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SHARING ALSTOM GRID INNOVATION & PRACTICES
MAIN FEATURE – p. 13
GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKERS
THINK GRID #10 – SUMMER 2012
bring advantages to power plant owners
#10 Summer 2012
Interview with Gareth Evans
Smart products & services Transmitting the benefits of automation and protection technologies
SuperGrid project in France
Dr Richard Charnah, publisher
SHArING ALSTOM GrID INNOVATION & PrACTICES – Published by Alstom Grid – 51 esplanade du Général de Gaulle - 92907 La Défense Cedex – france. www.alstom.com/grid – Print run: 15,000 copies (Chinese, English, french, German, Spanish) – Publisher: richard Charnah – Editor in chief: Véronique Chauvot – Editorial assistant: Marie-Amélie Norel – Editorial board: Stéphan Lelaidier, richard Charnah, Walter Dussaucy, Emmanuelle Helleux, Peter Kirchesch – Concept and Design: BythewayCreacom – 19 rue Galilée, 75116 Paris – france – Tel.: +33 (0)1 53 57 60 60 – www.bythewaycreacom.net – Editorial executive: Henry Lewis Blount – Publication manager: Valérie Barral – Contributors: Henry Lewis Blount, Ken Kincaid, Patrick Love, Louis-Antoine Mallen, Manuel relvas, Gordon Smith – Copy editor: Ginny Hill – Art director: Didier Trayaud – Graphic designer: Cloé Cheucle – Computer graphics artist: Studio V2 – Photo credits: Alstom, Shutterstock, Thinkstock, Creativeworks, Keppel Energy, Harald Wemper – Printing: HandiPrint. ISSN: 2102-017 – A special thanks to the companies that kindly provided us with their illustrations.
Respecting the environment
Generator circuit breakers bring advantages to power plant owners
Innovation & performance Measuring partial discharge in GIS
By Stéphan Lelaidier: R&D Vice-President, Alstom Grid
SuperGrid project in France
Gareth Evans, Head of Profession Engineering, Ofgem
11 MAIN FEATURE
Pushing the frontiers of electricity technology
12 Chapter I
Respecting the environment Generator circuit breakers bring
advantages to power plant owners
23 Chapter II
Innovation & performance
Measuring partial discharge in GIS
34 Chapter III
ransmitting the benefits T of automation and protection technologies
Smart products & services
CROSS-PERSPECTIVES Consumption management
Electricity Lore The history of gas-insulated substations
as part of grid management
ELECTRICITY LORE The history of gas-insulated
50 FURTHER READING Books, newspapers, etc. 51 DATES FOR YOUR DIARY Don’t miss...
Alstom Grid///Summer 2012
By Stéphan lelaidier: R&D Vice-President, Alstom Grid
Reliability and sustainability are constant concerns of power utilities and recurrent themes of this issue of Think Grid. The introduction of new equipment, and especially new technologies, can be a source of uncertainty for an operator but this potential barrier can be addressed by introducing monitoring systems or even self-monitoring equipment. You will be able to read about some real cases that illustrate these ideas concerning generator circuit breakers, transformers and gas-insulated substations. Realistic testing regimes, and the test centres and expertise on which they rely, can also help the process, and this is illustrated with reference to power electronic modules. Much in a functional electric grid depends on the system aspects. Clearly, this requires that the various pieces of hardware that constitute the system work together seamlessly and that they are monitored and directed in a coherent way. This applies particularly in the integration of renewable energy sources and, whether as part of a regional scheme or in a microgrid, management is key to making the most of the resource. Similar considerations apply regarding reactive power management. Both of these areas are discussed in this issue. A grid is a technological entity, but its functioning is constrained and facilitated by a wider table of ingredients. Regulation and grid codes, for instance, also play their part. This is most obvious in terms of supply quality, but you can also discover something about their role in sustainability and, yes, even the introduction of new technologies. Enjoy your reading.
Assuring power supply
Alstom Grid///Summer 2012
This will be the first European installation of Alstom Grid’s voltage source converter HVDC system. Alstom Grid will supply everything from design and engineering to erection and commissioning of all the extra high voltage circuit breakers which will be manufactured locally.440 MW South-West Link. with a 3 GW generation capacity. SuperGrid project in France The French government is setting up a series of “Excellence Centres” in various fields of research to promote the development of a carbon-neutral economy in France.Panorama France March 2012 S a l e s s n a p s h o t s GERMANY Floating. Research will be focused on several programmes such as new protection technologies. These programmes will manage the intermittent renewable energy flow and ensure network security and stability. The plant is the largest hydropower facility in Central Asia and. The Alstom Grid GIS will optimise the flow of energy from the Nurek HPP and help secure future energy supply. will connect central Sweden to the south. it will consist of 80 5 MW wind turbines and feed 400 MW into the public grid. an electricity transmission multi-terminal grid capable of transporting several gigawatts over thousands of kilometres. plus new technologies that will be used for industrial applications within 10 years. Circuit breakers The Power Grid Corporation of India has awarded Alstom Grid the contract to deliver 64 circuit breakers to a number of 765 kV substations spread throughout India. The aim is to emphasise R&D in energy technologies that will reduce carbon emissions. the biggest investment in Sweden’s electricity infrastructure in 30 years. Planned to be operational by end 2014. giving pride of place to ultra high voltage DC (up to 1 million volts). as well as leading research and academic centres. named SuperGrid. self-installing offshore substation to connect the MEG 1 wind farm to the German Grid. To date. SWEDEN HVDC MaxSineTM – a European first The Swedish utility Svenska Kraftnät has contracted Alstom Grid to supply the HVDC MaxSineTM technology for its South-West Link project. The ambition is to support research and development into products and solutions for implementation by the industry during the next five years. INDIA Bruno Luscan Technology Programme Director. large enterprises and SMEs with expertise in energy-related domains and digital technology. self-installing offshore substation Alstom Grid has been awarded a turnkey contract to deliver its floating. based at Alstom Grid’s Villeurbanne site. Alstom Grid is to upgrade the Kuwait Town control centre’s energy management system and to install a new integrated distribution and asset management solution. Alstom will contribute to one of these major research projects. TAJIKISTAN 500 kV GIS Alstom Grid has won a contract to supply the Tajikistan national utility with 500 kV gas-insulated switchgear for the Nurek hydroelectric power plant (HPP). The 1. they will be financed by a combination of public and private investment. The projects bring together major French players in the industry.5 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually. This solution is based on Alstom Grid’s e-terraplatform and e-terradistribution to create a single system for managing the control centre’s medium and high voltage operations. MEG 1 will be located 45 km north of the island of Borkum in the German North Sea. 6 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . KUWAIT Smart grid solution The Kuwait Ministry of Electricity and Water is modernising its grid operations and enhancing its network asset management. nine such Excellence Centres have been launched in energy-related fields. produces over 75 percent of Tajikistan’s electricity. power conversion based on high power semiconductor technologies. The SuperGrid project. is planned to become operational in 2013. saving close to 1. This Alstom Grid HVDC solution will boost reliability and raise transmission capacity. submarine power cables and dynamic energy storage technologies.
I n F I G U R e S CO2 EMISSION AND TEMPERATURE RISE Recent measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) show a concentration of 390 ppmv in the earth’s atmosphere. 7 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . Improved energyeffi ciencyreducestheamountof energy required for the same services. etc. more network connections to use spinning reserves in different networks. Such a rise. The goal should be to limit future global warming to below 2°C relative to the pre-industrial level. i. would have dramatic consequences on our ecosystem.e. Better energy efficiency and renewable energy are key to reducing CO2. the estimated value can be up to several metres. Climate models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicate a strong relationship between CO2 concentration and that temperature rise. power generation and transport play an increasingly dominant role in CO2 emission. human-generated release such as burning fossil fuels for heating. Besides natural sources of CO2. to the rising average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. but this requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. Depending on the model. this implies more intelligence to optimise consumption (Smart Grids) and reduce losses. Alstom Grid has over 130 years’ experience in solving such network issues. For electrical networks. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise. CO2 is described as a greenhouse gas that signifi cantlycontributestoglobalwarming. as shown in the graph. in combination with other climate effects.
Interview with… The energy mix will change dramatically. 8 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 .
but to make sure the companies we regulate deliver their services in a cost-efficient way. The RIIO acronym captures the idea that “Revenue” should be linked to “Outputs”. As a leading technical figure at the UK energy regulator. we have to be aware of the opportunities that new technologies can deliver. we have taken the view that this is such an important issue that we need to provide leadership. However. In what way is Ofgem concerned with the technologies of the equipment deployed on the electricity grid? G.: The energy mix will change dramatically. Ofgem Mr Evans explains the role of the energy regulator. The RIIO regulatory framework we have adopted focuses on outputs. These relate in particular to increased demand from heating and transport. Shopping in London.E. and in our specific funding mechanisms such as the Low Carbon Networks Fund. How can regulators help with the physical/technical aspects of these changes? G. London.Gareth Evans Head of Profession Engineering. The energy mix is changing. We could adopt a completely “handsoff” approach and leave the companies to develop their own strategies towards new network technologies.E. Ofgem is taking a particularly proactive approach in relation to the encouragement of innovation and efficiency in the network companies. both through our new price control. Governments play a pivotal role Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 9 . please describe the mission of Ofgem. The challenge for regulators is primarily to ensure that these changes take place such that environmental targets are met as costefficiently as possible while maintaining or improving the security of energy supply.: As an economic regulator. Ofgem is an economic rather than a technical regulator. which brings all interested stakeholders together. The smart grids debate is a good example of this. it is essential that we have the expertise to engage with the companies and other stakeholders on a technical as well as an economic level. driven by the need to decarbonise the energy supply chain. because the industries we regulate have engineering at their core. However. ancient and modern. Our goal is to establish a consensus as to how our electricity networks might best evolve to meet the new challenges. Ofgem head office. We have done this by establishing the Smart Grids Forum. we are technologically agnostic. both on the supply side and the demand side. RIIO (Revenue = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs). the widespread connection of distributed renewable generation and the active control of demand to help balance the total system. Gareth Evans: Ofgem’s primary role is to protect the interests of existing and future gas and electricity customers. which in turn are driven by “Incentives” and “Innovation”.
