Brand Management

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CONTENTS Brand Name
Components of a Brand name Types of Brand names 4 5

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Brand Logo
Components of an Effective Logo Logo Formats Analyzing Logos Meanings of different Shapes and Symbols Psychology of shapes and symbols 14 15 17 18 21

13

Brand Color
Importance of Colors in Branding Colors and Health Colors and Emotions Colors and Gender Color Usage – Significance

22

Brand Typeface
Classification of Typefaces Elements of a Brand Typeface Analysis

3

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BRAND NAME
Brand Name is one of the most essential and important aspects of a brand. While choosing the name of a brand, a lot of things have to be taken into consideration because of the immense importance attached to the name of the brand. The importance of the Brand Name can be judged from the fact that it differentiates and distinguishes the brand in question from its competing brands. For instance, the name ‘Gold Leaf’ differentiates the brand from its counterparts like Dunhill etc.

Components of a Brand Name
Some of the things that should be kept in mind while choosing brand names are as follows: • It should be easy to memorize and pronounce because if this is done, the recall and recognition (Awareness) can be increased many folds or in other words simple names are easy to memorize and remember. • It should be easy to say and spell because this factor, if present, will add to the awareness of the brand at a macro level and chances are there that the placement of the brand in the evoke set would be made easier. • It should allude to the product that bears the brand name. The Brand Name should carry a casual or indirect reference to the product being offered. • The name itself should evoke positive mental image and emotional reaction that eventually will bestow a positive image to the brand itself. • It should avoid any negative or offensive references to anything, be it a name, place etc. and has a negative attached to it. • Page1 It is advisable if it provides directly or gives a hint towards the product function or benefits.

It should sound appropriate and above all since it provides a distinguishing point from its competitors, it should be unique.

It should provide the ease of translation into other languages. Since today more and more brands are moving into the global arena, establishing presence in multiple nations, translation is a crucial factor, which is required to localize the brand for the local targets.

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Types of Brand Names
After discussing the key success factors for choosing brand names, another important consideration is that what are the types of brand names being used by different brands. The types of brand names for a business usually fall into one of the following categories (Popular types of Brand Names, 2010): • The owner’s name or Names: These types of brands have their owners name serving as the name of the business, such as H. Karim Buksh, Tapal etc., which are named after its founder owner. This type of brand name is especially suitable for small businesses and sole proprietorships and this turns out to be an easy and an effective approach. • Abbreviation Names: This type of brand name basically abbreviates the longer business name into an abbreviation like IBM (International Business Machine). This type requires investment of time and money in order to create brand recognition. If the prerequisites of this type of name are not met the brand will end up with a string of initials that mean little to consumers, or the brand will end up with a generic name. • Geographically anchored Names: These are dime-a-dozen names that work to capitalize on a known local landmark or geographic indicator For example Lahore Chatkhara, Karachi Barbeque etc. Most names of this kind blur into a group of like-named entities. • Descriptive Names: These are names that describe a business’s offering or brand promise for example Adidas, Surf Excel etc. These utilize the obvious and logical to penetrate the market place quickly and establish a position of Page1 leadership and dominance (Identifying Concepts, 2009).

Borrowed interest Names: These are names that use existing words that don’t directly reflect the brand’s offerings or promise but that can be linked to a brand’s essence and promise through marketing efforts rather than through direct translation.

Fabricated-word Names: These are names that combine acronyms, words, or syllables to form previously unknown words and brand names. Because they’re newly invented words, fabricated names are usually available for trademark protection, and the domain names that contain them are likely to be available, too.

Invented Names: These names contain a distinct brand name that allows it to stand out amongst the industry and quickly establish a position of leadership. There are three main ways of inventing brand names (Names and Brands, 2008). Firstly, by syllable combinations, this involves, randomly combining syllables of words. Secondly by randomly substituting letters to produce multiple variations of a word I.e. Pattern based word generation. Last but not least by Word fusion i.e. combining beginning and end of existing words to produce new words.

Connotative Names: These names combine the qualities of descriptive and invented brand names to create a unique brand in the market place.

Bridged Names: These names combine two brand names; generally, as a result of a merger or acquisition for example the Pakistan operations of ANZ Grindlays were renamed to Standard Chartered Grindlays after the acquisition.

