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IEEE 802.

16abp-01/23
IEEE 802.16 Presentation Submission Template (Rev. 8.21) Document Number: IEEE 802.16abp-01/23 Date Submitted: 2001-08-28 Source: Chin-Chen Lee Voice: Radia Communications, INC. 275 N. Mathilda Ave., Suite A Sunnyvale, VA. 94086 Venue:

(408)830-9726 Ext. 230 Fax: (408)245-0990 E-mail: clee@radiacommunications.com

Base Document: IEEE 802.16abc-01/23 Purpose : Theoretical background used for assisting another submission about Ranging Process Analysis & Improvement Recommendations
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Timing & Power Estimate Basics For Multi-user Ranging

Chin-Chen Lee

8-28-2001

Radia Communications, INC.

1. Math for Ranging Signal & Code Matrices


The M active users superimposed ranging signal is demodulated by the BS FFT processor to produce L ( the number of ranging carriers) complex outputs which can be represented by a L x M matrix RL x M ( for matrix multiplication purpose, or a simpler L x 1 vector will do). R=
r0 r1 . . . r0 r1 ... ... rk r r
0 1

r L -1

r L -1

...

r L -1

L x M

And, the M L-bit ranging codes from M users can be represented by a M x L matrix B M x L ;
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Contd
B MxL =
b 00 b 10 . . . b 01 b 11 ... ... b ki b b
0 L -1 1 ,L -1

b M -1 ,0

b M -1 ,1

...

b M -1 ,L -1

M x L

M -1

Where rk= i= 0 Akibkie j2(d(i)n(k)/N) + ki , Aki is the attenuation through wireless channel from the ith SS to the BS at kth ranging sub-carrier, bki is the kth bit of the ith ranging code ( for ith SS)converted in bipolar values ( 1, -1), d(i) is the round trip traveling delay between the ith user SS to BS in units of BS FFT sampling period, k is the IFFT/FFT bin index for n(k), the k th sub-carrier location of the common ranging channel
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Contd
To detect all the active users traveling time & power, R is multiplied ( in frequency domain) with the ranging matrix B which contains M users ranging codes ( each is Lbit long) ; PL x L = R L x M x BM x L = p
0

...

x . . .

p1

... pk

...

P L-1

Lx L

x means does not need to be calculated.


M-1 M-1

Where Pk = Pkm = bkm

l=0 m=0 M-1 l=0

Aklbklb km ej2(d(l)n(k)/N) + kl
k l b k le j2 (d (l)n (k )/N ) + k l

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Contd
For M terms in Pk .ie. Pkm with m=i, and the angle small enough ( e.g. ABS [( D(i) n(k)/N)] << ), Pk is always positive and will cause all L sine waves to be added constructively to generate a spike ( N1/2 above the other sets ( L elements) of sine waves). Ideally, to calculate the time delay ( with respect to the BS FFT symbol timing) of mth of the M SS/users, Pkm is used for the n(k) bin location of an IFFT processor ( as shown in the following equation) to generate a singular spike like impulse response among background noise floor.
x m i= 1 N
N -1

k= 0 Where, Pkm =0 for those n(k) not equal to any one of the ranging carrier locations. iis the sampling time index based on the N-point FFT sampling rate. More local spikes will show up when the phase rotation of the ranging pilots gets bigger. That is when ; ABS [( D(i) n(k)/N)]

P k me

- j2 ( n ( k ) i) / N

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Functional Block Diagram For Timing & Power Detection, Method 1 using IFFT & Peak Detect Circuit
Rx Antenna Array

b0m
n(0) N-point FFT processor . . . . . .
n(L-1)

r0 rk bkm

n(0) N-point IFFT processor n(k)

Xi

[x]2

. . .

n(k)
MRRC

Peak Detector

bl-1,m rL-1
n(L-1)

Xq

[x]2

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2. How To Keep The Ranging Carrier Phase Angle Small z Use clustered ( allowed to be hopping around for a finite set of ranging channels) sub-carriers for the ranging channel. z Generate dual tones ( by FDPR) for each ranging carrier. (FDPR : Frequency Domain Partial Response) z Add to ranging channel each of its carriers neighboring carrier as the new ranging channel.
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Contd
2.1. Use IFFT to calculate each users group ( averaged over L ranging carriers) time delay (with respect to the BS symbol timing) :
Ranging Channel Composed Of Clustered Sub-carriers For the mth user s SS Xmi = e -i2 n(0)i/N
L-1

N k=0 Assming all Pkm(ranging amplitude of the detected user plus uncorrelate noise from M-1 other users) approximate a constant ; |Xmi| 2 ~ 1 N S I N 2 ( Li/N) S I N 2 ( /N)

Pkm e -j2(ki)/N

The above displays single peak like waveform with respect to i the index of sampling time over s symbol time.

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Contd
2.2 & 2.3 both use differential phase of two adjacent ( by a sub-carrier spacing) ranging carriers to calculate the differential time delay = d/df at each ranging carrier pair modulated by a pair of bits (dki, d k-1,i) which represents the kth bit, bkiof the ith users ranging code by the following rule; bki= dki XOR d k-1i where XOR means exclusive or The phase difference of the Kth pair from the ith user is ki, and ki, = bki x k ~ bki x Im{ rk x rk-1 * } ~ bki x Im{ }
M-1

M-1

AklAK-1,mdkldk-1,me j2d(i)/N
l=0

m=0

A kiA k-1,ibkib k,i(2d(i)/N)


L-1

,Where bki= dki x d k-1,i


rk x rk-1* )

d(i) ~ N/(2 Pki) x {


L-1

ki } ,Where Pki = ABS (


k=0

P ki ) is the averaged power of the ith users Ranging signal. And, Pi = 1/L ( k=0 Note that the same differential phase approach to find the group delay averaged over L ranging carriers can be used for 2.1 Ranging Channel of Clustered carriers.
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Method 2 ,Using Differential Phase Delay Between Dual Ranging Carriers


Rx Antenna Array

n(0) N-point FFT processor

r00* r01
. . .

. . .

n(k)
MRRC

rk rk ' rL-1 rL-1'

b0m bkm

L-1

ki
k=0

1/Ptotal

n(L-1)

. . .

bL-1,m

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