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KENNETHJOHN ..,r--..rearuui*r*^
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A R C H I T E C T L R E 8 O OT O 1 2 O O

Yale UniaersityPress' New Haaen and London

First published 1959by PenguinBooksLtd Fourth edition r978. New impressionrgg3 by Yale University Press z o r g 1 8 r y 1 6 t 5 1 4 1 31 2 r r r o g 8 7 6 5 Copyright @ Kenneth John Conant, ry59, 1966,ry74, ry78 Set in Monophoto Ehrhardt, and printed in Hong Kong through World Print Ltd Designedby Gerald Cinamonand Inge Dyson All rights reserved. This book may not be reproducedin whole or in part, in any form (beyondthat copying permitted by Sectionsro7 and ro8 of the U.S. Copyright Law and exceptby reviewers for the public press),without written permission from the publishers. ISBN o-3oo-o5zg8-7 Library of Congress catalogcard number 78-r4g8or

To my two namesakes Ken and Kenny


This new edtion, in addition to routine minor rectifications, contains text changes suggested by increasing knowledge of the development of the Romanesque style, and figures have been introduced which tend to make this development clearer. The text has new material on Montecassino, Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, Saintes, Cluny, Florence, and Saint-Denis. It presents the great church at Cluny as embodying the classic moment of the Romanesque, with Saint-Denis and Sens Cathedral as the first Gothic churches provided with flying buttresses of systematic design The original drawings were made or adapted by Donald Bell-Scott, further drawings were done for this edition by Ian Stewart, and the maDS were drawn bv Sheila Waters.

Note on the Second Intesrated Edition Foreword Maps: rr

Carolingian Divisions in and near France c. 8oo 814 France and Contiguous Areas about rooo r5


Medieval Ecclesiastical Metropolitanates (France) and Provinces (Germany) T h e S t y l i s t i c B o u n d a r i e so f R o m a n e s q u e F r a n c e The Pilgrimage Routes to Santiago de Compostela Spain and Portugal 2r 22-23 r8-rg 20


Germany, Neighbouring Lands, and Hungary Italy and Yugoslavia British Isles Scandinavia 25 26 27 24

The Holy Land

Part One: The Pre-Romanesqueand Proto-Romanesque Styles r . The Preparation for Medieval Architecture The Institutional Background 3r 34 36 37 3r

Primitive and Local Architectural Trends

The Persistence of Roman Architectural Ideas and Practice The Transition from Roman to Early Medieval Architecture z. The Carolingian Romanesque 43 8rq

Northern Architecture in the Reign of Charlemagne,TTr


Church Architecture in the Northern Part of the Empire under the Later Carolingians 3. Pre-Romanesque Architecture in the North, outside the Empire Ireland 69 Architecture in Saxon England 72 69


Ninth- and Tenth-Century Scandinavia 77


Architecturein SouthernEurope 87 4. Proto-Romanesque The Asturian StYle 87 The MozarabicStyle in Northern Spain 93 The Lombard Kingdom roo

Abbot Hugh of Semur

187 zo8

Abbot Pons, or Pontius, de Melgueil Abbot Peter the Venerable 213

r r. The Cistercians and their Architecture


The ByzantineExarchate ro2 Styles Part Tpo: TheEarlier Romanesque 'First ro7 Romanesque' The Lombardy ro7

of Midd,k and Southern France Part Four: The Mature Rornanesque rz. General Considerations in regard to the Regional Schools r3. The Kingdom of Arles, and Burgundy 243 49


Ducal Burgundy 243 Provence 2So Aquitania,with BorderingAreason the Loire and the Mediterranean 263 The West of France 26+ The School ofAuvergne 293 The SchoolofLanguedoc 297
r2r Part Fiz:e: The,44ature Romanesque Architecture of Spain, Portugal, and the Holl Land r7. Styles dependdnt on the Moors and on Lombardy Mud6far Romanesque Architecture in Brick The Mature Catalan Romanesque Style 18. Styles dependent on France r4r I53 3r I 306 303 3o3

Dalmatia r r I and Andorra r r I Catalonia The Kingdom of Arles r r9 Germany r rg

Romanesque Architecture in Germany under the Saxon and Franconian Emperors (936 r rz5) The Ottonians; the Ottonian Romanesque The Salian or Franconian Emperors France: goo ro5o The Ambulatory r3g r3g r3I 12r


The Spacious Wooden-Roofed Basilicas

Preliminary Considerations 3rr Aragon and Navarre 3r2

Part Three: The Mature Romanesque as Inter-Regional and International Architecture 8. The Great Churches of the Pilgrimage Roads The Preparation: General Considerations St Martin at Tours t6z t6z r63 r57 r57

L e o n , C a s t i l e .a n d G a l i c i a J I 5 Portugal 329 333

The Templars and the Hospitallers The Holy Land 336

Saint-Martial at Limoges Sainte-Foi at Conques

E x c h a n g eo f I n f l u e n c e s : T h e P r o b l e m o f A r m e n i a Architecture Part Six: .I4ature Romanesque