These above mentioned are the standalone names of brand name types but generally the brand name comprises of one or more types of the above mentioned, for example, Aston Martin, takes its name from the "Aston Hill" races (near Aston Clinton) where the company was founded and its founder, Lionel Martin (Wikipedia, 2010). Page1

BRAND LOGO

The company logo is the foundation stone of the firm's branding elements. Many firms regard their logos as a visual depiction of their reasons for existence into the arena. A great logo would indeed help build the firm; it also plays a vital role in representing it. On the contrary, a weak or confusing logo can detract from the value that the firm brings. In short, the brand logo is the visual expression of the Brand Identity.

Components of an Effective Logo
Ignoring the design aspect of logos, an effective logo should be unique, for instance it doesn’t get into stuff that other counterparts are also doing. Moreover, it should instantly communicate the nature of the business, product, or service. This can be interpreted in two ways, literal or abstract. An example of the abstract interpretation is the well-known Burger King logo, a burger. On the other hand, Citibank’s “blinking eye” symbol, used prior to Citicorp’s merger with Travelers Group (Separate You’re Business from the Competition by Branding and Positioning, 2006), was more abstract, having nothing directly to do with banking, but representative of the company’s tagline , The City never sleeps. Moreover, a logo should be appealing to the target audience. The usage of suitable color scheme is of immense importance. While being into the business selling a highly sophisticated service or a product, for example a banking service, using sharp colors might not be a good for example Silk Bank uses hot pink in its logo. It should be able to withstand the test of time. When considering a logo design, it’s not advisable to go for a new logo every two years. Thus, it is never a good idea to stylize the design to such a point that it will become unusable once the current fad goes out of fashion. Classic and timeless are the words to keep in mind. Page1

A good logo is usable in all types of communication mediums. For instance, if a logo only looks good in color and it is advertised mainly in local newspapers, this will present a production problem. The symbol will become distorted, if not unreadable. Moreover, an effective logo supports the USP being offered by the brand for example, if a brand is trying to communicate low prices then the logo should support that image. Last but not least a logo should be Legible. This seems pretty obvious but many brands use typefaces and images that can't be printed or carried to a large sign. A logo should clearly identify the company and that can’t be done if people don't understand it.

Logo Formats
There is a variety of logo formats being applied in the business world these days. Some of them include (Identifying Concepts, 2009):

Word mark: It contains just the brand name without any accompanying visual symbol because the name itself is distinct and unique enough for example Microsoft®.

Letterform: It generally utilizes the first letter of the brand name to create a distinct letterform that establishes visual ownership of that letter for example McDonalds has one of the most recognized logos in the world, ‘M’.

Emblems:

Emblems generally are a

visual mark or symbol which

the brand is inextricably connected to. They often look like shields which is where they originate from.

Pictorial: It generally utilizes a common, yet strong visual pictorial icon or symbol to establish visual ownership of that image for example Apple.

Character: It is similar to a pictorial style logo, but the visual image is personified giving it a life of its own that acts as an ambassador for the brand for example John Players Gold Leaf and its logo bearing a sailors picture.

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Abstract: Abstract Logos normally contain visual symbols that convey a big idea or brand attributes and often embodies strategic ambiguity. This type of brand logo is the most difficult to succeed with.

Analyzing Logos
In order to interpret the logos and find the meaning that is embedded in them, some essential guidelines have to be followed and answers to the following questions should be looked for: • Is it Simple? Complex logos are difficult to remember and it takes time to register in the mind and achieving recall is difficult. At the same time, it will present many issues when that logo is scaled to fit smaller applications. Analyzing the most successful brands and their logos, this can be observed that that they are simple shapes or forms for example Apple, Google, etc. • Is it Scalable? A successful logo has to work in a 1″ by 1″ application or in a billboard size. This is achieved by simple images and the right typography. Many companies in their brand guidelines develop different logo applications with minor modifications to ensure that their logo will work at any size. • Does the typography fit the logo or the imagery? Typography is an essential element and it should fit the logo or the imagery. The main goal of a logo is to be recognizable and easily readable. • Are the colors in contrast? The logo should be in contrast with the colors, the elements and shapes of the design. • Are the colors appropriate? Color is one of the most important aspects of a logo. Different colors have different meanings and they tend to monitor the interaction of people towards the brand.

Meanings of different Shapes and Symbols
Shape is one of the basic elements of design. Alone or in combination with other shapes or lines they can convey universal meanings as well as guide the eye or Page1 organize information. The three basic types of shapes are geometric, natural, and abstract. (Shapes, 2010)

Geometric shapes are structured, often symmetrical shapes. These include squares, circles, and triangles but also octagons, hexagons, and cones. In addition to the basic square, circle, other geometric shapes have specific meanings. An octagon, especially a red one, usually means stop. A starburst is commonly used to grab attention and identify something that is new, improved, or 'on sale.'

