M.01 is the average density in kilogausses (item (18)). where 6.a. wave. t In order to determine the field excitation necessary to provide the required flux with fullload current taken from the machine .. The required area of the fullload flux curve C. 137. turbogenerator. The area of the flux curve A of Fig. waves the irregularities or " " ripples due to the tufting of the flux at the tooth tops.f. erally be possible to detect in oscillograph records of the e.m. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 10 20 30 40 . as calculated under item (40). is 6. 141.5. stepped being replaced by a smooth curve. and the figure 3.8. is therefore 108 X = 113. it will genany graphical distribution curves. Items (52) to (54). at the specified power factor of 0.810 is the opencircuit star voltage (vector OE ).344 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN for flux curve A has been redrawn in Fig. either here or later when calculating the form factor of the e.v.f.
and occurs. it is 345 also the position necessary to know the maximum on the armature surface (considered relatively to the field poles) at which this maximum It was shown in Art. The sine curve a representing armature m.f. where CM and CM + MM = = OM sin 29.650 The angle is thus found to be 53 57' or (say) 54 degrees. and since the saturation curve does not depart appreciably from a straight to develop  line. The vectors representing the component m.m.f. vector OM o. 0.olU Q Q1A "? = = OE' g (i.m.f. 137. The length OM is  has 5 OC = cos p .EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN on a power factor of armature m.f.340 OC = = OM cos 21. Since 27.  11.340 ampereturns per pole. can now be drawn in Fig.400 ampereturns. with its maximum value displaced (54 + 90) degrees beyond the center of the pole.740 i// i// + 11.810 volts per phase. the m. curve relatively to the center of obtained approximately by calculating the angle /3 as explained in Art. the angle $' being calculated from the previously ascertained values of the voltage vectors The displacement the pole is (see calculations under item (40)). 137).fs.f. 4.000 volts) must represent approximately 28..m. of this m. that the armature m.e. 98. The required field ampereturns are given approximately by the length of the vector M OM (Fig. Chap. XIII.m. 142. 94. Thus whence tf = 40 40'.8.= . can be represented by a sine curve of which the maximum value (by formula (100)) (SI)a is = 48  X3X700XV/2 . except that the increased tooth saturation not been taken into account.m. and the required angle is.m. have been drawn in Fig.000 ampereturns per pole are required to develop 3.
The correct increase of field excitation to obtain a given fullload flux must. 100. as measured by planimeter. and the r. 100. due to the fieldpole excitation. waves of this particular machine either on open circuit or at full load.346 *?i PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN r fi^in = U.f. be obtained by trial. The mean ordinate of Fig.f curve. as Fig.. hew m. M and M a. is the square root of the ratio. C. therefore. Now add the ordinates of tain the resultant m. is considered in connection with the fact that a distributed armature winding tends to smooth out irregularities in the resulting e. 143 is 3. and which the area.m. 141. because the m. wave resulting from the fullload flux distribution curve. 118. and in Fig. and ob. twice 1 This method of estimating the fullload field ampere turns is not scientifically sound.3 This checks closely with the calculated area (113.f. 141 the fullload flux curve C of provide the right amount of flux to give the required terminal voltage when the machine is delivering its rated fullload current at 80 per cent. sq. and 102.m.f. page 293). An excitation slightly in excess of this ajnount 1 probably is suffice. 101. of Fig.f. wave (see Fig. is found to be 113. Using this we can obtain from flux density. The average flux density corresponding to any given position is of the four slots constituting one phasebelt obtained as ex plained in Art. 139 the corresponding values of airgap plot in Fig. 142. This fullload field excitation is represented by the curve by Mo of Fig. is small. it is evident that we need not expect any great departure from the ideal sine curve in the e. the average effect of increased tooth reluctance.m.f. and we shall try 37.) and it follows that a field excitation of 37. At the same time it will be well to illustrate the procedure explained in Arts.Ooo will 36.800.010 gausses to 6. distribution over the armature surface. are calculated by formula (107).s. 141 Items (55) to (57).m.f. power factor. and the instantaneous values of the "apparent" developed e.000 ampereturns on the field. 144 to polar coordinates.f..605 volts. The results of these calculations have been plotted in Fig. is rarely sinusoidal as here assumed. cm. . curve M. especially in the case of salientpole machines.5 sq. because if the average density over the pole A f\f\f\ pitch raised from 6.000 ampereturns will Fig.m.m.m.m.m. cm. by plotting the actual e. but the method here used indicates the approximate increase of excitation required. 143 to rectangular coordinates.010 X shown gausses. When the shape of the flux curves of Fig. or virtual value of the e. 139.
TT.10. It must not be forgotten that factor (Art.M. which is 3.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN * 347 area of the curve Fig. 144 f. .975 volts.F. The form 3 975 _ = 1. 101) is 9 (Volts) Winding Phase per E.
