_{T}_{H}_{E} THEORY OF THE EXCITATION FUNCTION:
_{A} DEMONSTRATION OF ITS PHYSICAL MEANING
_{C}_{l}_{a}_{u}_{d}_{e} H. Gary, member IEEE
Electricite de France, Paris
AbstractThis paper presents a simple demonstration and the _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} meaning of the excitation function due to corona effect on EHV conductors. Its purpose is to promote and to make easier the ap _{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the excitation function, in order to improve the calcula tion methods of Radio Interference of EHV lines.
INTRODUCTION
Radio interference (RI), generated by a corona streamer is caused _{b}_{y} the movement of space charges in the electric field of the conductor. These charges are due to the ionization of air in the immediate vicinity _{o}_{f} the conductor. As a _{s}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{c}_{e} of RI, the streamer is usually represented
_{a}_{s} _{a} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{:} the current _{i}_{n}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} from this generator into the conductor _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} only on the own characteristics of this streamer. In 1956 (1), Adams demonstrated that this representation was _{s}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{w}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} in _{r}_{e}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} the corona streamer induced _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} in all conductors of a multiwire system (and not only in the conductor that produced it). These currents depend on the character
istics of the conductor under corona and on the selfs and mutual capac _{i}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} of the conductors.
The _{s}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} into two terms constitutes a worthy progress, for it _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s} that the RI currents in conductors of different lines are not _{n}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{y} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} from _{o}_{n}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{,} even if they are produced
_{b}_{y} identical corona streamers. _{A}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} to _{A}_{d}_{a}_{m}_{s} the term _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} expresses the characteristics of the corona streamer is the "excitation function". _{I}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} we present a new demonstration of the meaning of the _{e}_{x}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} function. Although this one is not thoroughly rigorous,
it nevertheless _{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{d}_{v}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e} of permitting to grasp, in a very concrete _{w}_{a}_{y}_{,} itstheoretical and _{p}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} significance.
DEMONSTRATION BY MEANS OF THE POTENTIAL FUNCTION
_{E}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y} case of a coaxial element
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{u}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r} an _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} consisting of a cylindrical conductor
_{h}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a} _{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{u}_{s} _{r}_{,} and located _{c}_{o}_{a}_{x}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} within a _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} of radius R, representing the mass of zero potential.
Fig. 1.
_{P}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} 71 TP _{1}_{5}_{3}_{}_{P}_{W}_{R}_{,} recommended and approved by the Transmission and
_{E}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} Society for presentation
Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power
_{a}_{t} the _{I}_{E}_{E}_{E} Winter Power _{M}_{e}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} New _{Y}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{,} _{N}_{.}_{Y}_{.}_{,} _{J}_{a}_{n}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{3}_{1}_{}_{F}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{5}_{,} 1971.
Manuscript submitted September 16, 1970;
_{2}_{4}_{,} 1970.
made available for _{p}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} December
per unit length is placed
within this coaxial element. Let the space charge be in the form of an
infinitely thin cylinder of radius p (fig. 1). If _{t}_{h}_{e} center conductor is connected to ground, it will be at zero
In this
_{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} and carry a charge q induced by the presence of
electrical state, the radial electrostatical field is given by Gauss's theorem:
Suppose that a space charge of density
qo
qo.
atapointoftheradius r<cs cy L: 2r.qs
at a point of the radius <cscR _{:} _{E}_{2}_{}
q
2n6t,.s
i
J
(1)
Integrating in order to obtain the potential difference:
Vr
VRJElds+
r
R
_{E}_{2}_{d}_{s} = _{}_{E}
2
.
[Lnq
r
^{r}
q.tn&}
(2)
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{V}_{r}  VR = 0, the charge per unit length induced on the center conductor is:
^{9}
^{=}
^{}
^{9}
R
(3)
Now assume that the cylindrical space charge
_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{d}_{p}_{/}_{d}_{t}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{s} in the rate of _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} _{d}_{q}_{/}_{d}_{t} of the
induced charge, that represents the injected current. To calculate this current
_{q}_{o} uniformly expands at
_{d}_{q}
dt
dq
d!