Saint-Serninat Toulouseand PilgrimageSculpture r65 Santiago de Compostela, Goal of the Pilgrimage 167 Reflexfrom the Pilgrimage ry7 The Role of Cluny in the History of Romanesque Architecture r85 The Early Abbots;the'EcoleClunisienne' r85

in the Land.sAsstttiated pithin the Holy Roman Empire Introduction to Chapters rg zz rg. The Two Sicilies 345 Apulia 345 352 343

The Basilicata




3Sz 362

Campania and Neighbouring Regions zo. Central ltalY 367 367


Rome and the Papal State Tuscany 372 38-5

The present volume is devoted to the genesis, development, and transformation of Romanesque architecture and is concerned with the principal artistic effort of four centuries, but the chronological limits are not as strict as this state,+o3 ment would imply. To understand Romanesque architecture well, it is necessary to understand the monasticism and the incipient medievalism of Late Classical times, before the creative spirit 4I5 121 ofthe Carolingian Age gave them a special direction. Following the epoch of mature Romanesque achievement, the after-life of the Romanesque extended into the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in regions where the style offered a suffrcient answer to local needs. and exoressed the local temper well. General works on Romanesque architecture are not numerous. In view ofthe enduring value of Paul Frankl's Fr il hmit tela h erlic he und r omanischeBauhunst, rather encyclopaedic in character, a freer pattern has been adopted for this +Jg -+39 treatise, which is somewhat more personal, cast when possible in the form of a narrative. The theme of the book is carried by' church architecture,but that is natural in the work ofan author who is academically the heir of Herbert Langford Warren and his teachers Henry Hobson Richardson and Charles Eliot Norton, the latter an intimate f riend ofJohn Ruskin. The greatest direct indebtedness ofthe author is, however, to his mentor, colleague, and liiend, 49.1 50I Arthur Kingsley Porter, whose wide-ranging re-study ofRomanesque art and chronology resulted in considerable activity on the part ofart historians. His interest in Cluny, shown in important work of his own, was responsible for several significant studies in the Cluniac ambient by Americans during the period when


zr. Northern Italy Venice 385 386

Joan Evans was engaged on her comprehensive publications in England, and M. Charles Oursel on his learned works concerning; Cluniac and Cistercian art in Burgundy. Nt.


Neighbouring Regions showing Components of Mature Lombard Style zz. Germany, with the Netherlands and Flanders South Germany 4r-1 4I r

Marcel Aubert. to whom the author is much beholden for many kindnesses, was at the same time preparing his encyclopaedic work on Cistercian architecture in France. With all these materials now available, it is possible to present - as such - the monastic accomplishment in church architecture. The reader will find here, following an account of the renewal in Charlemagne's time, a record of the architectural advances by which the highly organized conventual establishment and the beauti(ully articulated great monastic church were achieved. This record, during Rornanesque times, brings forward traditional forms culminating a synthesis of at Cluny and Citeaux. Its foil, in our exposition, is the flowering o{' the many and varied regional styles, colonists as the Romanesque area expanded into Spain, the Holy Land, middle Europe, and Scandinavia. In the Holy Roman Empire there was a particularly wide panorama of interesting regional styles: older architectural forms were perfected and embellished, and the noble monuments which resulted in such great numbers have been admired ever since the Romanesque centuries. But they do not show the drive for logical synthesis in structure which characterized the North-western region. Therefore at the end of our work we ref'er to Romanesque Normandy, England, and the ile-de-France in contrast with the Empire; the result of their effbrt in architecture was the creation ofa new

Saxony and Neighbouring Regions The Lower Rhine Main District The Netherlands +27

Architectarc in Scandina.^ia, Britnin, and Northern France Part Sez;en:Mature Romanesque zq. Scandinavia 43I Denmark Sweden Norway' 43r $+ 436

24. Northern France and Norman England

some of them carried forth by missionaries or

F r e n c h R o m a n e s q u co f t h e S c h o o l o f t h e E a s t , o r R h i n e l a n d F r a n c e The Royal Domain (ile-de-France) and Champagne Normandy 442 ,+54 4j9

England: l'he Saxo-Norman Overlap Norman England Notes $j 4-5.+


List of Illustrations Index 5og



structural unit which had elements drawn from all of the older types of vaulting, but surpassed them all. Fully developed, this unit the typical ribbed groin-vaulted bay with its spur or flying buttress - was universally applicable, and became the mainspring of Gothic architecture. It was further remarkable in that designers, by its use, could reinterpret and carry on all of the effects achieved in local varieties of the parent Romanesque. By making clear these facts the author hopes to enrich the reader's appreciation both of Romanesque and of Gothic tecture. The author wishes to express his gratitude to the medievalists who have been mentioned for the benefits which have come from their scholarly work and their counsel. He is grateful for the generosity of the Hon. John Nicholas Brown, who made excavations at Cluny possible through the Mediaeval Academy of archi-

