Mathematics

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Mathematics

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. If [a, b] I then let C = x([a, b]) be the image of [a, b] and let f : C R be a function. Denition 27.1. The line integral of f along C is

b

f ds =

C a

Let u : J I be a dieomorphism between two open intervals. Suppose that u is C 1 . Denition 27.2. We say that u is orientation-preserving if u (t) > 0 for every t J . We say that u is orientation-reversing if u (t) < 0 for every t J. Notice that u is always either orientation-preserving or orientationreversing (this is a consequence of the intermediate value theorem, applied to the continuous function u (t)). Dene a function y : J Rn , by composition, y (t) = x(u(t)), so that y = x u. Now suppose that u([c, d]) = [a, b]. Then C = y ([c, d]), so that y gives another parametrisation of C . Lemma 27.3.

b d

f (x(u)) x (u) du =

a c

Proof. We deal with the case that u is orientation-reversing. The case that u is orientation-preserving is similar and easier.

1

d d

f (y (t)) y (t) dt =

c c

d

=

c a

b b

= =

a

Now suppose that we have a vector eld on C , F : C Rn . Denition 27.4. The line integral of F along C is

b

F ds =

C a

b d F (y (t)) y (t) dt c d c F (y (t)) y (t) dt

F (x(u)) x (u) du =

a

Proof. We deal with the case that u is orientation-reversing. The case that u is orientation-preserving is similar and easier. As u is orientation-reversing, we have u(c) = b and u(d) = a and so,

d d

F (y (t)) y (t) dt =

c c a

b b

= =

a

Example 27.6. If C is a piece of wire and f (x) is the mass density at x C , then the line integral f ds,

C

is the total mass of the curve. Clearly this is always positive, whichever way you parametrise the curve.

2

Example 27.7. If C is an oriented path and F (x) is a force eld, then the line integral F ds,

C

is the work done when moving along C . If we reverse the orientation, then the sign ips. For example, imagine C is a spiral staircase and F is the force due to gravity. Going up the staircase costs energy and going down we gain energy. Denition 27.8. Let U Rk and V Rl be two open subsets. We say that f : U V, is smooth if all higher order partials nf (x1 , x2 , . . . , xk ), xi1 . . . xin exist and are continuous. Denition 27.9. Now suppose that X Rk and Y Rl are any two subsets. We say that a function f : X Y, is smooth, if given any point a X we may nd a U Rk open, and a smooth function F : U Rl , such that f (x) = F (x), where x X U (equivalently f |X U = F |X U ), and we put Df (x) = DF (x). We say that f is a (smooth) dieomorphism if f is bijective and both f and f 1 are smooth. Notice that in the denition of a dieomorphism we are now requiring more than we did (before we just required that f and f 1 were dierentiable). Remark 27.10. Note that if X is not very big then Df (x) might not be unique. For example, if X = {x} is a single point, then there are very many dierent ways to extend f to a function F in an open neighbourhood of x. In the examples we consider in this class, this will not be an issue (namely, manifolds with boundary).

3

Example 27.11. The map x : [a, b] Rn , is smooth if and only if there is a constant > 0 and a smooth function y : (a , b + ) Rn , whose restriction to [a, b] is the function x, y (t) = x(t) Lemma 27.12. If x : [a, b] Rn , is injective for all t [a, b], then x : [a, b] C = x([a, b]), is a dieomorphism. for all t [a, b].

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