_{d}_{?}
dt
1
^{I}^{n} ^{R}
qo
^{P}
dp
dt
(4)
substitutingfor
1
In
R/r
c
2nrE.
(5)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{C} = _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{e}_{r} unit _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} of the coaxial cell:
_{.}
C
2lCEo
So
p
dp
dt
(6)
It should be noted that this current is the product of two terms:
one,
c
2nEo
which _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on the cell geometry; and
the second, 2L _{*}_{P}
P
dt'
which _{s}_{o}_{l}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on the characteristics of the space charge, that is to say, its quantity and the law of its movement. Next, the excitation _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} will be defined from the second term of the product.
Generalization of the _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
_{a}_{)} In order to further the _{c}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} a _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} symmetrical
configuration is adopted, including the space charge. But by virtue of
the superposition theorem, it is quite obvious that a small element
of this space charge cut out at any place of the cylinder of radius p
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{a} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} _{X}_{q} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} center conductor. Instead of _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} the
whole _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{,} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} a local space charge can be placed at a point
Xqo
305
~~~~~oo
of radius p, without changing the already obtained
equations (3) and
^{(}^{6}^{)}^{.} Note: Although, when _{u}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} this _{m}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{d}_{,} the
charge induced _{b}_{y} _{a}
point charge can be _{c}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{,} the total _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}
conductor is unknown. Nevertheless, it is
AL
dx
distribution _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e}
estimated that 95% of the
induced charge is concentrated on a conductor
_{±}_{5}_{p}_{,} as illustrated in _{f}_{i}_{g}_{.} 2.
length of about
q =Jf q dx
dx
I
5 P
4
S
Fig. 2.
x
CONDUCTOR AXIS
qo0,p
b) In equation (3), the expression In
R/p
in R/r
is no other than the potential function _{0}_{(}_{p}_{)}_{.} This function expresses
the potential of the point at radius p when the center conductor is at + l and the earthed cylinder at 0 potential. Therefore the expression can be written:
q ' ; qo.e(M)
(7)
_{q}
=
 _{q}_{o} .e(M)
_{(}_{1}_{0}_{)}
APPLICATION _{T}_{O} A _{M}_{U}_{L}_{T}_{I}_{}_{W}_{I}_{R}_{E} _{L}_{I}_{N}_{E}
Consider a multiwire line consisting of n conductors _{o}_{f} _{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{i}
rn; let us assume that a space charge _{q}_{o} _{i}_{s} located _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}
vicinity of conductor 1, at a point _{M} _{c}_{l}_{o}_{s}_{e} _{e}_{n}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{s}_{o} that the electrical
field around 1, in the absence of _{q}_{o}_{,} is essentially _{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{.}
_{r}_{l}_{,} r2
_{,}
Let us find the potential functions 6(M) associated with _{t}_{h}_{e}
various conductors.
a) The potential function 61(M) associated _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{1}_{.}
Let conductor 1 be at + 1 potential and all _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{g}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d}
(fig. 3)
V+1
Me ^{0}
2
V =O
3
Fig. 3.
4
where _{q}_{o} is a localized charge placed at a point M in _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{,} and _{6}_{(}_{M}_{)} is
the potential function of the conductor whose induced charge is to be found.
It is assumed that expression (7) can be applied to any configura tion of conductors, and in _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} to a _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{w}_{i}_{r}_{e} line.
Using Gauss's identity The preceding generalization, divided into _{s}_{t}_{e}_{p} a) and b), has the
advantage of being very concrete, yet it is not altogether obvious.