Natural shapes are found in nature or they can be manmade shapes. Leaves are an example of a natural shape. An ink blob is a natural shape. Natural shapes are often irregular and fluid. These can add interest and reinforce a theme. Rather than a plain box, frame text with a coiling rope or a spray of leaves or flowers. Use a freeform, non-symmetrical shape to convey a feeling of spontaneity.

Abstract shapes are stylized or simplified versions of natural shapes. Some examples of abstract shapes are alphabetical glyphs, icons and symbols.

Psychology of Shapes and Symbols (The Meaning of Shapes - Developing
Visual Grammar, 2006) Shape/Symbo l • Circle • • • • • Page1
Represents the eternal whole. Circles are graceful and their curves are seen as feminine. Warm, comforting and give a sense of sensuality and love. They protect, they endure, they restrict. Suggest community, integrity, and perfection. Completeness suggests the infinite, unity, and harmony.

Meaning

They are stable shapes. Familiar and trusted shapes and suggest honesty. They have right angles and represent order, mathematics, rationality, and formality.

Square/Rectan gle


Stability, equality, solidity, security, rationality and honesty.

Triangle

• • • •

Can be stable when sitting on their base or unstable when not. They are balanced and can be a symbol for law, science, and religion. The strength of triangles suggests masculinity. Convey progression, direction, and purpose. Are expressions of creativity Convey ideas of fertility, birth, death, expansion, and transformation.

• Spiral • • •

Represent trust during change, the release of energy and maintaining flexibility through transformation. Clockwise spiral – Projects expression of an expression. Counter Clockwise Spiral – Fulfillment of an interaction. Balance, progress, direction, initiation, development.

Places attention on something to be experienced Attracts people who are striving to focus on their goals

Pentagon

Contains a spiritual or metaphysical trigger Communication, interfacing, balance, union

Hexagon

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BRAND COLORS
Different colors have different meaning to different people in general. The meaning of colors varies depending on one's culture, race, gender, and even age. Selection of a particular color to target a market is of immense importance. Moreover, different colors have different connotations in different cultures across the world for instance; white is often associated with weddings in North America and evokes the feeling of innocence. In Eastern cultures, white signifies death. It’s imperative for a dress designer to choose the color for wedding dresses when making and selling stuff in china.

Importance of Colors in Branding
The importance of visual elements cannot be ignored when studying the purchase behavior of different products/services. According to a research conducted by the secretariat of the Seoul International Color Expo 2004, 92.6 percent said that they put most importance on visual factors when purchasing products. Only 5.6 percent said that the physical feel via the sense of touch was most important. Hearing and smell each drew 0.9 percent. According to another research people make a subconscious judgment about a person, environment, or product within 90 seconds of initial viewing and that between 62% and 90% of that assessment is based on color alone (CCICOLOR – Institute of Color Research)

Colors and Health
The relation between health and colors has been there for centuries as evident from the Egyptian culture where doctors used to bathe patients in colors of light to heal diseases. In modern time the healing capabilities of colors are still utilized to diagnose different ailments. Red energizes the liver, scarlet increases blood pressure, purple lowers blood Page1 pressure, orange strengthens lungs and increases calcium metabolism, green activates sympathetic nervous system, and, yellow energizes the alimentary tract.

Blue stimulated the sympathetic nervous system the most and the red and green the least. This system is responsible for heartbeat, blood pressure and perspiration. (Color Meaning, 2002)

Colors and Emotions
Colors affect different people in different ways. Testing the association between colors and emotions, it was found that yellow, orange, and blue are happy colors, and red, black and brown as sad colors. These emotions (happy vs. sad) were similar across age groups and had the same types of instilled emotions about specific colors. Kotler (1973) indicated that atmospherics such as noises, sizes, shapes, scents and colors could help create attention, convey messages, and create feelings that might increase purchase probability. Although, color is related to feelings about retail environment, it also affects distraction and influences anxiety. (Singh, 2006)

Colors and Gender
There are differences in the perception of colors between genders. From this it can be deduced that men are more tolerant of gray, white or black than women and that women react to the combinations of red and blue more frequently, and get confused and distracted more than men. Similarly as the science of colors illustrates that different color are combined to make new colors. Some color combinations are of preference for adults for example combination of red and blue is preferred by adults. These results suggest that there are gender differences in the perception of color.

