4 views

Uploaded by James Jiang

BIg history project

- Isaac Newton
- Soul Of Science PowerPoint
- ch03_ppt
- Vocabulary Program Powerful Words - Workbook
- 210wk3BodyMechanics_000
- Gravity-The Inside Story 8 Jun 10
- physics 1
- Gravitation
- Aether and Gravitation (1903)
- 5th grade physics lesson newton
- 13.Motion
- Bedini Little Girl - Ita
- Microgravity Teachers Guide
- Science Reviewer
- Forces and Motion Activity
- Alder Wainwright - Molecular Motions
- IAL
- Phy 5 Specimen
- phys201lec2MT_INTRO.pdf
- TP Mammoet Trailers Stability&Lashing - Rev03-2

You are on page 1of 8

BIOGRAPHY

ISAAC NEWTON

PHYSICS, GRAVITY & LAWS OF MOTION

Sir Isaac Newton developed the three basic laws of motion and the theory of universal gravity, which together laid the foundation for our current understanding of physics and the Universe.

2 3

Newton was born prematurely and not expected to survive. His dad had died before his birth, and when he was 3 his mother remarried and left him with his grandparents on a farm in Lincolnshire, England, about 100 miles north of London, while she moved to a village a mile and a half away from him. He grew up with few playmates and amused himself by contemplating the world around him. His mother returned when Newton was 11 years old and sent him to Kings School, eight miles away. Rather than playing after school with the other boys, Newton spent his free time making wooden models, kites of various designs, sundials, even a water clock. When his mother, who was hardly literate, took him out of school at 15 to turn him into a farmer, the headmaster, Henry Stokes, who recognized where Newtons talents lay, prevailed on her to let Newton return to school and prepare for university. Newton attended Cambridge University from 1661 to 1665. The university temporarily closed soon after he got his degree because people in urban areas were dying from the plague. Newton retreated to his grandparents farm for two years, during which time he proved that white light was composed of all colors and started to figure out calculus and universal gravitation all before he was 24 years old. It was on his grandparents farm that Newton sat under the famous apple tree and watched one of its fruits fall to the ground. He wondered if the force that pulled the apple to the ground could extend out to the Moon and keep it in its orbit around Earth. Perhaps that force could extend into the Universe indefinitely.

At Cambridge

After the plague subsided, Newton returned to Cambridge to earn his masters degree and become a professor of mathematics there. His lectures bored many of his students, but he continued his own thinking and experiments, undaunted. When his mother died, he inherited enough wealth to leave his teaching job and move to London, where he became the president of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, the top organization of scientists in England, for 25 years.

asserted the three Laws of Motion, elaborated Johannes Keplers Laws of Motion, and stated the Law of Universal Gravitation. The book is primarily a mathematical work, in which Newton developed and applied calculus, the mathematics of change, which allowed him to understand the motion of celestial bodies. To reach his conclusions he also used accurate observations of planetary motion, which he made by designing and building a new kind of telescope, one that used mirrors to reflect, rather than lenses to refract, light. Newtons three Laws of Motion are:

0 1

Newtons most important book was written in Latin; its title was translated as Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). It proved to be one of the most influential works in the history of science. In its pages Newton

Every body continues at rest or in motion in a straight line unless compelled to change by forces impressed upon it. (Galileo first formulated this, and Newton recast it.) Every change of motion is proportional to the force impressed and is made in the direction of the straight line in which that force is impressed. (A planet would continue outward into space but is perfectly balanced by the Suns inward pull, which Newton termed centripetal force.) To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction, or the mutual action of two bodies on each other is always equal and directed to contrary parts.

0 2

0 3

Putting these laws together, Newton was able to state the Law of Universal Gravitation: Every particle of matter attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of the masses of the two particles and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Stated more simply, the gravitational attraction between two bodies decreases rapidly as the distance between them increases. This calculation proved powerful because it presented the Universe as an endless void filled with small material bodies moving according to harmonious, rational principles. Newton understood gravity as a universal property of all bodies, its force dependent only on the amount of matter contained in each body. Everything, from apples to planets, obeys the same unchanging laws. By combining physics, mathematics, and astronomy, Newton made