This is _{w}_{h}_{y} another demonstration is _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,} which does not require any particular geometrical _{h}_{y}_{p}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{.} This demonstration
is based on Gauss's identity, which is expressed in the following man
ner:
Assume a system of n conductors, successively submitted to two
different electrostatical _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{y} charac
From equation:
q
=civl + C12 V2 +  Clmnv
q
C11
_{/} for V1 = _{+}_{1} ^{j} _{V}_{K}_{O}
_{V}_{(}_{K}_{)}
(C41 _{)}
1
The radial field around _{I} then equals:
E
2nEos
(C12
(12)
integrating in order to obtain the potential of the point M at radius p:
_{l}_{M}_{)}
fEds
C1
ri
J2n6uo
In P(
ri
Therefore it can be deduced _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}_{:}
(13)
terized 
by charge _{q}_{i} and _{q}_{i}_{'}_{,} and by potential _{V}_{i} and Vi'; the identity is 
e _{I} _{(}_{M}_{)} 
written: 
 ttC1 In _{} p
2 nZo
_{r}_{1}
[ vq'
n
=
_{E}
n
(8)
Further assume a conductor C and _{a} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} M of the dielectrical _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{,} submitted to two electrostatical _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{,} such _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} are described in the following table;
CHARGE
_{q} 

MO 
0 
POTENTIAL
+1
e((M)
Fr
st
Fi rst state
CHARGE POTENTIAL
_{q}
qa.
0
V
sen
second state
s
b) The potential function _{6}_{i}_{(}_{M}_{)} associated with conductor i _{*} 1.
In this case, conductor i is considered to be at + 1 potential, and all the others are at zero potential of the earth (fig. 4)
1
C
I
2
.
M(pI S
0
v=+1
Fig. 4.
n
_{A}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{(}_{8}_{)}_{,} Gauss's _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} is written as follows:
(+ 1 ) xq
+ S3(M) x _{q}_{O}
=
Oxq
+ _{V}_{x}_{O}
from where it is _{i}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{d}_{r}_{a}_{w}_{n} that:
_{(}_{9}_{)}
From equation
q= c11v1 + C12V2 *
306
q1 = C1i
for _{V}_{j} =+
,
+Cln
Vn
VK = 0
(KI
i
)
}
(15)
Therefore the radial field around 1 is:
E = C1 /27CeoS
_{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}
integrating in the same manner as above:
O.80(M) =
Eds =
_{'}_{r}
1i
2T e, o
81(M
_{M}_{=} _{}
11
Cli
_{2} _{3}_{T}_{o}
In p
_{r}_{,}
In
^{p}
r,
(17)
(18)
c) Calculating the currents injected in the conductors by the mov ingcharge _{q}_{o}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{u}_{s} conductors are determined by equation (10)
and
_{q}_{,} = q
qi = q
(
 ^{C}^{l}
Cli ln
23fo
Ln
P
_{r}
(19)
(20)
_{T}_{h}_{e} current induced in conductor i is obtained by differentiating equations (19) (20)
C11
2it.
q.
P
^{d}^{p}
dt
(21)
This equation can be generalized in the form
C1j
q1
P
dp
dt
where j: conductor index near which the charge
i: conductor index on which the current is
qj
is located
measured
(22)
The following important deduction can be made from the examin ation of the generalized equation for induced currents. The current in each conductor _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} on the capacitance coefficient of this con
ductor _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{s} an element of a whole system. These capacitance coefficients are determined by the geometry of the system only, i.e. the size of conductors and the distances between them and earth. _{H}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} for induced current is a well de fined constant for each conductor. The second term is governed by the laws of the formation and movement of the space charges within the ionized zone very close to the surface of the conductor under corona. The excitation function is directly related to the second term that com _{p}_{l}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} describes all physical characteristics of the corona. This function
_{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} be _{d}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{d} in the next _{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{.}
THE DEFINITION OF THE EXCITATION FUNCTION:
GENERALIZATION OF qp° ^{d} P
Because _{o}_{f} the internal characteristics of the electrical field within _{t}_{h}_{e} zone of the ionized _{a}_{i}_{r}_{,} in the _{n}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{h}_{o}_{o}_{d} of the conductor, the function
q
P
dp
dt
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} an _{i}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{l}_{s}_{i}_{v}_{e} form of very short duration. This impulsive func tioncan be described by a Fourier spectrum, _{F}_{(}_{Q}_{.}_{)}_{.} On the other _{h}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} the character of the space charge is such that
the _{i}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{l}_{s}_{e}_{s} f(t) are pseudoperiodically repeted, or more exactly _{r}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{o}_{m}_{l}_{y}_{.} _{E}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{w}_{s}_{,} that the successive impulses all have the
same _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{,} but fluctuate in _{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e} and time intervals around stable _{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} values. Under _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} the Fourier _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{m} of a _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}
307
_{i}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{l}_{s}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} by the spectral density _{G}_{(}_{w}_{)}_{.} Without going into _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{r}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{o}_{m} signals, let us merely recall that the spectral density defines an energy. The RMS of g(c) of the pseudo _{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{c} _{s}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} within an infinitely small frequency interval _{d}_{w} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{l}_{y} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{G}_{(}_{c}_{o}_{)}_{,} _{a}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} to Parseval's theorem, by:
dg2(c)
= G2(.))
