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# St Joseph’s Institution

## TOPIC − A Mathematics Formulae Sheet

1. ALGEBRA
For the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ,
− b ± b 2 − 4ac
x=
2a
Binomial expansion
n n n
(a + b) n = a n +  a n −1b +  a n − 2 b 2 +  +  a n − r b r +  + b n ,
1  2 r
n n! n(n − 1) ( n − r + 1)
where n is a positive integer and   = =
 r  r!(n − r )! r!

2. TRIGONOMETRY
Identities
sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1
sec 2 A = 1 + tan 2 A
cosec2A = 1+ cot 2 A
sin( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B
cos( A ± B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
tan A ± tan B
tan( A ± B ) =
1 tan A tan B
sin 2 A = 2 sin A cos A
cos 2 A = cos A − sin 2 B = 2 cos 2 A − 1 = 1 − 2 sin 2 A
2

2 tan A
tan 2 A =
1 − tan 2 A
1 1
sin A + sin B = 2 sin ( A + B ) cos ( A − B )
2 2
1 1
sin A − sin B = 2 cos ( A + B ) sin ( A − B )
2 2
1 1
cos A + cos B = 2 cos ( A + B ) cos ( A − B)
2 2
1 1
cos A − cos B = −2 sin ( A + B) sin ( A − B )
2 2

## Formulae for ∆ABC

a b c
= =
sin A sin B sin C
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A
1
∆ = bc sin A
2