16541661 Attends Kings School at Grantham 16611665 Attends Cambridge University 16651666 Retreats to Woolsthorpe Manor; plague and fire in London 1687 Publication of Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1689 Represents Cambridge University in the parliament that passes the Bill of Rights, limiting the powers of William III and Mary II

16661668 Graduate studies at Cambridge 1643 Born on January 4 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Lincolnshire, England 1669 Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge (the prestigious Lucasian Chair)

1696 Moves to London as Warden of the Mint, later Master of the Mint

1640

1650

1660

1670

1666 Acadmie des Sciences founded in France by Louis XIV

1680

1680 Dutch biologist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek uses a microscope to view one-celled animals

1690

1664 England seizes New Amsterdam from the Dutch, renaming it New York 1662 Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge founded in London

a giant leap in human understanding of Earth and the cosmos. Newtons mathematical method for dealing with changing quantities is now called the calculus. Newton did not publish his method but solved problems using it. Later the German scientist Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz also worked out the calculus, and his notation proved easier to use. Newton accused Leibniz, in a nasty dispute, of stealing his ideas, but historians now believe that each invented the calculus independently. 1703 Assumes the presidency of the Royal Society until his death 1727 Dies on March 31 in London

Recognition

Newton was made a knight by Queen Anne in 1705 and, at his death in 1727, he was buried in Londons Westminster Abbey. He now rests in a place of prominence near the poet Geoffrey Chaucer and the astronomer John Herschel. Shortly before he died, Newton remarked: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

1700

1710

1720

1704 English philosopher John Locke dies in Essex, England 1699 Ottoman Empire ceases its threat to Europe

11

Sources

Christianson, Gale E. Isaac Newton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Wills, John E. Jr. 1688: A Global History. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 2001.

Image credits

Portrait of Isaac Newton CORBIS Isaac Newton performing an experiment Bettmann/CORBIS Illustration from The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton CORBIS

12

13

- Isaac NewtonUploaded byManpreet Sachdeva
- Soul Of Science PowerPointUploaded byapi-3782685
- ch03_pptUploaded byRugi Vicente Rubi
- Vocabulary Program Powerful Words - WorkbookUploaded bygunalprasadg
- 210wk3BodyMechanics_000Uploaded byPatricia Cruz Tiangco
- Gravity-The Inside Story 8 Jun 10Uploaded byRichard Benish
- physics 1Uploaded byapi-335646206
- GravitationUploaded bysooryar93
- Aether and Gravitation (1903)Uploaded byrogpal
- 5th grade physics lesson newtonUploaded byapi-250941366
- 13.MotionUploaded byajdlfjka
- Bedini Little Girl - ItaUploaded byboncop
- Microgravity Teachers GuideUploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- Science ReviewerUploaded bySeresa Legaspi
- Forces and Motion ActivityUploaded byvinayak
- Alder Wainwright - Molecular MotionsUploaded byMauro Sellitto
- IALUploaded byjohnjabaraj
- Phy 5 SpecimenUploaded byMitchell Dilik
- phys201lec2MT_INTRO.pdfUploaded byMystie Suzuki
- TP Mammoet Trailers Stability&Lashing - Rev03-2Uploaded byparamarthasom1974
- GravitationalUploaded byRathankar Rao
- PHY11L - E201Uploaded byIdate Patrick
- Force 1Uploaded byapi-3731257
- 132519199 Newton s Laws Force Friction 291Uploaded byShorya Kumar
- Mod-10Uploaded byapi-3766872
- UntitledUploaded byatulkolpek
- 13510force and Laws of Motion Notes2Uploaded byNaveen Shankar
- generalUploaded bymuna al harthy
- IJEART02416Uploaded byerpublication
- 1Uploaded byChong Xue Er

