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2002 20:59 Uhr Seite 39

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Urban Image Lighting 16

Carlos Parrondo, NEDEA, S.L.
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Editorial 1

City marketing 2

Event lighting 4

Master plan
for a city 6

Master plan
for Expo 2000 8

city access routes 10

bridges and paths 12

Districts: pedestrian
precincts, zones
for shopping and
eating out 14

Districts: parks
and gardens 16

Nodes: squares
and crossroads 18

Landmarks: houses
and façades 20

Landmarks: public
buildings and
churches 22

sculptures, fountains
and towers 24

The basics of
lighting design 26

Lamps 30

Luminaires 32

Literature 34

for photographs 35

Imprint and
order forms 36

Information from
Gutes Licht 37

Multivision show in Aachen

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City marketing is a phrase Street lighting and other Zeitung carried a damning
on many lips at present – forms of exterior lighting article comparing German
and understandably so. normally found in cities attitudes to lighting with
Cities seeking to attract ensure that the basic re- those in France and the
business, shoppers and quirements of residents United States. “While there
tourists today face tough and visitors are met: an are plenty of shining exam-
competition. So it is very adequate level of lighting ples broad”, it read, “the
important for municipal facilitates orientation and powers that be in Ger-
authorities to cast their city provides security after dark. many’s cities seem to have
in the right light. nothing better to do than
But light can also be har- think of turning streetlamps
Advertising campaigns, nessed to create a distinc- off”.
special events, shops open tive atmosphere: an illumi-
on Sundays and public nated monument, a dra- Looking at applications
holidays – these are just matically lit square, a park and principles, this booklet
some of the tools used to bathed in decorative light – shows what needs to be
sharpen a city’s profile. these are sights that make borne in mind by archi-

Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam/Netherlands

To ensure the message us feel good in a city at tects, lighting designers

gets across, new ideas are night. and local officials and
needed. And one option politicians seeking to sculpt
favoured by a growing In recent years, scathing the night-time scenery of a
number of cities at present criticism has been voiced city with light. It describes
is urban image lighting, in Germany over the coun- actual projects, addresses
lighting specifically de- try’s miserly use of lighting. technical lighting issues
signed for city beautifica- On 17 December 2000, and presents financing
tion. the leading national daily models.
Frankfurter Allgemeine

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City marketing

The “Speicherstadt” in Hamburg: illumination of the world's largest warehouse complex is financed by a form of public private partnership.
A special sponsors’ association was created for the purpose.

Urban designers and So local authorities face a dant with existing light- Public private partnership
architects have been talk- major challenge: how can ing structures. project: Hamburg’s
ing since the sixties about a city or region acquire “Speicherstadt”
cities in crisis. And the the profile needed to keep ■ Imposing buildings, The illumination of the
most conspicuous signs of competition at bay? monuments or squares world’s biggest warehouse
crisis are the retail parks are not prerequisites for complex, the Speicherstadt
mushrooming on green- One answer is through creating atmosphere in Hamburg (photo 4), is a
field development sites. urban design lighting. As with light. Even the particularly good example
The impact on city centres yet a fairly unconventional humblest village or of a successful public pri-
is shown by a study of city marketing tool, lighting hamlet can be visually vate partnership project.
spending patterns in the can significantly help boost enhanced through the Put on a regular organisa-
eastern German city of a town’s or city’s image. use of architectural light- tional footing in summer
Meissen. In 1995, retailers Three factors are crucially ing tools. 2000, the PPP has made
in and around Meissen important: it possible for the Speicher-
registered revenues to- ■ Image-boosting lighting stadt to be illuminated night-
talling some 280 million ■ Urban design lighting plans do not need to be ly since 27 April 2001 (www.
euros. But only 44 percent involves a great deal abandoned because of
of that volume was record- more than just illuminat- budgetary constrictions. Prior to that, illumination
ed in the city itself; 56 per- ing an individual monu- Small-scale and short- was provided by temporary
cent – i.e. well over half ment or church. Any term projects can also lighting installations.
of total local spending – lighting concept today bear fruit, especially if
went into the tills of re- needs to encompass an designed for upgrading Visitors can also enjoy an
tailers and service pro- entire town or urban at a later date. Public evening boat trip on the
viders in the surrounding district, using the tools private partnership canals between the ware-
area. of architectural lighting (PPP) models have a house buildings. Theatre
to create a harmonious proven track record performances in the Spei-
lighting design concor- here. cherstadt are another pop-
ular attraction.

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Public private partnership building; it is an autonom-

project: Feininger Church ous work of art communi-
Feininger Church in cating with the building
Gelmeroda just outside and the air around it”.
Weimar is also an impres-
sive sight. It was the Originally supposed to be
favourite motif of American wound up at the end of
artist and Bauhaus lecturer 2000, the project has been
Lyonel Feininger. extended indefinitely and
will now run for as long as
Since 1999 – when Weimar the electricity costs are
celebrated its year as Euro- covered by sponsorship.
pean cultural capital – the
church has been a feature
of the night-time land-
scape, bathed in light by
architect Peter Mittmann.
According to Mittmann, the
project is “not the conven-
tional illumination of a

Feininger Church in Gelmeroda

outside Weimar

Calvados magnet even after dark. nated to create a night- coinciding with a special
But what of rural areas, time attraction, an attrac- event at one of the illumi-
A region setting which are essentially tion whose value for nated sites. Some of the
accents with light dependent on the day- regional tourism is en- funding for the project is
time charms of the coun- hanced by two-hour guid- provided by local and na-
Inviting squares and tryside to attract visitors? ed tours in French and tional government and
boulevards, imposing In the département of English on three different some by the European
medieval architecture, Calvados in France, a routes. The lighting is Union but the biggest
gushing fountains – group of rural district switched on only on days financial contribution
towns and cities have councils adopted a novel when tours are scheduled. comes from the regional
their privileges. And in idea: after dark, 19 pro- And because it is remote electricity companies. A
the hands of city market- minent buildings in the controlled, the route can sponsorship model that
ing managers, such area – farms, churches be changed at short no- power utilities elsewhere
jewels remain a tourist and chateaux – are illumi- tice, e.g. to prevent a tour might well consider.