_{d} d
(23)
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{l}_{y} if the _{o}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} signal passes through a measuring _{d}_{e}_{v}_{i}_{c}_{e} tuned to the frequency _{c}_{o}_{o} and with a "quadratic equivalent" _{b}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{w}_{i}_{d}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{B} _{H}_{z} _{t}_{h}_{e} RMS value of the measured signal is:
9tOo) =
G (po)
_{(}_{2}_{4}_{)}
_{L}_{e}_{t} n be _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{i} of discreet uncorrelated corona sources per
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} and let _{G}_{i} be the spectral density of the source
_{"}_{i}_{"}_{;} then the resultant RMS value of all the sources per unit length of conductor is
_{n}
(25)
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{r}_{'} is called the excitation function. In consequence, the _{R}_{M}_{S} value of the injected HF current, measured at frequency _{w}_{o} and
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a} _{b}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{w}_{i}_{d}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{B} _{H}_{z}_{,} _{p}_{e}_{r} _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} unit of a multiwire line is:
_{J}_{j}
=
2
6
.
or, in a generalized matrix relation:
1
23rrto ^{[}^{c} ^{[}^{i}
(26)
(27)
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{t}_{o} and consistent with _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{6}_{)}_{,} because _{t}_{h}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} r had been uniquely defined from the
qo dp
P dt
_{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} a characteristics of the moving space charge. The random aspect of the r function is due to the inherent
_{n}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} of the space charges. It is introduced to take into account the
measuring system and in particular, the bandwidth of a receiver with a
_{s}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e}_{}_{l}_{a}_{w} detector. Adams calls r the "spectral density of the excita
tion function" [1 ].
_{S}_{Y}_{S}_{T}_{E}_{M} _{O}_{F} _{B}_{U}_{N}_{D}_{L}_{E}_{D} CONDUCTORS
The calculations _{p}_{e}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} as yet were based on the hypothesis
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} mutual distances _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} to their radii. It was furthermore assumed that the _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{s} moved within the region of radial field. It is _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{o} _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w} whether the results remain fundamentally the same _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} the _{s}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} conductor is _{r}_{e}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} a _{b}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{l}_{e}_{,} commonly used on EHV lines.
Practical evidence of the excitation function
_{I}_{n} _{p}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{,} the excitation function used in the precalculation of the RI level of a line appears in the equation (27) where [C] is the _{m}_{a}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{x} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} coefficients of the line and derived for _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{} drical conductors of _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} radius _{(}_{i}_{.}_{e}_{.} conductors carrying, under
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} conditions, the same charge as the bundle).
It must be remembered that the magnitude that can be measured _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} current _{[}_{J}_{]}_{,} and not the excitation function [Fr. In a general _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{[}_{r}_{]} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{n} the calculation and has to be derived from experimental measurements of HF currents and capacity, achieved in a test cage, for example.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{y} of _{t}_{h}_{e} excitation function is _{p}_{r}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{d}_{,} if the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} is satisfied:
_{[}_{c}_{4}_{[} Ji] = _{f}_{C}_{2}_{]}_{f} [ _{J}_{2}_{]}
=
2rr6
where J1 and J2 are the HF currents measured on the same bundle, submitted to the same gradient, and placed in two different systems characterized respectively by the capacitance matrices [C _{I}_{I} and _{[}_{C}_{2}_{]}_{.} The experimental checking of the above relation has been carried
out by placing the same bundle in a cage and on a line. The measured currents were found exactly in conformity with this _{l}_{a}_{w}_{,} obviously under conditions of identical corona streamers (heavy rain). This was shown in reference [2] and widely used in references [3] _{[}_{4}_{1} _{[}_{5}_{]} . However, a closer examination of the behaviour of a bundle in dicates that the concept of the equivalent cylinder has to be revised and that it is necessary to take into account the mutual effects between
the subconductors of the bundles. The problem arises whether the
excitation function of a conductor with a given surface gradient _{a}_{n}_{d} surface conditions, is the same when this conductor is alone or when it is part of a bundle. Another problem can be stated in the _{f}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{i}_{n}_{g} way:
is the total HF current induced in a bundle with interconnected sub conductors different from the one in a bundle with insulated subcon ductors? If that were the case, it would indeed be better to choose the
arrangement with the least total current, since this would reduce the interference field of the bundle.