143 with a phase displacement of 60 degrees.000 = 5. as pointed out on page 291.11 = 4. Diagrammatic representation of flux lines in turboalternator pole machines with incorrectly shaped pole faces and a concentrated armature winding. and the maximum ordinate of the equivalent sinewave. it should be noted that if the e. is 24.348 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN very closely represented by the addition of two curves similar to Fig. 145. The area of one lobe (Fig. suggested the form factor is a matter of practical importance. but in salient 1. and it is under such conditions that the methods here illustrated will be of the greatest value. in difference however.000. as given by formula (108).605 X of the graphical work.600 volts . wave shape (Fig. using 1 volt as the unit radius vector. the wave shape may depart very considerably from the sine curve. \ i/ FIG.000.m. that a of 1 per cent.700.700.f. As a check on the work. 143) had been a true sinewave. is 4 X 24. 144). the virtual value of the apparent developed voltage would have been 3. which proves the accuracy It is not.
over the whole is The amount length of the machine is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 102. including an allowance for the spreading of the . The rotor leakage which occurs from tooth to tooth. and in the air gap. at full load. the slots in the rotor of a turboalternator is usually more than sufficient to carry the flux.f. the flux passing from tooth to tooth below the wedge is 0. but do not enter the armature.11. In the under we be able to consideration shall particular design provide air ducts at the bottom of the rotor slots as shown in Figs. > > Average m. and still leave enough section of iron to carry the of the leakage flux at the two ends of the rotor not easily estimated. 135 It is will and flux. Item (59).5 X 49.m. including the leakage lines. but when expressed as a percentage of the useful flux it is never large in extra highspeed machines with wide pole pitch.300  X (3. obtained as explained in Art. the smaller will be the percentage of the flux leaking from pole to pole at the ends. the procedure in proportioning the field poles and yoke ring being then The depth of iron below similar to that followed in D.54 = 2 100 000 maxwells. the greater the axial length of rotor in respect to the diameter.C. No reference has been made to item (58) because this applies mainly to the salientpole type of machine.47T X 12. and the form factor will therefore be approximately 1. 145. design. This sketch shows a total of four lines of leakage flux which pass through the body of the rotor. This leakage flux will not appreciably affect the flux density in the rotor teeth near the neutral zone. The calculation of the rotor slot flux may be carried out as for the stator windings. with 12. 145. and the angle a. Thus. obvious that the wave shape under noload conditions be very nearly a true sinewave. is found to be 11 degrees.5) X Permeance 2. 144. because it will follow the path of least reluctance and be distributed between several teeth.300 ampereconductors per slot. The flux in the space occupied by the wedge and insulation above the copper.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN This is 349 the diameter of the equivalent circle in Fig.
The 65 coefficient is therefore ' 2103 = DO. The sum making the (somewhat greater than the width of slot below the wedge) of the two flux components is 4. The section of iron below the slots is therefore sufficient.500 lines per square inch.000 maxwells.8 lines is is the assumed radial depth. 145) 65.000 maxwells.2^000 a The 600 x 115 = 3 is 12j crosssection of iron below the vent ducts X sq. the curves of Fig.300 X C1 75 X 49.350 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN gap above the wedge (tooth top leakage). and since small very percentage of the excitation for air gap and we need to draw a new curve for item (62): shall not teeth. 139 may be thought of as applying to the armature and this is a machine as a whole. in. Items (62) to (68). of the assumed average length of the flux . we may assume the end leakage to be about onesixth of this. in. With a density of 8. or 8.000 respectively.142 or (say) 1.. in. thick.o 2. ing. total slot flux for both sides of the pole face equal to twice this amount.430 .000 and 37.75 the flux path. The maximum number the section below the slots (represented of flux lines in the rotor. total depth of insulation preferAllowing ably of mica or asbestos fabric between the layers of the wind= 3. and 1. and the reluctance of the body of the rotor is a negligible quantity in comparison with that of the teeth and air gap. and ample iron section in the rotor.500 gausses in the stator core (item 28). The ampereturns at no load and at full load (items 63 and 64) will therefore be taken at 27. in.300.000. As a rough estimate. A = = 3. which makes the average flux density 62. and the The slot insulation should be about % field winding might be in the form of copper strip 1J^ in.Z fullload leakage 1. 0.000 maxwells. as previously calculated.  flux lines into the air is approximately.47T X 12. wide laid flat in the slot. which cross by 28 lines in Fig. the crosssection of copper will be 2% X lM 12 300 Y making the current density at full load. the additional ampereturns required to overcome reluctance of field cores will probably not exceed 200.5) X l. making a total of 9.6 sq.15.000. in inches.54 = imm maxwells where the figure 1.