6 7

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Event lighting

Special lighting projects

and events are a popular
tool of modern city market-
ing, a tool rightly welcomed
by city fathers seeking to
cast their city in the right
light. This is because such
events can be realised
within a fairly short time
frame and on a relatively
low budget, especially
where they are supported
by private sponsors. What
is more, special lighting
events often attract more
than just local and regional
media coverage, particular-
ly if internationally renown-
ed artists are involved.

700,000 visitors
in The Hague
One event of a very spe-
cial kind was staged in the
Hague. To mark the city’s
750th anniversary in 1998,
42 sculptures by celebrat-
ed artists – including Rodin,
Arp and Soto - were pre-
sented and illuminated in
the heart of the city. For
two months, visitors had a
chance to see major works 8
Spotlight on sculpture in the heart of The Hague: 42 works by celebrated artists were illuminated at night.
of sculpture in the street

tourist attraction, presented the huge success of the at least 700,000 visitors.
in a “night-time show” craft- event, exhibitions along More events are scheduled
ed by the tools of lighting similar lines are now through to 2004.
technology. 50 spots on the staged annually in The
ground and 100 in nearby Hague (www. denhaag- In 1996, a similar event in
trees were selected and The sum- Paris was a blockbusting
arranged to set off the mer 2000 exhibition enti- success.
colour and warmth or cold- tled “De Mens in Beweg-
ness of each sculpture to ing” is estimated by its or-
best advantage. Owing to ganisers to have attracted

from private collections
and museums all over the

The idea is particularly in-

teresting because it made
for two exhibitions. The
masterpieces could be
viewed by day, in natural
daylight. Then, after dark, 10
Laser show staged outside Münster City Hall as part of the city marketing project “Ab in die Mitte”
they became a second

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state of North Rhine-West-

phalia (www.abindiemitte.
de). This project – its title
translates roughly as “tak-
ing centre-stage” – in-
volves some 25 towns and
cities in North Rhine-West-
phalia and is a collabora-
tive venture between the
state ministry for urban
development, the congress
of municipal authorities,
retail trade representatives,

11 12
The “Kunsthaus” in Bregenz, illuminated by internationally renowned artist Keith Sonnier. Gasometer in Oberhausen

Façade installation on nium 2000”, it was on tion made possible by cor- two department store
the Kunsthaus in Bregenz show for two months at the porate and institutional chains and a newspaper.
Another example: the city end of 1999 (www.lightlife. sponsorship. As part of it, lighting pro-
of Bregenz commissioned de). Sonnier, who has also jects have been realised in
internationally acclaimed exhibited at the Museum City marketing initiative Münster (photo 10) and
artist Keith Sonnier to of Modern Art in New York, “Ab in die Mitte” Herne (photo 13).
create a temporary exterior used 512 red, yellow and Urban design lighting also
installation for the Bregenz green fluorescent lamps in forms part of the “Ab in Blue gold
Kunsthaus. Entitled “Millen- his installation. This was die Mitte” city marketing Another lighting project
another cultural presenta- project launched by the was realised from Septem-
ber 2001 to April 2002 in
the so-called Gasometer at
the CentrO shopping cen-
tre in Oberhausen. The
exhibition was entitled
“Blaues Gold” – blue
gold – (www. blauesgold.
com) and featured, as one
of its highlights, a 50-me-
tre-high sculpture of water
and light. Set in the 117.5-
metre-high interior of the
Gasometer, it consisted of
a 1,600 m2 spotlighted
cone of canvas, down
which water ran into a

“Ab in die Mitte”: lighting installation in Herne

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Master plan for a city

The Eiffel Tower in Paris, 5. Landmarks

Big Ben in London, the Landmarks are unique,
Brandenburg Gate in memorable objects, such
Berlin – no matter how as monuments.
big or small a town or city,
residents and visitors carry These five basic elements
a distinctive image of it in are not always distinct. A
their mind. Different people path, for example, can also
asked to make a sketch of be an edge. Lynch calls
a town or borough will the basic drawing a person
draw the same basic struc- can make of a town a
tures: roads, paths, a cen- “mental map”. In pursuing
tral square, an outstanding his line of research, he
building or a landmark. hoped to provide pointers
for “correct” town planning.
The lighting designer’s task His findings are not only
is to highlight these fea- instructive for town plan-
tures of the urban land- ners and architects, how-
scape so that people can ever; they also provide
identify their surroundings useful guidance for lighting
and get their bearings. designers seeking to en-
hance an urban environ-
Back in the 1950s, Ameri- ment through urban design
can architect Kevin Lynch lighting.
made a study of perception
at the Massachusetts Insti- In recent years, it has be-
tute of Technology (MIT). come increasingly com-
His conclusion: the per- mon practice for urban de-
ceptions, bearings and sign lighting projects to be
memories of people mov- realised on the basis of a
ing in an urban environ- master plan, i.e. a plan for
ment are essentially shap- an entire town or adminis-
ed by five basic elements. trative district aimed at en-
suring continuity and cohe-
1. Paths sive design. As no local
According to Lynch’s stud- authority has the financial
ies, paths are the most resources to renew all the
important structural ele- lighting in a town at once,
ment of all for residents a master plan is also a
and visitors. long-term instrument, one
for attaining such objec-
2. Edges tives over a period of sev-
Edges provide borders eral years.
between districts. Clear
examples of edges are Purpose of a master plan
railway embankments When lighting designers set
and rivers, which draw about devising a master
a visible dividing line plan for a town, they first
through a city. need to ask themselves a
number of questions. The
3. Districts greatest challenge a light-
Districts are large or mod- ing designer faces is inte-
erately large sectors, such grating urban districts with
as pedestrian precincts. widely differing architectural
4. Nodes
Nodes are important points The key to developing a
of interest along paths, successful master plan
e.g. crossroads and round- here lies in establishing
abouts. connections between the
individual elements in line
with Kevin Lynch’s theory.