Case of a bundle with interconnected subconductors
It follows that the induced HF current is
=
ni
2
c
Tr
11
o
0 ^{n}
ri
(32)
_{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} subconductor i is _{F}_{i}_{,} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{I}_{}_{i}_{b}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g}
equal in amplitude but uncorrelated, the equation (32) leads immediate
ly to:
Jn
1
2n
2
_{T}_{r} Fo
ri
V n
_{(}_{3}_{3}_{)}
_{a}_{n} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} that _{p}_{r}_{o}_{v}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} the means to _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{e} the excitation functions _{o}_{f} bundles with different numbers of subconductors.
_{C}_{a}_{s}_{e} of a bundle with insulated subconductors
_{T}_{o} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{f}_{y} the _{d}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{u}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} let us assume that a bundle with n _{i}_{n}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} is located in the center of a _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{c}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{(}_{f}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{6}_{)}_{.} _{F}_{u}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} let _{r}_{i} be the excitation function of subconductor _{i} _{i}_{n} _{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t} induced in subconductor _{j} is _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} by an ap proximate equation:
Ji
=
J
it t
2.n6o
ri
(34)
Interconnected conductors can be considered equipotential from the HF point of view provided that the _{d}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} between the _{e}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}
connections (generally through the spacers) is a small fraction of the
wave _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} at con, the _{f}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y} under consideration.
Let the bundle be _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} n identical conductors of _{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{u}_{s} _{r}_{,} let the space charge _{q}_{o} move in the vicinity of the conductor i
and
(fig. 5).
Q
Q I~~~~~~~~~~
/
P"
2>.

_ o
"
//
Fig. 5.
The total induced _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{,} i.e. the sum of the _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{s} induced in all conductors, will be calculated by considering the potential function. In the immediate neighbourhood s of the conductor, the field due to the _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} on the conductor is _{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} radial. _{N}_{o}_{w}_{,} when the bundle is at the + 1 potential, this charge is equal to
I
I
^{I} I
//
"I
I
"I.
.I
20
1 20
1
n
11
1%
0 \ \
30
_{0}
4
^{"}^{I} 1
1
iX
~~~~p,q0
^{}^{I} ^{1}
/
/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I
Fig. 6.
where _{y}_{i}_{j} are the entries of the matrix of capacitance coefficients of the system of subconductors. In a conventional bundle the subcon ductor spacing is assumed to be much larger than p, the distance of the space charge from the axis of the subconductor. Under these conditions the equation for _{J}_{i}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{s} to accurate results. The total current injected onto _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{l}_{e} is
q.
=
C11
n
where C1 1 is calculated _{f}_{o}_{r} the _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} the bundle. Hence, the field intensity is approximately equal to
E _=
C
1
2r Eo nS
The _{c}_{o}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} function is:
(28)
J =
1
2 rr
o
j
]
r
(35)
_{F}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{,} let us try to find the relation between the _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{r}_{y}
capacities _{7}_{i}_{j} and the total bundle capacity C1 _{1} This relation depends
_{(}_{2}_{9}_{)} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} on the _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} of the bundle. Let us consider now the fictitious _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{,} where _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} subconductor is at the same _{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{V}_{;} the _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} _{Q}_{i} of the subconductor i is:
8(p)
=
1
2iT&
2Trreiodn
In
r
_{_}
(30)
_{Q}_{i} = EX _{j} V;
Therefore, the induced charge
_{q} = _{}_{q}_{0} _{O}_{(}_{p}_{)}
(31) butbydefinition _{C}_{1}_{1}_{:}
~0 ~ 
~ 
~ ~ 
~ 
~ 
Q 
= 
is the total charge, because 0(p) is the potential function 
of the bundle. 

