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The deformations in concrete, concrete under the same load or stress, stress increase with time. There are two types of time dependent deformation. These are: the creep deformations g deformations the shrinkage Time dependent deformations i.e. creep and shrinkage cause significant deformations and stresses in concrete structures and therefore can affect both the strength and serviceability of the structure.

SHRINKAGE

The water necessary for the hydration is approximately 25 percent of the cement by weight. In concrete mixes, however, more water is used than what is needed for hydration. The reason for this is workability. When concrete is placed in the forms, the excess water, which is not used in hydration, evaporates. As concrete loses water by evaporation, its volume decreases or simply it shrinks.

A plain concrete member that is not restrained by other members will shrink but there will be no stresses in the member due to shrinkage. In reinforced concrete members, steel bars do not shrink as concrete dries out, so its restraint tends to reduce the shortening of reinforced concrete member. This means that after a certain time, the concrete will have tensile stresses and the steel will be in compression due to shrinkage.

When restraining members (like structural walls or stiff columns) exist at the end of the beams, moments, shear and axial force will be produced in the beam due to restrained shrinkage deformations. The axial force in the beam due to shrinkage will be tension. Because of restrained shrinkage shear, moment and axial forces will also be introduced to the restraining members. The internal forces induced by restrained shrinkage will be more critical as the stiffness of the restraining members increase.

SHRINKAGE

The amount of shrinkage is a function: Humidity Type of curing Temperature Area of exposed surface Water content of the mix Shrinkage is also a function of time and its rate decreases with time.

SHRINKAGE

The amount of shrinkage is a function: Humidity Type of curing Temperature Area of exposed surface Water content of the mix Shrinkage is also a function of time and its rate decreases with time.

SHRINKAGE

Shrinkage deformations are calculated using a proper shrinkage coefficient cs, which is the strain caused by shrinkage. Although shrinkage coefficient is affected by all factors listed before, it is predominantly influenced by: Curing process of the concrete Relative humidity of the environment, and The equivalent thickness of the member. The equivalent thickness le is expressed as the ratio of twice crosssectional area to the perimeter of the cross-section, which is in contact with the environment.

SHRINKAGE

The equivalent q thickness le is expressed p as the ratio of twice crosssectional area to the perimeter of the cross-section, which is in contact with the environment.

2A c le = u

where Ac is the cross-sectional area and u is the perimeter in contact with the environment.

Dry (relative humidity 50%) Curing Inadequate Adequate le =150 mm 0.0006 0.0004 le = 600 mm 0.0005 0.0004 Humid (relative humidity 80%) le = 150 mm 0.0004 0.00025 le = 600 mm 0.0003 0.00025

It should be noted that the coefficients given in the table above are g the long-term g shrinkage g ( (at the end of to be used in calculating three years).

Th structural The t t l effects ff t of f shrinkage hi k are similar i il to t those th of f temperature t t drop. Therefore, in the structural analysis it is combined with temperature drop. For example, if there is a possibility of 20C temperature drop and shrinkage g coefficient is estimated to be 0.0004, , in the design g these two will be combined and taken into account as an equivalent temperature d drop. Th The equivalent i l tt temperature t is i obtained bt i d b by di dividing idi th the shrinkage hi k coefficient by the coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete, i.e. T = 20 + 0.0004 / 10-5 = 60

Th strain The t i d due t to shrinkage, hi k which hi h d develops l i in an i interval t l of f ti time (t (t-t t0) < 3 years, can be calculated using the following equation.

cs=s1 s2 {s}

Where; s1 - shrinkage coefficient

s2 coefficient depending on fictitious thickness le

The age of concrete is a relative age age, assuming the surrounding temperature to be always 20C. If different from 20C, the effective age entry in the following table should be calculated using g the following g equation. q

1 a = [T + 10 ] t 30

Here t is the period under Here, nder consideration (in da days), s) a is the effective age and T is the temperature during the period t.

s1 - Shrinkage Coefficient

Ambient Environment W Water Very damp Normal D Dry Relative Humidity 90% 70% 40% Shrinkage Coefficient s1 +0.00010 0 00010 -0.00013 -0.00032 -0.00052 0 00052 Coefficient for Thickness 30 5 1.5 1

The fictitious thickness defined previously shall be modified according to the expression given below.