Master plan for Hanover

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Lighting designers typically

need to answer the follow-
ing questions:

■ What is the town’s set-

ting like?
■ Where are there parks,
gardens and water and
which routes do resi-
dents and visitors take
from the town centre to
get there?
■ Is there a traditional
town centre or a particu-
larly fine waterfront?
■ Is the town divided by a
railway line?

Armed with the answers to

these questions, the light-
ing designer can then set
about developing a master
plan – one for casting the
town in the right light with a
sophisticated hierarchy and
variety of light sources.

Ambience is determined
mainly by mounting height:
a luminaire mounted on a
very high column, e.g. at
a crossroads, makes for a
functional atmosphere.

An agreeable, more inti-

mate atmosphere can be
created by luminaires set
at lower mounting heights
and fitted with lamps of a
particularly warm light
colour. A master plan can
then be developed defining

■ how many luminaires

are needed,
■ where they should be
■ at what mounting height,
■ at what angle
■ and with lamps of which
light colour.

Fig. 1

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Master plan for Expo 2000

Expo 2000 – avenues, parkland areas

a city within a city and bridges, the assign-
ment amounted to devel-
It was the talk of the town – oping a master plan for a
and the subject of wide- city.
spread debate. But in the
end, its organisers were The lighting planners’ pri-
able to parade positive mary task and greatest
figures: Expo 2000 in challenge was to create a
Hanover attracted some common denominator and
17 million people. cohesive structure for the
widely differing architecture
The office appointed to on the site. Lighting was
design the lighting devel- used to make entrances
oped a master plan for the visible from afar and to
160 hectare site. Because meet the functional lighting
of the numerous car parks, requirements of parking

Expo roof

Parkland areas at the Expo: low-level pathside lighting

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facilities. In other areas, In the parkland areas, the

however, its purpose was aim was to create a variety
to help set the stage. of lighting scenarios and
an appropriate ambience
One of the most important (photo 15).
lighting assignments in-
volved the crossing-point
between the two parts of
the Expo site. The lighting
for the 60-metre-wide stair-
case was designed both to
enhance the facility’s long-
range visual impact and to
help make it an attractive
place for a moment’s rest
(photo 17).

Plateau, staircase, intersection and a

place to take the weight of tired feet

Fig. 2


Crossroads on a long avenue

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Paths: city access routes

Worms city gate

Streetlighting is one of the profile and life of a city can Investing in renewal: respond to the heightened
oldest forms of public light- thus be underscored even from functionalism to aesthetic requirements of
ing – yet the only time nor- as the visitor approaches. aesthetic appeal town planners, lighting de-
mal streetlighting is notic- Not every city has an im- As streetlighting facilities signers and architects by
ed, as a rule, is when it posing city gate like Worms constantly need to be re- offering scope – through a
fails to work. For a number (photo 18) but even roads placed, new technologies choice of light colour,
of years, however, lighting which seem initially unpre- offer a chance to upgrade colour rendering grades
for streets and other city possessing (photo 21) can existing systems one by and beam characteristics –
access routes has played be visually enhanced by one. The latest generation for shaping the way city
an increasingly important appropriate lighting. of lamps for streetlighting access routes are experi-
role in helping to shape the systems are not only more enced.
face of public places. The energy-efficient; they also

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Laatzen trade fair rail terminal near Hanover

Autoroute A14: Viaduc Carrière/France

Where any master plan for

town or city lighting is de-
veloped, one thing in par-
ticular must be borne in
mind: municipal authorities
are not normally the sole
proprietor of all city access
routes. Air and rail links, for
example, have other oper-
ators, who should be in-
volved in planning at an 21
Road in Berlin
early stage.

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Edges: bridges and paths

LED lighting on Duisburg port bridge

According to Kevin Lynch,

“edges” are borders be-
tween the different districts
of a town. One particularly
interesting border-crossing
project is a bridge at
Duisburg port (photo 22).
The lighting is provided
by LEDs (light emitting

LEDs – the luminous semi-

conductor chips commonly
used for dashboard lights
in cars and indicators in
electrical appliances – are
at the heart of the latest
revolution in lighting tech-
nology: they have extreme-
ly low power consumption
ratings and a very long
service life.

Bankside path in the “VW Autostadt” at Wolfsburg

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Adolphe Viaduct in Luxembourg

The lighting design of the

Duisburg port bridge is
part of a revitalisation pro-
gramme based on an ar-
chitectural master plan by
British architect Sir Norman
Foster for what was once
the biggest river port in
Europe. The redevelopment
of the port area will add a
totally new district to the
city, complete with offices,
apartments, museums,
restaurants and social

Bankside path in the “VW Autostadt”, with the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in the background

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Districts: Pedestrian precincts, zones for shopping and eating out

City flair – nowhere is

it more tangible than in
street cafés and pedes-
trian precincts. Where a
town or city displays a
scintillating atmosphere,
visitors and tourists
spread the word.

When daylight fades,

lighting enhances the
ambience – as here in
the square fronting the
Old Opera House in
Frankfurt am Main
(photo 26). The use of
numerous light sources
makes for an opulent
lighting atmosphere.

A special ambience
also pervades the Alster
Arcades in Hamburg
(photo 27): the partially
transparent awning roof
is illuminated by indirect
lighting for around 80

27 28
Alster Arcades in downtown Hamburg Place de la République in Lyon/France

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29 30
Market square in Dieburg/Hesse Café on the Expo site

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Districts: parks and gardens

Nature is an increasingly
popular candidate for illu-
mination. And understand-
ably so: light, like water, is
one of the basic elements
of life and a symbol of
vitality – and there is lots
of scope for dramatising
the interplay between
plants, trees and light.

At a workshop in Alingsås/
Sweden, various forms of
illumination were tried out.
In the avenue on the right
(photo 31), the light radi-
ates down from the tree-
tops. This illumination con-
cept prompts associations
with a summer’s day, when
sunlight filters through the
branches of the trees.

One group at the Alingsås

workshop also studied
bridges and created what
they called a “metaphysi-
cal” bridge of fibre-optic
cables floating on the sur-
face of a lake (photo 34).
The tree on the small is-
land was illuminated by
dot-like light sources.