_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{d} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{v}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{o}_{f} a subconductor. 
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e} 

308 
_{c}_{1}_{1} _{V}
n
=
vF _{j}
(36)
J=5n
j=1i
Cil
n
and the equation for the sum of _{i}_{n}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} becomes:
j=_
1
2rcto

Cii
n
r
(38)
This equation is identical to the one developed for the current injected into a conventional bundle. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total current induced by a corona streamer is the same for a bundle with interconnected or insulated subconductors.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The current induced into a conductor _{b}_{y} the movement, in its neighbourhood, of a space charge, can be calculated _{b}_{y} using the potential function.
2. In the case of a multiwire system _{(}_{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} transmission _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{)} the _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{e}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} relation shows _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} are induced in all the con _{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d} on the movement _{o}_{f} the _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} and on the geometry of the system. This geometry is expressed by means of the _{c}_{a}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} coefficients. 3. In applying these results to the "corona _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{"}_{,} it is _{p}_{o}_{s}_{} _{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} while _{i}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} of the movement of the charges and the quadratic bandwidth of a measuring device, to de _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{,} in a _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{t}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{,} the _{e}_{x}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} function worked out _{b}_{y} Adams.
4. The examination of the _{"}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{"} _{b}_{e}_{h}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{o}_{u}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{a} conductor bundle leads to a _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} between the excitation function of a sub _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} the _{e}_{x}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} function of the whole bundle. It is demonstrated that the total current, injected in a bundle _{b}_{y} the corona _{e}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{,} is the _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} the bundle is conventional or whether each subconductor is insulated from the others.
REFERENCES
[1] 
G. E. Adams: The calculation of the radio interference level of 
transmission lines caused by corona discharges. AIEE Trans. 

Part III  June 1956, pp. 411419. 

[2] 
J. Clade, C. Gary, M. undertaken at the experimental station at les Renardieres, CIGRE Moreau: Results of studies on corona effect 
1970  report 3108  p. 6. 

[3] 
J. W. Juette, L. E. Zaffanella: Radio noise currents and audible 
noise
on short sections of UHV bundle conductors. _{P}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{6}_{9}_{.}_{T}_{P}
690  IEEE Power _{M}_{e}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} Dallas 1969.
_{[}_{4}_{1} C. H. _{G}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{,} M. R.
Moreau: _{P}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the radio noise
Paper 68 C 57 PWR, EHV Trans
level under rain of an EHV line.
mission Conference, Montreal 1968.
_{[}_{5}_{]} J. J. _{C}_{l}_{a}_{d}_{e}_{,} C. H. _{G}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{,} M. R. Moreau: _{U}_{s}_{a}_{g}_{e} and _{c}_{h}_{e}_{c}_{k}_{i}_{n}_{g} of the
_{f}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{s}_{,} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} and excitation func test lines. _{P}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r} _{6}_{9}
theoretical relations between
tions in radiofrequencies
TP _{6}_{4}_{,} IEEE Power
in the _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} of short
Meeting  New York 1968.
Discussion
G. E. Adams (University of Missouri,
not been actively working in the field of radio interference for several
occasionally from the outside to see
what was happening. I have been continually impressed with the
progress that has been made by workers both here and abroad.
I have been especially interested in several aspects which even in
1959 were obviously in need of additional research and, in some cases,
confirmation. One of these aspects is the subject of this paper, the
excitation function, or what I usually referred to as the "genera
time, this concept seemed to be
tion" 1,2,3 of the conductor. At the
rigorously defined mathematically and intuitively made sense. How
years, I have tried to "look in"
Columbia, Mo.): Although I have
Manuscript received February 16, 1971.