making the turns per pole 24 37 000 =~ fit X 3 = 72. The PR resistance (hot) will be about 0. All the turns will be in series.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN amp. no radial ducts being of the rated output. We shall assume this length to be 156 in. it might be necessary to have the cold air enter at both ends. Assuming the potential difference at the slip rings to be 120 volts. Item (69). but the efficiency will not be affected appreciably. total length of copper strip is The X4X r^ 1.. per square impossible figure.740 ft. X This is rather on the high side for so large be accounted for by the fact that the air gap is perhaps somewhat greater than it need be. () = If 624 * 3J' = 192. but not necessarily an The mean length per turn of the rotor winding should be meas ured off a drawing showing the method of bending and securing the end connections. is supposed to travel through the longitudinal vent ducts to the other end of the machine. is in. Such an arrangement leads to the temperature of one end of the machine being higher than the other end. the ' number of conductors 2 875 in each slot will be 10 O. which enters at one end of the machine.500 or 0.12 in.250 ohm. In addition to the ducts of which mention has already been . but systems of ventilation designed to obviate this are usually less simple. in which case one or more radial outlets would be provided at the center. 351 This is a high.430 amp. thick. we use a copper strip 0. per square inch. and it may provided.4 . whence the current density A = 72  OK l.zo xn 156 (j.5 X 514 66 kw. a machine.LZ = 24.= 3.1512 sq. The pressure at slip rings will be 0. The current per conductor at full load is must be 1 = 514 amp.825 per cent.25 = loss is therefore 128.\ 10 Zi = 3. the crosssection of the winding..5 volts. and the required 514 = 128. or 0. and the mean length per turn for the four poles in series will be 156 X 4 = 624 in. In machines larger than the one under consideration. The cooling air. by formula (26). inch. and the straightthrough arrangement of ducts has much to recommend it.
Art.6 sq. two or three points taken with fairly high values of the exciting current will show how the tooth saturation affects the resulting flux. it will be necessary to pass 20. ft. and calculate the e. the total crosssection of the air ducts is then made up as follows: Outside stator stampings 12 X 10 Holes punched in stator stampings (Fig. 125). all the teeth are not of the same as cially when. we may provide a number of spaces between the stator and the casing to allow of air being passed over the outside of the armature core.5 TT 62 952 sq. are machine. 21 kw. 106 (Fig. With varying degrees of tooth saturation espein this design. and a 'curve can be drawn connecting the known straight part of the saturation curve with these ascertained values for the higher densities.(32)) loss (item (36)) 120 kw. Chap. = or 6. 136) Spaces above wedge in stator slots (Fig. of air per minute for each kilowatt dissi pated (see Art. 33. crosssection the only correct method of predetermining the Item (70). X 1 = 120 sq. which well below the permissible limit. The .m. each 10 in. 135) .352 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN iron made. wide by 1 in. = 590 72 108 in 48 Clearance between stator and rotor X % X Spaces in rotor forging below slots Total X1 = X 39^ = 32 X 1. per minute. If we allow 100 cu. It is not necessary to calculate a large number of values in this manner. is to plot the flux distribution for different values of the exciting ampereturns. of air through the machine per minute. developed in each case. 124. Let us suppose that there are twelve such ducts.140 ft. ft. without including windage and sundry small Stator PR Rotor PR loss Total Total core loss (item.700 cu. opencircuit saturation curve (similar to Fig. VI). 66 kw. deep.f. in. 207 kw. ft. This makes the 20 700 velocity in the vent ducts is ' = 3. 104). and the construction of Figs. The total losses in the losses. saturation curve for zero power factor can be drawn as explained in Art.94 = 1.
well within the specified limit of 25 per cent.the specified terminal voltage when no current is taken this excitation must be increased to 37. calculating the inherent regulation by the more correct method as outlined in Art. The required flux curve. 110.f.m. Careful measurements of the flux curve A give an area over the pole pitch of 129 sq.. power factor..4 per cent. the voltage corresponding to the flux Ao will be from the machine.000 ampereturns per pole will develop . i. with this greater field excitation. and. wave (not plotted) to be the same as for the opencircuit curve at normal voltage. we shall obtain a point on the opencircuit characteristic corresponding to a fairly high value of the excitation. It is derived. by using the saturation curves of Fig.625 where 106. regulation at 80 per cent. from the m. which again points to the fact that a somewhat smaller air gap. we can calculate the voltage.f.000 ampereturns to give the same terminal voltage under fullload conditions (80 per cent. 1. 139 which must be extended beyond the limits of the diagram in order to read the flux values for the higher degrees of excitation.8. when the load is thrown off.e. and since much of the work has already been done in connection with fullload current on 80 per cent.810 3. the inherent regulation can be predetermined. this is the condition which we shall choose for the purpose of illustration. 141 is not necessarily exactly 0. because the method of determining the It should 23 . like any other flux curve. cm.810  =21. If then.m. power factor). 142. marked A has been plotted in Fig. 141.3 = 4. We know that although 27. . incidentally.810 X 129 106. power factor is therefore 4.11. or a lower flux density in the rotor teeth would have been permissible. This is be pointed out here that the external power factor corresponding to the flux distribution curve C of Fig.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN 353 129 and 130 can be applied for obtaining curves giving the approximate connection between terminal volts and exciting current We shall confine ourselves here to for any other power factor.625  asm 3. curve Mo of Fig.3 is The inherent the previously measured area of flux curve A. and if we assume the form factor of the resulting e. 3.