2Ac le = u

s2 - Coefficient

Fictitious Thickness le (in mm) 100 200 400 800 1 05 1.05 0 90 0.90 0 80 0.80 0 75 0.75

Coefficient Sh i k Shrinkage, s2

50 1 20 1.20

1500

0 70 0.70

s - Coefficient

(mm) ( ) 50 100 200 400 800 1500

le

Period 2 3 1 months months y years 0.68 0.75 0.90 0.52 0.60 0.84 0.32 0.40 0.65 0.18 0.22 0.45 0.07 0.10 0.20 0.02 0.04 0.10

EXAMPLE

A two-bay, one-story frame has to be analyzed for shrinkage and a temperature drop of -30C. The height of the frame is 4.5 meters and each of the two spans is 20 meters Beams are 4001200 mm and columns are 400800 mm meters. mm. The frame is located in a dry climate (relative humidity 40 percent). Only three faces of the beam are in contact with this atmosphere. Materials are, C20 and S420. Member forces at the end of two years due to shrinkage and temperature drop have to be calculated. Solution: For C20, C20 Ec28 27 000 MPa 28=27,000

EXAMPLE

Ac=4001200=4.8 4 8105 mm2 u=21200+400=2800 mm From Table 1.8 (dry climate), =1.0 and s1=-0.00052 are found.

From Table 1.9 and 1.10, for le=343 mm and for two years c2 0.85 and s=0.7. cs is calculated from Eq. (1.19) cs = s1 0 00052 0.85 0 85 0.7 0 7 = 0.00031 0 00031 1 s2 2 s = 0.00052 This shrinkage strain corresponds to the following temperature drop.

T = cs / = 0.00031/10 5 = 31C

Total temperature drop to be considered in design,

30 + (31)=61 60

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

Bzlme zmlemesi (1000 gn) Deplasmanlar (X-yn, mm)

EXAMPLE

Scaklk Deiimi zmlemesi T (-60C) Deplasmanlar (X-yn, mm)

EXAMPLE

Bzlme zmlemesi (1000 gn) Deplasmanlar (Y-yn, mm)

EXAMPLE

Scaklk Deiimi zmlemesi T (-60C) Deplasmanlar (Y-yn, mm)

Shirankage

Wall A M = 18001,00 kN*m V= 3461,73 kN x = 4,73 mm y = -5,29 mm

Wall B M = 20026,40 , kN*m V= 3851,23 kN x = -3,42 mm y = -5,93 mm

Temperature

WALL A M = 18867,30 kN*m V= 3646,66 kN x = 5,16 mm y = -6,69 mm WALL B M = 21880,67 kN*m V= 4228,76 V 4228 76 kN x = -3,37 mm y = -7,45 mm

Shirankage g

KR A2 A3 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 P (kN) 739,28 420,38 289,82 260,93 377,65 381,67 759,04

KR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 KR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 P (kN) -199,74 384 74 384,74 595,70 693,33 715,92 721,19 717,19 627,58 511,44 363,28 -202,96 P (kN) 432,94 962,10 1120,73 1253,18 1298,66 1255,17 1250 22 1250,22 1284,03 1221,18 987,46 457 08 457,08

KR B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10

P (kN) 1017,56 698,73 564,11 , 503,29 504,91 539,44 624,76 695,93 992,79

Temperature

KR A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 P (kN) 884,69 685,78 599 92 599,92 492,25 494,61 628,52 864,65

KR B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10

P (kN) ( ) 1234,12 1052,31 993,15 891,02 896 62 896,62 896,62 910,40 1042,53 1260 57 1260,57

EXAMPLE: Precautions

Beams will be subjected to large axial forces forces. Provide additional tension steel Also pay attention to lap splice length. Walls are under additional internal force provide sufficient shear and flexural reinforcement There will be extreme stress concentrations at wall-slab connections. Take necessary precautions in these regions Columns will experience additional disturbances. After casting concrete pay attention to curing. If you slow down the shrinkage strains there will be less cracking. Use non-shrinking agents in concrete mix.