309
ever, no experimental _{l}_{y} derived relationships,
of test cage measurements into actual line _{p}_{e}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{.}
The author has succeeded admirably in coupling together the
previously made and reported with a
demonstration of the physical meaning
my opinion, this is a contribution
to
a wider understanding of the fundamentals of the _{p}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{n}
involved. I recommend that the Transmission _{a}_{n}_{d} Distribution Committee consider reclassifying this paper as a Transactions paper if this is possible.
REFERENCES
[1] The Calculation of the Radio Interference Level of Transmission
by Corona Discharges, G. E. Adams, AIEE _{T}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{}
the literature since it should _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}
of the excitation function. In
results of such experiments
especially with respect to translating the results
results were available to _{v}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{f}_{y}
the mathematical
to
Lines caused
actions, Part III, 1956.
[2] An Analysis
Conductors,
of the RadioInterference Characteristics of _{B}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{l}_{e}_{d}
G. E. Adams, AIEE Transactions, Part III, 1956.
[3] Radio Interference and Transmission Line Design, G. E. _{A}_{d}_{a}_{m}_{s}_{,}
Proceedings of C.I.G.R.E. Conference, 1958.
G. W. Juette and L. E. Zaffanella (General Electric Company, Pittsfield,
Mass. 01 201): Conductor test
tool in radio noise research at Project UHV in Pittsfield,
cages have been used for several years as
an important
Mass. As pointed out in the
literature6 cage test results were translated data. The theories developed by Dr. Adams
are essential for this translation. When Reference 1 was presented _{b}_{y}
acknowledged
verifica
Dr. Adams, more than 15 years ago, its importance was
into equivalent line noise
by many experts. At the
tion was criticized. Dr. Adams' work was also found difficult to read
written at _{t}_{h}_{e}
General Electric
with Dr. Adams'
many years the
and
personal assistance was for
same time, the lack of experimental
computer program
apply.
The _{d}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{l} radio noise
Company
only one available in this country.
Credit should be given
to Mr. Gary and his frequent coauthor
valuable contributions toward experimental
at hand
physical and mathematical interpretation of a
of course, the last word has not yet been
could the author explain why he has assumed the
Mr. Moreau for their
a
very
nice
example,
verification of the theory in a
represents
complex theory within which,
said. For
conductor
series of IEEE papers. The paper
by
the
highfrequency space
_{s}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d}
potential unchanged
seems that the
charge
movement? It
_{s}_{u}_{r}_{g}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}
rather have been
introduced. If so, would this have led to the same conclusions?
REFERENCE
[61 G. W. Juette, L. E. Zaffanella, "Radio noise, audible noise, and
corona loss of EHV and _{U}_{H}_{V} transmission lines under rain: _{p}_{r}_{e}_{}
determination _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{o}_{n} _{c}_{a}_{g}_{e} _{t}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{s}_{.} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
POWER APPARATUS AND
11681178.
Manuscript received August 4, 1971.
SYSTEMS, July/August _{1}_{9}_{7}_{0}_{,} _{p}_{p}_{.}
Claude _{H}_{.}
very
Gary:
I would _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t} _{o}_{f} all like _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{k} Dr. _{A}_{d}_{a}_{m}_{s} for his
of
my paper
and for his support
in
awarding
_{P}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{"}_{.} I would then like _{t}_{o}
study
was
recognized very
view of the
point of
early
_{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} measurements in
_{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,}
tell him
_{a}_{t} the
theoretical
question _{a}_{n}_{d} in the field of its
cages
pre
as well as the method of
which we have _{p}_{r}_{e}_{}
favorable
appreciation
it
that the basic
"Electricite de
the status of a
"Transactions
of his
importance
France",
of the
both from the
phenomena
The
in
transposition
lines,
understanding
practical applications.
and
_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} based on the excitation
sented at this same session _{(}_{1}_{)}
and usefulness of this idea. One _{o}_{f} the
fore to
measurements under the
suggest
(2), have given proof of the signification
of
_{m}_{y} _{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r}
was
of
_{s}_{e}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g}
there
_{p}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{s}
a _{d}_{e}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the excitation function which would
be more concrete and more
its use
_{i}_{n}_{g} the interference
by calling
tention
_{e}_{a}_{s}_{y} to _{a}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{,} with the _{h}_{o}_{p}_{e}
as one of the methods of
being generally adopted
_{f}_{i}_{e}_{l}_{d}_{s}
of lines.
