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# Fundamentals of Electricity

Azhar Khairuddin

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The nature Current, voltage,
of electricity power, energy

## Fundamentals of DC: AC:

frequency, polyphase
Electricity

Real, reactive,
An overall perspective and apparent power:
of Electrical Engineering power factor

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Fundamentals of Electricity
- The Nature of Electricity
• Electrical Engineering
• discipline that deals with the study and application of
electricity, electronics, and magnetism
• concerned with using electricity to transmit energy
• Electricity
• property of matter that results from the presence or movement
of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes
electromagnetism
• responsible for many well-known phenomena such as
lightning, electric field, electric current
• put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and
electric power.

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Charge and Electricity

## • Charge – electrical property of

atomic particles of which
matter consists, measured in
coulombs (C)
• Atom consists of electrons,
protons, and neutrons.
• Charge of an electron = 1.602
x 10-19 C

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Electric Current
• Rate at which charges flow past a
point in a closed loop (circuit)
consisting of a potential source
• Measured in ampere (unit is A)
• 1 ampere = 1 coulomb / 1 second
• Conventional direction from
positive to negative terminal of
the voltage source – actual
direction is according to electron
flow (negative to positive)

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Voltage

• The difference of
electrical potential
between two points of an
electrical network (in
Volt, V)
• A measure of the ability of
an electric field to cause
an electric current in an
electrical conductor
(circuit)

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Hydraulic Analogy
• Water circulating in a
pipe, driven by pump as
an analogy of an electrical
circuit
• Fluid pressure difference
between two points
correspond to potential
(voltage) difference
• With pressure difference
between two points, then
water flowing from the
first point to the second
can do work
• Similarly with potential
difference, electron can
flow – current do the work 7
Ohm’s Law
• Potential difference between two
points along a connected path
and the current flowing through
it are proportional at a fixed
temperature
V = IR
Georg Simon Ohm

## I is the current, (1787–1854)

R is a resistance of conductor.
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Resistance of the conductor
Resistance
ρl
R=
A
Also varies with
• temperature
• frequency
• Spiralling of
conductor
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Power and Energy
• Work done to move water is equal to the pressure
multiplied by the volume of water moved.
• Similarly, in an electrical circuit, the work done to
move electrons is equal to 'electrical pressure' (an
old term for voltage) multiplied by the quantity of
electrical charge moved

## Power = Voltage x Current (P = VI) , in Watt

Work done (Energy) = Power x time (Ws)
Normally in EE, Energy is in kWh

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Direct Current vs Alternating Current

DC
• constant flow of charge
(current) from high to low
potential

AC
• Current whose magnitude and
direction vary cyclically
• The usual waveform of AC is
sine wave -the most efficient
transmission of electrical
energy
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Alternating Current

## • Maximum Value, Imax

• Root mean square
(Effective) value, Irms
I max
I rms =
2
• Period, T
• Frequency, f
1
f =
T

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DC vs AC Generation
DC generation is from AC generation is from
• Battery • AC Generator
• Rectifier
• DC Generator

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Three Phase AC System
• Waveform same in
magnitude and shape
but different in phase
• Phase difference is
120o
• Connection can be
either delta or wye

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Power
In power calculation, normally, rms (effective) values are used

In DC circuit,
Resistance - the only element considered in DC circuit
P = VI (a constant) , in Watt (W)

In AC circuit,
v and i are varying against time
Resistance, inductance and capacitance can affect the AC system

## Resistance consume power (real and active power)

Inductance takes power from and returns it to source
Capacitance produces power and takes the same power back
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Reactive power – relates to inductance and capacitance
Power Factor
• Cos of the angle between voltage and current

## • For purely resistive circuit, voltage is in phase with current

Pf = 1 since cos θ = 0

## • For inductive circuit, current lags voltage by an angle

Pf < 1 (lagging) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

## • For capacitive circuit, current leads voltage by an angle

Pf < 1 (leading) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

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Power Factor,
Real, Reactive and Apparent Power

Instantaneous Power
p(t) = v(t) x i(t)

## Average (Real, Active)

Power
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P = ∫ p(t)dt = Vrms x I rms x cosθ
T

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• Real power is the power
measured by TNB meter
P = Vrms x Irms x pf
• Reactive Power
produced by capacitance or
taken by inductance
Q = sqrt (S2 – P2)

• Apparent power
– Sum (in complex no. form) of P
and Q
– Rating of power system
components such as generator,
transformers, etc
S = Vrms x Irms

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Power Factor Correction
• TNB penalise for low
pf of less than 0.85

• To avoid penalty,
large user may
improve pf by
– Installing capacitor
– Use synchronous
motor

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Overall Perspective of EE
• Research in electricity was
intensified in the 19th century
– Georg Ohm in 1827 proposed Ohm’s
Law
electromagnetic induction in 1831
– James Clark Maxwell published a
unified theory of electricity and Ohm
magnetism in 1873
– During these years, the study of Faraday
electricity was largely considered to
be a subfield of physic
• In the late 19th century that
universities started to offer degrees
in electrical engineering.
Maxwell 20
• The Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany
– founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical
engineering in 1882
– introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical
engineering in 1883
• University College London, UK
– founded the first chair of electrical engineering in 1885
• University of Missouri, USA
– established the first department of electrical engineering
in the US in 1886

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• In 1882, Thomas Alva Edison
switched on the world's first large-
scale electrical supply network that
provided 110 volts DC to fifty-nine
customers in lower Manhattan
– Developed incandecent lamp and
telegraphy
Edison
• In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number
of patents related to a competing form
of AC power distribution
– Also contributed on the development of
induction motor and polyphase system

Tesla

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Educating EE
• EE possess a degree in Electrical Engineering
• The length of study usually four or five years
• The degree covers physics, mathematics, project
management, and specific topics in Electrical
Engineering
• Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a
postgraduate degree such as a Master or PhD in
EE

Info : www.fke.utm.my
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Practising EE
• In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering
represents the first step towards profesional
certification and the degree program itself is certified
by a professional body
• After completing a certified degree program the
engineer must satisfy a range of requirements
(including work experience requirements) before being
certified
• Once certified the engineer is designated the title of
Professional Engineer
Info : www.bem.org.my
www.iem.org.my
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The End

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