Park and garden lighting

often involves the use of
recessed ground floods
(photo 32). The advantage
of these luminaires is that
they do not require posts
or columns, which would
detract from the visual
impact of the natural sur-
Avenue in Alingsås/Sweden: the light sources are mounted in the trees.

Promenade in Sirolo/Italy

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Illumination of plants and trees

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Where a tree or shrub is floodlit on

two sides from ground level (Fig. 3),
illumination is relatively uniform.
Where a light source is mounted in
the branches (Fig. 4) or positioned
beneath the tree and directed upwards
(Fig. 5), dramatic effects are produced.
In this case, each individual tree ap-
pears as an island of light and the
artistic arrangement of light and dark-
ness creates atmosphere.

Fig. 5


33 34
Järti Park in Alingsås/Sweden Lake in Alingsås/Sweden with fibre-optic “bridge”

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Nodes: squares and crossroads

Squares play a key role

in urban architecture, fur-
nishing space for assem-
blies, markets and cultural
events. Given their massive
importance, urban design
lighting here should pro-
vide “guidance” for visitors
and residents.

When selecting the lighting

for a square, it is very im-
portant to bear in mind
the function or functions
the square performs. The
functions listed below, of
course, are not mutually

■ Is the square a meeting-

place for young and
■ Is it primarily a venue
for markets or cultural
events such as theatre
■ Was the square original-
ly designed to underline
the status of buildings
fronting onto it, e.g. town
hall or church?
■ Is the square a commu-
nications hub?

Lighting depends
on function
The principal purpose a
town square serves effec-
tively dictates the kind of
lighting climate required.
Market square in Dessau
A square which is frequent-
ly used for events requires
uniform lighting (“carpet of
light” – see box on facing
page). A square with multi-
ple functions can be divid-
ed into different “lighting
zones”. And in a square
originally designed to un-
derline the importance of
buildings fronting onto it,
the main emphasis is on
illuminating those build-
ings; lighting for the square
itself is confined to a few
“pools of light”.

KölnArena - Germany’s largest

indoor events complex seats
21,000 spectators

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Lighting for squares

Carpet of light (Fig. 6):

The square is uniformly
illuminated. Light sources
are mounted high, outside
the field of vision of
passers-by. Façades are
illuminated by stray light
Fig. 6

Lighting zones (Fig. 7):

An agreeable atmosphere
can be created by using a
large number of low light
sources to divide the
square into different zones.
In this case, the tops of
façades surrounding the
square are not illuminated.
Fig. 7

Pools of light (Fig. 8):

The square itself is of
minor importance, so it
is only punctually illumi-
nated by luminaires.
The façades of buildings
fringing the square are
Fig. 8

The market square in minance requirements

Dessau (photo 35) is lit needed to be observed for
on the “pool of light” princi- the pedestrian access
ple, whereas the Place Bir routes and the roads for
Hakein in Lyon/France motor traffic around the
(photo 37) is divided into building.
two lighting zones. In light-
ing design circles, Lyons
is considered a shining
example of a city shaped
by light.

The 21,000-seat KölnArena

– Germany’s biggest facility
for indoor events – pre-
sented a special challenge
for lighting designers (pho-
to 36). Widely differing illu-

The “Place Bir Hakein” in Lyon/

France is divided into two light-
ing zones.

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Landmarks: houses and façades

For the wave-shaped build-

ing in Frankfurt am Main
(photo 39), lighting artist
Clemens Teichmann creat-
ed an exterior lighting sys-
tem based on fibre-optic
cables. The building is
illuminated after dark by
two projectors feeding light
into a 150 metre side-light-
ing cable. Colour filters in-
side the projectors change
the colour of the line from
white to blue.

The illumination of the

neoclassical building on
the left (photo 38) was
realised at a workshop
in Alingsås/Sweden. The
differentiated façade is
achieved with numerous
spots and floods.

A building with a highly structured façade

Façade lighting

Fig. 9 Fig. 10

Façades can be illumi- needs to be borne in

nated in two ways – mind when illuminat-
either by floodlighting ing a façade is shad-
from outside with owing: the closer a
lighting systems on luminaire is to the
or near the building building, the greater
or by making effective the likelihood of deep
use of interior lighting shadows – which can
in the evening, e.g. to add a desirable note
turn a glass façade of drama to the visual
into a backlit “stage”. impact achieved (Fig.
Façades with a de- 9 and 10).
tailed structure can
be illuminated most
effectively by using
several coordinated
floods (Fig. 11).
Another thing that
Fig. 11

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A building in Frankfurt am Main

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Landmarks: public buildings and churches

Church in blue
On the right is an uncon-
ventional lighting produc-
tion for a church (photo 41)
realised during a workshop
at Alingsås in Sweden.
The façade is floodlit by
light bounced off specular
reflectors on the ground,
while gleaming highlights
are added to window and
door arches and even the
tower clock. Then, as a
crowning feature, the
church tower is bathed in

Recessed ground LEDs at
Bremen University

blue light by a beamer

projector with filter attach-

Extraordinary lighting
Between 15 and 21 Sep-
tember 2001 in Aachen,
more than 50,000 people
flocked to a project
launched as part of the
North Rhine-Westphalia
city marketing initiative
“Ab in die Mitte”. Gathering
in the Katschhof, a down-
town square named after
the stocks that used to
Church in Alingsås/Sweden

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stand in it, spectators wit-

nessed a multivision show
projected onto the rear
façade of the City Hall
(photo 42). In the Middle
Ages, the Katschhof was
crossed by no less than
32 German kings on their
way to be crowned in the
Palatine Chapel built by
Charlemagne. Artistic
direction of the project was
in the hands of celebrated
artist Jacques Darolles,
who heads the Centre
National Art et Technologie
in Reims/ France and has
initiated and realised a
variety of lighting projects

Multivision show on the rear
façade of the City Hall in


Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:37 Uhr Seite 24

Landmarks: sculptures, fountains and towers

Sculpture in the "Platz der Verfassungsfreunde" in Offenburg Illuminated fountains in Bocholt

In December 2000, the

publisher Aenne Burda
donated the 20 metre
sculpture “Freedom – male/
female” by American artist
Jonathan Borofsky for the
Platz der Verfassungsfreun-
de (Friends of the Consti-
tution Square) in Offenburg
(photo 43). A regional pow-
er utility took the initiative
and financed the lighting
for the sculpture.