The shows that. the shortcircuit current corresponding to any given field excitation can readily be determined by the method described in Art. The external power factor therefore cos 6 terminal voltage = \/3 r = COS (/  = fr==r \J t 9 = 0. . Applying these corrections to the regulation. 137. The angle 43 degrees.419 0. = = OA = 2.77.570 with fullload current on an external power factor of 0. this is the e. This is sufficiently close to the specified condition 0.000 cos 43 2. 137 \I/ The oped by the flux distribution C of Fig. in order to develop the construction diagram. The curve marked 146 is the opencircuit characteristic of the the scale of ordinates being on the lefthand side of the machine. = ^^ = " which corresponds to is = 39 40'. develits is since and value 4.600 and comply with the requirements. 137 and 142) was based on certain conditions that may not actually be fulfilled.f. On the assumption that the inductance of the armature windings can be correctly calculated. known. Item (71). was determined on page 349 and found f a = 54 is therefore /3 11 = to be 11 degrees. angle a of Fig. instead of the previously obtained value of 40 40' The vector OE' g is (see calculations under items (52) to (54)). volts in Fig.917 BE'g = OE' g sin $' = = 4. tan AE = t 2.000 volts. Thus.925 OE t in Fig. we have: cos $' OB = OE' whence Also. A closer determination of the external power factor corresponding to the conditions is that have been studied easily made as follows. we have: Inherent regulation with fullload current on an external power factor of 0.8 to show that the machine will with figures 6. In order to obtain of the vector the corrected values for the angle and the length 4.000 sin 43 2. 141.570.77 J 1 _ \/3 X " 4625 6570 6570 = 22 per cent.354 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN angle & = 54 degrees (Figs. the condition that has actually been worked out by graphical methods corresponds to a terminal voltage of 6.m.77 and the 6.83. 107.725 whence Thus.
The armature m.000 ampereturns..900 13.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN flux necessary to 355 produce fullload current (700 amp. and with the fullload excitation of 37.900 ampereturns per pole are reThis is the excitation which will develop an " apparent" quired. but at the instant of the occurrence of a shortcircuit with fullload excitation.340 1. + the shortcircuit current would attain if the field excitation were gradually brought up to fullload value. 1.) in the shortcircuited windings. be = The current within the range 11. demagnetizing. of the diagram.950 amp. will be a straight line. or 2.m. curve. This is the steady value which . the effect of the is almost directly therefore.8 times normal. the current Winding Phase per Volts .f equal to the . and the ampereturns per pole must. the shortcircuit current will be 1. .240. sum of items (37) and (38) IR drop being negligible.f e.m.
and $ is the total flux per pole in the air gap. we shall not trouble to correct the tooth losses as previously calculated. therefore. is ever. 60. and the current in the conductor will be approximately 700 X cos 53 = 420 amp.356 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN cient internal magnetic leakage to prevent mechanical injury due to excessive magnetic forces on shortcircuit. For the correct calculation of iron losses.f.v. With not all reference to the iron in the body indicated by the area of the load flux curve of the stator. output for the loss due (mainly) to the friction of the air passing through the axial It is assumed ducts. Items (72) and (73). Seeing that the calculation of efficiency under different conditions of loading was illustrated in Art. XIII. as explained in Art. then the flux actually carried 4? by the section of the armature iron below the slots is 5 A 3> s . curve. 141 and 142. the flux C of Fig. determine the fullload efficiency only (item (72)).m. but some approximate figures were given in Art. when deriving formula (104) which.m. This correction .f. 63 when working out the example in dynamo design. 111. but since the maximum tooth density under fullload conditions. IX where the method of determining the tooth losses was explained. The windage and bearing friction loss is very difficult to estimate. 95. of the total k. that the losses in the bearing on the side of the prime mover are included in the steamturbine efficiency. If <.1 per cent. the calculated slot fljux. curve crosses the datum line is the neutral zone. 141 does not appreciably from the maximum of the opencircuit curve (A). We shall. the reader is referred to Art. This is the position 17 degrees in Figs. The slotleakage flux corresponding to this particular current the total not the "equivalent" flux can be calculated as explained in Art. The position of the conductors carrying the maximum current coincides with the zero point on the armature m. 141 does enter the core below the slots. howand not the total slot leakage flux. gives the "equivalent" Chap. and also to friction in the outside bearing. 96. as indicated differ by curve C of Fig. We shall assume 1. The power necessary to drive the blower is not included in the above estimate of the windage and friction loss. under the given load conditions. Chap. The point where the resultant m. it will not be necessary to cover the same ground a second time. because this total flux in cludes the slotleakage flux.a.
