1 Up votes0 Down votes

1.1K views25 pagesFundamentals of Electricity
Azhar Khairuddin
1
The nature of electricity
Current, voltage, power, energy
Fundamentals of Electricity
DC: AC:
frequency, polyphase
An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering
Real, reactive, and apparent power:
power factor
2
Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity
â€¢ Electrical Engineering
â€¢ discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism â€¢ concerned with using electricity to tran

Jun 19, 2009

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Fundamentals of Electricity
Azhar Khairuddin
1
The nature of electricity
Current, voltage, power, energy
Fundamentals of Electricity
DC: AC:
frequency, polyphase
An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering
Real, reactive, and apparent power:
power factor
2
Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity
â€¢ Electrical Engineering
â€¢ discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism â€¢ concerned with using electricity to tran

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

1.1K views

Fundamentals of Electricity
Azhar Khairuddin
1
The nature of electricity
Current, voltage, power, energy
Fundamentals of Electricity
DC: AC:
frequency, polyphase
An overall perspective of Electrical Engineering
Real, reactive, and apparent power:
power factor
2
Fundamentals of Electricity - The Nature of Electricity
â€¢ Electrical Engineering
â€¢ discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and magnetism â€¢ concerned with using electricity to tran

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Batteries and Primitive Survival
- Pole Building Construction
- Guide to Planning of Electric Power Distribution
- Build Your Own Sail Boat
- transmission and distribution handbook
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Comforts of Home
- Electric Power Systems. Vol. I. Electric Networks.
- Electrical ,Home Inspection Course and Exam
- Designing a Meditation Room
- Electrical Fundamentals
- Basics of Electricity
- Meditation at Home Booklet
- Harmonics in Power Distribution Networks!
- Electricity
- Alternating Current
- Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
- Introduction to Electricity
- Electricity Made Easy
- Practical Electricity

You are on page 1of 25

Azhar Khairuddin

1

The nature Current, voltage,

of electricity power, energy

frequency, polyphase

Electricity

Real, reactive,

An overall perspective and apparent power:

of Electrical Engineering power factor

2

Fundamentals of Electricity

- The Nature of Electricity

• Electrical Engineering

• discipline that deals with the study and application of

electricity, electronics, and magnetism

• concerned with using electricity to transmit energy

• Electricity

• property of matter that results from the presence or movement

of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes

electromagnetism

• responsible for many well-known phenomena such as

lightning, electric field, electric current

• put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and

electric power.

3

Charge and Electricity

atomic particles of which

matter consists, measured in

coulombs (C)

• Atom consists of electrons,

protons, and neutrons.

• Charge of an electron = 1.602

x 10-19 C

4

Electric Current

• Rate at which charges flow past a

point in a closed loop (circuit)

consisting of a potential source

• Measured in ampere (unit is A)

• 1 ampere = 1 coulomb / 1 second

• Conventional direction from

positive to negative terminal of

the voltage source – actual

direction is according to electron

flow (negative to positive)

5

Voltage

• The difference of

electrical potential

between two points of an

electrical network (in

Volt, V)

• A measure of the ability of

an electric field to cause

an electric current in an

electrical conductor

(circuit)

6

Hydraulic Analogy

• Water circulating in a

pipe, driven by pump as

an analogy of an electrical

circuit

• Fluid pressure difference

between two points

correspond to potential

(voltage) difference

• With pressure difference

between two points, then

water flowing from the

first point to the second

can do work

• Similarly with potential

difference, electron can

flow – current do the work 7

Ohm’s Law

• Potential difference between two

points along a connected path

and the current flowing through

it are proportional at a fixed

temperature

V = IR

Georg Simon Ohm

R is a resistance of conductor.

8

Resistance of the conductor

Resistance

ρl

R=

A

Also varies with

• temperature

• frequency

• Spiralling of

conductor

9

Power and Energy

• Work done to move water is equal to the pressure

multiplied by the volume of water moved.

