Control of Microbial Growth Prepared by Dr. Jhason John J. Cabigon A. Factors Influencing Microbial Growth 1. Availability of Nutrients 2.

Moisture - water is essential to life; endospores and cysts can resist desiccation 3. Temperature - every microbe has an optimum growth temperature - Thermophiles: heat loving; hyperthermophiles: extreme thermophile - Mesophiles: grow at moderate temperatures - Psychrophiles: prefer cold temperatures - Psychoduric organisms: prefer warm temperatures but can tolerate very cold temperatures 4. pH - most microbes prefer neutral or slightly alkaline growth medium - acidophiles: can live in stomach and pickled foods; includes fungi - alkaliphiles: prefer alkaline environment, like intestines; include Vibrio cholerae 5. Osmotic Pressure and Salinity - Osmotic Pressure: the pressure that is exerted on a cell membrane by solutions both inside and outside the cell - Isotonic solution: equal concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell; no movement of water - Hypertonic solution: the concentration of solutes in the environment is greater than the concentration of solutes inside the cell; water will leave the cell by osmosis to equalize the concentrations; can cause crenation (cell shrinkage) and plasmolysis (cell membrane and cytoplasm shrink away from the cell wall) - Hypotonic solution: the concentration of solutes inside the cell is greater than the concentration of solutes in the environment; water enters the cell; can cause lysis (cell bursting) and plasmoptysis (escape of cytoplasm from the cell) - Halophiles: salt loving - Haloduric organisms: do not prefer salty environment but are capable of surviving there 6. Barometric Pressure - Barophiles: pressure loving 7. Gaseous Atmosphere - aerobes vs anaerobes B. Physical Methods to Inhibit Microbial Growth 1. Heat – most practical, efficient and inexpensive method of sterilization; thermal death point (TDP) and thermal death time (TDT) a. Dry Heat – baking and incineration; can also use electrical heating device

Concentration of disinfectant e. Aseptic technique – employed to eliminate and exclude pathogens. use of hyperbaric oxygen chamber in treatment of Gas gangrene C. boiling and steaming.b. Organic load c. Chemical Methods to Inhibit Microbial Growth 1. Moist Heat – faster and more effective. handwashing. can use autoclaves 2. Prior cleaning of the object to be disinfected b. sterilization of surgical instruments. Ultrasonic Waves – sound waves are used to mechanically dislodge organic debris on instruments and glassware 6. slow freezing causes ice crystals to form within cells and may rupture the cell membranes and cell walls. Temperature and pH 2. Antiseptic technique – type of aseptic technique. Radiation – use of UV lamp/Germicidal lamp. gamma (cobalt-60). beta and X-rays are also used 5. masks and gowns. Desiccation – drying and lyophilization (freeze-drying) 4. Cold – refrigeration slows the growth of microbes. Aseptic Technique 1. Filtration – use Millipore filters to filter microorganisms from liquids. use of sterile gloves. use of antiseptics . Antiseptics – used to disinfect skin and other living tissues D. rapid freezing puts bacteria into suspended animation 3. Gaseous Atmosphere – aerobes vs anaerobes. Physical nature of Object being disinfected g. Contact time f. Bioburden – number of microbes and presence of spores d. Asepsis – absence of pathogens 2. use of disinfectants and antiseptics 3. Disinfectants – chemical agents to eliminate pathogens * Factors affecting effectiveness of disinfectant: a. High-efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to prevent air contamination 7.

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