88 kw.........4 kw. Stator copper ...... therefore.. is one that would receive more attention from the practical designer than detail to ..... per minute....100 ft.955.. The diameter of the slip rings will probably not be less than 15 in...... 305 kw..400 and the efficiency.... for instance....... the quantity of air required will be 29. Total .... output is 0..... The fullload flux per pole is 65... ft....... per minute. in....... so that the rubbing velocity will be v * \. the loss per pound of iron will be about 3.... 66 kw...... ft....... more than on open circuit..5 instead of 3.000 = 6.. The contact area of the two sets of brushes (to carry 514 amp. excluding losses in exciter and in air blower external to the generator......000 cu..2 10 6 (item (17)) on open circuit....400 ft....3 28.. Windage and comparison with the other we have: losses.. in which the pole pitch is always large. therefore..... sq. to be carried the air with a mean increase of temperature away by circulating of about 20C.EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATOR DESIGN is 357 a refinement which need not be applied in the case of a turboalternator...... per minute..000 = 8...... The question of temperature rise.......... Rotor copper .... thus the total iron loss up to (say) 130 kw.. 10 maxwells (item (40))...... ^ = ^Q^^ On 0.8 X 8.. The kw... bringing The loss at the slip rings may be calculated by the approximate X formula given in Art....800 = 7.. With the inas against 62. Stator iron .j * X 1............... The crosssection of the ducts (item (69)) is 6. is therefore Items (74) and (75)... but in machines with a small pole pitch especially if there is only one slot per pole per phase the correction should be made.2 watts... 111.... In the design of large generators there are many matters of be considered which have received but little attention here. and the average velocity in the ducts (item (75)) is........... making the loss from this cause irr^ ' which is negligible in Adding up the separate losses..... 29 000 = 4...6 sq........ and the fullload iron loss will...... causing <i>a to be small in relation to 3>...... friction ... the basis of 290 kw.2 crease of flux density. 21 kw.) might be 5 7 100 V^ 5 = 355 watts.. X 6 X be 0.. 130 kw...
.. the difference in temperature between ingoing and outgoing air is 18C. it here. higher than that of the iron from which it is separated by layers of insulating material. very much higher internal temperatures may be reached. unless we have given every part of the machine is carefully designed. excessive local heating may result. The temperature of the copper in the slots might ordinarily be from 15 to 25C. . will not exceed 50C.358 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL DESIGN if It is usually permissible to assume that. but should this insulation be very thick. but. and the cooling ducts of insufficient section or improperly located. the actual temperature rise of the heated surfaces as measured by thermometer.
in single phase. 175 diameter (how determined). two.C. core. 206 104. 97. 84 temperature rise of.v.. E. 278. on horseshoe magnet. 21 " developed voltage (A. 60 and threephase. Brown and Sharp 356 103. 107. 252. (see Poleface 209.C. B. 255 single. classification of. 261 in. Amortisseur windings windings).INDEX A Acyclic D. generators referred to. 267 ventilation of.C. 330 losses in. 34. 86 multiplex. 321 multiple or lap. 100. 336 Air. 242 distributed (A. 337 permeance. on flux distribution. referred to.). 179. 97. 345 on " interpoles. referred to.C. "equivalent. 215 266. Balancing ings). 77. 179 width. density (see Flux density). 337 length of.f.). 160 simplex. 326 Brush contact effect gage.000 k. 104. 304 teeth (see Teeth). 240 spread of (A. 162 205 359 . 111. 351 (of alternator)." 117. 263 insulation of (see Insulation). 258 Armatures. DR. 86 single layer (A.m. 85.). coils.C. 97. effect of. design sheets for 8. 212. 325. 136. calculation short pitch (chorded). 86 full pitch. as affecting commutation. 187 in series winding (dynamo). 136 in dynamo field coils. 84 ringwound. 36 resistance. flux densities in. 83 Airgap... 287. 112 Alternator. 16. 86 Ampereconductors per inch (see Specific loading).a. windings. 238 singlephase. 280.C. 249. Ampereturns. concentrated (A. 157. 242 quantity of. current density 259 insulation of losses in. 237 turns). m. drumwound. 90 Alternators. 18.C. current. 261. 86 resistance series or of. 278 in singlephase alternators. 272.turns (see Ampere Apparent ARNOLD. on commutation. forced ventilation. 78. 190 on armature (of dynamo).). 260 wave. 266.). 116. BEHREND. 255 duplex. 105.). 139. Armature. 226 net and gross length of. generators. pressure. of. reference to. conductors. 147. 85 inductance of. three phase. A. BII curves. 135 of. 257. output 247 losses in. 174 per unit length in air. coils (see Poleface wind307 318 number of. 334 Armature ampere. (see Insulation). required with double layer (A. length of. 119. 280 reactance and reaction.C. 274. calculation of. 322 of. 141 Asynchronous A. 331.. 17. 210. usual.