- 2.1_Probabilities+概率Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.13_Modeling+Cycles%3A+MA%2C+AR%2C+and+ARMA+Models+建模周期：MA%2C+AR%2C+和ARMA+模型Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.4_Bayesian+Analysis+贝叶斯分析.pdfUploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.10_Correlations+and+Copulas+相关性和连接函数Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.6_Linear+Regression+with+One+Regressor+一元线性回归Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.11_Modeling+and+Forecasting+Trend+建模并预测趋势Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.8_Linear+Regression+with+Multiple+Regressors+多元线性回归Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.3_Distributions+分布Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.2_Basic+Statistics+基本统计Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.12_Characterizing+Cycles+描述周期性Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.9_Hypothesis+Tests+and+Confidence+Intervals...多元回归中的假设检验与置信区间Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.5_Hypothesis+Testing+and+Confidence+Intervals+假设检验和置信区间Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.14_Estimating+Volatilities+and+Correlations+估计波动率和相关系数Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.7_Regression+with+a+Single+Regressor+Hypothesis+Tests..一元回归：假设检验与置信区间Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 2.15_Simulation+Modeling+模拟建模Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.7_What+is+ERM？+什么是企业风险管理Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.4_Risk+Management%3A+A+Helicopter+View+风险管理：从一个宏观、全局的角度看Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.4_Risk+Management%3A+A+Helicopter+View+风险管理：从一个宏观、全局的角度看Uploaded byJames Jiang
- Lecture 6Uploaded byHaris Khan
- 1.8_Implementing+Robust+Risk+Appetite+Frameworks...实施稳健的风险偏好架构，强化金融机构的经营Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.3_Risk+Taking+A+Corporate+Governance+Perspective+风险承担%3A公司治理的角度+%282015考纲本节删除，选修%29Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.3_Risk+Taking+A+Corporate+Governance+Perspective+风险承担%3A公司治理的角度+%282015考纲本节删除，选修%29Uploaded byJames Jiang
- TIBAIIPlus.pdfUploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.5_Corporate+Risk+Management%3A+A+Primer+公司风险管理：入门知识Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.2_The+Time+Value+of+Money+and+Financial+Calculator..货币时间价值与金融计算器使用+（前导课程）Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.2_The+Time+Value+of+Money+and+Financial+Calculator..货币时间价值与金融计算器使用+（前导课程）Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 1.9_Financial+Disasters+金融灾难Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 9e Financial Calculator ReferenceUploaded bykhopdi_number1
- 1.6_Corporate+Governance+and+Risk+Management+公司治理与风险管理Uploaded byJames Jiang
- 7EUploaded byJames Jiang

- DCS Unit-7 .pdfUploaded byvenu
- Easy Integrated Model Capacity PlanningUploaded byshubhamiitr
- CSA S16-01 Example 001Uploaded byBùi Văn Hợp
- Hyers, Cooperative Activities for CalculusUploaded bydirk
- bus transfer 2Uploaded byapi-314693711
- Optimal Location and Parameters Setting of UPFC Based on GA and PSO for Enhancing Power System Security Under Single ContingenciesUploaded byKamlesh Joshi
- Effect of Anisotropy on Steady State Creep in Functionally Graded CylinderUploaded bySheng Lai
- Dimensioning and TolerancingUploaded bytnchsg
- Breakwater Design Equations, Rubble MoundUploaded byGaspar Da Costa Ximenes
- MC0063–02_discrete_mathematicsUploaded byssharma79
- Ch 11 Shape Factors in Materials SelectionUploaded byFrank John
- modul-5-pdf-july-13-2009-9-39-pm-87kUploaded bySus Zie
- 1-s2.0-0016714265900281-mainUploaded byjesadu
- Spectrum SensingUploaded bytamasagra
- SPE-146524-MS-1Uploaded byCarlos Narvaez Novoa
- book listUploaded byMosharraf Hossain Sylar
- Continuous DistributionsUploaded bysupiobia
- 2014_10_lyp_Mathematics_29Uploaded byCecil Thompson
- 145388802 ADDITIONAL Mathematics Project Works Selangor Logarithms 2013 RevisedUploaded bythirumaranaustralia
- Lss Control Systems 1Uploaded byCaio Cabral
- Calculus Assignment q6 2018Uploaded byKavisha Asha
- Case Study:Demand Forecasting of Rekha SoapUploaded bycadalal
- 02 - Radial Flow and Radius of InvestigationUploaded byhirensurat
- Dimensions Info Cube Key Figures and CharacterisiticsUploaded byreggiehifi
- Effective Properties 3 Phase MultiscalUploaded byAjith Moses
- MembraneUploaded byOdalis Perez
- EngineeringUploaded byNikhil Prabhudev
- Teaching PlanUploaded byHarshvardhanUpadhyay
- QuantityUploaded bytechzones
- Intro to TensorsUploaded byjohnsmith37788