Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease Prepared by Dr. Jhason John J. Cabigon 1. Definition of Terms a. Pathogen – a microorganism capable of causing disease b.

Pathology – the study of the structural and functional manifestations of disease c. Pathogenicity – the ability to cause disease d. Pathogenesis – the steps or mechanisms involved in the development of a disease 2. Infection a. Infection – colonization by a pathogen b. Infectious disease – when the pathogen goes on to cause disease 3. Why Infection Does Not Always Occur a. The microbe may “land” at an anatomic site where it is unable to multiply b. Non-attachment to specific receptor sites c. Antibacterial factors d. Indigenous microflora e. Influence of individual’s nutritional and overall health status f. Immunity to certain pathogens g. Phagocytic White Blood Cells 4. Course of an Infectious Disease a. Exposure to Pathogen b. Incubation period c. Prodromal period d. Period of Illness e. Convalescence, Disability or Death 5. Signs and Symptoms a. Symptom – evidence of disease that is experienced or perceived by the patient; subjective complaint b. Sign – objective evidence of a disease 6. Classification of Disease a. Localized vs Systemic Infection b. Primary vs Secondary Infection c. Latent Infections d. Acute, Subacute and Chronic Diseases 7. Steps in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases a. Entry of the Pathogen b. Attachment of Pathogen c. Multiplication d. Invasion/Spread e. Evasion of Host defenses f. Damage to Host tissues 8. Virulence – the measure of pathogenicity * Virulence Factors – physical attributes of pathogens that enable them to escape various host defense mechanisms and cause disease

Bacterial Structures 1. thin. Mechanisms by Which Pathogens Escape Immune Response a. hairlike. Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1 – causes Toxic Shock Syndrome c. Capsules – serve as antiphagocytic function b.1. dissolves hyaluronic acid. Diptheria toxin – produced by Corynebacterium diptheriae. causes fever and septic shock 2. Enzymes 1.5. Kinases – enable bacteria to dissolve clots 3.2. Clostridium difficile toxin B – causes pseudomembranous colitis c. Neurotoxins – cause damage to central nervous system. Exotoxins a. causes Diptheria c. Miscellaneous exotoxins c.4. Erythrogenic toxin – produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Adhesin and Ligand – attaches to receptors and integrins 2. Enterotoxins – cause gastrointestinal disease c.a. causes Scarlet Fever c. Antigenic Variation b. tetanospasmin and botulinal toxins are examples b. Necrotizing enzymes – cause massive destruction of tissues c. Hyaluronidase – spreading factor. enabling bacteria to penetrate deeper into tissues 4. Leukocidins – cause destruction of leukocytes 9. Bacterial Fimbriae (Pili) – long. Toxins 1.6. Exfoliative toxin – produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Lecithinase – destroys cell membrane 5. flexible projections composed of primarily of an array of proteins called pilin 3. Destruction of Antibodies . Camouflage and Molecular Mimicry c.3. Flagella – enable bacteria to gain access to anatomical areas that nonmotile bacteria cannot reach 4. causes Scalded Skin Syndrome c. Endotoxin – released from the cell walls of Gram negative bacteria. Coagulase – enables bacteria to produce clots within which they hide 2.

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