The "Havelspitz" outdoor facility in Spandau, Berlin

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:37 Uhr Seite 25

44 46
Winding tower in Gelsenkirchen

Aside from the height of went for brightly coloured

the sculpture, the lighting illuminated fountains
designer’s task was made (photo 44). During the
challenging by the fact that weeks of the water theme
the aluminium tube statue programme in late Au-
had only a very small sur- gust/early September 2001,
face area for reflection. a 6 x 18 metre pontoon was
To make the most of what anchored on the Aa River
was available, the designer in the heart of Bocholt.
placed four recessed Creating the 20-metre-high
ground floods in the spaces fountain spectacle called
between the entwined male for 2,500 water jets, 500
and female figures. metres of hose, 1,000 me-
tres of cabling and 190
Two more projects involve floodlights with a total
the interplay of light and power rating of some
water. At the “Havelspitz” 20,000 Watts.
outdoor facility in Spandau,
Berlin (photo 45), the light-
ing designer's solution
strikes a decidedly tranquil
note, whereas in Bocholt,
in a project realised under
the North Rhine-Westphalia
city marketing banner “Ab
in die Mitte”, the designers
Sculpture in Dotternhausen near Balingen

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:38 Uhr Seite 26

Basics of lighting design

Fig. 12
3D computer simulation without … … and with façade illumination

Public space lighting has Agencies and authorities ■ What are the principal the development of a mas-
changed dramatically in awarding lighting contracts viewing directions or ter plan. With the help of
the last 20 years. With today favour lighting de- primary lines of sight for such software, the lighting
more sophisticated lighting signers with formal qualifi- passers-by? designer can simulate dif-
productions made possible cations in design and ar- ■ What shape is the object ferent lighting situations
by new lamps and lumi- chitecture and additional (flat, curved, stepped, and brightness distribution.
naires with optimal optical expertise in the use of etc.)?
control systems, lighting lighting as a tool of archi- ■ What is the surface of But 3D computer simula-
concepts are becoming tectural and landscape the object like (structure, tion still tends to be the ex-
increasingly complex. design. By manipulating colour, etc.)? ception, mainly because of
brightness and shadow, ■ What is the object’s built the very high costs it can
At the same time, lighting lighting designers can cast environment like? entail. Take façade illumina-
has become considerably illuminated objects in a ■ What precautions need tion, for example: the more
more economical. New graphic and dramatic light. to be taken to prevent complex the surface of a
light sources such as light And through the use of road users being daz- façade – which can be
emitting diodes (LEDs) different light colours, they zled? very detailed in the case of
have a much longer ser- turn those objects into a ■ How can light pollution a church – the more cost-
vice life and lower power special visual experience be avoided? intensive the 3D simulation.
consumption ratings than which heightens the quality ■ What needs to be done As an alternative, a digital
other lamps. of civic life. to ensure that the ap- photograph of the facade
pearance of neighbour- can be used and manipu-
Planning ing buildings is not af- lated using image process-
Illumination project plan- fected? ing software to demonstrate
ning needs to be done in the effects of different light-
close cooperation with the CAAD programs ing arrangements. Often,
client and, in the case of Once those questions have the lighting designer also
listed buildings, with the been answered, a lighting invites the client to a trial
curator of historical monu- design office develops and illumination, in which a part
ments. visualises a number of of the façade is illuminated
lighting variants. by luminaires in a variety of
Before any actual plan- positions.
ning is done, however, it Nowadays, using CAAD
is imperative to obtain (computer-aided architec- Lighting level
answers to the following tural design)software, this Lighting level is one of the
questions: step can be merged with most important design cri-

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:38 Uhr Seite 27

1/2 Carpet of light

1b Vertical lighting
on façade
3 Sculptural lighting
4 Functional lighting
(flexible lamping)
Fig. 13 Fig. 14
Example of a master plan on paper

teria. It is defined by illumi- Most buildings and objects determines not only the il-
nance and by the reflect- that are illuminated have luminance at the building
ance of the surfaces illumi- matt surfaces, so illumi- but also the light and dark
nated. Illuminance depends nance E (in lx) is calculat- zones needed to achieve
on the intensity, quantity ed from luminance L (in the intended scenic effect.
and position of the light cd/m2) and reflectance ρ
sources used. in accordance with the Depending on the position-
following formula: ing of floods, attainable ef-
As a general rule, the illu- fects are
minance required at the ■ illumination,
surface of an object de- E = L · π /ρ ■ silhouetting,
pends essentially on its ■ backlighting and
reflectance and the level ■ contouring
of background and/or Reduction of reflectance
ambient brightness, i.e. the due to pollution has a
defining factor is the ratio major impact on this equa-
of the building's surface lu- tion and thus also on the
minance to the luminance visual impact of the illumi-
of the background. The nated building. The darker
visual impact of a building the original building materi-
is greater the more brightly al, the lower the effect of Mean luminance required for the illuminated building in
it stands out from its sur- pollution on its reflectance. different ambient conditions
roundings. The illuminance In such cases, the pollution
required for a tower in the factors that need to be ap- Location of building mean luminance
middle of a brightly lit city, plied for design illuminance of building in cd/m2
for example, needs to be are lower for dark materials
higher than for a castle set than for light ones free-standing 3 to 6.5
in dark countryside. What
is more, the darker the The bulk of planning in- in dark built-up surroundings 6.5 to 10
building’s surface – i.e. the volves defining the princi-
lower the reflectance – the pal viewing direction and in moderately bright
higher the illuminance re- selecting the locations of built-up surroundings 10 to 13
quired. the floods. Their positioning
in bright built-up surroundings 13 to 16