Transformation of Color Meanings into Emotions
Different colors have different meanings and connotations attached to them for example purple is the color for royalty and white is the color of purity. When colors are used in designing the visual identity of a brand, the meanings of these colors translate in a way to the meaning of the brand itself, for example usually milk brands utilize white color to design their visual identities. The reasons for doing so Page1 may be firstly the nature of the product I.e. milk is white in color so white in the visual identity aids that and secondly the literal meaning of the color i.e. purity and

cleanliness. This meaning translates into an advantage and benefit for the brand because milk is meant to be pure and clean. Usually zodiac signs are used in conjoint with the planets of the solar system. The reason for this is that each sign of the Zodiac has its planetary ruler and unique characteristics emanating from that planet. Each sign radiates its own hues and color. The spectrum of colors with each of the signs of the Zodiac signifies psychological, spiritual, and physical energies special to that sign. Below is a detailed explanation of some colors and their meanings: Color Description
Think fire and blood - Red rushes to us with messages of Red passion, primal urges, Mars Aries action, pleasure, vibrancy, blend Aids decision making, Mercury Gemini enhances cheer , confidence and assurance I am satisfied Boosts energy, protection, enhances libido I am ignited

Celestial

Zodiac

Healing

Mantra

radiance, and love. A nice subdued

between the aggressive red and the high-pitch of yellow Orange is about harmony, Orange aspiration, contentment, sociability, and

intelligence Worshipped in the form of the sun - Yellow is all about radiating Yellow protection, creativity, intellect, Sun Leo

Helps vision, enhances confidence and communication I am centered

positivity and clarity. The fresh start of spring brings waves of Green and with it comes attributes of Green youth, nature, sentimentality, adventure, growth Venus and Earth Libra and Taurus

Promotes compassion and overall physical health I am accepted

and health. Look to the sky for the meanings of Blue - open spaces, Blue freedom, Jupiter Sagittarius imagination, expansiveness, inspiration, and sensitivity. Similar to the attributes of blue, Indigo but Indigo's energy runs very deep - consider the unknown depths of the sea along with emotion, Saturn and Neptune Capricorn and Pisces

Heals the sense organs, aids in balance and self-expression Provides clarity of purpose, aids spiritual healing I am deep I am expansive

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strength, persuasiveness, expressiveness,

fluidity, and

pervasiveness. The hue of fragile flowers and sleepy sunsets, Violet reminds us of spirituality, Violet communion, grandeur, highideals, devotion, and peace Black is required for all other colors to have depth and variation forceful Black of hue - it's feature a and Saturn and Pluto Capricorn and Scorpio Uranus and Moon Aquarius and Cancer

Enhances nurturing, balances sensitivity Promotes stability and protection, heals misunderstandi ng I am endless I am revolutionary

represents formality, dignity, force, convention, stability, and zero-tolerance. Contemplate the brilliance of a new white snow and how it pulls a blanket of peace over everything it touches - White

Promotes Mercury and Moon Virgo cleansing, order and establishes clarity I am illumined

White

stands for peace, cleansing, illumination, kind of understanding. purity, innocence and the highest

Color Usage – Significance
Color is an important consideration in a brand identity system. They have a

significant impact on people’s emotional state. In certain instances they tend to impact people’s ability to concentrate and learn. They have a wide variety of specific mental associations. In fact, the effects are physiological, psychological, and sociological. (Daye, 2006) Colors also have a functional impact on readability, eye-strain, ability to attract attention, ability to be seen at night, etc. For instance ‘Yellow’ is regarded as the most visible color amongst all. It is advisable for a particular brand to ‘own’ some colors more commonly known as the corporate colors. Such colors provide an additional recognition cue. Page1

BRAND TYPEFACES
Typeface is one another important factor of a brand corporate identity. While choosing a typeface there are some fundamental decisions to be made, is it to be serif, sans serif, script, condensed, bold, light, extended, italic, capitals, lower case etc ( For more information refer to Typography Glossary). Thousands of combinations of the above exist from which the brand may have to choose and this thing should be kept in mind that these choices say a lot about the brand itself. Type can indicate the brands cultural roots and historical type is used by consumer reinforce origin either real. Type tells a lot to the helps to position the brand typeface can be used to a sector or stand out from example Virgin’s use of the visually reinforces the nationality, period. brands perceived consumer Often to or and

in the sector. A align a brand to the crowd for scripted V, brand’s

differentiation from the traditional corporation. Similarly a typeface can be adopted to signify belonging. In this case being different is not an advantage. These choices are part of developing your brand strategy and quickly connect you with the values of your customers.

