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Introduction to Condensing & Regenerative System THERMAL POWER PLANT

Condensing & Regenerative System

Course Objectives
By the end of the course we will Understand principles of Heat Transfer Understand condensing & regenerative system familiar with main equipment know which is likely to be the best type for a given application understand what are the key factors in design of equipment have the background necessary to analyze the technical data furnished be an informed purchaser of equipment

Q = U A T

Simple Power cycle

Steam turbine


Feedwater heater


Schematic of a Combined Cycle Multi-Shaft Power Plant

Heat recovery steam generator Gas turbine plant

Steam turbine plant

Electrical energy
6 5



Life steam Electrical energy

3 4



Exhaust gas

Cooling tower Condensate


Gas turbine plant:

1 2 3 4 Air intake Compressor Gas turbine Heat recovery steam generator 5 Generator 6 Transformer

Steam turbine plant:

7 8 9 10 11 12 Steam turbine Condenser Feeding pump Generator Transformer Circulating pump

Cooling air

Fresh water

HBD (Typical)

HBD (Typical)

Main Equipment
Surface Condenser Venting Equipment Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) Gland Steam Condenser Low Pressure Feed Water Heater (LPH) Deaerator Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) High Pressure Feed Water Heater (HPH) Associated Piping & Instrumentation

Introduction to Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer can be defined as transmission of energy from one region to another as a result of temperature difference or gradient. The modes of heat transfer are Conduction, Convection & Radiation. In all heat transfer modes, a temperature difference must exist to cause heat flow and heat always flows in the direction of lower temperature.

What are heat exchangers for?

To get fluid streams to the right temperature for the next process To condense vapours To evaporate liquids To recover heat to use elsewhere To reject low-grade heat To drive a power cycle

Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Radiation

Mechanism: -Random movement of electrons through the metal -Electrons in the hot part of the solid have higher Kinetic energy -Gives some of the kinetic energy to the cold atoms -Resulting in a transfer of Heat from the hot surface to cold

Convection contd..
MECHANISM: -Heat transfer is by fluid motion -Cold fluid adjacent to a hot surface receives heat which it passes to the cold fluid by mixing with it. -Free or natural convection occurs when the fluid motion is not implemented by mechanical agitation -Heat is transferred by forced convection when the fluid is mechanically agitated. -In most process applications it is induced by circulation of hot and cold fluids at rapid rates on the opposite sides of tubes.

Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Radiation Contd
MECHANISM: -Heat transfer from one body to another without any transmitting medium -This mode of heat transfer is by electromagnetic waves -Qi = Incident energy -Qa=Absorbed energy -Qr = Reflected energy -Qt = Transmitted energy -Qi = Qa + Qr + Qt
Qa Qt Qi Qr

Heat Duty
Q = m . Cp (T1-T2) Where Q Total Heat to be transferred (Heat Duty) Kcal/hr m Mass of the Fluid Kg/hr Cp Specific Heat of the Fluid Kcal/kg oC T1 Inlet Temperature of the Fluid oC T2 Outlet Temperature of the Fluid oC

Heat Transfer Coefficient

Q = U . A . Dtm A = Q / U . Dtm Where A Required Effective Outside Heat Transfer Surface Area m2 Q Total Heat to be transferred (Heat Duty) Kcal/hr U Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient referred to tube outside surface - Kcal/Hr M2 oC Dtm Log Mean Temperature Difference oC

During the lifetime of a heat exchanger its performance will be influenced by what happens on the surface where the heat is exchanged. On the surface deposits of materials can accumulate that reduce the heat transfer and increase the pressure drop. This is referred to as fouling. The tendency for fouling depends on many variables that influence each other and can be difficult to address with a theoretical model. Allowing for fouling is therefore a matter of experience.

A number of questions arise when one designs a heat exchanger: how much additional surface is needed to cater for fouling? how much additional pressure drop can be expected due to fouling? are provisions needed for cleaning (chemical or mechanical)? is regular cleaning / inspection required is it possible to reduce the buildup? which materials of construction are preferred?