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:39 Uhr Seite 28

Basics of lighting design

Where viewing direction B effects for the same build-

and spotlighting direction ing can be produced by
S are identical, illumination a combination of different
tends to be flat, two-dimen- light colours. When choos-
sional. An angle of around ing metal halide lamps –
60° between the two direc- which are available in neu-
tions is recommended. For tral white or daylight white
fairly plain surfaces, even light colours, depending
angles up to 90° are possi- on power rating – special
ble. attention should also be
paid to colour rendering.
The visual impact achieved
is also affected by the light
colour of the lamps used.
Yellow and reddish sur-
faces illuminated by high-
power sodium vapour
lamps often make good
colour contrasts for grey
buildings illuminated by
metal halide lamps. Special

1. Cubic building with two flood-

lights in slightly asymmetrical

2. and 3. Cylindrical building

with two floodlights. Two differ-
ent viewing directions
B1 and B2
Fig. 15

Recommended minimum illuminance set out in CIE publication 94:1993

Material and colour of the illuminated surface Ambient brightness in lx

low moderate high

light-coloured stone, light-coloured marble 20 30 60

moderately light stone, concrete, cement, lightly stained marble 40 60 120
dark stone, grey granite, dark marble 100 150 300

light-yellow brick 35 50 100

light-brown brick 40 60 120
dark-brown brick, red granite 55 80 160
red brick 100 150 300
dark brick 120 180 360

architectural concrete 60 100 200

aluminium 200 300 600

bold-coloured surfaces (ρ = 10 %) 120 180 360

moderately bold-coloured surfaces (ρ = 30 – 40 %) 40 60 120

Pastel coloured surfaces (ρ = 60 – 70 %) 20 30 60

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:40 Uhr Seite 29

Illumination project ensuring low light immission in Recanati/Italy

Light pollution useful methods of monitor- Light and insects moonlight, which insects
Where residents are dis- ing and assessing light pol- Artificial lighting attracts in- presumably use for orienta-
turbed by light from street- lution, together with maxi- sects, so there is a risk it tion, also appears much
lamps shining into their mum admissible limits bas- could interfere with the nat- brighter to the insect eye
homes, they have a right to ed on them (see Literature, ural habits of nocturnal ani- than to humans. The light
complain – a right en- page 34). mals. cast by a high-pressure
shrined in Germany in the sodium vapour lamp,
Federal Ambient Pollution The ambient pollution con- Light with a predominantly however, appears darker.
Control Act. So any risk of trol committee of Ger- yellow/orange spectral Orange and red spectral
“light pollution” needs to be many’s federal states (Län- content is not so attractive components produce virtu-
eliminated at the planning derausschuss für Immis- to insects because their ally no response. A sum-
stage. sionsschutz – LAI) has in- eyes have a different mary of what science
corporated these methods spectral sensitivity from knows about this subject
Neither the Pollution Con- and ceilings in its guideline the human eye. They re- has been published by the
trol Act nor its implement- “Measurement and assess- spond more sensitively to Deutsche Lichttechnische
ing regulations set out any ment of light immissions” the spectral composition of Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG)
actual ceilings or limits but and recommends that they the light from fluorescent (see Literature, Page 34).
the Deutsche Lichttechnis- should be applied by envi- lamps, high-pressure mer-
che Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG) ronmental protection agen- cury vapour lamps and
has published details of cies. metal halide lamps. Pale

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:41 Uhr Seite 30


2 3 4 5 8






17 17




en at
en t
th e a







bo as
bo bas
















1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Lamp type Mercury L.p.
High-pressure sodium vapour lamps Metal halide lamps
Features vapour sodium
Power rating classes from 35 35 50 35 50 70 250 70 35 70 50 18 55 100
(Watt) to 1,000 1,000 80 100 400 400 2,000 1,000 150 400 1.000 180 165 150
Luminous flux from 1,800 2,000 3,600 1,300 4,000 6,800 20,000 5,200 3,400 6,300 1,800 1,800 3,500 8,000
(Lumen) to 130,000 128,000 6,000 5,000 55,000 48,000 200,000 95,000 14,000 36,000 58,000 32,000 12,000 12,000
Luminous efficacy from 51 57 72 39 80 97 69 74 87 90 36 100 65
(Lumen/Watt) to 130 128 75 52 138 120 100 95 95 91 58 178 73
Light colour ww ww ww ww ww ww nw, dw ww, nw, dw ww ww ww, nw – ww, nw ww, nw
Colour rendering grade 4 4 3 1B 4 4 1A, 2B 1A,1B, 2B 1B 1B 2B, 3 – 1B 1B
E27 E27 PG12-3 E27 Fc2 E27 Rx7s E27
Base PG12-1 E40 G12 BY22d Special Special
E40 E40 E27 E40 Rx7s E40 Fc2 E40

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:41 Uhr Seite 31

Good lighting concepts call for the right choice of

lamp. The table below shows the most important
lamp types for decorative exterior lighting.

Power rating class indicates how much power in

Watts (W) is consumed by the lamp. The operation
of discharge lamps (lamps 1 – 20) requires ballasts,
which consume additional electricity. Ballast power
consumption is not taken into account in the table,
except in the case of induction lamps (lamps 13, 14)
and energy-saving lamps (lamps 19, 20).
11 12 13
Luminous flux is the rate at which light is emitted
by a lamp in all directions. It is measured in lumens
(lm). Luminous efficacy is the measure of a lamp's
energy efficiency. It is the luminous flux of a lamp in
relation to its power consumption and is expressed
in lumens per Watt (lm/W). The higher the ratio of
lumens to watts, the more light a lamp produces
from the energy it consumes.

Lamps have different light colours. These are

classed as warm white (ww), neutral white (nw) or
daylight white (dw), depending on the colour tem-
perature of the lamp (see bottom right).

The colour rendering properties of a lamp are de-

fined by its colour rendering index Ra. The highest
Ra value possible is 100. The lower a lamp’s Ra in-
20 dex, the poorer its colour rendering properties. For
practical purposes, DIN 5035 groups indices into
six colour rendering grades: 1A (Ra ≥ 90), 1B (Ra =
80 – 89), 2A (Ra = 70 – 79), 2B (Ra = 60 – 69),
3 (Ra = 40 – 59) und 4 (Ra < 40).

