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Comparison of Three L-Shaped bent Photonic Crystal

Yu-Jen Lin *, Keh-Yi Lee **

* Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories,

Shinchu, Taiwan, ROC.

** Department of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Summary The 90-degree (L-shaped) bent channel waveguide plays an important role of the integrated optical device. It provides the more flexible

layout of the device than the small-angle bent waveguide because the device can

be reduced in area. In this paper, we

analyze and compare three types of L-shaped bent photonic crystal waveguides, including an abrupt

right-angle bend, an L-shaped bend with

a 45° mirror, and an L-shaped bend with

a 45° transitional section. And we

investigate their respective transmissions

and the wavelength responses.

1 Introduction

A photonic crystal is a periodical

structure and it can be utilized in many

optoelectronic applications. Its period is

as same as the order of the optical

wavelength. Several important and interesting characteristics of the photonic crystal have been investigated. A photonic crystal waveguide (PCWG) is composed of linear vacancies (defects). These vacancies can trap photons, resulting to that it is impossible

for light to escape into the bulk crystal.

Therefore, the PCWG has the better

optical confinement than conventional waveguides based on internal reflections

of lights. And up to now, many PCWG

devices including the wide-angle bent channel waveguides, the wide-angle Y-branches, the T-junctions, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometers, the have been implemented [1-6]. Ideally, the

wavelength of the input light is chosen within the band gap of the perfect photonic crystal, such that the whole lightwave propagates only along the channel created by the linear vacancies. In this way, no radiation loss occurs. However the reflection of light caused by the bent corner generates the undesired optical power loss. Moreover, the exact range of the band gap may deviate because of the lattice defects. If so, the wavelength selected by us may be beyond the range of the realistic band gap. And hence the confinement of lightwave in the wide-angle bent PCWG will degrade. For these reasons, an appropriate design of the bent waveguide pattern for reducing the power loss is necessary. Conventional tools for analyzing the two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal are the plane-wave expansion method and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The former is commonly employed to obtain the band structure diagram of the perfect photonic crystal, and the latter is often utilized to simulate the propagation of lightwave in the PCWG. In this study, we employ these methods to investigate the optical performances of three different types of L-shaped bent photonic crystal waveguides. And we study their respective optical transmissions and other relative characteristics.

2 Description of three L-shaped bent photonic crystal waveguides

Consider a 2-D photonic crystal comprising circular dielectric pillars in air on a square array. The lattice constant of the photonic crystal is a and the radius of the pillar is R c . After determining the expected propagation path of light, the channel waveguide can be created by omitting two rows of pillars. Figure 1(a) shows a simple type of L-shaped bent PCWG [Type (I)]. It has an abrupt right angle. And we depict the both boundaries of the channel guide in solid lines. Figure 1(b) is a modified type [Type (II)], which an additional pillar was placed in the left corner of the L-shaped bent channel region. The topology is like a 45° mirror as depicted as in solid lines. Figure 1(c) presents another modified type [Type (III)]. A pillar was added in the left corner but another pillar was removed in the right corner of the channel guide. Its topology is similar to a 45° transitional section as shown in solid lines. In design of the L-shaped bent PCWG, adding or removing some pillars in the corners is common for obtaining better optical transmission characteristics [1, 4]. In our simulation cases, only the fewest pillars were added or removed for simplicity.

the fewest pillars were added or removed for simplicity. Figure 1 (a) Figure 1 (b) Figure

Figure 1 (a)

pillars were added or removed for simplicity. Figure 1 (a) Figure 1 (b) Figure 1 (c)

Figure 1 (b)

added or removed for simplicity. Figure 1 (a) Figure 1 (b) Figure 1 (c) 3 Simulation

Figure 1 (c) 3 Simulation results

Figure 2 is the band structure diagram of the 2-D square-lattice photonic crystal obtained by the plane-wave expansion method. In our simulation, the lattice constant is a=1µm . The radius and the

refractive

index

of

the

pillar

are

R c =0.45

µm

and

3.16227766,

respectively. It is obvious that there exists the only one band gap for the TE mode in Fig. 2. The band gap in wavelength, is between 0.907µm and