environmental.)? How important is the “smart grid” and what is the regulator’s involvement in its development? In several traditional industrial economies. approaches to network asset management so that the process of renewal is cost efficient. we have put in place additional measures. a mechanism for worst-served customers and a broad measure of customer satisfaction. It is what they can deliver that is important. However. here. including network outputs for both asset health and asset loading. For example. A CEER position paper on smart grids provided very useful input to the European Commission’s communication. outages. Standards of performance are commonplace in many countries. In Great Britain. There are organisations that bring together regulators from different countries. this process of renewal presents a great opportunity to update the networks to meet the new challenges that we foresee. which was published in April last year. there are incentives to encourage renewable generation on the supply side and incentives for electric vehicles on the demand side. How are regulators involved in this process? G. The forum has already done valuable work and published reports describing potential smart grid solutions and a framework to evaluate their benefits compared with conventional solutions. The Commission has now relaunched its smart grids task force and CEER will play an active role. We have encouraged better 10 G. and I am personally involved in CEER’s work on smart grids. though there are variations in what is covered. etc. more importantly. eligibility and compensation levels. This work is being taken up by the G.Interview with… The use of new network technologies will deliver benefits to customers. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . We also have a suite of connections-specific standards of performance. and CEER has published benchmarking reports to compare the performance of different countries. We believe that we need to take a leadership role in taking smart grids forward while letting the network companies ultimately decide what is right for their businesses.E. What targets does a regulator typically set for utilities (service quality. Losses are also reported by many states. major elements of the grid infrastructure are ready for renewal and/or restructuring. network companies. secure facilitator of low carbon generation and demand-side technologies. What are their main roles or actions? Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) has developed one of the first smart grid networks in the Orkney Isles under Ofgem’s innovation incentives.E.: A key element of our price control settlements for the network companies is to agree the rate of renewal necessary to maintain network safety. We have established the Smart Grids Forum to bring key stakeholders together to help us and the network companies develop a strategy for the deployment of these technologies.: Smart grids are not important in themselves. G.E. As Ofgem regulates the network companies. Ofgem believes that the use of new network technologies will deliver benefits to customers. the government encourages specific outcomes in terms of the energy mix. integrity and reliability. In Great Britain. This must be a cost efficient. The vital link between the two is the electricity network. plus a connections competition test against which all licensees must be assessed.: We play a very active role in the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER).: The most commonly reported service quality parameters are customer interruptions and customer minutes lost. We have environmental output measures such as business carbon footprint and reporting on oil and SF6 leakage. we have a vital role to play.E.
MAIn Feature P ushing the frontiers of electricity technology 12 Chapter I Respecting the environment 23 Chapter II Innovation and performance 34 Chapter III Smart products and services Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 11 .
12 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . featuring a direct-drive. analyses and diagnoses in real time. the Haliade 150. correlating all the data into a single system. They play a key role in the protection of the transformer and the generator in case of fault and in normal operation they connect and disconnect the generator to and from the grid.main FeaTure CHAPTEr I rESEArCH WITH AN EyE ON THE fuTurE Respecting the environment Generator circuit breakers are crucial devices in a power plant. Alstom has developed the world’s biggest offshore wind turbine. Alstom Grid’s MS 3000 monitors. Controlled overloading of transformers demands real-time monitoring. permanent-magnet generator.
For decades. Maintenance. Generator Circuit Breakers (GCB) offer more flexibility for plant operation and enable the implementation of efficient solutions to reduce investment cost. GCBs have existed for generator ratings ranging from 50 MVA to 1. With a generator Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 13 . Singapore (Keppel 1).Night view of Keppel Cogeneration Power Plant. and they have improved the overall life cycle cost of power plants through efficient protection of generators and transformers and simplifying synchronisation to the grid. “GCBs are something of an insurance policy: as long as everything goes well. Generator Circuit Breakers (GCB) are power plant devices located between the generator (which produces electricity at a voltage of around 15-25 kV) and the step-up transformer (which increases this voltage up to the grid transmission voltage – 200 kV to 800 kV). energy efficiency and carbon footprint are now also enhanced thanks to GCB architecture optimisation. a producer can gain flexibility by making the plant’s strategic connections safer. the GCB: an insurance policy What concerns a power producer is to generate and deliver energy. More than 7.” says Jean-Marc Willième. Generator circuit breakers bring advantages to power plant owners Besides playing a major role in power plant protection. and their major function in normal operation is to connect and disconnect the generator to and from the grid with high availability and reliability.000 units are in service today throughout the world. “Equipment today has reached a very low failure rate. Senior Expert at Alstom Grid’s High Voltage Switchgear Research Centre in France. They play a key role in the protection of the transformer and the generator in case of fault (short circuit on the power transmission system). circuit breaker. but a rare phenomenon can still have disastrous effects.400 MVA. it can also reduce the effects of a generator or transformer failure by reducing its duration.
was progressively replaced in the mid-80s by sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technology. has compared the situation of power plants with and without a generator circuit breaker. based on life cycle cost. the cost of a generator circuit breaker solution. Analysing the risk of fault.400 MVA. but when things go wrong. still applied for the highest ratings of breakers(1). Air blast. based on a 400 MW power plant. GCBs originally used air blast technology for electric arc extinction. GCB could be seen as an unnecessary cost. but has very heavy consequences. the presence of the GCB has avoided less than 14 hours of outage. Some years ago. demonstrates that the GCB solution is cost effective if. For its latest generation of GCBs. which includes. breaking capability is a very important feature to have adequately specified in case of a major fault in a power plant. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . and on the other hand. it is pos- sible to interrupt short-circuit currents of at least 160 kA with a spring-operating mechanism. save energy and reduce stresses and impacts during operation. the improvement in reliability and availability of the generator circuit breakers using spring mechanisms is now accessible for power plants up to 1. Thanks to the thermally assisted puffer-type technology. is the full spring mechanism. such as eliminating HV circuit breakers and HV/MV transformers and replacing them by a GCB and an MV/ MV transformer to feed auxiliaries (see sidebar 2). Alstom Grid has continually developed and improved this mechanism. by far. “A typical example.” explains Willième. it validated the installation of generator circuit breakers. “savings could be identified from the very beginning of the project”.Main Feature chapter I Research with an eye on the future Generator Circuit Breaker The Alstom FKG1N GCB designed for power plants of 150 to 300 MW. Moreover. so the design of the interrupting Generator Circuit Breakers are something of an insurance policy. and that the most reliable mechanism. what a relief to have it there!” A financial study. on the one hand. As a result. a CIGRE study on high voltage circuit breaker failures and defects in service revealed that the availability of the circuit breakers depends mainly on the reliability of the operating mechanism. Alstom Grid has optimised and enhanced its spring-operating mechanism to make it simpler. chamber – the heart of the generator circuit breaker – is a crucial factor. the cost of not producing. This kind of failure is extremely rare. if some cost reductions in GCB schemes are taken into account. 14 Alstom’s GCBs continuously enhanced and upgraded In the world of circuit breakers. during 20 years.
the design of a GCB focuses on the status of the arcing contacts. This allows arcing to take place between arcing contacts until the arc is completely extinguished. whose role is to provide personnel with visible safety during maintenance. where the SF6 is used instead of compressed air. The most reliable mechanism. “As the main current specification is related to a function that is active almost 100 percent of the operational lifetime of the generator circuit breaker. manufacturers have to carefully design their breaker around this issue. what is needed is a current-carrying capability with losses as low as possible. rather than to the energy or material consumed during manufacturing process. is the full spring mechanism. they need more maintenance. Digital test simulation tools significantly accelerate the process. with main contacts used for carrying any currents while arcing contacts are plugged on by commuting the current to them from the main contact. capability in terms of rated current.” says Willième. Therefore. and major risks such as thermal runaway of contacts. SF6 breakers can be self contained in a sealed chamber and do not need a centralised compressed air supply as required by air blast breakers. Although this is around one-tenth of the breaking capability. they also increase the occurrence rate of minor risks such as mechanical failure. disconnectors also have permanent disadvantages: they are a Keeping losses as low as possible To reduce life cycle cost. This is reinforced by the fact that the environmental footprint of electrical equipment is mainly related to the energy dissipated during the total GCB life operation. consequently.” Willième points out. sometimes lasting 12 months. “another important feature of the generator circuit breaker is its source of loss during energy production phases. The sizing of both circuit breaker and disconnector for loss reduction requires the full attention of the designer. However. Unfortunately. by far.” This concern is reinforced by the fact that circuit breakers are traditionally associated in series with line disconnectors. which suffer heavy wear when operating and can be considered as strategic for the breaker.Temperature rise tests on high voltage circuit-breaker design can be long and burdensome. One of the resulting advantages is that the GCB size is considerably reduced. the interrupting chamber architecture remains roughly the same. A breakthrough in efficiency and environmental friendliness The classical SF6 circuit-breaker layout is not 100 percent effective regarding Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 15 . However. “The most efficient way to avoid energy waste in this equipment is to reduce energy sources by design.
are highly complex and require extra care. The combination of these different factors. etc. leads to a significant decrease in the equipment’s environmental footprint. others. Their lifetime is therefore independent of the breaking events experienced by the interrupter chamber.Main Feature chapter I Research with an eye on the future Flevo power station. these teams “must possess the practical competencies to be able to cast a very critical eye at simulation results. Additional benefits include a reduction of the equipment’s total phase length.” says Gwenael Marquezin.” explains Willième. HV Switchgear Expertise Development Manager. like coupled electromagnetic and fluid approaches. and manufacturing processes are reduced. Gwenael Marquezin 16 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . it is crucial to detect the predictive signs of future failure at the earliest possible stage. designers have to make compromises between Joule loss reduction and minimising SF6 volume. Joule power and related temperature rise due to the high nominal current. Netherlands This station is among the best performing power plants in the world with low NOx. their significance and correlation with test results. As a result. resulting in less impact on the environment.” Therefore. current-breaking gas flow as well as corrosive SF6 by-products. it is a big advantage to M o r e Use of multi-physics optimisation for designing circuit breakers The development of digital simulation tools and the exponential increase in computer power allow engineers to greatly accelerate the design of industrial applications such as high voltage GCBs. For this reason. performance and lifecycle. seismic response of the equipment. It is designed around two GT26 combined cycle modules rated at 435 MW each for a gross output of 870 MW at 59% efficiency. hence less material is used. SO2 and CO2 emissions. thermal and mechanical phenomena involved in the circuit-breaker design are nowadays relatively well understood. beyond theoretical knowledge. leads to increasingly complex problems to solve as design constraints are closer to the limits.” Besides the complex simulations of breaking tests. including reduction of SF6 volume. since it can run at base load and part loads as well as in two-shift operation mode. It features a high operational flexibility. “Generator circuit breakers are extreme products due to the very high currents imposed by their position on the network. However. “multi-physics simulations are necessary to better understand and evaluate the combination of physical constraints and their effects on the breaker’s behaviour. so heat dissipation is reduced throughout the equipment lifetime. The integration of the circuit-breaker main contacts and disconnector function into a single piece of equipment is particularly effective in decreasing losses: the electrical resistance is far less compared to the classical solution (circuit breaker and disconnector in line). “Optimising their design for higher performance and efficiency. power plant owners are concerned by the reliability and availability ratio of their plant and by the immediate negative consequences of a failure. As the main contacts are a major contributor for the transmission of the energy produced by the power plant. GCB designers rely on the simulation teams to recognise such effects as the electromagnetic forces generated by the high short-circuit currents. Easier inspection for the main contacts Beyond environmental considerations.” Dielectric. loss reduction. Another drawback is that the main contacts are in the same environment as the arcing contacts and consequently are subjected to the hot. As SF6 pressurised volume is linked to contact sizing. “An innovative architecture – the FKGA2 – avoids these compromises by allowing the main contacts to be completely isolated from the heated current-breaking SF 6 gases. test duration and cost can be substantially reduced. making them more robust and compact (such as in the FKG series). contaminated particles and the associated by-products within the interrupter chamber. They can pre-evaluate a design on computer models to examine its behaviour for different operating conditions and therefore optimise the product before the first prototype is built and tested.
