# Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Scientific Skills :Variables Constant (same/fixed)  Can be identified from: (a) Table (b) Graph (c) Statement (d) Diagram MANIPULATED ( different) RESPONDING (result of experimen)

ManipulatedResponding ManipulatedResponding

}
Responding variable

From table

Example: (i)

Manipulated variable

Substance Distilled water Distilled water + common salt

Boiling Point /0C 100 ......................

(ii)

Manipulated variable 146-150 151-155 156-160 161-165 166-170

Height of students (cm) Number of students Responding variable

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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 From graph (Responding ) Temperature

(Manipulated ) Time

 From statement:
(1) To study the effect of manipulated variable To study the effect of thickness of convex lens on on responding variable focal length

Example : (a) Diagram (a) and (b) shows an experiment to compare the reactivity rate of metal L and metal M in dilute hydrochloric acid Same Dilute hydrochloric acid Important points from statement Different Metal L and metal M Result Reactivity rate

Constant variable  Volume of hydrochloric acid Concentration of hydrochloric acid  From Diagram

Manipulated variable  Type of metal

Responding variable  Reactivity rate of metal

Sterilize Cotton wool

Fresh milik

Sterilize Cotton wool

Fresh milk

Fresh milk Distilled water
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Incubating Temperature 370C

Incubating temperature 00C

Incubating temperature 1000C

Incubating temperature 600C

Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Constant variable Volume of fresh milk Manipulated variable (incubating) temperature Responding Variable  Condition of fresh milk  Growth of bacteria Responding variable  Cloudiness of mixture

Constant variable  Volume of nutrient broth  Type of bacteria  Volume of bacteria culture

Manipulated variable  Incubating temperature

Steps in writing variables: Parameter ………………………. ………………………. ……………………… of of of of materials nutrient broth yeast metal

 Example:  Must write parameter for each variable  Apparatus is not considered as constant variables SOLID Mass of metal Thickness of wire Length of rod Type of nail Presence of salt Weight of substance Size of sponge Depth of dent LIQUID Volume of culture solution Volume of hydrochloric acid Concentration of hydrochloric acid GAS Volume of hydrogen

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS EXERCISE: VARIABLES LATIHAN KEMAHIRAN SAINTIFIK : PEMBOLEHUBAH

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Table 3 shows the result of the reaction between 3.0 g of zinc metal with 100cm3 dilute hydrochloric acid. Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan bagi tindakbalas antara 3.0 g logam zink dengan 100cm3 asid hidroklorik cair. Time /minit Masa/minit Volume of gas/ cm3 Isipadu gas / cm3 0 0 1 27 TABLE 3 JADUAL 3 Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Responding Answer Jawapan 2 46 3 57 4 64 5 67 6 67

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Table 5 shows the result of an experiment to study the effect of temperatureon bacterial growth. Jadual 5 menunjukkan keputusan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan suhu ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria Temperature/0C Suhu/0C 0 15 25 35 60 Size of bacteria colony after 24 hours Saiz koloni bakteria selepas 24 jam 2 5 10 15 3 TABLE 5 JADUAL 5 Answer Jawapan

Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Responding

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Diagram 7 shows the result of an experiment to study the effect of different concentration of an antibiotic on bacterial growth. Rajah 7 menunjukkan keputusan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan antibiotik yang berbeza ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Responding 4 Answer Jawapan

Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the relationship between the thickness of convex lens with the focal length of the convex lens. Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara ketebalan kanta cembung dengan jarak fokus kanta cembung. Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding Answer Jawapan

5

Kawasan jernih

Cakera antibiotik berkepekatan tinggi Bakteria

Kawasan jernih

Cakera antibiotik berkepekatan rendah

Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Responding

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Diagram shows an experiment to study the effect of pH on the growth of bacteria.

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Rajah menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan pH ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria

After two days, the

appearance of the mixture in each test tube is observed. Table 3 shows the result of this experiment. Selepas dua hari, keadaan campuran di dalam setiap tabung uji diperhatikan. Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut. Test tube Tabung uji P Q R pH value nilai pH Acid (pH less than 7) Asid (kurang daripada 7) Alkali (pH more than 7) Alkali (pH lebih daripada 7) Neutral (pH 7) Table 3 Jadual 3
Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding Answer Jawapan

Cloudiness of mixture Kekeruhan campuran Slightly cloudy Keruh sedikit Slightly cloudy Keruh sedikit Very cloudy Sangat keruh

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Diagram 1.1 shows an experiment to study the pressure produced by metal blocks, P and Q of the same mass.

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tekanan yang bongkah logam P dan Q yang mempunyai jisim yang sama. dihasilkan oleh

Bongkah logam P

Bongkah logam Q

Plastisin

Figure 1.2 shows the effect on the plasticine when metal blocks P and Q were dropped. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan kesan ke atas plastisin apabila bongkah logam P dan Q dijatuhkan. Lekuk P Lekuk Q

Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding

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Diagram 2(a) and 2(b) show an experiment to compare the reactivity of metal L and metal M with dilute hydrochloric acid. Rajah 2(a) dan 2(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kereaktifan logam L dan logam M dengan asid hidroklorik cair

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Buret X

Asid hidroklorik cair
5 g logam L

Asid hidroklorik cair
5 g logam M

(a)

Write down one observation for the above experiment. Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding Answer Jawapan

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Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1 shows an experiment to study the reactivity of metals with dilute hydrochloric acid Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.1menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kereaktifan logam dengan asid hidroklorik cair Dilutehidroklorik cair acid hydrochloric Asid Dilute hydrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik cair

Bubble Bubble Gelembung gas Gelembung gas ___________________________________________________________________________________________
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Zinc plate Plat zink

Magnesium plate Plat magnesium

Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Dia Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 Answer Jawapan

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Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show an experiment to study the electrical conductivity of lead (II) bromide. Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji Kekonduksian elektrik plumbum (II) bromida.

