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Oily Water Separator and Sewage Plant Guide Book for Marine Engineers OILY WATER SEPARATOR: Principle

of Operation: The principle of operation of OWS is the gravity difference between oil and water. The force acting on an oil globule causing it to move in the water is proportional to the difference in weight between the oil particle and a particle of water of equal volume. Fs = separating force P = density of water Fs = d 3 ( Pw Po) g P = density of oil globule 6 d = diameter of oil globule g = acceleration due to gravity The resistance to the movement of the globule depends on its size and viscosity of the fluid. For small particles moving under stream line flow the relationship between these properties is expressed by Strokes Law: Fr = resistance to movement Filters used in OWS are 2 types = viscosity of fluid 1. Coalescence type: Fr = 3d = terminal velocity of particle Hydrophilic material i.e. glass wool. d = diameter of oil particle Absorbs water rather than oil. When separation of an oil globule in water is taking place, Has to be renewed after certain periods. Fs = Fr 2. Absorption type: g Oleophilic material v= ( Pw Po) d 2 Absorbs oil rather than water. 18 Frequent replacement is not required. High rate of separation is favored by: Large size of oil globule. Elevated temperature of the system ( i.e. lowers viscosity of oil, density of oil-water but oil is higher). Residence time. Avoidance of turbulence or agitation. Laminar or stream line flow. Low viscosity of oil globule. Control Box Power supply Diaphragm Control

SV Oil Sensor Vent

Vent & filling SV O/B TC To Bilge Tank Oil

To Oil Collecting Tank Test cocks Oil

Test Cocks


Filter Drain

From Bilge Pump

Second stage and Coalescer 1 Hamid

First Stage Md Abdul

Oily Water Separator and Sewage Plant Guide Book for Marine Engineers Non-return spring loaded water discharge valve prevents syphoning as the seperator positioned above the overboard valve. Syphoning is permitted once pumping has stopped. Operation of OWS: The oily water separator is first filled with clean water; the oily water mixture is then pumped through the separator inlet pipe into the coarse separating compartment. Here some oil, as a result of its lower density, will separate and rise into the oil collection space and the purity of this stage is 100 ppm or less. The remaining oily water mixture now flows down into the fine separating compartment and moves slowly between the catch plates. More oil will separate out onto the underside of these plates and travel outwards until it is free to rise into the oil collecting space. The almost oil free water passes into the central pipe and leaves the separator unit. The purity at this point will be 15 ppm or less. An automatically controlled valve releases the separated oil to a storage tank. Air is released from the unit by a vent valve. Steam or electric-heating coils are provided in the upper and sometimes the lower parts of the separator. The water flows in turn through two filter stages and the oil-removed pass to oil collecting spaces. The first stage filter removes physical impurities present and promotes some fine separation. The second stage filter uses coalescer inserts to achieve the final de-oiling and the oil from the collecting spaces is drained away manually as required. Coalescer is the break down of surface tension between oil droplets in an oily water mixture, which causes them to join and increase in size. With respect to Oily Water separation state how following conditions affect separation: a) Oil Density b) Mixture Temperature c) High Pumping Rate d) Oily water interface bellow Test Cocks. a) Oil Density: The principle of separation by which an oily-water separation function is based on difference in density between water and oil. If other separating conditions are constant then high-density difference between oil and water will accelerate the separation. Separation Velocity 0. 95 s.g. of oil 0. 99 s.g. of oil Diameter of oil particle (mm) b) Mixture Temperature: Mixture temperature affects the specific gravity differential of oil and water, and the surface temperature of oil particles. The speed at which oil droplets rise depends on size, the difference in density and the surface tension. Generally, a high rate of separation is favored at elevated temperature of the system. High oil density / low mixture temperature causes: 1) Low density differential between water and oil. 2) Increasing surface tension, thus discourage coalescence. For this reason, low mixture temperature results oil discharged with water. c) High Pumping Rate: The performance of separator depends on residence time of oil-water mixture in the separator, the degree of agitation (affects the droplet size of oil). High pumping rate will cause higher velocity of water in separator, which - Reduce the residence time of water in the separator. - Increase turbulence and disintegration of oil globules. Therefore, high pumping rate can result in oil being discharged.

d) Oily water interface bellow Test Cocks: Oil-water interface below test cock indicates that oil-collecting space is full of oil. At this point, oil is collected and discharged to oil collecting tank automatically or manually. If not discharged, further separated oil will be collected up to the water collected point of the separator. after this condition, more collected oil will be discharged with the water. 2 Hamid Md Abdul