The base provides the mechanical connection with

14 the luminaire and supplies power to the lamp.

21 22 23
lam llu cy ,
a m
6- - an s ef 16 m

, 4 nou p, ˇ

p tra

flu -ou mp


i m



e –i
lum la

en t

es ut

es ut

en t
th e a

th e a


h nd
hig ent



or tp

or tp

tub d



bo bas

flu -ou

sc 27
hig -ba

bo bas



















9 10 11 12 13 1514 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
1) Where lamps are operated by
Mercury L.p. Linear Compact Energy-saving 230 V tungsten
Induction lamps fluorescent lamps fluorescent lamps LED electronic ballasts (EBs), lu-
vapour sodium lamps halogen lamps minous efficacy is increased
35 70 50 18 55 100 20 18 5 18 5 5 60 60 0.7 to 81-100 lm/W. Power con-
150 400 1.000 180 165 150 65 58 57 552) 23 15 250 2,000 1.5 sumption decreases from 18
W to 16 W, from 36 W to 32
3,400 6,300 1,800 1,800 3,500 8,000 1,150 1,350 250 1,200 240 200 820 840 18
W and from 58 W to 50 W.
14,000 36,000 58,000 32,000 12,000 12,000 4,400 5,200 4,300 4,800 1,500 900 4,200 44,000 27 2) 40 W and 55 W only with EB
87 90 36 100 65 58 751) 50 67 48 40 14 14 13
95 91 58 178 73 68 931) 75 88 65 60 17 22 23 ww = warm white
colour temperature
ww ww ww, nw – ww, nw ww, nw ww, nw ww, nw, dw ww, nw ww, nw ww ww ww ww – below 3,300 K
1B 1B 2B, 3 – 1B 1B 2A, 2B, 3 1B 1B 1B 1B 1B 1A 1A – nw = neutral white
G23 colour temperature
Rx7s E27 3,300 to 5,000 K
G12 BY22d Special Special G13 G13 G24, 2G7 2G11 E27 E27 E27 R7s Special
Fc2 E40 dw = daylight white
GX24 over 5,000 K

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:56 Uhr Seite 32


Luminaires, floods and spotlights naire design and the visual impact ■ high light output ratios for econom-
should be selected on the basis of made during the day by non-con- ical operation,
the lighting requirements corres- cealed luminaires. ■ lighting quality and functionality,
ponding to the lighting task, espe- ■ mechanical and electrical reliability
cially the intended lighting effect. It definitely pays to invest in quality (VDE, ENEC),
Secondly – but not of secondary luminaires. Crucial advantages of ■ long service life (material quality,
importance – is the matter of lumi- their design and manufacture are surface treatment, compact

Fig. 16 Fig. 18 Fig. 20

Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 21

Fig. 16 Flood (symmetrical intensity distribu- Nu- 1st numeral Protection against foreign 2nd numeral Protection
tion) fitted with high-pressure discharge meral bodies and physical contact against water
lamps with high power ratings or small
flood/spot fitted with high-pressure lamps 0 unprotected unprotected
with low power ratings for floodlighting protected against solid protected against
foreign bodies > 15 mm water falling vertically
Fig. 17 Round flood (axially symmetrical in-
tensity distribution) with high-pressure dis- protected against solid protected against
charge lamps or tungsten halogen lamps for foreign bodies > 12 mm water falling up to 15° from the vertical
floodlighting protected against solid protected against
foreign bodies > 2,5 mm spraywater
Fig. 18 Flood (asymmetrical intensity distribu-
protected against solid protected against
tion) with high-pressure discharge lamps for 4
foreign bodies > 1 mm splashwater
protected against protected against
Fig. 19 Recessed ground flood with metal harmful dust deposits jetwater
halide lamps or tungsten halogen lamps for protected against protected against
floodlighting from below 6
ingress of dust floodwater
Fig. 20 Underwater floodlight with low-volt- protected against
7 —
age tungsten halogen PAR lamps the effects of immersion
protected against
8 — …m
effects of submersion

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:56 Uhr Seite 33

■ quality control throughout pro- Special attention should be paid to lists and explains all the IP codes
duction, the degree of protection: the higher (Ingress Protection). The first numeral
■ easy assembly and low mainte- it is, the greater the luminaire’s resis- (1– 6) describes the degree of protec-
nance. tance to external factors and the tion against solid foreign bodies, the
longer its useful life. It is recommend- second (1– 8) indicates protection
In addition, manufacturers of quality ed that the luminaire wiring compart- against moisture. The higher degrees
luminaires offer professional advice ment should be protected to at least of protection also indicate conformity
and planning assistance. IP 23 and the lamp compartment to to the degrees lower down the scale.
at least IP 54. The table on the left

Fig. 22 Fig. 24 Fig. 26

Fibre-optic lighting systems

Although fibre-optic lighting sys-

tems (Fig. 26) comprise light
guides several metres long, they
have only a single light source.
The lamp – a 230 Volt tungsten
halogen lamp or a metal halide
lamp – feeds its luminous flux
into a cable of fibre-optic light
guides, which then direct the
light to where it is needed.

The light guides are flexible.

They can be different lengths
and thicknesses. Optical connec-
Fig. 23 Fig. 25 tors fix the end of the cable and
determine the direction and
Fig. 21 Secondary luminaire (indirect optical Fig. 24 Bollard luminaire with compact
control) with high-pressure sodium vapour fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps,
spread of the beam. Special
lamps or metal halide lamps for decorative tungsten halogen lamps or incandescent lighting effects can be achieved
lighting in pedestrian precincts and down- lamps for path lighting in parks and gardens. with filters or rotating coloured
town squares discs mounted in front of the
Fig. 25 Recessed wall luminaire with com- light emission elements. The
Fig. 22 Conical luminaire with decorative pact fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps cables carry no electric current
louvers (narrow-angle beam) and high- or tungsten halogen lamps for path lighting,
pressure sodium vapour lamps or compact mainly used on stairs and approach paths
and emit only minimal IR and
fluorescent lamps for decorative streetlight- UV radiation.
ing Fig. 26 Fibre-optic lighting system