Typeface Classifications
In order to create a typographic layout the first and the foremost thing that should Page1 be considered is that when to use a style type and when not use it. In order to do so it is imperative to study the different classification of typefaces. Typefaces are

classified by appearance and most fit into one or more categories. In general, different type styles (bold, italic, bold italic) may be used with each type of classification. Though there are hundreds of classifications, but some of the most important ones are as follows: (Adobe Print Publishing Technical Guides, 2009) .

Black letter: The blackletter classification may also be referred to as the Old English, Text or Gothic. This form gains its popularity due to its use throughout the era of scribes Christendom until the end of World War II. Now they are primarily used as display types. These type faces are very complex and ornate and may be difficult to read. Due to this reason they are used for very special reasons such as advertisements, invitations, diplomas, certificates or initial caps at the beginning of chapters or paragraphs. Decorative and Display: They are sometimes referred to as the novelty or occasional. This classification includes typefaces of unusual or unique designs that do not fit into any other classification. These types are most effective when used in larger sizes such as for headlines, titles and display purposes (e.g., advertisements). Sans Serif: Typefaces in this category are without serifs. These types have a very clean design and are very legible for display, special emphasis and text. However, they should not be used for large bodies of texts because large amount of text in sans serif can cause eye stress. These are highly legible for display and text use, sans serifs generally fall into one of four categories: Grotesque, Neo-Grotesque, Geometric and Humanist. Script: Typefaces falling in this classification generally resemble handwriting, with styles ranging from formal to whimsical. Some of the typefaces in the Page1 genre contain characters than are connected.

These should never be used in all capital letters and as far as their uses are concerned, they are used for greetings, announcements, invitations and advertisements. Slab Serif: These are also known as the Square serif or Egyptian. One of the main differentiating factors that differentiate slab serif is that they are not that legible as serif or sans serif. Their strong, square finishing strokes are extremely useful for commanding readers’ attention and this is the main reason why they should be used for headings, advertisements, captions and initial caps.

Transitional: These typefaces have evolved from the ones used in the 16 th and the 17th century. These typefaces are beautifully suited for text due to their precision and regularity. The axis of the round characters is vertical or barely inclined, the contrast between hairlines and main strokes is slightly pronounced, and serifs are thin, flat and bracketed.

Monospaced: All of the characters in a Monospaced typeface have the same width. Most typefaces have proportionally-spaced characters, but Monospaced characters are often required when setting text on forms, financial statements and other documents where exact spacing is required.

Optical: Optical fonts include versions whose design has been optimized to appear best when printed at Display, Subhead and Caption point sizes as well as when used at smaller text sizes. The subtle difference adds a professional polish to any fine print piece. Page1

Elements of a Brand Typeface Analysis
When analyzing a typeface for a brand, following are to be analyzed:

Serif: In typography, serifs are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A typeface that has serifs is called a serif typeface (Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia, 2010) . A typeface without serifs is called sans-serif. The first thing that is to be analyzed is that does a type face have any serif’s. If yes, what type of serif does it have? Serif fonts can be broadly classified into four subgroups: old style, transitional, modern and slab serif.

X-heights: The x-height or corpus size refers to the distance between the baseline and the mean line in a typeface. Typically, this is the height of the letter x in the font, as well as the u, v, w, and z. However, in modern typography, the x-height is simply a design characteristic of the font. Lowercase letters whose height is greater than the x-height either

have descenders which extend below the baseline, such as y, g, q, and p, or have ascenders which extend above the x-height, such as l, k, b, and d. The ratio of the x-height to the body height is capital one letters is of the major to as Cap height (Wikipedia The free characteristics that define the appearance of a typeface. The height of the referred encyclopedia, 2010).

Width: A characteristic of a typeface determined by the width of its characters in proportion to their height. Typeface width is generally categorized as condensed, normal, and expanded, with varying levels of condensation and expansion. The terms that denote width are not standardized and there is no precise formula for determining the width classification of a typeface. Classifications include:

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Condensed/Compr essed Compact Semi Condensed Condensed Extra Condensed Ultra Condensed

Expanded/Exte nded Wilde Semi Expanded Expanded Extra Expanded Ultra Expanded

Structure: It is defined as the fundamental skeletal form of a character, excluding details such as serifs, curve stress, and line weight. In some scenarios the term structure is applied to different classifications of type styles, such as black letter, sans serif, and others.

Good contrast and Conflicting Typefaces: It is essential in choosing a typeface that it matches the overall appeal of the logo or the visual identity. In short every aspect should match the other one so that a synergy is created and a uniform image is displayed. Mismatching typefaces should be avoided as they portray a confused and conflicting image with the overall theme.