180 in armature conductors. 149 ideal. 180. 36. 244 sheets for 75 kw. 47 CARTER. 64 E. F. 197. 6'9 Calorie. 178 selective. in armature wind 90 mechanical details affecting. 223 thickness of. 64 cost of. 140. etc. 162 Commutator. 34. 116 Chorded armature windings. 184 volts between.C. 242. Current. 151 of field distortion on. in magnet windings. 195. 53 short stroke plunger type. 180 friction losses at. 178. 184 peripheral velocity of. 147. 291 in Conical pole faces. 85. tation). 181 33 318 weight of.360 INDEX Copper wire. 357 Concentrated windings ture windings). 327 Cultural subjects. Distributed armature windings (see Armature). 93. referred to.. factor. 49. magnetic. 300 Cooling. 94 Density (see Flux. 192 Commutating poles (see Interpoles). in D. magnets with. (see also Voltage)." 148 Damping ings). value of study of. 227.f. conversion mils. 261. 69 design of. W. important factor in design. 178 Brushes. Friction. design of. of. 193. temperature rise of. 184 diameter of. (see Armature conduc Electromagnets. field winding. windings. 177. 88 sparking limits. developed in alternator armatures. 233. 169 of slot leakage on. 56 usual. referred to. design 201 Aconnection. 168 Dynamo. 41 in A. grids (see Poleface windcoils "Dead" ings. field winding. 194 of armatures. 49. 36 tables. conversion factor. 243 field Diverter. 38 47 core).. 36 per ampere. R Core (see Armature Cost. I 2 losses at. 178. 159 . 184 segments. coefficient). 142 time of. 45 (dynamo field coils). 182. E. A. 64 definition 35. 328 in coils of horseshoe magnet. density).C. 35. E Eddycurrent losses (see Losses). 6 of electromagnets. 175 theory of. 96. 259. or "straight line. Commutation. 181 mica. width. Pole Efficiency of dynamo. 181. effect of brush resistance on. thickness of. Leakage. 160 Critical speed of rotor. 181 (see Compensating windings face windings). for interpoles. 309 Clutch. 138 of Tempera by cutting end flux (commu ture rise). 270. 41 CLAYTON. definition of. 31 Cooling coefficient (magnet coils). (see Arma Conductors tors). 90. 8 Circular lifting magnet. properties resistance of.m. circular type. (see dynamo armatures.. 72. number of. 317. 50 Coefficient (see Current density at brush contact surface. Brush. usual limits. 175 of end flux on. current density at contact surface of. 335 Distribution factor. 233 of alternator. 48.
330 HELESHAW. 346 Empirical formulas. dynamos. 102. usual values of of brushes. 221. 5 Equalizing connections for dynamos.m. 104. importance of thorough knowledge of. 104. 185. B. or effective. of. referred to. 209. 227. Heating A. 251. Gilbert. referred to. referred to. 299. design 231. 50. in Factor of safety. 307 (reference Homopolar machines only). A. 285 ESTERLINE. 63. coils. effect of effect of armature current on. referred to. 99 HAY. 132 English over armature surface. 13 in air gap of alternators.. 351 intermittent. to. Flux density (definition). 164. definition. 124. 192 referred to. 90 Equivalent sine waves. 75. windings. 122. 11. 210. 63 lating. 348 slot flux.INDEX E. PROF.. Fans. dynamo). H. 135 neighboring poles on. 266 in 346 commutating zone. Temperature rise). 126. wave form. 72 (see Armature conductors). Gauss (definition). 98 End flux cut by commutated coil. 12 GRAY. 291. 52 Horseshoe 53 lifting magnet. 293 virtual. etc. FLEMING AND JOHNSON. S. 197. 214. 181. referred 319 Field distortion in relation to com mutation. A. 132 coefficient Cooling (see rheostat. length of. 192 (brushes). 3 Enamelled wires. of. 335 distribution. 54. Exciting current. 116 HOB ART AND PUNQA. 83 Horsepower transmitted by magnetic clutch. 182 losses (alternators). 294. of magnet coils. 155 language.. PROP. referred in pole core. W.. 317 (dynamos). 270 272. DR. 119. 129. power required to drive venti 318 to. 13 (see Generator Alternator. 266. 224 165. 191. calculation magnet design. 46 of (see armatures. design of . 161. 191 coefficient). Form 238 of D. 101 Excitation (see Ampereturns). 294 Frequency of alternators..f. 169 magnet design. factor. 251. 325 of dynamos. Flux density in armature teeth. 196 Face conductors also (definition). 116. impossible to avoid. 318 (dynamos). 38 End connections (armature). 78 (between met52 Friction coefficient als). 167. PROP. instantaneous 361 value of developed (alternator). 299 with distributed windings. 228. 309 FIELD. referred to. J. 295. 132 of magnets. 107. 335 HAWKINS AND WALLIS. 213 in rotor teeth.C. 130 effect of tooth saturation on. 342 leakage (see Leakage). value of. 65 in armature cores.. 213.
