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A very special kind of motion occurs when the force acting on a body is proportional to the displacement of the body from some equilibrium position. If this force is always directed toward the equilibrium position, repetitive backand-forth motion occurs about this position. Such motion is called periodic motion, harmonic motion, oscillation, or vibration (the four terms are completely equivalent). Could you please mention an example of this kind of motion?

Oscillatory Motion

A very special kind of motion occurs when the force acting on a body is proportional to the displacement of the body from some equilibrium position. If this force is always directed toward the equilibrium position, repetitive backand-forth motion occurs about this position. Such motion is called periodic motion, harmonic motion, oscillation, or vibration (the four terms are completely equivalent). Could you please mention an example of this kind of motion? 1) The oscillations of a block attached to a spring 2) The swinging of a child on a playground swing 3) The motion of a pendulum 4) The vibration of a stringed musical instrument

We will consider a physical system that consists of a block of mass m attached to the end of a spring, with the block free to move on a horizontal, frictionless surface. When the spring is neither stretched nor compressed, the block is at the position x= 0, called the equilibrium position of the system. Such a system oscillates back and forth if disturbed from its equilibrium position.

when the block is displaced a small distance x from equilibrium, the spring exerts on the block a force that is proportional to the displacement and given by Hooke’s law:

Fs kx

(Eq. 1.1)

where Fs is called restoring force because it is always directed toward the equilibrium position and therefore opposite the displacement.

Applying Newton’s second law to the motion of the block, together with Equation 1.1, we obtain

k ax x m

(Eq. 1.2)

The acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the block, and its direction is opposite the direction of the displacement. Systems that behave in this way are said to exhibit simple harmonic motion.

d x k a 2 x dt m

2

Second order differential equation for the motion of the block

Equation of Motion

In general, a particle moving along the x axis exhibits simple harmonic motion when x, the particle’s displacement from equilibrium, varies in time according to the relationship

xt A cost

where A, and are constants.

Some Terminology

Angular frequency Phase constant

xt A cost

}

Phase Amplitude

**Properties of Periodic Functions
**

The function is periodic with T.

xt xt T

Angular Frequency (rad/s)

Frequency (1/s=Hz)

Period (s)

f 2

1 2 T f

**Properties of Periodic Functions
**

The amplitude A of the motion is the maximum displacement of the particle in either the positive or negative x direction. The constant is called the angular frequency of the motion and has units of radians per second. The constant angle , called the phase constant (or phase angle), is determined by the initial displacement and velocity of the particle. The period T of the motion is the time it takes for the particle to go through one full cycle. The inverse of the period is called the frequency f of the motion. The frequency represents the number of oscillations that the particle makes per unit time.

**Simple Harmonic Motion
**

xt A cost

xmax A

**dx vt A sin t dt
**

vmax A

at

dv A 2 cost 2 xt dt

amax A 2

**Properties of Simple Harmonic Motion
**

Displacement, velocity and acceleration are sinusoidal with the same frequency. The frequency and period of motion are independent of the amplitude. Velocity is 90° out-of-phase with displacement. Acceleration is proportional to displacement but in the opposite direction.

**The Block-Spring System
**

xt A cost

Frequency is only dependent on the mass of the object and the force constant of the spring EXPLAIN WHY …??

**Example. An Oscillating Object
**

An object oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x axis. Its displacement from the origin varies with time according to the equation

**where t is in seconds and the angles in the parentheses are in radians.
**

(a) Determine the amplitude, frequency, and period of the motion. (b) Calculate the velocity and acceleration of the object at any time t. (c) Using the results of part (b), determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of the object at t=1.00 s. (d) Determine the maximum speed and maximum acceleration of the object. (e) Find the displacement of the object between t = 0 s and t =1.00 s.

Example 2.

A car with a mass of 1 300 kg is constructed so that its frame is supported by four springs. Each spring has a force constant of 20 000 N/m. If two people riding in the car have a combined mass of 160 kg, find the frequency of vibration of the car after it is driven over a pothole in the road and also how long does it take the car to execute two complete vibrations?

HOMEWORK

A block with a mass of 200 g is connected to a light spring for which the force constant is 5.00 N/m and is free to oscillate on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The block is displaced 5.00 cm from equilibrium and released from rest (a) Find the period of its motion; (b) Determine the maximum speed of the block; (c) What is the maximum acceleration of the block?; (d) Express the displacement, speed, and acceleration as functions of time.

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