Furthermore. it avoids auxiliary power supply • changeovers at unit starting and stopping. the GCB scheme has three main advantages: • it is a more economical solution. The main contact inspection is considerably easier than with the conventional GCB architecture and. By segregating the main contacts from the interrupting SF6 gas. be able to easily observe the main contacts throughout the equipment’s lifetime in order to detect any trace of abnormal wear on the contact surface. the generator will continue to feed the fault for several seconds until the generator is fully de-excited. as the GCB’s cost is made up for by the savings from avoiding an SST and its associated connection to the HV grid. • the generator circuit breaker scheme: the HV circuit breaker always remains closed and the unit auxiliaries are permanently fed through the GSUT and the Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT). (1) Alstom Grid’s PKG pneumatic-type generator circuit breaker is the biggest circuit breaker in the world. For the user. SF 6 gas under pressure and subjected to hot gas flow. parts replacement is also significantly less burdensome. with a rated short-circuit breaking capacity up to 275 kA. the new joint IEEE-IEC GCB standard draft recommends visual inspection of main contacts as an efficient “verification of the capability of the GCB to carry the rated normal current”. UAT. The value of having accessibility to the main contacts is enhanced by the fact that contact resistance measurement cannot alone be considered as reliable evidence of an increase in temperature. • GCB enables fast elimination of faults (80 ms) on the energy transmission system (GSUT. the new FKGA2 provides simple access from outside the breaker during a short. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 17 . flexible and more protective There are two major options when designing the electrical single line diagram for a power plant: • the block diagram scheme: the generator output is directly connected to the Generator Step-Up Transformer (GSUT). currently it is only possible to inspect the contacts during complete overhaul sessions of several weeks. busbars). this scheme requires a Station Service Transformer (SST) to feed the unit auxiliaries when the generator is not connected to the grid. where main contacts are hidden in a sealed envelope containing Heat dissipation is reduced throughout the equipment lifetime. and the connection of the unit to the grid is through an HV circuit breaker. Contact inspection consumes a large portion of maintenance time with a classical breaker architecture.M o r e Henry Doulat GCB solutions – lower cost. for large power plants these changeovers may be complex and induce important transients if the two supplies are not in phase. when necessary. whereas with the block diagram scheme. and therefore limits the consequences of the fault. normally scheduled power plant shutdown.
MAIN FEATURE CHAPTER I RESEARCH WITH AN EYE ON THE FUTURE ALSTOM GRID’S MS 3000 Monitoring turns overloading into optimised use In today’s deregulated transmission market. many operators have little choice but to overload their transformers. Continuous real-time monitoring enables them to control overloads without overheating and ageing their transformer insulations. 18 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 .
Insulation cannot be repaired. And it correlates all the analysed data into a single integrated system – for one or more transformers. The ageing process of even thermally upgraded paper. seeking to get the most out of their assets.” 19 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . The end of its life spells the end of the life for the transformer. The paper in the insulation becomes brittle and unable to cope with any of the normal electrical and mechanical wear and tear that is part of the daily grind within a transformer. It can be practically impossible to plan for fast-fluctuating load cycles. short-lived overloads impair its dielectric strength.” The system’s visualisation software incorporates several modelling algorithms for condition diagnosis and prognosis. Sensors placed in a substation’s transformer or transformers transmit readings to a modular fieldbus system that converts the analogue readings to digital data for storage in a real-time database and a historical database. The most important parameters are the measured top oil temperature and the ambient temperature for a given name plate rating. The guide states that long-term overloads age the solid insulation. “Alstom Grid’s MS 3000 online monitoring system is an interactive monitoring and expert system.TRANSFORMeR WiTh MS 3000 CAlCUlATiNG The hOT SPOT The model calculates the hot spot temperature in the winding. Smart grids require overloading Such risks have grown steadily greater in the operating conditions particularly noticed in open. loads greater than the nameplate rating involve a degree of risk and accelerated ageing. analyses and diagnoses in real time. doubles for every 7 K rise in temperature. designed to withstand a top-rated temperature of 110°C with normal ageing. as the IEC loading guide points out. and overloading generally can raise the temperatures of parts like bushing connections so high that it causes thermal runaway. which calls for careful real-time monitoring and condition diagnosis. “It helps understand how and even why the transformers behave the way they do. turned to controlled overloading. However. “Overloading” is by definition undesirable. ever more pronounced with the introduction of renewable energies.” says Bartlomiej Dolata. Utilities. “The historical database is like a medical record. Its excessive heat over time ages transformers’ solid insulation. “and recommends what parts or processes to check and what action to take. particularly wind power. “It supports operators by advising what will happen if they don’t take remedial action.” says Dolata. It monitors. who manages Design & Engineering Monitoring Systems at Alstom Grid’s Competence Centre in Germany. as part of a demand-led smart grid.” says Dolata. overloading is also necessary and the transformers designed in accordance with international standards can also be overloaded as indicated in loading guides such as the IEC 60076-7. They are becoming Loads greater than the nameplate rating involve a degree of risk. deregulated power generation and transmission markets. Nevertheless.
The use in the winding. content in the oil of 4 percent accelerates The importance of continuous overload ageing by a factor of 20.” explains Dolata. which in turn enables it to continuously calculate a transformer’s permissible overload. Its hottest area is known as the “hot spot” and is the real limiting factor. New development of thermal model and pilot projects have been started to calculate the hot spot. Overload is the main factor causing Bartlomiej Dolata < 120 °C < 160 °C -> ageing rate up to 12 (oil bubble temp. Monitoring with MS 3000 is in fact an interactive experience. where IEC 60354 or When moisture in the oil exceeds 2 per60076-7 requires transformers to withstand cent. key FacTors and FiGures The lifetime of its paper insulation determines a transformer’s life expectancy.5 (150%) diagnostic system incorporates a thermal model to assess a power transformer’s overload capabilities within the limits set by the IEC. “With modelling you can determine future developments. 98 °C for nonupgraded paper insulation.” says Dolata. monitoring is thrown into sharp relief by the fact that the hot spot temperature of 120 °C. such tests give the average temperature across all the winding’s parts. high temperatures.5 times the rated current for in the paper and then escape in the form up to 30 minutes at a maximum hot spot of water vapour bubbles. 140°C) < 105 °C < 115 °C 1. easy-to-read visualisation software. the thermal model wouldgowiththeoilfl oworgettrapped has to be improved and advanced.3 (130%) 1. Although windings undergo tests to show that their temperature does not rise above industry standards. under steady state condition.” hot spots a hot topic What actually limits a transformer’s overload capacity is the temperature of its winding. Temperature is one of the main factors of cellulose chain ageing.Thefi gureabove shows the sensitivity to temperature of non-thermally upgraded paper in an oxygen-free environment. If nofi breopticsensorisinstalledinthewinding.whichenablesreliableandfl exible data exchange. nevertheless increases ageing by a factor of 12 compared to running at a temperature of. Its life expectancy is reduced at even faster rates if oxygen or moisture is present.main FeaTure CHAPTEr I rESEArCH WITH AN EyE ON THE fuTurE The system uses IEC standard 61850 for communication with power systems. the insulation’s moisture content the transformer in short-time emergency should also be factored into the thermal loading condition. These bubbles temperature up to 160°C. The implemented thermal model based on principles of IEC standards is ample M o R e for calculating the temperatures of the hot spot and top oil in normal cyclic loading conditions where the load factor does not exceed the IEC´s standard 1. To determine a transformer’s overload capacity its hot spot has to be calculated. for example. the hot spot cannot be accessed for measurement.water models enables dynamic load management. “Users can also see what is going on in the meaningful. As the transformer heats up. For high-precision IEC operation cycle loads Normal cyclic loading – High load cycles offset by low load cycles Hot spot temperature Top oil temperature Maximum load factor Short-time emergency loading – Unusual heavy loads of durations shorter than transformer’s thermal time constant (t≤30minutes) Its hottest area is known as the hot spot. Life expectation for insulation paper versus hot spot temperature although permissible by international standards. moiswith sharp fluctuations in load or heavy ture migrates from the paper into the oil. And even then measurements yield only the current state of overload. the modelling used monitoring of continuous overload capaccalculates the time needed to overload ity. However. causing a possible breakof such continuous overload diagnostic down of the insulation. emergency overloads. Furthermore. residual water may become trapped overloads of 1. The MS 3000 monitoring and 20 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . “And they can use it to generate reports or get help and advice. in order to cope model. Furthermore.3 at a maximum hot spot of 120°C and 105°C for top oil temperature.
” Other contributions to reliability enhancement have been facilitated by the failure-mode analysis that has enabled the engineers to calculate the potential failures and the time The first electricity generating wind turbines were invented at the end of the 19th century. the inside workings are completely sealed and a filtered and dehumidified air flow is injected inside. Daniel Castell. the world’s biggest offshore wind turbine.” says between failures. saving cost and time and allowing corrective action to be taken more rapidly. “Many external parts are made of glass fibre to withstand the elements. in part thanks to the pioneering work of Barcelona-based Ecotécnia. with condition-based maintenance. but all outside-facing components are coated just like a ship. the Haliade 150-6MW with its 150 metre rotor diameter. That required protecting all external surfaces from corrosion due to humidity and salinity.The Haliade 150-6MW A new generation of offshore wind turbines Reliability is one of the most important parameters in the design of offshore wind turbines. In addition. They have come a long way since then. “Also. acquired by Alstom in 2007. the reliability of the Haliade 150-6MW turbine is largely the Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 21 . creating a slight overpressure that avoids corrosion in the sensitive internal components. the Haliade 150-6MW features remote operation and remote diagnosis. With solid references in onshore wind turbines. Offshore Wind Platform Director. Its new vanguard product.” adds Castell. If necessary. Failure-mode identification is then used as the tool to implement risk mitigation actions in order to fulfil the demanding reliability targets. But the extreme environmental conditions pose significant challenges. any resetting is also done from the shore. is at the cutting edge of wind turbine technology. Designed from scratch However. “One of our key challenges was to protect the installation against the elements so that it can operate reliably for 20 years or more. which means that inspection is carried out without the need to be on site. the company has launched into offshore.
one off Saint-Nazaire and two off the Normandy coast in the north of France. the torque.” adds Castell. “Instead of adapting onshore technology to offshore requirements. optimising the yield-mass ratio (MWh per tonne of head mass).” Castell stresses. Operation is programmed to start up in 2016. This means that the generator’s rotational speed is the same as the blade’s rotational speed. producing maximum electrical efﬁciency.” Castell points out. these blades are the largest ever manufactured for THE ALSTOM PURE a wind turbine (the previous record was 12 metres less) and are almost as long as the total wingspan of an Airbus A380. In contrast. A prime example is the directdrive permanent magnet generator. the magnets have been located in the rotor and the windings in the stator only. Thanks to the larger rotor diameter. This design. M O R E ROBUST. it is estimated that the Haliade 150-6MW will show an annual energy production rate 15 percent higher than the current generation of large turbines. Here. with direct drive the generator is directly attached to the turbine rotor.” Commercial potential The ﬁrst Haliade 150-6MW turbine has been installed – onshore – at Le Carnet near the Saint-Nazaire manufacturing location in the west of France. The blades themselves are unique.5 metres in length. A second turbine will be installed offshore in a wind farm off the Belgian coast by the end of 2012 to undergo further tests under real-life conditions. In fact. At 73. Daniel Castell 22 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . and the commercial production in 2014. “This solution is new to offshore wind turbines. As a result. The ALSTOM PURE TORQUE® feature protects the generator and improves its performance by diverting unwanted stresses from the wind safely to the turbine’s tower through the main frame. separates the turbine rotor and generator. is longer even than a standard football ﬁeld. compared to traditional solutions with windings in both the stator and the rotor. “But a gearbox has lots of components such as bearings and gears that make the installation heavier. failure in one line does not affect the others. Two solid bearings transmit the main bending loads to the tower. The direct drive approach is also an innovative wind turbine solution. but it is robust enough to withstand the forces exerted on it and still make the overall installation TORQUE® FEATURE lighter. while a ﬂexible coupling ensures that the generator rotor receives only the turning force. with such huge dimensions. “However. which is already available in Alstom’s onshore turbines. In conventional wind turbine designs. Alstom recently won a major contract from the French government to supply its Haliade wind turbines for three offshore wind farms. and operation can continue at de-rated output. to improve the performance of the large structure. The ﬂuctuating forces and changing directions of the wind in offshore installations could be detrimental to the drive train. the full diameter. This allows the minimum sufﬁcient air gap to be maintained between the generator rotor and stator at all times. It also means that the generator itself is much larger. This makes the generator simpler. the Haliade was completely designed from scratch.MAIN FEATURE CHAPTER I RESEARCH WITH AN EYE ON THE FUTURE outcome of a whole series of innovations. it captures more wind and produces more energy per turn with a lighter solution. RELIABLE AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE – PURE TORQUE® The robustness and performance of the Haliade 150-6MW offshore wind turbine is due to a great extent to the innovative electromechanical layout that combines Alstom’s rotor support technology with a direct drive permanent magnet generator. It captures more wind and produces more energy per turn with a lighter solution. It has successfully completed assembly testing and is currently in commissioning. more robust and more reliable. resulting in the superior reliability of the turbine’s single-ﬂange drive train structure that produces and transmits the electricity. less reliable and more expensive to service. the generator speed is high and a gearbox is used to step up the shaft speed. we decided to locate assembly operations close to the shore – as close as possible to the final location – to minimise transport issues. Production of pre-series will start in 2013. A key feature of the direct drive permanent magnet generator is its failure tolerance. thanks to having three independent generation lines. lighter. at 150 metres.
industrial buildings.Gridcodesdefi netherequirementsforpartiesconnectingtotheelectricity network. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 23 . so they have to be constantly measured. solar panels and energy storage while connecting the microgrid to the main distribution network.main FeaTure CHAPTEr II AHEAD Of Our TIME Innovation and performance Partial discharges in GIS can impact reliability. The city of Nice is installing a demonstration microgrid system. driven in part by the advent of wind energy. Alstom Grid has developed its PDwatch solutions to do just that. They vary from country to country and even within a country. Harmonisation is under way. It will use Alstom Grid’s DERMS system to interconnect smart homes.
new opportunities are arising for periodic or permanent measurement of partial discharge. a parallel technology was developed. The use of gas insulation in the power 24 system network has developed rapidly thanks to its compact nature.MAIN FEATURE CHAPTER II AHEAD OF OUR TIME As customers increasingly push to adopt condition-based maintenance for Gas-Insulated Substations Measuring partial discharge in GIS (GIS). they generate electromagnetic waves that propagate through the switchgear. This results in rather large installations. for example sulphur hexaﬂuoride (SF6). using a gas. Measuring partial discharges When partial discharges occur (resulting in voltage drops of less than a nanosecond). from moving parts in the system such as breakers or disconnectors. low maintenance requirement and reliable operation. at high pressure. Alstom Grid electrical engineer. SF6 has excellent dielectric properties and is used as the insulating medium between the phases and between the phases and earth. the Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS). Traditionally. As a consequence. But the reliability of the GIS equipment can be undermined by the presence of free particles that originate mainly from the mechanical vibrations. In fact. making them difficult to house in urban environments where space is at a premium. “they are rare. depending on the voltage level. To overcome this constraint. being shut down. These waves can be measured by means of dif- Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . Repeated partial discharges are capable of triggering a progressive carbonisation of spacers that can slowly build up over years until they produce a flashover. But the clearances required between phases and between phases and earth are huge. a GIS is much more compact. high voltage substations are air insulated.” Repairs – often involving the manufacture of speciﬁc parts – can take several weeks to complete. or parts of it. gas-insulated substations can be down to one-tenth the size of their air-insulated cousins. or failure of the switchgear insulation struc- ture resulting in the entire installation. or even from the manufacturing process. but can locally generate high electric ﬁelds exceeding the structure’s design limits and initiate partial discharges (PD) forming free electrons and ions in the insulation. According to David Gautschi.
UhF range measurements Different types of equipment are available to carry out measurements in the UHF range.” Demand for this level of monitoring is particularly high in the Middle East. The disadvantage of using this device is that it is large and not suitable for online monitoring. Alstom Grid has developed its own solution. though less pronounced in Europe. 25 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . However. “In the medium frequency range. Detecting partial discharges in lower frequency ranges can be carried out by taking measurements with acoustic sensors.GAS-InSUlAteD SWItChGeAR ferent technologies operating in a variety of frequency ranges. measurements are usually made by means of a coupling capacitor. The added advantage here is that this allows the whole substation to be permanently monitored and the location of PD activity can also be pinpointed. called PDwatch. Says Gautschi. between a few kHz and a few MHz. where utilities are more hesitant to make the additional outlay required. partial discharges in pressurised gas can be measured in the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) range between 100 MHz and 2 GHz.
coronas. “and uses fast algorithms to provide very high accuracy. in a band with low external noise. can be achieved in the following way: the measurementsmadebythesensorsfi ttedintheGIS are compared with the results of those installed in other compartments or those of an additional external antenna. This makes it possible to detect and eliminate emerging dielectric faultsbeforeafl ashovercanoccur. The PDwatch system can be used either for periodic measurement (PDwatch portable) or for permanent (online) condition monitoring.Itispermanentlyfi tted into the substation and can be interrogated remotely at any time. The second method has the obvious advantage of tracking all partial discharge activity over time and therefore offering a better basis on which to decide when maintenance is required rather than relying only on spot checks using a portable system. Once the partial discharge activity has been measured. “Part of the complexity is that partial discharge patterns will vary according to the switchgear design. Alstom Grid is going to make its databases available to customers. The PDwatch Portable offers frequency spectrum and time analysis. It is a two-in-one Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . The suppression of external noises.” pDwatch portable UhF detector PDwatch Portable is designed to measure campaigns in substations at the commissioning stage or periodically in the course of the substation's life. It also maintains a good signal level. “So it is essential to have access to the manufacturer's database to make sure that partial discharge information will be accurately interpreted.“Thebenefi tofmeasurementsin the UHF range is the effective avoidance of external noise. It can also be programmed to generate alarms at specifi edabsolutevalueandtimethresholds. for example in the GSM mobile phone range.” 26 pDwatch online partial discharge monitoring The PDwatch Online UHF monitoring system records and displays the UHF signals generated by partial discharges in a gasinsulatedsubstation. free potentials and insulator voids. the next task – and the more complicated one – is to interpret the partial discharge patterns and classify them into degrees of severity.Used with suitable sensors. as generally required by standard wide band monitoring systems. this system can detect critical defects such as particles.” explains Jean-François Penning. This method avoidsusingadditionalbandstopfi lterson the input ports. The centre of competence for the PDwatch product is located in the BHT unit in Aix-les-Bains.” notes Gautschi. The frequency range can be chosen to measure outdoor application of the above sensor. “The latest system is very advanced.” points out Gautschi. PDwatch project manager. France.main FeaTure CHAPTEr II AHEAD Of Our TIME UHF sensor installed in single phase GIS.
The transformers have been in service since 2011. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 27 . the cost of the device has been dramatically reduced and its small footprintnowallowsittoberetrofi tted to older substations. Alstom Grid’s latest design uses a conical antenna with a small footprint. pDwatch Manager device. Its sensitivity has been tested under laboratory conditions in different calibration cells as well as after having been installed in the switchgear. During the development of the sensor. The portable UHF detector and its laptopPCarefi ttedintoatravellingcase and supplied with all necessary cables and accessories. It offers an extremely high degree of accuracy and high linearity. These latest developments have resulted in an adapted version of the sensor being used in large power transformers to monitor partial discharges in oil. It includes a constantly updated library of partial discharges that helps to identify PD patterns.M o R e David Gautschi sensors For measurinG ParTial discharGe acTiviTy The Pdwatch Portable UHF detector records and displays the UHF signals generated by partial discharges in a GIS. It can be used locally on the central unit's humanmachine interface (HMI) PC or run from a remote PC via the Internet. Furthermore. It has the added advantage of saving users a considerable amount of time by generating test reports automatically. for example. the existing calibration methods for GIS sensors were tested. This version has been installed in 800 MVA transformer poles of the Swiss utility Alpiq. By using this equipment at regular intervals. be used as a conventional voltage detector to detect whether a particular phase is energised or not. and a new high performance calibration cell has been developed to carry out tests when no bays are available to carry out this procedure in situ. offering frequency spectrum analysis and time analysis. Different types of sensor can be used to measure partial discharges in a gas-insulated substation. and it can. Its output has an integrated low frequency cut-off so that no power frequency voltage is visible on the sensor connector. The output can also be adapted to meet customer needs. This software tool enables event records to be managed while at the same time facilitating defect recognition. Thenewsensorhasbeenfi ttedinalltypes of Alstom Grid gas-insulated substation andtestedforuseinretrofi tprojects. developing dielectric faults can also be detected and eliminated before complete breakdown occurs.
towns. delivering integrated distributed renewable energy. improved grid reliability. 28 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . It describes them as independent.MAIN FEATURE CHAPTER II AHEAD OF OUR TIME MICROGRID ENERGY MANAGEMENT TSO Weather forecast DSO PRODUCTION. STORAGE AND CONSUMPTION Network energy management Supplier ISLANDING STORAGE AND LOAD SHEDDING DEMAND RESPONSE Nice Grid – testing the future Fast Company has called Microgrids “the impatient upstarts of our energy future”. campuses and even individuals. small-scale electricity systems for communities. personal energy usage data and customised control.
LINKY smart meter supervision Network management LINKY architecture Customer load management Energy management Operated by DSO Storage (batteries) Network operation LINKY data concentrator Local smart management Islanding management MASSIVE INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES LINKY smart meter The objectives of Nice Grid are threefold: to test massive photovoltaic integration. commercial and industrial end users are expected to participate in the experiment. enable islanding for secure supply. The project has been selected as one of the six smart grid demonstrators of the European Union’s Grid4EU programme. The project will study and 29 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . and provide demand response for ﬂexible consumption. and other industrial partners and innovative SMEs. Nice Grid. The project. EDF (the electricity supplier). battery maker Saft. is one of the rare demonstrations of microgrids in the world. A total of 1.500 residential. which is expected to last four years. Although they are a hot topic. Alstom. It will test an innovative architecture for medium and low voltage distribution networks with smart houses capable of man- aging their electricity needs and new architectures called Virtual Power Plants to run them. brings together ERDF (the French distribution network operator). a living laboratory located near Nice in the south of France. The Nice Grid project is one of 15 smart grid demonstration projects in which Alstom is actively participating around the world. few fully commercialised state-of-the-art microgrids withsignifi cantgenerationcapacityare actually up and running.
” explains Said ERDF and EDF have to integrate distribKayal. technical and social issues related to microgrids of the future. and tomorrow Microgrids are the building blocks of tomorrow’s smart cities. gathering them into a single integrated microgrid. smart industrial buildings.. Local microgrids and smart campuses will be part of smart districts. Also to be studied is the operation of an independent consumption zone equipped with energy storage resources and isolated from the main network. will be integrated at the local level. New sources of renewable energies such as biomass and microhydro solutions. The current distribution network is unable to accommodate this new type of energy flow. “DERMS will allow for more daily grid and commercial operations. smart industrial buildings. . Smart Grid Innovation Manager at uted energy resources (DER) into their Alstom Grid. energy storage and a large Connected to the microgrid? number of solar panels. Nice Grid will interconnect smart homes.” he adds.Main Feature chapter Ii Ahead of our time M o r e Said Kayal Microgrids today… The balance of energy on the grid will rely on larger volumes of distributed energy resources (renewable energy. will eventually be made up of autonomous grids within an overall smart grid able to survive major disturbances. Tomorrow’s energy management systems will be designed around a decentralised. optimised energy consumption in the Nice Grid will attempt to answer their 30 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . which in turn will be part of smart cities. multilayer architecture. energy storage and a large number of solar panels. test the economic. microgrid and connect it to the main ERDF distribution network. consumption and storage of electricity. where microgrids provide the local intelligence and optimisation. DERMS “Nice Grid will use the Alstom Grid Distributed Energy Resource Management Solution (DERMS) to interconnect smart homes. They take full advantage of the flexibility of “prosumers” (consumers who also produce electricity) while integrating new distributed energy resources and storage solutions. consumption and storage appears to be the right approach to avoid massive investments in the distribution network. Fragile areas susceptible to blackouts. as well as new storage solutions. smart local optimisation is needed.. who will become agents for their own production. while maintaining the quality and security of energy supply. Because today’s distribution network does not accommodate these new types of energy flows. demand response and storage). so local optimisation and balance between production. with each layer optimising the layer below to build up the overall smart grid infrastructure. These include the optimisation and use of medium and low voltage networks with a massive contribution from decentralised and variable renewable energy sources (principally photovoltaic) as well as the behaviour of customers. as well as densely populated cities.
commercial aggregator. Another key challenge of the project is to enable consumers to become active participants in the local energy balance via demand response. storage or demand response).A nice place to be when the sun shines. acting as a kind of laboratory for experiments that are not possible on a working national grid. The DSO (ERDF) will be able to route Customers will become agents for their own electricity production. while maintaining the quality and security of the network. This principle works on the basis that if the distributed network experiences a blackout or other extreme conditions. It produces only 40 percent of its energy needs for the moment. Nice Grid will attempt to design and validate a new model of energy to where it is needed. optimisation and dispatch around an MV/LV grid node. and its management. In extreme situations. and end users will be able to monitor and control their energy consumption via smart meters. consumption and storage. the microgrid can also be islanded. In this way. Overcoming the challenges The south-eastern region of France where Nice Grid is to be located is an “electric peninsula”. energy optimisation via storage solutions will be pushed to the maximum. tems and centralised demand management centres in order to achieve this. but it already has a high concentration of solar panels connected to the grid. as it is an independent autonomous network. and the distribution system operator (DSO) at the microgrid level.” Kayal specifies. the microgrid will continue to draw power from internal DER (solar panels. The project integrates storage sys- interactions between energy actors: consumer. however. the Nice Grid project will demonstrate the impact of lowering energy demand and reducing CO2 emissions. making it an ideal location for experiment. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 31 . business needs in terms of DER enrolment. “One of the key challenges of the project includes the smooth injection of decentralised and intermittent renewable energy into the distribution grid. The demonstration will capture around 2 MW of installed photovoltaic capacity in the region.
“Things became complicated with market deregulation. planning for grid development and reinforcement.coveringdefi nitionoftechnical. Generally. others concise (30-40 pages for one of the German operators). Market deregulation changed the landscape For decades. Yet. and different private and public power producers or utilities connected to the grid. generators and operators. “For example. build and operate its products on a large scale. these national grid codes adapted easily to the growing international transfer of electricity. Alstom Grid Network Consulting Manager.” explains Daudi Mushamalirwa. Relationships between a power transmission system operator (TSO) and all the users of the transmission system are set out in a document called a “grid code”. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . they all have more or less the sameframework. A country may have a single grid code (France.” adds Mushamalirwa. when more and more players entered electric systems. In a deregulated electricity market. Even though the same voltage levels and synchronous frequencies (50 Hz or 60 Hz) are used across the globe. these codes are today harmonised in each country leading to what can be called “national codes”. Some are very precise (over 600 pages for the UK grid code). rulesandlawsthatdefi nethetechnicalrequirements for parties connected to public electricity systems – suppliers. and metering policies and systems for power and energy transactions in the grid. data exchange. for example) or several (as in Germany). Wind farm integration into the system is likely to accelerate the trend. design and operational criteria for grid access and use. consumers. This term is commonly used to refer to the suite of codes. a power industry company has to consider a range of grid code requirements from a variety of countries. “This is the case even inside Europe. each TSO has developed its own grid code. scheduling and dispatch of 32 supply and demand resources. As a result. the allowable voltage variation A powerful driver comes from the wind energy industry. to design. It specifies day-to-day procedures for both planning and operational purposes and covers both normal and exceptional circumstances. Historically. system operation criteria and standards. their operating values generally differ.main FeaTure CHAPTEr II AHEAD Of Our TIME wind power helps push grid code harmonisation grid code harmonisation is a necessary step towards maximising network efficiency and fair competition among suppliers.
whowillbenefi tfromreducedequipment and connection costs.andforsystem operators.” says Daudi Mushamalirwa. This results in unnecessar y extra costs and efforts from the power industry. The operation of nuclear.commonlyshareddefi nitionsofthe terms used for wind turbines. wind farms and other equipment. Ultimately. Moreover. code requirements can often be insuffi cientlyclearornotalwaystechnicallyjustifi edoreconomicallysound. between -8% and +10% in Germany and between -13% and +5% in Ireland. whereas a common approach could deliver a technically equivalent solution. Harmonisation is progressing slowly.andgenerallybespecifi edso that these can be met at minimum overall system cost. ParT oF The French Task Force For wind Farm Grid connecTion Gimélec. is launching a “task force” in order to support the grid connection for wind farms in France and its interest infaircompetition.whowillbe required only to develop common hardware and software platforms. fossil-fired or hydroelectric power plants can be planned and controlled in order to meet the daily load curve of the electricity demand on the grid. Alstom Grid will be one of the leaders of this task force. “However. There are also potential reliability concerns if a large amount of wind power trips off the grid because of grid faults. who willbenefi tfromlowercosts. alsTom Grid.” According to the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA). whose operation is dependent on weather conditions and can be controlled only in a limited way. but the situation is not the same with power plants using renewable energies such as wind (or solar) energy. and should be employed wherever possible and appropriate. “there is also some desire that wind contribute some grid support services such as reactive power or frequency and voltage control. a powerful driver comes from the wind energy industry. they should balancecostandbenefi tsoftechnical performance. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 33 . harmonised technicalrequirementswillmaximiseeffi ciency for all parties. And as wind power is becoming a major generation source across the EU (a wind energy penetration level of 12 percent is expected in 2020). This harmonisation strategy will be of particularbenefi tformanufacturers. especially those who have yet to develop their own grid code requirements for wind power plants. Promoting the electrical industry’s point of view is essential to ensure that grid code requirements are comprehensive and transparent so as to avoid misinterpretation and make sure they are as explicit as possible and include clear. which groups 41 TSOs from 34 countries. automation and related services that brings together 230 companies from the electrical industry.M o R e Daudi Mushamalirwa at 400 kV is between -10% and +5% in Austria. for developers.“Asaninfl uential member of Gimélec. requirements for wind power plants should not be excessive or discriminatory.” Developers that operate in more than one country have to decipher and understand a number of grid codes with clauses that are formulated differently yet perform essentially the same function. for consumers.”saysMushamalirwa. which urgently needs code clarifi cationandunifi cation. leaving an opening for ancillary services. whose objective is to make the French electrical industry into a forceful lobby and have a strong voice in setting up regulatory requirements and incentives for wind power and other renewable energy plants. Requirements should also focus on the essential aspects of technical performance. Manufacturers frequently have to develop tailor-made software and hardware to achieve compliance in a particular region. This is under way at the international and European levels through standardisation efforts by associations such as the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). the French association for electrical equipment. Wind energy: a powerful driver for harmonisation Deregulation and internationalisation of electricity networks have led to an increasing need to develop a harmonised set of grid code requirements.
the surge in renewable energy and the arrival of microgrids. These advances are now being transferred to distribution networks. The New Zealand utility. Transpower. commissioned Alstom Grid to design and develop a special reactive power compensator to be installed across its national network.Smart products and services 34 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 Transmission systems have changed rapidly due to technology advances. . A new technology centre in Shanghai is capable of testing thyristor valve modules that are based on six-inch thyristors and weigh over 20 tonnes. regulatory pressures.
TODAy AND TOMOrrOW the MICoM p40 AGIle Transmitting the beneﬁts of automation and protection technologies The emergence of smart grids initially concerned transmission networks. and even some modern devices for system protection still apply concepts that were developed almost a century ago. but many of the issues identified in this sector are likely to be important in distribution systems too. and many of its innovations in protection have been adopted or are being explored for distribution. Transmission has taken the lead in this. too. client demands and the growing importance of DC grids. long before commercial power systems were developed. For this reason Alstom Grid is looking at experience and techniques from transmission automation and protection that can be applied to the design and operation of distribution networks. change is rapid and accelerating in the transmission and distribution sector due to a combination of technological progress (especially in computer hardware and software). as well as distributed inputs from renewables and microgrids operating in parallel with the main network. introduction of any new concept is a milestone. According to Ponniah Sankarakumar. regulatory pressures. That said. and the Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 .main FeaTure CHAPTEr III MAKING ENErGy AVAILABLE TO ALL. The high reliability demanded of protection technologies means that well-established approaches still have their place. Regional Marketing & Business Development Director for Alstom’s Substation Automation 35 Automatic devices for protecting electrical systems date from the 1830s.
which in turn would improve the three Rs: reliability. usb front port transferable technologies Firstonhislistisfl exible/Programmable Scheme Logic (PSL) to optimise facility utilisation by allowing relay users to confi gureanindividualprotectionschemeto suit their particular application. with the plant loads prioritised and grouped. Another promising avenue according to Sankarakumar is to use functions already found in transmission systems to build more supervision into distribution level devices. In order to minimise the effects of under-frequency on the system. meaning the logic is processed only when any one of its inputs changes. a multi-stage load shedding scheme may be used. no battery No heavy metal. lead-free process. with the highest priority group being the last one to be disconnected. “This would mean earlier triggers for predictive maintenance.” Loadmanagementcanalsobenefi tfrom increased automation. resilience and responsiveness of the system as a whole. DNP3 and Courier.” ethernet ready cybersecurity NErC compliant. and only that part of the PSL that is affected by the change is processed. high level of recyclability Target more than 60 %. the load groups are disconnected sequentially. The execution of the PSL is event-driven.Automationcanhelptodefi ne the optimal length of time that loads are disconnected while making sure not to reconnect loads that will cause the problem to occur again immediately. and protection relays need to offer modern communication protocols such as IEC 61850. IEC 61850. substation physical devices are accessed via Ethernet. Communication is key Information exchange is fundamental to all the new techniques. During an under-frequency condition. TODAy AND TOMOrrOW Solutions. These logical devicescanbemappedtospecifi ccom36 unleaded Lead-free components. Compliant with current notebook PCs.main FeaTure CHAPTEr III MAKING ENErGy AVAILABLE TO ALL. although it is always reasonable to start with what’s obvious. “imagination is the only limit to the extent transmission protection technology can be transferred to distribution. and the actual devices are a collection of logical devices made up of logical nodes. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . In this protocol.
as Sankarakumar emphasises.M o R e shipping carbon footprint Minimised transit weight and volume. However. Electricity networks would have remained expensive. The P40 Agile protects networks. Because the various hardware and software components are well known. intelligent electronic devices. but now they can be linked using standard IT infrastructures Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 37 . but Alstom Grid is helping to improve performance at each link in the production. and we have to have secure communications within substation environments to balance the needs of interoperability and cyber-security. animals and the environment. has been optimised to reduce the carbon footprint during transit.sothatthebenefi tscan be realised. One way we’re doing this is to incorporate cyber-security measures into IEDs. munication services such as GOOSE (Generic Object-Oriented Substation Events) that can bypass the TCP/IP protocol to present substation events in real time and support the exchange of a wide range of common data organised by a dataset.TheP40isredefi ningprotection relaysforasmarter. control and reliability they also have some drawbacks. in line with emerging standards. Many innovations in protection are being explored for distribution. avoiding potentially fatal accidents. too. resPonsive and resPonsible The energy sector is facing pressure from regulators and citizens alike to reduce its environmental impact and act more in accordance with the principles of social responsibility. cyber attacks are made easier. and they can simultaneously target a number of installations all using similar equipment. specialised and limited if they had had to rely on proprietary technologies and software as in the old days. The MiCOM P40 Agile protection relays provide a practical example of what can bedone. It detects and shuts off downed overhead lines. but it also protects people. using systems that were incomprehensible to the outsider. and present a whole set of new issues. including packaging. “we must take care of constraints such as size. the need for extra hardware is reduced. in-service carbon footprint reduced power consumption. transmission and distribution chain.” Ponniah Sankarakumar micom P40 aGile: reliable. As Sankarakumar points out: “Protection relays are now IEDs. withdrawability. and the device does not need any resident battery. to increase the reliability of the system. cost and the suitability for refurbishing previous generationrelays. The MiCOM P40 Agile is 85 percent recyclable and is manufactured in a lead-free process.” Majorbenefi tscanbereapedwhentransmission protection technology is built in to distribution relays. But an experienced partner (such as Alstom Grid) is needed because. The MiCoM Agile bridges the gap between transmission technologies and distribution systems. Power dissipation is the lowest among comparable products. Efforts to combat greenhouse gases and other forms of air pollution receive the most attention. The control systems of electrical grids used to be isolated.butalsoinitsdesignand manufacturing. thereby eliminating a source of heavy metals and a potential source of non-reliability. Even the product weight. With the universal availability of modern interfaces in laptops for parameterisation and troubleshooting. and protocols. although shared protocols and standardised hardware present numerous advantages for network design. among each other and to other networks. for both critical and noncritical communications.moreeffi cientenergy future not just by operating more effi ciently.
it is not just the distances that are growing: the transmitted power of HVDC schemes is increasing rapidly too.375 km Rio Madeira line will carry electricity from the Amazon region to São Paulo. will be using new thyristor valves designed by Alstom Grid and tested in a gigantic new test facility in China that is one of the few places in the world capable of carrying out such complicated work. 2.Main feature chapter IiI Making energy available to all. leader of Alstom Grid’s Valve Design group in Stafford. both countries cover huge areas. But China won’t hold the record for much longer. Alstom is a key player in both the above projects. points out. bringing power from the Xiangjiaba dam to Shanghai. the world’s tenth largest city in GDP terms. UK. Brazil’s Rio Madeira hydro project Big new thyristor valves meet big new test centre China and Brazil have a lot in common. As a world leader in hydro equipment and services. That is why the world’s longest HVDC transmission line is in China. since next year the 2. And as Russell Preedy. in both cases the hydro dams are thousands of kilometres away from the economic powerhouses. 38 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . and both have considerable hydroelectric potential. today and tomorrow The test hall at Alstom Grid’s China Technology Centre. designing and implementing solutions for the challenges such vast networks pose.071 km away. with both current and voltage now at levels never seen before in the market. Unfortunately. Both economies are growing fast.
The H400 consists of a number of liquid-cooled valve modules. The clamping system facilitates replacement of a thyristor without opening any power or coolant connections.” he says. each comprising two “valve sections” of up to six thyristors. “This has a considerable effect on the design of the main items of high voltage equipment in the HVDC station. Glass-Reinforced Plastic (GRP) tension bands are used to tightly secure the assembly and to provide the high clamping load necessary for good electrical and thermal contacts between thyristors and heatsinks.” New thyristors.Suspended thyristor valves in the test hall. To accommodate larger thyristors in the H400 valve. Alstom’s H400 series of thyristor valves has been designed to take advantage of both 125 and 150 mm thyristors. plus limiting reactors for rate of current change (di/dt) and gating electronics. three modules are required per valve and the Multiple Valve Unit (MVU) consists of four valves associated with one phase of the AC system (a “quadrivalve”). the HVDC valves need to be modified to accommodate larger devices to utilise the new technology. The five or six thyristors within a valve section are held together between high-efficiency liquid-cooled heatsinks as one clamped assembly. “not least the high voltage thyristor valves that form the heart of the converter. together with assemblies of damping capacitors and damping resistors to provide voltage grading. For a typical large back-to-back installation.500 Adc because the largest-diameter silicon on which thyristors could be based was 125 mm (5 inches). A number of such modules are connected in series to make up a complete valve. the thyristor heatsinks. 150 mm (6 inch) thyristors have recently become commercially available and are changing the rules with respect to current ratings. clamping mechanism and Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 39 . new challenges As thyristor sizes increase. However. Six-inch thyristors have recently become commercially available. Until recently few HVDC converters had operated at current ratings above 3.
notably the GRP tension bands.200 kV AC and 1. safety considerations. which has the highest energy consumption in the country. The new €47 million China Technology. as well as limited dielectric tests up to 300 kV. is designed to help the country meet growing energy needs without boosting greenhouse gas emissions. “the sheer size of the equipment involved also creates its own problems. and smart grids.375 kilometres. That’s why you see those large cranes. Preedy and his team are doubly satisﬁed. Designing systems to transmit DC over long d i s t a n ce s p o s e s numerous technical problems. And there are very stringent requirements on clearance too.150 MW over a 600 kV DC line. The converter stations will be integrated into the world’s longest DC transmission line. the Amazon’s biggest tributary. “The equipment to be tested is extremely bulky to begin with. suspended from the ceiling. and will be integrated into a much larger power transmission system. Preedy explains why. so you need a big building just to accommodate it.100 kV DC. several metres in each direction. Then you have to add the cooling equipment. demanding speciﬁcations for HV power supply. damping components all had to be up-rated.MAIN FEATURE CHAPTER III MAKING ENERGY AVAILABLE TO ALL. and all that requires space. covering 2. but most of the space seems to be empty. The higher clamping load requirement (up from 135 kN to 200 kN) meant that the clamping system needed to be redesigned. One of the most striking things about the CTC test hall is that it covers 54. The Rio Madeira project. as Preedy points out. Alstom Grid has completed manufacture and testing of the ﬁrst nine (of 28) HVDC converter transformers for Brazil’s $15 billion project to harness the hydro power of the Rio Madeira. The facility has been designed to accommodate very large electrical equipment such as the new valves. You’re testing valves weighing over 20 tonnes. and the vast amount of expensive supplies and auxiliary components means that very few test facilities in the world are actually capable of carrying out full dielectric valve type-tests on large valves. with a UHV testing hall and R&D platforms that include scientiﬁc simulation tools. The Alstom Grid bi-pole converter station will allow transmission of 3. including above the test object in the case of the thyristor valves. not least how to test components weighing several tonnes. connecting the Madeira Jirau and Santo Antonio hydro power plants to the Brazilian national grid. However. The project is the cornerstone of the Brazil-Bolivia-Peru hub of the Initiative for the Integration of South American Infrastructure proposed by the governments of South America.” The equipment to be tested is extremely bulky. Testing. and the new thyristor valves successfully underwent testing to criteria exceeding the requirements of IEC 60700. auxiliary test equipment and all the cables running back to the control cubicle. the disc springs and the end spreader-plates (end-cheeks).000 square 40 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 .” The combination of architectural requirements. climate chamber. testing Alstom Grid’s Valve Test Facility (VTF) in Stafford can perform all periodic ﬁring and extinction tests required by the standards. started in 2008. up to 1. a temperature rise testing lab and material testing labs. Centre (CTC) in Shanghai focuses on UHV transmission. TAKING POWER FROM WHERE IT IS TO WHERE IT’S NEEDED metres. and supported by Brazil’s National Development Bank. to connect the new hydro power plants of the Madeira River (Santo Antonio and Jirau) to Brazil’s south-eastern region. TODAY AND TOMORROW M O R E Russel Preedy The Alstom H400 valve module. and it too passed with flying colours. And second because the new test facility was being used for the first time. for instance how to deal with ohmic losses. ﬁrst because the tests prove that their design is capable of operating well beyond real operating conditions.