paths. 50 flux. on magnetic pull. 32 . Armature conductors). 304 load. 331. 99.m.). definition of. DR. 41 Intensity of magnetic field (definithickness tion). 11. 258. 174 K KAPP. 104. to the designer.. 141 Language. 46 heating of magnet Magnetic circuit. 12 quired on. 305 in armature slots. 46 Losses at brush contact surface. armature windings. 101. 27 in turboalternators. 67 in horseshoe magnet. 318. 40. 11. 300 in dynamos. Insulating materials. referred to. 266. pull (formulas). effect of. 21 effect of. 28 in alternators. Intermittent coils. 252 (see also Regulation).. 18. LAMME. 16. 263. 14 of alternator. 13 force (H). 86 Leakage factor (definition). 160. 307 fundamental Interpole design (numerical example). 12 M McCoRMiCK. value of. 165. allowable temperatures of. referred to. G. 288 of armature end connections. 40 of armatures. 95 LISTER. 149. 102. referred to. 207. 211. or multiple. 215 iron. importance of thorough Magnetizing force (H). 41. 344 Magnets (see Electromagnets). in air. Inherent regulation (definition). 228 circuits in parallel. in saturation under Imagination. 181. 342. 29 Magnetization curves for 17. 128. 102 Hysteresis losses in armature stampteeth.. 169 calculation of ampereturns re equation. armature winding. 110 leakage (see Leakage flux). 349 of slot windings (turboalternator). 281 calculation of. T. 124 Lifting 329 Inductor (definition). 196. 185. design of. 12 distribution of.362 INDEX ings. 196 Leakage of commutating 174 poles. 5 Lap. L G. definition. 22 LEHMANN. in 318 armature conductors. 167. 91. 108 331 on magnet spools. referred to. DR. 187 periphery. 30 Inductance of A. definition.C. 329 stampings. used in magnets and dynamos. 284 in circular lifting magnet. 18 clutch. 187 in similar designs. B. B. advantages of.f.. Leakage flux. 57 in multipolar dynamo. 10. calculation of. 356 teeth. 12 Magnetomotive force (m. 72 (see magnets (see Electromag also nets). breakdown voltages. permeance of. 299 of dynamo. 7 Inclined surfaces. 233. over armature study of. 182.. 227. G. 66 Materials 61. 96. Magnet windings. A. 318 Insulation. 171 Interpoles. 134. maximum for. 37. referred to.
130 of air 36 with temperature. use of. E. 13 Resistance of armature windings. 13 363 MENGES. 249 Poleface windings. armature. 352 73. 86 Pole shoes. C. R. 335 . 186. 101. PELTON waterwheel. H. commutator. 86 Multiplex armature windings. use of. 355 Reactive voltage drop (slots). 272. 97 dynamo armatures. C. 24 parallel cylinders. 227 74. referred to.. 252. 132 Plunger magnet. 84 magnet Pressures. 177 MOORE. Moss. of.C. dynamos. 101 referred to. referred to. 249 factors determining width of. 239 Rotor of turboalternators. flat coil alternator referred Pole pitch (definition). variation Rise of pressure on switchingoff coil. 94. 204. MORTENSEN. Output formula for D. 241 POWELL. 78. 307 values. 235 MOULD. 112 with of electricity.76 of threephase generator. shunt field. 305 Reluctance. for plot ting irregular waves. referred to. 74. 36 Rheostat. or lap. 15.. PROP. 266. 241 Peripheral loading (see Specific loadvelocity of alternator rotors. 29. 269 Poles. referred to. 155 Mesh connection. MORDEY to. J. 11.INDEX Maxwell. E. 80. 116 Pressure rise coil. 309 on zero power factor. R. number of. 13 Permeance. thickness of. effect of flux distribution on. usual. 123. length of. 11. 283 NOEGGERATH.. of air required forced ventilation. referred to. 26 flat surfaces. 326. H. 27 curve. 311 inherent (definition). to. 77 Permeability.. 11. definition. W. 304. 248 Properties of materials. 33 armatures). 70. 347 Pole arc. 322. 146. referred to. E. when 33 in switching off N Neutral field. 294. 76. number of. or zone (definition). 244 Mica. 252 of alternators. 288. usual 239 S. 238 of commutators. (ends). 116. 270. 23 Phases. J.. 247 PARSHALL AND HOB ART. winding. 304 coils. magnetic. 50 Quantity Oersted (definition). 11. continuous current. P. 332 Regulation. 188. definition. 13 between concentric cylinders. of temperature (see rise). 184 of on any power factor.. 70 R Reactance. L. commercial designs. 84 Multiple. 204. 191 of copper wires. 80. 336 Pole.. 279. 170. definition. 49 Polar coordinates. definition. gap 272 (slotted Temperature of leakage paths (formulas). 301. referred to. 33. referred 84 248 Motors. 312. ing). 13 curve characteristic Opencircuit (see Saturation curve). 32 Pull exerted by magnets.