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Elektrod karbon

Elektrod karbon Pepejal Plumbum (II) bromida

Diagram 6.1 Rajah 6.1

Elektrod karbon

Elektrod karbon LeburanPlumbum (II) bromida

Panaskan Diagram 6.2 Rajah 6.2 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding Answer Jawapan
Diagram 8.1 Rajah 8.1

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Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 show an experiment to study the collision between trolleys of different masses with a plasticine block. Rajah 8..1 dan Rajah 8..2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji Perlanggaran antara troli yang berlainan jisim dengan bongkah plastisin

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Diagram 8.2 Rajah 8.2

Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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(b)(i)

What can you observe about the plasticine block after the collisin? Apakah yang dapat anda perhatikan pada bongkah plastisin selepas perlanggaran? Answer Jawapan

Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding

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Diagrams 9.1(a) and 9.1(b) show an experiment to study the hardness of copper block and bronze block when the weights are dropped onto a steel ball. Rajah 9.1(a) dan 9.1(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kekerasan blok kuprum dan blok gangsa apabila pemberat dijatuhkan ke atas bola keluli.

Weight Pemberat ( 5 kg )
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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Steel ball Bola keluli

Bronze block Blok gangsa Copper block Blok kuprum DIAGRAM 9.1(a) Diagram 9.1(a) Diagram 9.1 (b)

The effects on the copper block and bronze block are shown in Diagram 9.2(a) and 9.2(b). Kesan pada blok kuprum dan blok gangsa ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 9.2(a) dan 9.2(b). Dent Lekukan

X Copper block Blok kuprum DIAGRAM 9.2 (a)
object

0.6 cm Bronze block Blok Gangsa DIAGRAM 9.2 (b) Answer Jawapan

Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding

image

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Diagram 2(i) and Diagram 2(ii) shows the image formed by a convex lens when the object is placed at different distance. Diagram 2(i) Rajah 2(i)

object

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Diagram 2(ii) Rajah 2(ii)

Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Variable Pembolehubah Constant Manipulated Responding

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Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show an experiment to study the characteristics of an image formed by a pin hole camera. Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji ciri imej yang dibentuk oleh satu kamera lubang jarum.

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Diagram 5.1 Rajah 5.1

Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2

Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Responding

Answers Jawapan: 1 Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 2 Variable Pembolehubah Answer Jawapan Answer Jawapan Time Masa Volume of gas Isipadu gas

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 3 Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 4 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 5 Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas Answer Jawapan Concentration of antibiotic Kepekatan antibiotik Size of clear area Saiz kawasan jernih Answer Jawapan Size of convex lens Saiz kanta cembung Thickness of convex lens Ketebalan kanta cembung Focal length of convex length Jarak fokus kanta cembung Answer Jawapan Concentration of antibiotic Kepekatan antibiotik Growth of bacteria Pertumbuhan bakteria Temperature suhu Size of bacteria colony after 24 hours Saiz koloni bakteria selepas 24 jam

6 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 7 Variable Pembolehubah Answer Jawapan Answer Jawapan Volume of nutrient broth// Volume of bacteria culture Isipadu kultur bakteria// Isipadu kultur bakteria pH of mixture pH campuran Cloudiness of mixture Kekeruhan campuran

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 8 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 9 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas Answer Jawapan Size of metal plate Saiz plat logam Type of metal Jenis logam Reactivity of metal// Number of bubble Kereaktifan logam// Bilangan gelembung gas Answer Jawapan Mass of metal// Concentration of hydrochloric acid Jisim logam// Kepekatan asid hidroklorik Type of metal Jenis logam Volume of gas// reactivity of metal Isipadu gas // kereaktifan logam Mass of metal block Ketinggian bongkah logam Type of metal block Jenis bongkah logam Depth of dent Kedalaman lekuk

10 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 11 Variable Pembolehubah Answer Jawapan Answer Jawapan Mass of lead(II) bromide Jisim plumbum(II) bromida Physical state of lead (II) bromide Keadaan fizikal plumbum (II) bromida Ammeter reading // electrical conductivity of lead (II) bromide Bacaan ammeter// kekonduksian elektrik plumbum (II) bromida

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Program Galus Sains SPM Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Variables

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Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 12 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 13 Variable Pembolehubah Constant Dimalarkan Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas 14 Variable Pembolehubah Manipulated Dimanipulasikan Responding Bergerakbalas Answer Jawapan Distance of object Jarak objek Size of image Saiz imej Answer Jawapan Size of convex lens Saiz kanta cembung Distance of object Jarak objek Size of image Saiz imej Answer Jawapan Mass of weight// size of steel ball Jisim pemberat// saiz bola keluli Type of block Jenis blok Depth of dent Kedalaman lekuk Size of plasticine Saiz plastisin Mass of trolley Jisim troli Depth of dent Kedalaman lekuk

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