Weight: A characteristic of a typeface determined by the thickness of the strokes that make up its characters. The terms that denote weight are not standardized and there is no precise formula to determine the weight classification of a typeface. Individual type designers and manufacturers generally determine the weight designation for each typeface. Weight

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classifications include:

Thin Bold Semi Bold Extra Bold Extra Light Light Heavy Book Regular Ultra Black

Roman Ultra Bold

Medium

Black

Typeface and the Audience: While selecting a typeface for the target audience this thing should be strictly kept in mind that the type should match the audience and should be in contrast with it for example when targeting a mature audience using a funky type face may not be a good idea, whereas it is meant for younger ones.

Typeface

Classification:

It is imperative to look at the typeface

classification as the importance of using the right thing in the right medium cannot be ignored. Every typeface is intended to be used in a specific location and medium.

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BRAND – Ariel
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Ariel’, gets its name from Hebrew language and means, the Lion of God. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har

y d Can be referred with respect to power Ye Fairly No s Ye Yes Fairly No

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination and protection. Trust, loyalty, confidence and precision. Youth, sentimentality, nature, emotional correspondence with safety and health. Cleansing, illumination, purity, innocence, and perfection.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Italic Normal Semi Condensed Semi Bold, Heavy Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Compatible

Blue Green

White

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Capstan
Brand Name Analysis Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Eas y Eas y No Result Medium Medium reference Har d Har d to No No Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Typographic Fit Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

positive

mental from

product Ye Fairly s Ye Yes Fairly

image Distinguishes competitors Translation into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable Typographically unfit

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Crimson Trait/Emotions Fiery, Fierce, Competitive, Power. Illumination and perfection.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Optical Bold Normal Normal Semi Bold, Heavy Low contrast Sans Serif Moderately Compatible

White

Brand Personality Statement
Capstan is a 25 year old, reliable and a hardworking man. He is a technically oriented person who believes in leading so that other can rely on it. Confidence is one another trait that makes him a winner. He is a ambitious, courageous, dominant, strong willed, positive, independent male. Dominance of his personality can be judged by his commanding nature, bearing loyalty from his subordinates. He knows the tricks of the trade and knows how to get things done using all his energy, creativeness and resolution to get it.

Aaker’s Personality Traits
Core Dimension Excitement Competence Ruggedness Facets Daring Spirited Imaginative Reliable Intelligent Successful Outdoorsy Tough Traits Daring Spirited Unique Hard Working Technical Leader Masculine Rugged

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BRAND – Coca Cola
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Coca Cola’ gets its name from the combination of two words which are its ingredients too i.e. Cocoa Leaves and Kola Nuts. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo No No Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

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Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination, passion, primal urges, action, pleasure, enthusiasm, joie de vivre, and love. Cleansing, illumination, purity, innocence, and perfection.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Script Bold Italic Normal Semi Condensed Semi Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

White

Brand Personality Statement
Coca Cola is a 20 year old female bearing a pleasant personality. She is family oriented, genuine, and modern in her own way. She is athletic and outdoorsy and loves to hangout make friends. She is the flavor of every gathering and she is expected to be present at every gathering so that she keeps the environment up and running. A spirited female with a deep insight towards life and knows how to keep things going. She adapts to all kinds of gatherings very quickly due to the flexibility of her nature.

Aaker’s Personality Traits Core Dimension
Sincerity

Facets
Down-toearth Honest Cheerful Wholesome Spirited Imaginative Up-to-date

Traits
Family Oriented Sincere Original Friendly Young Unique Contempor ary

Excitement

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BRAND – Colgate
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Ariel’, gets its name from its founder William Colgate. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har

y d Indirect Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly No No

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination, passion, action, and love. Cleansing, illumination, purity, innocence, and perfection.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Italic Very High Semi Expanded Extra Bold, Heavy Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

White

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Gillette
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Gillette’, gets its name from its owner King Camp Gillette. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

No No

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Blue Trait/Emotions Aids in balance and self expression, trust, confidence, truth, calm and sincere, precision, expertise and stability

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Italic Normal Normal Extra Bold, Heavy Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – John Players Gold Leaf
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘JPGL’, gets its name from its founder John Player. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har

y d Indirect Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly No No

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination, passion, action, and adventure. Knowledge, power, integrity, and seriousness, open space, freedom, inspiration. Perfection, safety, successful beginning, simplicity.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold High Extra Expanded Extra Bold, Heavy Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Blue