74 of. 41 of armatures. 322 Turboalternators. 56. 267. 44. 250. 93. 233. 354 Teeth. 122. referred 141 S. value 64 of. 102. 29 of cylindrical shortstroke Sparking at brushes. usual (dynamos). 14 values for alternators. 112. 4 357 of circular lifting magnets. 321 Size of wire.C. (see other induction. Saturation curve for alternator. losses in. 241 Spread of winding.a. DR." 161. winding. generators Alternators). 50 of induction. 259 in dynamo. 228 Selfinduction. 62 of totally enclosed motors." 64 Slot. of magnet coils. in mag for. (alternators). 217 Singlephase alternators. 122 Temperature.C. in alternator. 306. 47. 197. 244 (usual speeds). Sketches. 192 209 losses in.. 196 m. and A. Third harmonic. 190. 45 rise of alternator field coils. 46 of magnet coils. 107. design sheets for 8. calculation of. 340. dimensions of (dynamos). 260 mos). 259 flux density in. usual values of.f. xi to. 93. Space factor ues). 281 pitch (definition). 212. 196. 258 Turboalternator. 192. 271 Tractive force (magnetic pull). 320 . in engineering work. importance of neat. 302. 86 Shortcircuit current of alternators. 208. nator). 92 Slots. 181. calculations net coils.W. Tooth saturation (comparison D. list use of.G. effect of Y and A 284 effect of. 246 on commutation. "equivalent. connections on. (val Time. 104. 270 Star connection.. 93. dimensions of.C. 81. prevention 175. dynamo field coils. 355 for dynamo.). Short pitch armature windings. not different from Synchronous A.m. Threephase generators referred to. 190. mod 320 (rotor construction). 285 in alternators. 76 Speeds. 207 insulation (see Insulation of armatures).364 s INDEX STEINMETZ. 211. 2 of. 252. 35 Symbols. 236 leakage flux. 149 THOMPSONRYAN. 122. 170 (see Alter number of. 310. 47 Specific loading (definition). 336 taper. 40 (definition). 325 for dynamos. internal. 160 Shunt field current. 164.000 k. 231 or wave. calculation of. 85. 189. output of ern. 232 of ironclad coils. wire table. mag Tube nets. 191. 308.v. 92. 160. 193. 119. 280. 231 with two sizes of wire. 86 SIMPSON'S rule. P. 300 strength of rotor. 227 of "Skull cracker. 318. C. (alternators). 225 Specific heat. 92. 260 39. 331 Shunt winding calculation (dyna number of. 242. 67 of commutator. 42 Simplex armature windings. 155 Series field winding.
(see Peripheral ve Ventilating fans. DR. 255 V Vector diagrams of alternator: For determining inherent regulation.f. 356 Winding. PROP.m. Yoke ring. 38 tables. loss due to. 287. 308 referred to. 289. 268. 346 Wire net. 307 Velocity of air in cooling ducts. 5 referred to. On lagging power factor. of A. 317. A. 248 Voltages to be considered in connection with insulation problems. referred to. drop at brush contact. Wave winding (dynamos)..usual.C. 181 UNDERBILL. windings). conversion of centimeter to inch. R. 315 Of shortcircuited armature. 107. L. Wave form (see E. WALKER. 34. (see also Copper wire). 107. 43 Windings (see Armature field. 334 On zero power factor. 351 Virtual values of irregular waves.. 228 . power necessary to drive. 244 dimensions of. 48 Units. 2 365 Voltage. depth of. 196. 43 on magnet limbs.INDEX U Undercutting commutator mica. 336 311. 261. wave form). coil. M.. enamelled. 33 W WADDELL. 294.m. mag Ventilation of armatures. J. 86 Wedge for rotor slots.). 35 Voltage (see also E. 55 shunt coils with two sizes of wire. to give required excitation. 326 357 peripheral locity). 318 Windage.f. C. 71 rise when 33 switching current off Y connection. 105. 290. Whirling speed of rotors. generators. 179 generated by cutting flux.
.
.
.
.
Fine schedule: 25 cents on :NG DEC 1 1947 NEERING LIBRARY NOV MAR JUL 11 1951 LD 21100m12. first day overdue 50 cents on fourth day overdue One dollar on seventh day overdue.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.'46(A2012sl6)4120 .
VC 335 9 1 .