Fig. 23 Decorative luminaire with high-

pressure sodium vapour lamps, metal halide
lamps or compact fluorescent lamps for
pedestrian precinct and square lighting

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht
FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:57 Uhr Seite 34


Brandi, Ulrike/Geissmar-Brandi, Christoph: Lichtbuch, Berlin, Birkhäuser Verlag für Architektur, Basel - Boston -
Die Praxis der Lichtplanung, (Practical guide to lighting Berlin 2001, 2nd edition 1989, 1st impression 2001
design) Birkhäuser-Verlag für Architektur, Basel, Boston,
Berlin 2001 Straßenbeleuchtung und Sicherheit, (Streetlighting and
safety) LiTG publication no. 17:1998, available from
Expo 2000 GmbH: Masterplan Licht Expo 2000 Han- Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG), LiTG-
nover, (Lighting master plan for Expo 2000 in Hanover) Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin,
Dölling und Gaur-Verlag, Hamburg orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98

Guide for floodlighting, Publ. 94, Commission Interna- Zur Einwirkung von Außenbeleuchtungsanlagen auf
tionale de L’eclairage (CIE) publications, 1993, available nachtaktive Insekten (Impact of exterior lighting systems
from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V (LiTG), on nocturnal insects), LiTG publication no. 15: 1997, avail-
LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, able from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V.
orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-127, fax -198 (LiTG), LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787
Berlin, orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98
Messung und Beurteilung von Lichtimmissionen künst-
licher Lichtquellen (Measurement and assessment of DIN standards:
light immissions from artificial light sources) LiTG publica- DIN 5035: Interior lighting with artificial light
tion no. 12.2:1996, 2nd revised edition 1996, available
from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG), DIN 5044: Stationary traffic lighting – Street lighting for
LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, automobile traffic
orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98 Part 1: General requirements and recommendations
Part 2: Calculation and measurement
Lynch, Kevin: Das Bild der Stadt (The image of the city)
Bauwelt Fundamente 16, published by Ulrich Conrads und E DIN 5035: Draft European standard on workplace
Peter Neitzke, Bertelsmann Fachzeitschriften Gütersloh – lighting

Square in Vitré/France


2, 42



LBM: 39


Gutes Licht
Gutes Licht


FGL*: 12–13, 15
Stadt Herne: 13

Volz, Wolfgang: 12
Muhs, Andreas: 21
Hempel, Jörg: 27, 53

Brandi, Ulrike: 1–2, 14
20:57 Uhr

43, 45–49, 51–52, 54–55, 57


“Professional Lighting Design”.

Sickinger, Uwe for FGL: 26, 29

Roope Siiroinen, Tampere), 57, 59

Zorn-Robeis, Ilonka for FGL: 3–11

Lamp page photos: Kelm, Andreas
Brandi, Ulrike: 14–17, 23, 25, 40, 50

Numbering of photos on back page:

Eichler Graphik GmbH for FGL: 16–26
Seite 35

Cover photo: Carlos Parrondo NEDEA, S.L.

leader: Kevan Shaw, Edinburgh), 38 (project

leader: Gad Gilaldi, Israel), 41 (project leader:
Helin, Patrik for ELDA/PLD: 31 (project leader:

Tellini and Franco Iannone, Milan), 34 (project

* provided by members of Fördergemeinschaft

* provided by members of Fördergemeinschaft

Schröder, Bernd for Aachen Municipal Authority:
FGL*: 1, 3–9, 11, 18–20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 35–37,

Werner, Oliver for Münster Municipal Authority: 10

Kai Piipo, Stockholm), 33 (project leaders: Serena

The photos were kindly provided by the periodical

Münken, Thomas for Bocholt Municipal Authority: 44

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Please tick booklet(s) required. Prices given include postage (G = Available only in German):
From Postcard Postage
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01 Lighting with Artificial Light (4/93) R 9,–
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03 Good Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths and Squares (5/00) R 9,– Name, Company, Office
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FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:57 Uhr Seite 37

Information from Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes
Licht (FGL) provides infor-
mation on the advantages
Die Beleuchtung Gutes Licht für Schulen Gutes Licht für Sicherheit Gutes Licht für Büros
of good lighting and offers mit künstlichem Licht 1 und Bildungsstätten 2 auf Straßen, Wegen, Plätzen 3 und Verwaltungsgebäude 4
extensive material dealing
with every aspect of artifi-
cial lighting and its correct
usage. FGL information is
impartial and based on
current DIN standards and
VDE stipulations.

Information on Lighting
The booklets 1 to 16 in this
series of publications are
Gutes Licht für Gutes Licht für Verkauf Gutes Licht Gutes Licht
designed to help anyone Handwerk und Industrie 5 und Präsentation 6 im Gesundheitswesen 7 für Sport und Freizeit 8
who becomes involved
with lighting – planners,
decision-makers, investors
– to acquire a basic knowl-
edge of the subject. This
facilitates cooperation with
lighting and electrical
specialists. The lighting
information contained in
all these booklets is of a
general nature.
Repräsentative Notbeleuchtung Gutes Licht für Hotellerie Wirtschaftlicher Lichtkomfort
Lichtforum Lichtgestaltung 9 Sicherheitsbeleuchtung 10 und Gastronomie 11 mit Beleuchtungselektronik 12
Lichtforum is a specialist
periodical devoted to
topical lighting issues
and trends. It is published
at irregular intervals.
FGL is also on the Internet.
Its website

Gutes Licht für kommunale Ideen für Gutes Licht Gutes Licht
offers tips on correct light- Bauten und Anlagen 13 zum Wohnen 14 am Haus und im Garten 15 Stadtmarketing mit Licht 16
ing for a variety of domes-
tic and commercial “light-
ing situations”. These are
linked to a “product/manu-
facturer” matrix which not
only lists products but also
contains the addresses of
more than 140 FGL mem-
bers. Under “FGL publica-
tions”, visitors can view
specimen pages of all
FGL print publications.
Other site features include
hotlinks and a discussion

FGL16e 17.04.2002 20:58 Uhr Seite 38

on Lighting Applications
Booklet 16

Urban Image Lighting

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht