Bacteriology Prepared by Dr. Jhason John J. Cabigon I. Structures A. Internal Structures 1. Chromatin Body – genetic material 2.

Plasmids – genetic material separate from the chromosomal DNA 3. Ribosomes – protein synthesis 4. Mesosomes – infoldings of the cytoplasmic membrane B. Cell Membrane – made of lipids; for encasement of internal structure, transport of nutrients and biochemicals, site of energy production and respiration C. Cell Envelope – a layer of peptidoglycan (murein) for cell shape and rigidity which acts as an osmotic barrier D. External Structures 1. Glycocalyx – extracellular material (glycoprotein) produced by some bacteria; • Capsule – a distinct, gelatinous glycocalyx • Slime layer – an irregular, diffuse layer 2. Appendages – pili, flagella, fimbriae Morphology A. Cocci – spherical B. Bacilli – rod-shaped; elongated Bacterial Groups – in 1883, Hans Christian Gram discovered a staining method that divided bacteria into 2 major groups A. Gram positive – stains blue • The major characteristic of Gram positive cell wall is the depth of the peptidoglycan layer; this layer is insoluble but porous • The thick peptidoglycan layer contains teichoic acid 1. Cocci a. Staphylococcus – clumps; Catalase-positive • Coagulase test – if positive, Staphylococcus aureus; if negative, S. epidermidis • S. aureus - normal skin flora; causes skin infections & abscesses; produces TSST-1, exfoliative toxin, leukocidin and enterotoxin • S. epidermidis - adheres to foreign medical devices b. Streptococcus – in chains • Beta Hemolytic – can completely lyse red cells in agar 1. Group A streptococci – S. pyogenes; Tonsillitis (Strep throat), RHD 2. Group B streptococci – S. agalactiae; normal flora of female genital tract • Alpha Hemolytic – not able to lyse red cells

II. III.

Bacilli • Escherichia coli – normal flora of GIT. causes Tuberculosis and Leprosy 2. tetani – tetanus • C. Mycobacterium – the cell wall is composed of high molecular weight mycolic acids and waxes. 6. comma-shaped • Bordetella pertussis – pertussis or “whooping cough” • Pseudomonas aeroginosa – common nosocomial infection. Miscellaneous 1. Peptostreptococci – anaerobe 2. anthrax B. pneumoniae – normal flora of URT. botulinum – botulism 7. air conditioners. gonorrhea – gonorrhea • N. 4. leprae – leprosy Nocardia – acid fast and fungi-like Actinomyces – fungi-like Listeria Corynebacterium – produces diphtheria Clostridium – spore-forming anaerobe • C. 3. tuberculosis – TB • M. most common cause of Pneumonia. S. anaerobe • Spirochetes a. Bacilli – “My New And Luscious Coca Cola Body” 1. causes Infective Endocarditis 2. also causes diarrhea • Salmonella typhi – Typhoid fever • Vibrio cholera – “rice-water” stools. the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer 1. Bacillus – spore-forming. Viridans streptococci – normal flora of URT and oral cavity. Cocci – Neisseria sp • N. Treponema pallidum – syphilis C. ubiquitous and found wherever there is water • Legionella pneumophila – water loving and can be found in heating towers. most common cause of UTI. Leptospira interrogans – leptospirosis b. the high lipid content imparts the acid fast characteristic. meningitides – meningitis 2. Gram negative – stains red • Have a third outer layer. bile resistant 2. capsulated. 5. water and plumbing • Helicobacter pylori – causes gastric ulcer • Bacteroides fragilis – normal flora of colon. . not in chains. Enterococci – Group D. but in pairs • Gamma Hemolytic 1.1. Mycobacterium – acid fast • M.

Mycoplasma – the smallest self-replicating organism. do not contain peptidoglycan layer 3. lacks cell wall. Chlamydia – obligate intracellular gram negative bacteria. small. Klebsiella pneumoniae Obligate intracellular bacteria – Chlamydia.2. causes atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) • • • Encapsulated Bacteria – Streptococcus pneumoniae. Enterobacter. Escherichia. Treponema – thin. Haemophilus influenzae. Serratia . also Citrobacter. Ricketssia Lactose fermenters – Klebsiella. Neisseria meningitides. coiled spirochetes. can be seen by the use of dark field microscopy 4.