• Similarly, in an electrical circuit, the work done to

move electrons is equal to 'electrical pressure' (an

old term for voltage) multiplied by the quantity of

electrical charge moved

Work done (Energy) = Power x time (Ws)

Normally in EE, Energy is in kWh

10

Direct Current vs Alternating Current

DC

• constant flow of charge

(current) from high to low

potential

AC

• Current whose magnitude and

direction vary cyclically

• The usual waveform of AC is

sine wave -the most efficient

transmission of electrical

energy

11

Alternating Current

• Root mean square

(Effective) value, Irms

I max

I rms =

2

• Period, T

• Frequency, f

1

f =

T

12

DC vs AC Generation

DC generation is from AC generation is from

• Battery • AC Generator

• Rectifier

• DC Generator

13

Three Phase AC System

• Waveform same in

magnitude and shape

but different in phase

• Phase difference is

120o

• Connection can be

either delta or wye

14

Power

In power calculation, normally, rms (effective) values are used

In DC circuit,

Resistance - the only element considered in DC circuit

P = VI (a constant) , in Watt (W)

In AC circuit,

v and i are varying against time

Resistance, inductance and capacitance can affect the AC system

Inductance takes power from and returns it to source

Capacitance produces power and takes the same power back

15

Reactive power – relates to inductance and capacitance

Power Factor

• Cos of the angle between voltage and current

Pf = 1 since cos θ = 0

Pf < 1 (lagging) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

Pf < 1 (leading) since cos θ between 0 and 90o

16

Power Factor,

Real, Reactive and Apparent Power

Instantaneous Power

p(t) = v(t) x i(t)

Power

1

P = ∫ p(t)dt = Vrms x I rms x cosθ

T

17

• Real power is the power

measured by TNB meter

P = Vrms x Irms x pf

• Reactive Power

produced by capacitance or

taken by inductance

Q = sqrt (S2 – P2)

• Apparent power

– Sum (in complex no. form) of P

and Q

– Rating of power system

components such as generator,

transformers, etc

S = Vrms x Irms

18

Power Factor Correction

• TNB penalise for low

pf of less than 0.85

• To avoid penalty,

large user may

improve pf by

– Installing capacitor

– Use synchronous

motor

19

Overall Perspective of EE

• Research in electricity was

intensified in the 19th century

– Georg Ohm in 1827 proposed Ohm’s

Law

– Micheal Faraday discovered

electromagnetic induction in 1831

– James Clark Maxwell published a

unified theory of electricity and Ohm

magnetism in 1873

– During these years, the study of Faraday

electricity was largely considered to

be a subfield of physic

• In the late 19th century that

universities started to offer degrees

in electrical engineering.