Type of Fouling Precipitation Fouling Particulate Fouling Corrosion Fouling Biological Fouling

Effect of Fouling Reduces Heat Transfer Coefficient, thereby, increases the heat transfer surface area Increases the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop Degrades the performance of a heat exchanger Higher fouling specified to take care of safety factor to account for uncertainties in the heat transfer calculation

Physical Considerations Properties of Fluids Surface & Bulk Temperature Local Velocities Tube Material, configuration & Surface Finish Exchanger Geometry and Orientation Heat Transfer Process Fluid Treatment Cathodic Protection Planned Cleaning Method and Desired Frequency Place the more fouling fluid on the tube side

Economic Considerations Planned fouling prevention, maintenance and cleaning make possible lower allowance for fouling Operation and economic factors that change with time Different cleaning procedures and degree of payback Continuous monitoring the performance to establish fouling Control of flow velocities

Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Cleaning Methods
To remove fouling methods are popular: Mechanical cleaning (brushing, scraping, ...) Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) High velocity water jets Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)

Shell and tubes can handle fouling but it can be reduced by keeping velocities sufficiently high to avoid deposits avoiding stagnant regions where dirt will collect avoiding hot spots where coking or scaling might occur avoiding cold spots where liquids might freeze or where corrosive products may condense for gases

Tube Side Flow Velocity

Advantages of increased flow velocity better heat transfer less fouling BUT high pressure drop tube erosion

Condensation is the process by which vapor is changed to liquid by removing latent heat from the vapor. Drop-wise Condensation When a saturated pure vapor comes into contact with a cold surface such as a tube, it condenses and may form liquid droplets on the surface of the tube. These droplets fall from the tube, leaving a bare metal on which successive droplets of condensate may form. Film-wise Condensation When the vapor condenses, a distinct film may appear and coats the tube. Additional vapor is then required to condense into the liquid film rather than form directly on the bare surface. This is film or film-wise condensation.

Condensation Contd

a) Condensate in Laminar Flow b) Condensate in Turbulent Flow



c) Condensate in Turbulent Flow with vapor in cross Flow

Steam Surface Condenser

Surface Condenser in Turbine House

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Turbine Gear Box Generator Condenser Flash Vessel Condensate Pump Vacuum Pump

Section of Surface Condenser (Typical)

1 Exhaust steam pipe with expansion joint 2 Steam inlet connection (from flash vessel) 3 Steam dome 4 Extraction pipe (air extraction) S Water level gauge connection 6 Condenser foot 7 Water level gauge connection 8 Condensate inlet connection (from flash vessel) 9 Condensate outlet branch 10 Hotwell 11 Tube bundles 12 Steam shell 13 Air cooler tube bundle 14 Baffle plate 15 Support plate 16 Emergency exhaust valve connection

GA of Surface Condenser (Typical)

Box Type Condenser

Steam Surface Condenser

ADVANTAGES The Efficiency of the plant increases due to increased expansion ratio Reuse of condensate as feed for Boiler reduces the cost of power generation Specific steam consumption of the Turbine decreeased as the work developed per kg of steam increases with the decrease in back pressure

Pa Pb

Atmospheric Pressure Line Condenser Pressure Line

Effect of Condenser Vacuum on work done by Steam Turbine

Steam Surface Condenser

Requirements Steam shall be evenly distributed over the whole cooling surface area with minimum pressure loss No under cooling condensate No air-leakage into the condenser as it destroys the vacuum Air extracted shall be cooled to the maximum extent possible to reduce the load on ejector system

Steam Surface Condenser Design Standards

Thermal Design: HEI Standards for Steam Surface Condensers (Heat Exchange Institute, Inc) Mechanical Design: ASME Sec VIII-Div1 Ad merkblatter Good Engineering Practices

Tubes Tube pitch = distance between tube centers Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D Tubes held in Tubesheet welded rolled packed

Steam Surface Condenser

Thermal Design General Heat Transfer Equation Q = U x As x LMTD Where Q = Heat Duty Kcal/Hr U = Heat Transfer Coefficient Kcal/Hr m2 oC As = Surface Area m2 LMTD = Log Mean Temp Diff oC