White

Brand Personality Statement
JPGL is a 35 year old male who believes life is there to be experienced; his pioneering spirit means that he will always be looking to stretch himself and his horizons. JPGL believes that its not about being strong; it is how you choose to use that strength. He believes that good things in life belong to everyone who is willing to make an effort. You can achieve great things, especially if you all pull together. JPGL handles change capably and appreciates it for offering opportunities for new experiences and learning’s that enriches him as a person. He values his 130 years of learning. Ultimately he believes that you are the sum of your experiences. JPGL can adapt to most places. He appreciates their

Aaker’s Personality Traits
Core Dimension Excitement Facets Daring Spirited Up-to-date Imaginative Reliable Intelligent Successful Honest Outdoorsy Tough Traits Exciting Spirited Independent Unique Hardworking Intelligent Leader, Confident Sincere, Real Masculine Rugged

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Competence Sincerity Ruggedness

BRAND – Lipton
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Lipton’, gets its name from its founder owner Sir Thomas Lipton. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har

y d Indirect Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly No No

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination, passion, action, and adventure. Protection, intellect, positivity and clarity, joy, happiness, energy, fresh. Perfection, safety, successful beginning, simplicity, purity.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Transitional Bold Moderate Expanded Light Bold Good contrast with overall logo Thin, flat, bracketed Serifs Highly Compatible

Yellow

White

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Lux
Brand Name Analysis
Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Eas y Eas Result Medium Medium Har d Har d

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience No No Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation into

other

s Yes Same name globally Invented Name

Languages Type of Brand Name

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Black Trait/Emotions Formality, dignity, force, convention, stability, protection, elegance and prestige.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Optical Bold Moderate Ultra Expanded Light Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Mobilink
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Mobilink’, gets its name from which is a combination of two words ‘Mobi’ (Mobile) and ‘link’ (linking people. It signifies the need of connecting people. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye s Fairly Yes Fairly Yes

positive

mental from

No No

image Distinguishes competitors

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Black Trait/Emotions Formality, dignity, force, convention, stability, protection, elegance and prestige. Royalty, wisdom, creativity, wealth, royalty, enlightenment, arrogance, flamboyance, gaudiness, pride. Elegance, humility, respect, reverence, stability, subtlety, wisdom, urban, strong emotions, balance, formality

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Italic High Extra Expanded Ultra Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Purple

Grey/Silv er

Brand Personality Statement
He is stylish and sophisticated and reflects a unique classy look. He’s chic yet reliable. He’s a responsible individual and a loyal friend. He’s unique and original and completely understands your needs. He’s intellectual and has an objective approach towards everything. He lets his mind rule, rather than letting the heart take over. He’s rational and inspirational. He’s innovative and confident. He has a unique style of doing everything that marches to the beat of his own drum. He loves to be there for people who really need him.

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Nestle Fruit Juices
Brand Name Analysis
Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Eas y Eas Result Medium Medium Har d Har d

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience No No Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation into

other

s Yes Same name globally Owners Name (Henri Nestlé)

Languages Type of Brand Name

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Blue Trait/Emotions Aids in balance and self expression, trust, confidence, truth, calm and sincere, precision, expertise and stability. Perfection, safety, successful beginning, simplicity, purity.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Moderately High Normal Extra Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

White

Brand Personality Statement
Determination and will power are the defining characteristics of Nestle Fruit Juices. A young, vibrant, hardworking male, ages almost 23 years. He bears a social personality and likes interacting. Working out everyday enables his fitness. He enjoys life to the fullest and believes being fit is being right. He has a very deep insight into life and likes experiencing life in all of its flavors and to the fullest.

Aaker’s Personality Traits
Core Dimension Sincerity Excitement Competence Ruggedness Facets Wholesome Cheerful Spirited Up-to-date Intelligent Successful Outdoorsy Tough Traits Original Friendly Cool, Young Contemporar y Intelligent Confident Masculine Rugged

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BRAND – Nestle Pure Life
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, Nestle Pure Life, gets the first part of its name from the owner and the second part describing a benefit, Pure Life. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo No No Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Blue Trait/Emotions Aids in balance and self expression, trust, confidence, truth, calm and sincere, precision, expertise and stability. Perfection, safety, successful beginning, simplicity, purity.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Moderately High Normal Extra Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

White

Pink

Romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities.