1.066µm.

only one band gap for the TE mode in Fig. 2. The band gap in wavelength,

Figure 2

For studying the transmission characteristics of the three L-shaped bent PCWG, firstly, we select a certain operating wavelength within the band gap, say λ=1µm, for simulation. And we choose a Gaussian beam of which half e -1 -width is 4µm as the input light. Figure 3 presents the intensity contour of the each electromagnetic field component as the light propagates along the above three L-shaped bent photonic crystal waveguides. The TE-mode case is shown in Fig. 3(a) and the TM-mode case is shown in Fig. 3(b). It is found that the optical confinements in these bent corners are not so good in agreement with common expectations. Most people think that the light, of wavelength within the band gap, is forbidden from entering into the adjacent bulk region of the bent corner. The power loss in the bent region should be negligible. However, owing to the strong optical reflection by the bent corner and the deviation of the band gap, the light is hardly guided along the 90-degree bent PCWG at this operating wavelength.

along the 90-degree bent PCWG at this operating wavelength. Figure 3 (a) Figure 3 (b) The

Figure 3 (a)

bent PCWG at this operating wavelength. Figure 3 (a) Figure 3 (b) The guidance of the

Figure 3 (b) The guidance of the L-shaped bend may vary with the different types of L-shaped bends and the distinct wavelengths. We scan the wavelength from 0.90µm to 1.70µm by the increment λ=0.05µm to simulate the propagations of TE-mode lights. Observing the band structure diagram in Fig. 2, λ=1.40µm corresponding to the normalized frequency ωa/2πc=a/λ 0.7, there are many ω-k curves nearly across it. And hence the light of λ=1.40µm can escape into the bulk crystal region easily, so the guidance of the photonic crystal waveguide is the worst among our simulation cases. We observe that the major bandwidth of good transmission is between 1.50µm and 1.65µm. This bandwidth of good transmission is beyond the band gap of the perfect photonic crystal. Table 1 lists the transmission efficiency (P o /P i ) along the three types of L-shaped bends in the major bandwidth. It shows the transmission efficiencies along Type (II) and Type (III) L-shaped bends are obviously superior to that of Type (I) bend, because the corner-reflection of lights have been reduced in case of existence of the 45° mirror or the 45° transitional section.

Operating

Transmission

Transmission

Transmission

wavelength

efficiency

efficiency

efficiency

in µm

along Type

along Type

along Type

(I) bend

(II) bend

(III) bend

1.50

0.3580

0.4208

0.3773

1.55

0.2271

0.3729

0.3702

1.60

0.1240

0.4379

0.3869

1.65

0.1290

0.1804

0.1807

Table 1 Transmission efficiency ( P o / P i ) along three types of L-shaped bends

4 Conclusions

Some conclusions are drawn in the above simulation as follows. 1. At the operating wavelength within the band gap of the perfect photonic crystal, the optical guidance of the

90-degree bent PCWG may be not very good because the power loss caused by the bent corners can not be negligible. Owing to the optical reflection by the bent corner, the power loss may be generated. Furthermore, due to the deviation of the band gap, the operating wavelength may be no more within the band gap of the lattice-defect crystal. And hence the light is hardly guided along the L-shaped bent PCWG.

2. At a certain operating wavelength, the input light may excite large radiation modes at the beginning of the straight section of PCWG, such that very little optical power arrives at the bent corner. This wavelength, corresponding to the specific normalized frequency, there are many ω-k curves nearly converging to it. And hence the light can escape into the bulk crystal region easily, so the guidance of the photonic crystal bent waveguide becomes worse.

3. There exists a major bandwidth of good transmission other than the band gap of the perfect photonic crystal. Within the bandwidth of good transmission, the transmission efficiencies along Type (II) and Type (III) L-shaped bent PCWGs are better than that of Type (I) bend.

References

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