Steam Surface Condenser

Thermal Design (contd) Q = (Hsteam Hcondensate) x Ws + Aux Heat Load Ws = Steam Kg/hr U = U1 x Fw x Fm x Fc Where U1 = Uncorrected Heat Transfer Coefficient (Table-1 or Figure-1) (based on tube OD & velocity of water inside tubes) Fw = Inlet water temperature correction factor(Table-2 or Figure-2) Fm = Tube Material & gauge correction factor (Table-3) Fc = Cleanliness Factor (generally customer specifies) LMTD
T 2 T1 Ts T 1 Ln Ts T 2
Ts T2



As in m2

Basic Logical Structure of Power Plant Heat Exchanger Design Procedure

Problem Identification Selection of a Basic Heat Exchanger Type Selection of a Tentative Set of Exchanger Design Parameters Modification of Design Parameters Rating of the Design: Thermal Performance Pressure Drops The Element within the outline May be done by Hand or by Computer

Evaluation of the Design: Q, DP Acceptable

Mechanical Design, Costing Etc:

Steam Surface Condenser

Materials of Construction Shell, Shell Flange: IS 2062, A 516 Gr60, A 516 Gr70 Tube Plate: IS 2062, SA 516 Gr60, A 516 Gr70, A 240 TP304 Cu-Ni (Solid / Cladded) Titanium (Cladded) Tubes: A 179, TP304 (welded/seamless) Admiralty / Aluminum Brass Cu-Ni, Titanium Water Boxes: IS 2062, A 516 Gr60, A 516 Gr70 (Cladded with Cu-Ni/ Titanium) Rubber Lined / Epoxy Coated

Venting Equipment
Types Steam Jet Air Ejector Water jet Air Ejector Vacuum Pump

Purpose To remove non-condensable gases and associated water vapor from the condenser. To produce and maintain the minimum steam condensing pressure Deaeration of condensate

Venting Equipment
Sources of Non-condensables Air leakage into system components which are operating at sub-atmospheric pressure Gases released from feed water drains and vents admitted to condenser Gases released from make-up water admitted to condenser

PURPOSE To remove corrosive gases
Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Ammonia (traces)

Entrained in boiler feed water to a level (7ppb or 0.005cc/l)

The above gases become very corrosive at elevated temperatures hence it is necessary to remove this gases to protect piping, boiler tubes and associated equipment CO2 dissolved in Feed Water produces low pH levels and causes severe acid attack throughout the boiler system To provide sufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPHS) on the suction side of BFP


Spray-Tray Deaerator




Spray Valve


Special Design Requirements as per HEI
In addition to ASME Code, the following requirements are additional Corrosion Allowance 1/8 Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) Internal weld steams shall be ground smooth Wet Fluoresecent Magnetic Particle Testing (WFMPT) for nozzles Shell & Head seams. Longitudinal and Circumferential weld seams 100% X-Ray

Materials Of Construction Storage Tank Header Water Box Header Valve Plate Tray Enclosure Trays Spray Valves Internal Bolting A 516 Gr70 A 516 Gr70 TP 304 TP 304 A 516 Gr70 / TP304 TP 304 TP316 / TP304 SS

Feed Water Heaters

PURPOSE Feed Water Heaters are used in a regenerative system cycle To improve the thermodynamic gain, by extracting steam at various points from the Turbine and condensing it by using Boiler Feed Water To avoid thermal shock to the Boiler and reduces fuel consumption to convert Feed Water to Steam

Feed Water Heaters

Generally FWH consists of the following zones
De-Superheating Condensing Drain Cooling

Desuperheating Zone: The steam first enters this zone and loses it superheat to the feed water. This zone can be designed with steam entry at one end or in the middle of zone depending on steam side pressure drop limit Condensing Zone: The slightly superheated steam, coming out of desuperheating zone, condenses in the condensing zone, giving its heat to the feed water. Drain Cooling Zone: Condensed steam i.e. drain from condensing zone passes over the tubes in drain cooling zone and is cascaded out to next lower stage heater

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

Working Principle

Feed Water Heaters

High Pressure Feed Water Heater GA Drawing

Feed Water Heaters

Low Pressure Feed Water Heater GA Drawing

Feed Water Heater

Materials Of Construction Shell Skirt Tube Sheet Channel Channel Flange Channel Cover U-Tubes A 516 Gr70 Low Alloy Steel A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 688 TP 304 (ss welded) A 213 TP 304 (ss seamless) A 556 Gr A2 (cs seamless) A 193 B7 / A 194 2H