Brand Personality Statement Pure Life is a married female with 2 kids. She is a very responsible mother who makes every effort to take the best care possible of her kids and family. Culture is deeply

Aaker’s Personality Traits
Core Dimension Sincerity Facets Down-toearth Honest Cheerful Spirited Imaginative Up-to-date Upper Class Charming Traits Family Oriented Sincere Original Young Unique Contemporar y Good looking Feminine

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embedded in her and she sticks to her family traditions. Healthy living is one of the most valued things by her and she makes all possible efforts for the betterment of the society as a whole. To an extent she is an authoritarian and bears a commanding Sophisticatio n Excitement

BRAND – Surf Excel
Brand Name Analysis
The brand name, ‘Surf Excel’, gets its name from two words Surf (generic name for detergent powder) and Excel (to be the best). Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo No No Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation Languages into

other

s Yes Same name globally

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Blue Trait/Emotions Aids in balance and self expression, trust, confidence, truth, calm and sincere, precision, expertise and stability. Joy, enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity, determination, attraction, success, strength, endurance, encouragement, and stimulation. Romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Sans Serif Bold Moderate Normal Extra Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Orange

Pink

Brand Personality Statement
Surf Excel is a 30 year old working mother with two children. She is fully aware of her priorities. She strives to get the best for her kids and family and this portrays the nurturing aspect of her personality. She is a hard worker and knows how to strike the work life and personal life balance. She is persistent and determined to succeed in whichever endeavors she pursues. She is very caring and wants to get the best out of everything for her children.

Aaker’s Personality Traits
Core Dimension Sincerity Facets Down-toearth Honest Wholesome Spirited Imaginative Up-to-date Reliable Intelligent Traits Family Oriented Sincere Friendly Young Unique Contemporar y Hard Working Intelligent

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Excitement

Competence

BRAND – Tapal
Brand Name Analysis
Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Eas y Eas Result Medium Medium Har d Har d

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience No No Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye Fairly Yes Fairly

positive

mental from

image Distinguishes competitors Translation into

other

s Yes Same name globally Owners Name

Languages Type of Brand Name

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Red Trait/Emotions Energy, strength, power, determination, passion, action, and adventure.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility Result/Finding Optical Bold Moderate Normal Ultra Bold Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

White

Perfection, safety, successful beginning, simplicity, purity.

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BRAND – Telenor
Brand Name Analysis
The brand Telenor gets its name from the combination of two words i.e. ‘Tele’ communicating the nature of the brand and ‘Nor’ communicating the origin i.e. Norway. Characteristic Ease of memorizing Spelling & Pronunciation Reference product Evokes of name to Result Medium Medium

Brand Logo Analysis
Characteristic Uniqueness Communicates nature of product Appeals the target audience Suitable color scheme Consistency of logo Usage in all mediums Supports USP Legibility of Logo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Result Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly Yes Fairly No No No No No No No

Eas y Eas

Har d Har d

y Direct Reference Ye s Ye s Fairly Yes Fairly Yes

positive

mental from

No No

image Distinguishes competitors

Yes Highly readable

Brand Color Analysis
Colors Used Blue Trait/Emotions Aids in balance and self expression, trust, confidence, truth, calm and sincere, precision, expertise and stability.

Brand Typeface Analysis
Characteristic Typeface Classification Type Style X-Height/ Cap Height Width Weight Contrast Result/Finding Sans Serif Regular Moderately High Normal Normal Good contrast with overall logo Sans Serif Highly Compatible

Black

Formality, dignity, force, convention, stability, protection, elegance and prestige.

Serif/Sans Serif Audience Compatibility

Brand Personality Statement

Aaker’s Personality Traits

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Names and Brands. (2008, 1 01). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from Names and Brands: http://www.names-n-brands.com/ Our Businesses. (2009, 07 09). Retrieved 04 04, 2010, from Pakistan Tobacco Company: http://www.ptc.com.pk/group/sites/PAK_7SHBXN.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO7SHC5E? opendocument&SKN=1 Popular types of Brand Names. (2010, 01 01). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/popular-types-of-brand-names.html Separate You’re Business from the Competition by Branding and Positioning . (2006, 11 10). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from Entrepreneurship: http://blog.prosperlearning.com/entrepreneurship/?p=27 Shapes. (2010, 01 01). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from About.com - Desktop Publishing: http://desktoppub.about.com/od/elements/l/aa_shape.htm Singh, S. (2006). Impact of Color on Marketing. Journal or Marketing , 783-787. The Meaning of Shapes - Developing Visual Grammar . (2006, 01 01). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from The Meaning of Shapes - Developing Visual Grammar: http://www.vanseodesign.com/web-design/visual-grammar-shapes/ Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia. (2010, 04 16). Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from Wikipedia The free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serif Wikipedia. (2010, 04 20). List of company name etymologies. Retrieved 04 20, 2010, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_company_name_etymologies

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