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Azhar Khairuddin

1

The nature of electricity

Current, voltage, power, energy

Fundamentals of Electricity

DC: AC:

frequency, polyphase

An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering

**Real, reactive, and apparent power:
**

power factor

2

**Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity
**

• Electrical Engineering

• discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism • concerned with using electricity to transmit energy

• Electricity

• property of matter that results from the presence or movement of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes electromagnetism • responsible for many well-known phenomena such as lightning, electric field, electric current • put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power.

3

**Charge and Electricity
**

• Charge – electrical property of atomic particles of which matter consists, measured in coulombs (C) • Atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons. • Charge of an electron = 1.602 x 10-19 C

4

Electric Current

• Rate at which charges flow past a point in a closed loop (circuit) consisting of a potential source • Measured in ampere (unit is A) • 1 ampere = 1 coulomb / 1 second • Conventional direction from positive to negative terminal of the voltage source – actual direction is according to electron flow (negative to positive)

5

Voltage

• The difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical network (in Volt, V) • A measure of the ability of an electric field to cause an electric current in an electrical conductor (circuit)

6

Hydraulic Analogy

• Water circulating in a pipe, driven by pump as an analogy of an electrical circuit • Fluid pressure difference between two points correspond to potential (voltage) difference • With pressure difference between two points, then water flowing from the first point to the second can do work • Similarly with potential difference, electron can flow – current do the work

7

Ohm’s Law

• Potential difference between two points along a connected path and the current flowing through it are proportional at a fixed temperature V = IR

Georg Simon Ohm

V is the potential difference, I is the current, R is a resistance of conductor.

German physicist (1787–1854)

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**Resistance of the conductor
**

Resistance

R=

ρl

A

**Also varies with • temperature • frequency • Spiralling of conductor
**

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**Power and Energy
**

• Work done to move water is equal to the pressure multiplied by the volume of water moved. • Similarly, in an electrical circuit, the work done to move electrons is equal to 'electrical pressure' (an old term for voltage) multiplied by the quantity of electrical charge moved

Power = Voltage x Current (P = VI) , in Watt Work done (Energy) = Power x time (Ws) Normally in EE, Energy is in kWh

10

**Direct Current vs Alternating Current
**

DC • constant flow of charge (current) from high to low potential AC • Current whose magnitude and direction vary cyclically • The usual waveform of AC is sine wave -the most efficient transmission of electrical energy

11

Alternating Current

• Maximum Value, Imax • Root mean square (Effective) value, Irms

I rms = I max 2

• Period, T • Frequency, f

f = 1 T

12

DC vs AC Generation

DC generation is from • Battery • Rectifier • DC Generator AC generation is from • AC Generator

13

**Three Phase AC System
**

• Waveform same in magnitude and shape but different in phase • Phase difference is 120o • Connection can be either delta or wye

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Power

In power calculation, normally, rms (effective) values are used In DC circuit, Resistance - the only element considered in DC circuit P = VI (a constant) , in Watt (W) In AC circuit, v and i are varying against time Resistance, inductance and capacitance can affect the AC system Resistance consume power (real and active power) Inductance takes power from and returns it to source Capacitance produces power and takes the same power back Reactive power – relates to inductance and capacitance

15

Power Factor

• Cos of the angle between voltage and current • For purely resistive circuit, voltage is in phase with current

Pf = 1 since cos θ = 0

**• For inductive circuit, current lags voltage by an angle
**

Pf < 1 (lagging) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

**• For capacitive circuit, current leads voltage by an angle
**

Pf < 1 (leading) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

16

Power Factor, Real, Reactive and Apparent Power

**Instantaneous Power p(t) = v(t) x i(t) Average (Real, Active) Power
**

P= 1 ∫ p(t)dt = Vrms x I rms x cosθ T

17

**• Real power is the power measured by TNB meter P = Vrms x Irms x pf • Reactive Power
**

produced by capacitance or taken by inductance Q = sqrt (S2 – P2)

• Apparent power

– Sum (in complex no. form) of P and Q – Rating of power system components such as generator, transformers, etc

S = Vrms x Irms

18

**Power Factor Correction
**

• TNB penalise for low pf of less than 0.85 • To avoid penalty, large user may improve pf by

– Installing capacitor – Use synchronous motor

19

Overall Perspective of EE

• Research in electricity was intensified in the 19th century

– Georg Ohm in 1827 proposed Ohm’s Law – Micheal Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 – James Clark Maxwell published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in 1873 – During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physic

Ohm Faraday

**• In the late 19th century that universities started to offer degrees in electrical engineering.
**

Maxwell

20

**• The Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany
**

– founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering in 1882 – introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering in 1883

**• University College London, UK
**

– founded the first chair of electrical engineering in 1885

**• University of Missouri, USA
**

– established the first department of electrical engineering in the US in 1886

21

• In 1882, Thomas Alva Edison switched on the world's first largescale electrical supply network that provided 110 volts DC to fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan

– Developed incandecent lamp and telegraphy Edison

**• In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number of patents related to a competing form of AC power distribution
**

– Also contributed on the development of induction motor and polyphase system

Tesla

22

Educating EE

• EE possess a degree in Electrical Engineering • The length of study usually four or five years • The degree covers physics, mathematics, project management, and specific topics in Electrical Engineering • Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master or PhD in EE Info : www.fke.utm.my

23

Practising EE

• In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards profesional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body • After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience requirements) before being certified • Once certified the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer Info : www.bem.org.my www.iem.org.my

24

The End

25

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UsefulNot usefulFundamentals of Electricity
Azhar Khairuddin
1
The nature of electricity
Current, voltage, power, energy
Fundamentals of Electricity
DC: AC:
frequency, polyphase
An overall perspective of E...

Fundamentals of Electricity

Azhar Khairuddin

1

The nature of electricity

Current, voltage, power, energy

Fundamentals of Electricity

DC: AC:

frequency, polyphase

An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering

Real, reactive, and apparent power:

power factor

2

Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity

â€¢ Electrical Engineering

â€¢ discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism â€¢ concerned with using electricity to tran

Azhar Khairuddin

1

The nature of electricity

Current, voltage, power, energy

Fundamentals of Electricity

DC: AC:

frequency, polyphase

An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering

Real, reactive, and apparent power:

power factor

2

Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity

â€¢ Electrical Engineering

â€¢ discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism â€¢ concerned with using electricity to tran

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