Maxwell 20

• The Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany

– founded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical

engineering in 1882

– introduced the world's first courses of study in electrical

engineering in 1883

• University College London, UK

– founded the first chair of electrical engineering in 1885

• University of Missouri, USA

– established the first department of electrical engineering

in the US in 1886

21

• In 1882, Thomas Alva Edison

switched on the world's first large-

scale electrical supply network that

provided 110 volts DC to fifty-nine

customers in lower Manhattan

– Developed incandecent lamp and

telegraphy

Edison

• In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number

of patents related to a competing form

of AC power distribution

– Also contributed on the development of

induction motor and polyphase system

Tesla

22

Educating EE

• EE possess a degree in Electrical Engineering

• The length of study usually four or five years

• The degree covers physics, mathematics, project

management, and specific topics in Electrical

Engineering

• Some electrical engineers also choose to pursue a

postgraduate degree such as a Master or PhD in

EE

Info : www.fke.utm.my

23

Practising EE

• In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering

represents the first step towards profesional

certification and the degree program itself is certified

by a professional body

• After completing a certified degree program the

engineer must satisfy a range of requirements

(including work experience requirements) before being

certified

• Once certified the engineer is designated the title of

Professional Engineer

Info : www.bem.org.my

www.iem.org.my

24

The End

25

- Batteries and Primitive SurvivalUploaded byMoreMoseySpeed
- Pole Building ConstructionUploaded byRick Carstens
- Guide to Planning of Electric Power DistributionUploaded bySufi Shah Hamid Jalali
- Build Your Own Sail BoatUploaded byRob Lambert
- transmission and distribution handbookUploaded byIndra Utama Ichsan
- Electricity and MagnetismUploaded byMohammed Nour
- Comforts of HomeUploaded bysm8085
- Electric Power Systems. Vol. I. Electric Networks.Uploaded byLucian Toma
- Electrical ,Home Inspection Course and ExamUploaded byAli Noroozi
- Designing a Meditation RoomUploaded byStefan Dragicevic
- Electrical FundamentalsUploaded byabuMalak
- Basics of ElectricityUploaded byKevin Haworth
- Meditation at Home BookletUploaded byparam5
- ElectricityUploaded byKhairul Hazwan
- Alternating CurrentUploaded bykapil
- Harmonics in Power Distribution Networks!Uploaded byMusa'b
- Fundamentals of Electrical EngineeringUploaded bybusyshot
- Introduction to ElectricityUploaded byhazreen othman
- Electricity Made EasyUploaded byArkScience
- Practical ElectricityUploaded byBjorn Low
- Electric Power Distribution System EngineeringUploaded byJalli Saroja
- Tomatoes eBookUploaded byok45sg
- List of projects.docxUploaded byrohitcshetty
- Practical Farm BuildingsUploaded bysnidely_whiplash
- Applications ElectricalUploaded byStefan Ličanin
- Markers ClickersUploaded byrajscribd148

- Ge2151 Beee NotesUploaded byNanda Subramanian
- Unit-1 Two MarksUploaded byThiagu Rajiv
- HKPhO_18FJDFYJGJGHJHJHJGYJGYHFJFTJRTJFGJFGNGJYJTYJTYJTYUploaded bySumihar Simangunsong
- Convection Notes- Rahul DevangreUploaded byAnurag Sharma
- ada 3 gauss (1)Uploaded byTony Maldonado Pinzon
- APSPDCL -2012 A.E QPUploaded byGsn Reddy
- NORMA - ANSI-AMCA Standard 250-05 Laboratory Methods of Testing Jet Tunnel Fans for PerformanceUploaded byJose Antonio
- Micro Flow MeterUploaded byAsaithambi Dorairaj
- shmUploaded byiitforum
- PHYC-121-WEEK-1-10[1]Uploaded byJohn Michael Cañero Maon
- Relationship between Logical and Linguistic Categories in the Paradigm of Parts of SpeechUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- PHYSICS NOTES FOR SPM 2019.docxUploaded bybrenwong@ymail.com
- Model Pump GrundfosliteratureUploaded byFadli Ot
- MedidoresUploaded byManuel Jimenez
- 8 Hints for Successful Impedance MeasurementsUploaded byLesnik1
- Keyboard ShortcutsUploaded byNurul Mukhlisah AbDal
- 1.Properties of FluidUploaded bySalam Albaradie
- e_ET1HW2_PsychrometricsUploaded byDuxToy
- 1st Year Computer Science MCQs (Chapter 1)Uploaded byMuhammad Ishtiaq
- heat and mass transferUploaded byAnonymous f1UCK4
- Calculo de Momentos de InerciaUploaded bymr740111
- Eficiencia termicaUploaded byWaldinho Gaucho da Silva
- Engineering Mechanics objectiveUploaded bySreejith Vanery
- Introduction to Relative Humidity EUploaded byxheatx
- Chapter 2 Problems UpdatedUploaded byDrGopi Krishna
- Kirchhoff's RulesUploaded byamiraaikharah
- Dynamics_HibbelerUploaded byHaardik Garg
- direct-and-inverse-variation-worksheet.docUploaded byJason
- Atmospheric PresuureUploaded bysanat kr pratihar
- Circuits HW1Uploaded byMohamed F. Al-Saftawi

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.