Oily Water Separator and Sewage Plant Guide Book for Marine Engineers Internal Baffles are fitted in OWS due to: Baffles plates are fitted in the 1st stage of oily water separator to improve separation of oil from water. Oily water has to pass through a series of dashed plates before leaving the 1st stage separator. Oil droplets from the plates tend to travel upwards, being collected at the baffles and funneled up to the oil collection space. Coalescers are generally incorporated in OWS due to: Coalescers are generally incorporated in the 2nd stage for bilge water purification towards 15 ppm requirement. The coalescing materials are usually porous and granular or fibrous membra. The coalescer device encourages formation of large oil droplets from the dispersed phase. Small oil droplets come in contact with the coalescer surface and as they congregate, thus join up to form large oil droplets of oil. The oil droplets remain in the coalescer until they have grown large enough to achieve the buoyancy required to break away and float upward. Grill Large oil droplets Small oil droplets Coalescer Element How and why maximum throughput of bilge and ballast water is restricted? The ability of oil to settle in a gravimetric separator will obviously depend on its density, the residence time and the degree of agitation. Throughput of bilge water relates the velocity and residence time. Velocity will be higher due to higher throughput; but higher throughput causes turbulence or agitation, which will disrupt the separation process. Agitation causes re-entrainment. Therefore, maximum throughput of bilge or ballast water is restricted to achieve the optimum velocity and residence time for high rate of separation. High throughput can result in oil discharged with water. Temperature changes: Density / specific gravity / surface tension. Throughput changes: Velocity / turbulence / agitation / residence time

Why positive displacement pump is preferred to centrifugal pump for supply purpose? Centrifugal pump has various disadvantages on separator performance, such as Centrifugal pump churns (moves violently) the supply and produce small oil droplets throughout the water so that 15 ppm requirement can not be met. But a slow speed positive displacement pump enables a much better performance to be achieved from the separator as they do not produce large quantities of small oil droplets. Leakage from seal ring. Re-circulation of liquid in the impeller. Excessive speed of fluid in the volute casing (15 ~ 25 m/sec).

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Md Abdul

Oily Water Separator and Sewage Plant Guide Book for Marine Engineers

SEWAGE PLANT: Vent Wash water C = Clorinator CF = Course Filter Soil inlet

C Float switch Settling tank

CF Aeration tank

Over Board Port side

Collecting tank 60minutes Air Air Comp

Stbd side Shore connection

Pump Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Sea Water

BOD is a measure of the total amount of oxygen, which will be taken up by the chemical and organic matter in the effluent. This is usually associated with a specific period and that normally taken is 5 days period. The value is written as BOD5, and is determined by incubating one litre sample of sewage at 20oC diluted in sufficiently well oxygenated water. The amount of oxygen absorbed over the 5 days period is measured. Suspended Solids are unsightly and over a period of time can give rise to silting problems. They are usually a sign of malfunctioning of sewage plant. Suspended solids are measured by filtering a sample through a pre-weighed asbestos pad, which is the dried and reweighed. The Ecoliform Count is a family of bacteria, which lives in the human intestine. The can be quantified easily in a laboratory test, the result of which is indicative of the amount of human waste preset in a particular sewage sample ad the count is expressed per 100 ml. Standard sample incubating 48 hrs at 35oC. MARPOL 73/ 78 Annex IV: Regulation for the prevention of pollusion by sewage from ship. This regulation is applicable to Ship of 200 GRT and above. Ship of carrying 10 passenges and above. Sewage can be discharged from ship: When the ship is en-route and not less than 4 knots speed. Comminuted and disinfected sewage 4 nitical miles away from the nearest land. Not comminuted and disinfected seawge notical miles away from the nearest land. Shore Connection for Sewage Plant: Hamid Permissible Discharge Condition: 4 Md Abdul

Oily Water Separator and Sewage Plant Guide Book for Marine Engineers 210 mm OD x 16 mm flange 4 holes x 18 mm dia 170 mm PCD 4 x 16 mm bolts and nuts. Pipe diameter 100 mm acceptable : 6 kg / cm2. Suspended solids : 50 mg / liter Biochemical Oxygen Demand [BOD] : 50 mg / liter E-Coleform count : 2 50 / 100 ml

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Md Abdul