CREEP

Creep is the time dependent deformation of concrete, which is subjected to sustained loads. Recall: The stress-strain response of f concrete depends upon the rate of loading and the time history of the applied loading. If t the e st stress ess is s held e d co constant sta t for o so some e length e gt o of t time, e, t the e st strain a increases a phenomenon referred to as creep. If the strain is held constant for some time length of time stress will decrease a phenomenon h referred f d to t as relaxation. l ti

CREEP

C Creep i is th the time ti dependent d d t deformation d f ti of f concrete, t which hi h is i subjected to sustained loads. Creep p is dependent p on many y factors, , most important p of which are given below: age of concrete w/c ratio humidity and the temperature. level of sustained stress time

CREEP

The age of concrete when the sustained load is applied - For older concrete creep is less. The water/cement ratio of the mix - As the w/c ratio increases, increases creep increases. The humidity and the temperature - Creep is less when the humidity is high. The level of sustained stress - At low stress levels ( (at working g stresses), ), creep is proportional to stress. However, at higher stress levels creep increases more rapidly and is not proportional to the stress. The time - The creep rate decreases with time, but creep usually does have an effect almost for 3 years with a decreasing rate.

CREEP DEFORMATIONS

Elastic recovery

Creep recovery

Permanent deformation

CREEP DEFORMATIONS

p ~ 2 3 i In deformation calculations, one has to use a reduced stiffness to include the creep effect. effect It will be appropriate to use a reduced modulus of elasticity (1/2 or 1/3 of the instantaneous value) to compute the time dependent deformations. Ec ~ 1/2 to 1/3 of its original value.

co ce = ce E c 28

where; co is the stress in concrete under sustained loading, Ec28 is the modulus of elasticity y of 28 days y old concrete and

Age at Loading 1 day 7 days 28 days 90 days 365 days d 50 54 5.4 3.9 32 3.2 2.6 20 2.0 Dry (relative humidity 50%) Humid (relative humidity 80%) Equivalent q thickness (mm), ( ), le=2Ac/u 150 44 4.4 3.2 25 2.5 2.1 16 1.6 600 36 3.6 2.5 20 2.0 1.6 12 1.2 50 35 3.5 2.5 19 1.9 1.6 12 1.2 150 30 3.0 2.1 17 1.7 1.4 10 1.0 600 26 2.6 1.9 15 1.5 1.2 10 1.0

Corley and Szen - 1966

Corley and Szen - 1966

Corley and Szen - 1966

co ce = ce Ec28

where; co is the stress in concrete under sustained loading, Ec28 is the modulus of elasticity y of 28 days y old concrete and

ce = 0.4d + f1 f2 f

The parameters of the above equation, i.e. d , f1 , f2 and f will be taken from tables.

f1 - Creep Coefficient

Ambient Environment Water Very damp Normal Dry Relative Humidity 90% 70% 40% Creep Coefficient f1 0.8 10 1.0 2.0 3.0

f2 - Creep Coefficient

Coefficient C Creep, f2

50 1 85 1.85

Fictitious Thickness le (in mm) 100 200 400 800 1 70 1.70 1 55 1.55 1 40 1.40 1 25 1.25

1500

1 12 1.12

d and f Coefficients

Period 2 3 1 months months years 0.60 0.68 0.90 0.56 0.63 0.82 0.53 0.59 0.79 0 48 0.48 0 53 0.53 0 72 0.72 0.42 0.47 0.65 0.37 0.40 0.55 0.30 0.32 0.45

Coefficient

Again, the age of concrete is the relative age, and depends on the temperature of f the surrounding environment.

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