one of the sites where the Alstom Grid rPC is installed.The Christchurch/Islington 220/66 kV substation. real-time power system simulation Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 41 . Generic modularity for reactive power control implementation The rPC simulator side by side with the Islington Local rPC. Although commercial solutions exist. the uniqueness of their project prompted New Zealand’s Transpower to commission a tailor-made solution from Alstom Grid. is vital for reactive power controller development and testing.
show that the most cost-effective means of dealing with voltage stability and dynamic reactive power issues in New Zealand is to use dynamic shunt compensation. such as Static VAr Compensators (SVC). but less. and coordinating numerousdynamicandstaticdevicesisdiffi cult. 2011. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . At the same time. this means that the number of reactive power devices will increase in major load areas.3 struck Canterbury on New Zealand’s South Island. However. these lines are increasingly loaded to the point where they’re approaching their thermal capability. ogy to be readily applicable to a wide range of installations. but the country’s shape poses systemic problems for electricity transmission. Planning studies by the national grid owner-operator.” Voltage stability limits the maximum multiple systems hierarchically grouped by region and area. As Alstom Grid Australia’s Project Engineering Manager Dr Ping Wang explains. “the network is long and skinny with major loads connected to generation centres by relatively long transmission lines. Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM) or synchronous condensers. Seismic activity is the aspect of New Zealand’s physical geography that has the most dramatic impact on the power sector.SoTranspower commissioned Alstom Grid to design and develop an RPC that would be installed first in Christchurch and subsequently throughout the whole national network. an earthquake of magnitude 6. utilisation of transmission line thermal capability. A Reactive Power Controller (RPC) can be employed to ensure optimal coordination. Underground power cables were badly damaged. the main challenge was to “devise a generic principle in both control concept and engineering implementation so that the design can be rolled out easily to other parts of Transpower’s network without major hardware and software reengineering. TODAy AND TOMOrrOW On February 22.” The control algorithm has to be independent of a given substation’s physical topol- Customer satisfaction is the best gauge of a project’s success. Overhead lines and substations suffered too. Transpower. For Dr Wang’s design team. Major catastrophes are rare. but no suitable equipment existed for the NewZealandconfi guration. The final configuration will involve 42 Islington HMI cubicles at the Christchurch substation. killing more than 100 people and causing extensive destruction. control prioritieshavetobeconfi gurabletoeasily address the particular requirements of a The real-time simulator proved to be a key success factor. communicating with the national SCADA system. To maximise asset use.main FeaTure CHAPTEr III MAKING ENErGy AVAILABLE TO ALL.
it would have taken four seconds for the RPC to return substation 220 kV voltage to within the deadband. and support the addition of new substation equipment into the RPC scheme.After the successful completion of type tests. For example. reactive power and behaviour of dynamic plant. The solution was to reduce the slope of the Static VAr Compensator local controller (not part of the RPC system) so that its deadband was lower than the RPC’s. what’s needed is what Dr Wang describes as “generic modularity”. the RPC was type tested to prove its generality. The simulator was particularly useful for testing the RPC under abnormal system conditions because. Real-time simulator The stringent performance requirements and the critical role the RPC is required to play meant that the design and the control system had to be tested extensively with a power system interface that simulates the South Island system in real time. In other words.” Customer satisfaction is the best gauge of a project’s success. evaluate new control strategies before deployment. The tests lasted about six months. including all static and dynamic plant. It also includes a model of the South Island network reduced to a level where the simulator can run in real time but retains all crucial system characteristics. or changed control strategies. The final model closely matches the complete South Island system with regard to fault levels at the substations.withouthavingtofi rst wait for the RPC to issue raise or lower commands. factory acceptance tests revealed unforeseen issues such as little-known characteristics of the fi rmware. “many tests cannot be repeated during RPC commissioning due to power system securityconcernsandpotentialconfl icts with Transpower’s principal performance obligations. Dr Ping Wang imProvinG The rPc simulaTor ThrouGh FacTory TesTinG Apart from verifying that the RPC met contractspecifi cationsandwasfi tfor site installation. transformers with on-load tap changers. the voltage will still return to within the normal RPC deadband after a few hundred milliseconds.andalsoallowedchangesto be made that will improve RPC performance. as Dr Wang says. and it would have required considerable effort to tailor an off-the-shelf product to the needs of the project. Due to the requirement for generic design and implementation. switchgear and loads.M o R e given substation or area. expandability. Their simulator contains detailed models of the substations. The real-time simulator proved to be a key success factor for the RPC project.andtofi ne-tune the control strategy and parameters. system confi gurationsandcontrolstrategies. because of unnecessary capacitor switching during voltage excursions. So Dr Wang and his team decided to develop their own simulator. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 43 . the simulator was then used to factory test thespecifi cfunctionalitiesoftheRPCfor Christchurchproduction. For minor voltage excursions. and capacity to handle all types of plant. station topologies. changeability. which was verified by detailed PSCAD/EMTDC® modelling. Buying or renting a commercial simulator would have been expensive. For major voltage excursions the capacitor would be switched to assist voltage control after four seconds via the RPC voltage control loop. Dr Ping Wang and his teamarejustifi ablyproudthatTranspower is keeping the simulator – even after RPC commissioning is completed – as part of an RPC testing and development platform that can also be used to provide operator training. This ensures that the SVC will always use its full range in output to control the 220 kV voltage following voltage excursions.
we can expect renewable integration and smart meter deployment to drive near-term DR/DER increases. distributed and inhomogeneous. Other factors include user behaviour and effective environmental policies. as well as technology/ business advances enabling those choices. communications. while electricity producers need to shave peak demand for cost reasons. wil Kling My 30 years in the industry made me aware of the importance of consumption management and demand response. And as a professor now. The focus of consumption management is on demand response (DR). Also. They include modelling 44 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . especially with residential users.” Prof. optimisation algorithms and predictive control techniques. What is your experience of consumption management? “Consumption is fragmented. aggregators will take over the role of consumption management by contracting services of large numbers of residential customers and coordinating them.” david Sun What are the drivers for managing consumption? What is the likely future for electricity consumption management? The main drivers are the economy and the environment. etc. I lead research programmes that include demand-side management and demand response. Simulations and pilot projects show that demand-response mechanisms can provide considerable support for the integration of renewable energy sources and help establish efficient electricity delivery systems. distributed and inhomogeneous. Probably.. Consumption is fragmented. there are still many technical and nontechnical challenges.cross-PersPecTives Consumption management as part of grid management Three specialists give their views on consumption management What are the challenges with managing consumption? consumption management in the future? Critical technologies are continuous twoway communications. Long-term DR drivers are customer expectations for choices on how their energy usage is managed. “demand management is likely to expand as utilities increase their focus on customer service. What are the drivers of consumption management? And what are the challenges? What technologies and non-technical factors will contribute to effective Whilesignifi cantprogresshasbeenmadein areas such as smart meters. Smart grids create opportunities for close to real-time adaptation of demand to the actual system status. distribution system operators (DSOs) can leverage consumption management to increase asset utilisation. The challenge is to zoom in on the fl exible(non-critical)portionofconsumption andinfl uencethebehaviourofconsumers through price incentives or automated actions. developments in process automation and two-way communication will stimulate an active participation in the demand side and local balancing of consumption and production. The success of environmental policies and carbon reduction targets depends on effectively managing consumption. with natural extensions to distributed energy resources (DER). With continued regulatory reform and smart grid projects. who account for one-third of total demand. In addition.
Even though DR is still relatively small. tion of individual appliances. which shows each customer’s consumption in almost real time. What future do you see for electricity consumption management? What are the consumption management drivers? What is the likely future for electricity consumption management? Demand management is likely to expand as utilities increase their focus on customer service.” Miguel Angel Sanchez-Fornié Iberdrola has focused on active demand response for some time. They enable consumers to become active rather than passive and react to supply based on needs. But with more information exchange among devices. and classical utility customers. We have smart metering. professor of electrical energy Systems Miguel Angel Sanchez-Fornié. Energy storage devices. And we have the telecoms technology to transmit all this data. In Spain. The real challenge in managing consumption is the regulatory environment. it will depend on regulation and the advances of aggregation. distributed renewable generation. and also the capability to control consump- Interoperability and telecommunications are critical for consumption management and smart grids in general. This will lead to expansion of control room IT needed to serve operators in the multi-tier operations environment. but it will happen. There are growing interests in renewable integration. However. For example. energy suppliers/aggregators. The strongest driver is the need to improve effi ciencyinenergyconsumption. different telecoms technologies and interoperability standards. industrial consumers are already implementing measures to manage consumption. Chief Scientist Professor wil Kling. It will happen. forecasting and scheduling of intrinsically stochastic DR. and monitoring and control of these devices in a multi-tier environment where dynamic aggregation and disaggregation are an operational necessity. communication technologies will provide the necessary technical foundation for DR/DER expansion.Butconsumption will ultimately depend on the end users – who have to be given the capability to decide when and how to consume. It’s already under way in the United States. Perhaps in different ways and at different times. What is your experience of consumption management? What is your experience of consumption management? We are seeing a trend among customers interested in DR and distributed energy resources. including deployment of smart meters. which is not keeping pace. we must also take data privacy and cyber-security very seriously in systems design. and DR will become an increasingly important type of energy resource. and Scottish Power has carried out limited demand response trials. Through a combination of technical and business innovations. What technologies and non-technical factors will contribute to effective consumption management? And what are its challenges? What technologies and non-technical factors will contribute to effective consumption management in the future? The integration of energy. In Europe. director of Control Systems & Telecommunications large numbers of distributed DR components. deferred capital investment and customer service. we have been involved in important R&D projects to demonstrate technical feasibility. demand shifting. the Netherlands Iberdrola SA Alstom Grid david Sun. improved asset utilisation including peak shaving. Smart grids offer the opportunity to facilitate consumption management. consumers can become “prosumers” (producer-consumers) in the energy eco-system. and Some technical challenges still persist. utilities want to be prepared. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 45 . Other key contributors are regulatory reform and consumer awareness. information. These challenges reflect fundamental business transformation for grid operators. “Interoperability and telecommunications are critical for consumption management. Iberdrola USA is also starting trials with demand response.Technical University eindhoven. we still need more R&D in energy storage. But much of what is needed to manage consumption is available.