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{}
_{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{m}_{,}
paying no at
me an op
Messrs. Juette and _{Z}_{a}_{f}_{f}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{a} _{m}_{a}_{d}_{e} a
attention to the
perfectly pertinent
in
simplification consisting
to the line's wave _{i}_{m}_{p}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{.}
This criticism _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{s}
Manuscript received September _{1}_{3}_{,} 1971.
portunity to demonstrate here that this simplification does not involve any change in the conclusions concerning the properties of the excita tion function, at least at frequencies lower than about 2 MHz. In the diagram where the conductor's high frequency potential is nil, this potential is a result of the hypothesis of the source's nil impedance, connected at its other end to the earth. Under these con ditions, the relationship between the induced charge and the space charge is independent of time. We still have
_{q}_{i} = _{}_{q}_{o} 0 (M)
which means that the induced charge follows strictly and without any
delay all the variations in time of the quantity
Let us now represent the _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{,} on both sides of the space
charge, by its wave impedance Z, except in the immediate vicinity of
this space charge, where the conductor will be represented by a certain
capacity r. The theoretical difficulty consists in estimating the length
of conductor to be considered for defining r, as this length is linked to
we shall admit that it is the
conductor above ground. The diagram of the
same as the _{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} of the
circuit now becomes as follows:
the formation distance of the plane
_{q}_{o} 0 (t).
wave.;
Leaving the temporal analysis for the
sion above becomes, at the frequency component co:
frequential analysis, the expres
q _{[}_{I} jw.r + I ] =  _{q}_{0}_{G}
(W)
It can be seen if
2
2
1 $
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e} no marked attenuation or
result of i, in relation to the zero impedance hypothesis. And _{s}_{o}_{,} for:
phase shifting of q, and _{a}_{s} _{a}
Z = 300
r= _{2}_{0}_{0} _{p}_{F}
_{i}
u
=
2
IT
.
1o6
^{w}^{z}^{r} _{=}_{0}_{.}_{2}_{,} involving an attenuation of 0.25 dB.
2
At higher frequencies, the term
0(e)J
/1/7Tf
0WX~
I77 v
at a given instant, the
charge borne _{b}_{y} section
Q is no longer _{q}_{i}_{,} but a certain value q. Like wise, the potential of this section is no _{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{r} zero, but takes as its value:
[ IZ2r + _{I}_{]}
will have an effect of modifying the spectrum of the induced currents:
it would seem then, that taking the wave impedance into consideration
the form of the frequency spectrum
observed under the line. But in any event, the theory of plane waves
exceeds
can therefore be stated, that in the validity field of the plane
waves
defined
lower than the _{f}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y}
loses its signification, for EHV lines, as soon as the frequency
about 2 or 3 MHz.
plays an important part
in
It
theory, and a fortiori at frequencies by
zr'w
+ _{q}
. e
(t) + _{q}
_{t}_{h}_{e} fact of ignoring the wave impedance when calculating currents
space charges does not modify the descrip
linked to the movement of
r tion of the phenomena in question.
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{i}_{t} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} will be written as follows:
as i
=

_{q}_{o}
(t) + q
_{z}
r 2
^{i}
_{,} the differential _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} is obtained:
Zr'. _{d}_{q}
2
dIt
_{=}
(t)
REFERENCES
[11 C. Gary,
Level _{o}_{f} tion of the
M. Moreau: _{"}_{P}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the RadioInterference
High Voltage
Transmission Lines  Part I. Predetermina
Excitation Function", Paper 71 TP 661  PWR.
_{[}_{2}_{]} C. Gary, M. Moreau: "Predetermination of the Interference Level
Transmission Lines  Part II. Field _{C}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
for High Voltage
Method", Paper 71 TP 662  PWR.
310
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.