installed at Joshua Falls. Here is a brief history of its development and pioneers. low maintenance requirements and compact dimensions. The history of gas-insulated substations The gas-insulated substation (GIS) represents a key element of high voltage electrical transmission networks thanks to its reliability. USA. 46 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . France. 1969. 1980. The world’s first metal-clad 800 kV GIS. The T155 GIS for 420 kV and 550 kV networks.Electricity Lore The 245 kV Fluobloc installed at Lyon.
and the first Freon-based solution at 33 kV appeared in 1936. Siemens. 50 kA). which contributed to the success of subsequent GIS families. The dual-pressure SF6 circuit breakers of the early GIS systems were soon replaced by single pressure. The exclusive third-generation FK mechanism today serves all Alstom Grid GIS products on the world market. were operated by the well-known Sprecher m o t o r. The GIS focus was on the benefits of a compact indoor solution. while circuit breakers were adopting puffer and combined thermal-puffer arc extinguishing chambers. but soon came to the conclusion that SF6 gas insulation offered greater advantages. SF6 gas was already known during the 1940s. 40 kA in 1971. developed together with ITE USA. The following decades brought new versions until developments in industrial processes. In the 1960s all major manufacturers such as BBC-Calor Emag. Delle-Alsthom.The roots of HV encapsulated substations go back to the metal enclosed concept of the 1920s when oil was used as the insulating medium. NEI-Reyrolle. The Alstom contribution Alstom Grid has a rich GIS development history through its ancestor companies. Magrini. whereas some markets preferred outdoor rugged solutions using hybrid GIS solutions. Another “world first” was the completion of AEP’s 800 kV GIS in Joshua Falls in 1979. and their engineers developed the first applications for switches and circuit breakers in the early 1950s. Sprecher & Schuh. Their first GIS for 220 kV was delivered in 1970 and the 145 kV. The original circuit breakers with double-pressure SF6 systems (220 kV. Merlin-Gerin. Compressed air and different gases were the focus of much research work. Westinghouse holds the original patent for the use of SF6 as interrupting medium. Sprecher & Schuh studied compact metalclad installations as early as 1954 with oil insulation systems. the Japanese and Delle-Alsthom had started intensive developments on the basis of SF6. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 47 . Achievements in the higher voltage ranges were subsequently marked by the deliveries of the first substations for 420 kV in 1976 and for 550 kV in 1977. chemistry and physics led the switchgear industry towards the end of the 20th centur y to the use of SF6 for arc extinguishing and insulation as the main GIS technology.w o u n d s p r i n g o p e r a t i n g mechanisms. protected from the environment and closer to users. GEC and AEG. Delle-Alsthom France started GIS development in 1958 and in 1966-1967 delivered a world first with its “Fluobloc” at 245 kV in several Paris substations. demonstrating the benefits of underground GIS to supply bulk power close to city users.
Alstom Grid became the manufacturer of complete GIS ranges of 72. BBC.5-800 kV in which single-phase and three-phase encapsulation is used. Looking ahead Clearly. This boosted the development of smaller switchgear requiring less operating energy and reduced materials and resources. As GIS systems developed and their extensive use in HV networks grew. leading to higher performance. 1920s 1936 1951 HV encapsulated substations (metal enclosed) using oil as insulating medium 1957-1961 1966-67 1967 1971 GIS solutions with compressed air First GIS produced by AEG for UW Neukölln Berlin Freon gas used as insulating medium at 33 kV Delle-Alsthom’s “world first” 245 kV “Fluobloc” GIS Late 1970s 1976 First GIS type GMT I produced by GEC Westinghouse Electric applies for patent for the use of SF6 gas as interrupting medium GIS breakthrough – Siemens. the most significant development factor was the adoption of SF6 as an insulation medium. AEG in Germany has also long been involved in GIS and SF6. Magrini. GEC in England was collaborating with Siemens. German and Austrian railway networks at 110-132-170 kV and 16 2/3 Hz 48 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . and their first GIS was a 145 kV substation in London in 1982.5 kV F35 GIS installed in Switzerland.Electricity Lore The 72. So far 420 kV. 63 kA with a single break is possible with the spring mechanism. with its first GIS substation delivered in 1971. B 114 for use in the Swiss. Meanwhile. Mitsubishi 1970-1971 Early 1950s First SF6 applications for switches and circuit breakers First spring mechanism-operated GIS by Sprecher & Schuh on the market B 212 GIS systems circuit breaker.
increased capabilities. Moving HV substations closer to consumers results in reduced transmission losses. “I worked in HV testing and CB development and then moved to GIS design and construction. I’ve witnessed the changing market focus over 40 years – first Western Europe. in electrical engineering in 1968. reducing maintenance needs and increasing lifetime. Every 10 years or so. in particular the reduction in size. later the Gulf area. Indoor GIS reduce the environmental influences on the switchgear. and now major improvements in the environmental footprint of our equipment. GIS development is accelerating thanks to the availability of simulation tools and the capability to integrate environmental needs into the design. “In this capacity. Future trends could be influenced by the substitution of SF6 technology.M o r e Endre Mikes After 50 years in the making. Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 49 .” 550 kV GIS in Ontario Hydro’s Clairville and Milton S/S by Alsthom 1977 1979 800 kV GIS by Alsthom. He studied in Budapest and Moscow. which. He came to Switzerland in 1970. as consulting engineer. IEEE.000 GIS bays by Alstom for reliable energy supply T155 indoor. forming part of digital substations. I foresee even greater changes in the not too distant future. better use of materials. advances in civil works that enable GIS to be installed underground. where he was hired by Alstom Grid ancestor company Sprecher & Schuh in 1973. More and more “intelligence” is integrated into the GIS using electronic devices.Sc. “In that time. together with ongoing technological developments have made even further optimisation of GIS conceivable. then the Far East. I contributed to industry bodies such as CIGRE. Ecological and economical considerations. another “world first” in AEP’s Joshua Falls S/S 1995-96 2003 First single break 420 kV GIS CB B142 with hydraulic mechanism 2003-2004 2012 Creation of the new F35 family. is likely to be a very complex task. Later. Roving ambassador Endre Mikes was born and bred in Hungary. etc. earning an M. technical know-how and linguistic versatility that he became globetrotting ambassador for the company. R&D came up with new designs. Other steps have already been taken. and since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Eastern Europe and Russia. however.” It is thanks to his international contacts. the first and only spring-operated solution on the world market at this rating 20. I also observed major changes in the technology and design. with the smallest footprint and building volume 550 kV 63 kA T155 GIS Areva (Alstom Grid).
Ron Allan. electrical drives and industrial applications. making it the largest and most important conference on power electronics. The EPE also issues a journal and a newsletter.pdf) 50 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 .FurTher readinG If you would like more details on some of the topics in this issue of Think Grid. It brings together some 1. It is a unique forum of international exchange on the state of the art and future developmentsinthesefi eldsandan excellent opportunity to stay up to date thanks to high-quality contributions from industry and academia worldwide.edu/mitei/research/ studies/documents/electric-grid-2011/ Electric_Grid_Full_Report. France. Peter Crossley. see also… http://WWW. Generator Circuit Breakers Handbook Publisher: Alstom Grid 2011 electric Grid Full report (MIT) ( from http://web. in September 2013 and will have as its main theme “clean transportation”. The forthcoming EPE conference will take place in Lille.oRG embedded Generation Authors: Nick Jenkins.epe-ASSoCIAtIon. Daniel Kirschen and Goran Strbac Publisher: The Institution of Electrical Engineers (2000) Power System Stability and Control Author: Prabha Kundur Publisher: McGraw-Hill (1994) the european power electronics and Drives Association (epe) is a non-profit organisation that runs academic conferences in europe every two years.mit.000 delegates. you might want to read the publications shown here.
real-time monitoring. political and social factors. technical presentations and exhibitions and is attended by approximately 2. 2012 PARIS. SEPTEMBER 25–27. A conference in Bali is worth the detour. 2012 BIRMINGHAM. high voltage electricity transmission.000 electricity industry representatives. etc. the leading exhibition for power system experts. 4 51 Alstom Grid///Summer 2012 . DC solutions.200 exhibitors from over 30 nations are registered: wind turbine manufacturers. The conference will also feature an exhibition displaying new products and equipment from leading manufacturers. including FACTS devices. BRAZIL DistribuTECH Brasil In 2012. 2012 SHANGHAI. 2012 BALI. INDONESIA CEPSI The Conference of Electrical Power Supply Industry (CEPSI) is the largest electric power conference in Asia. It features keynote speeches. The conference will address key issues of renewable technologies. OCTOBER 15–19. panel discussions. A special area will be set aside for poster sessions. Over 1. energy losses and long-distance. 15 Paris in the Spring. component suppliers. and find out about the most recent AC and DC projects. 2012 HUSUM. The main themes for this year’s event include eco-design. 27 23 SEPTEMBER 23–26. This electricity transmission and distribution event will focus on such topics as smart metering. “New technology. 2012 RIO DE JANEIRO. academicians. is bigger this year to make room for some 200 exhibiting companies. 5 Brazil welcomes with open arms. integration of renewables and coordination between TSOs. operators. The conference includes over 75 programmes with some 200 international speakers covering the latest wind energy topics and trends. environmental. distribution automation. New Life – Advancing Distribution Grid”: the theme of CICED 2012 continues to explore smart grid opportunities. There will also be exhibits dealing with smart grids and the Supergrid. managers and regulators specialising in distribution grids from all around the world. regulatory. FRANCE Cigré Technical Exhibition This biennial event. GERMANY WindEnergy The biennial WindEnergy at Husum is one of the most important international wind energy trade fairs. energy efficiency.DATES FOR YOUR DIARY AUGUST 27–31. DistribuTECH launches the South American version of its Conference & Exhibition in Rio de Janeiro reflecting Brazil’s huge growth opportunities. SEPTEMBER 5–6. Attendees will be able to obtain information on the latest advances in HVDC and HVAC technologies. CHINA CICED 2012 (China International Conference on Electricity Distribution) CICED 2012 will bring together engineers. This year’s theme: “Enhancing Clean Technology and Securing Investment for Sustainable Electric Power Industry Development”. UK ACDC 25 ACDC is a long-established international conference on AC and DC power transmission. DECEMBER 4–6.
com Alstom Grid Immeuble Le Galilée 51 esplanade du Général de Gaulle 92907 La Défense Cedex France . All rights reserved. It is provided without liability and is subject to change without notice.Grid-Sector-L1-Think_Grid_10-2859-2012_08-EN © ALSTOM 2012. www. is strictly prohibited. This will depend on the technical and commercial circumstances. without express written authority. Printed on paper made with pure ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) ecological cellulose produced from trees grown in production forests under responsible management. Reproduction. use or disclosure to third parties. and selected recycled three-layer fibres.alstom. Information contained in this document is indicative only. No representation or warranty is given or should be relied on that it is complete or correct or will apply to any particular project.
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