America; he also owes thanks to Miss Helen Kleinschmidt, to Dr Harry H. Hilberry, to Dr ElizabethReadSunderland, and to Dr Alice Sunderland Wethey for their work in fitting parts of the Cluniac puzzle together; to Dr Isabel Pope Conant for thoughtful criticism; and to Mrs Hart Chapman and to Mrs Judy Nairn for experthandling of the manuscript. Special thanks are due to Dr Turpin C. Bannisterfor a searching reviewand discussion of the text while it wasin proof. And thanksare most particularly due to the Editor, Professor Sir Nikolaus Pevsner,who is deeply versedin the subiectmatter of the volume; his work on the manuscriptwasthat of a wisecolleague and friend, far exceeding the merely editorial function.


.28 June r954

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T H E I N S T I T L I T I O N AB LACKGROTJND The Leaders The 1'ear 8oo came to a Western rvorld readv for a great revival of'man1' things which Antiquity held dear. The barbarian torment and the civil strife which had overturned the f'altering late Empire were far from ended, but the lorces of order were decisivelv rallied, and great men like Charlemagne and his companions were hnding, in the pattern of classic life and thought, the wa].s in which the half Roman. half German medieval rvorld could be organized. The consular dignity'conferred in 5 o 8 u p o n C l o v i s , w h o r v a sa l r e a d y K i n g o f t h e Franks in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was deposed, had implications which began to be realized as the Frankish settlers showed their sturdy worth and their power to build an enduring state. The implic'.rtions \\ere further realized when Charlemagne's grandfather, Charles N{artel, repulsed the Saracenic advance near Poitiers in 732; when his irather, Pepin, aided i n e s t a b l i s h i n gt h e p a p a l P a t r i m o n l ' ; a n d m o s t o f a l l w h e n C h a r l e m a g n eh i m s e l f c r e a t e d a p a n Germanic state with an orderlv political system, and enlarged the boundaries of Christendom by his conquests.

It is fiair to sa]' that the great triangle formed b y t h e R h i n e , t h e L o i r e , a n d t h e s e a ,q u i e s c e n t before, now put forward almost all the grand conceptions on which the new medier,al world of gor,ernment, philosophl', and art was to be clude all the mid-continental based. Charlemagne extended the area to inGermans, pro-

moted the Christianization of this vast domi n i o n , a n d b o u n d i t b y s t r o n g e c c l e s i a s t i c aa l nd political links to Rome. Bv his care fbr the Roman Church he gave new impetus to that institution, which was perhaps the greatest s i n g l ei n h e r i t a n c ef r o m A n t i q u i t v , a n d b 1 ' a c t i v e favours to learning he made a beacon of his court. -Ihus, by the year 8oo, learning and legal

svstem rvere being advanced again, and the monasteries,by addressing themselvesto Rome's old task of administrative and economic development, \1erefbrming the groundwork on rvhich an1'' lasting renaissance perforce would rest. 'l'his socien, rvhich had been confused and periphcral, found its direction and its unil-ving p r i n c i p l e ; i t m a d e a s v n t h e s i so f G e r m a n i c c u l ture with traditional late Roman lbrms and persistent influences from B1'zantine and Oriental l a n d s , u n d e r t h e c o n f i d e n ta n d e n e r g e t i cC . h a r l e magne, whose coronation as Roman Emperor


P R E - R O M A N E S Q U E A N D P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S



at Christmastide,8oo, happily marks a symbolic new beginning. Artistic initiative stirred, and new aesthetic lbrms were created which e\' !ntuall)' became 'I'he creation of Carolingian symbols of the age. art, with its reflexes of oriental, northern, and Mediterranean origin, is a very complex phenomenon, and only the architecture can concern us here; suffice it to say that the fecund and dynamic character so notable in the other arts is equally found in the architecture. In archit e c t u r e a l s o , d e s i g n e r sh a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o merge what was good in all the old forms within the ample horizon of vast civic and religious conceptions, though the architects were relatively more dependent on Mediterranean models. The abounding energy and initiative ofthe Emperor himself, and the great gifts for understanding, organization, and synthesis which were possessed by the gireat masters of rhe Palace Alcuin and Einhard particularly were strongly I'elt in architecture. The brilliant ideas developed by the church architects of Charlemagne's day were of enduring importance. J'hev have been interpreted in successive styles throughout the centuries, up to modern times. The leading Carolingian architects anticipated certain Romanesque characteristics, but scholars hesitate to sav that Romanesque architecture properly so called began in the Caro'f lingian Ren:rissance. hel prefbr to reserve the term fbr the better integrated art which flourished from the time of Otto the Great (936-73) in western Europe, and receded before Gothic art lrom about rr3o onward. This is perhaps becauseCarolingian painting, manuscripts, and sculpture differ more sharply than architecture lrom acknowledged Romanesque works. Bec a u s el h c R o m a n c o m p o n e n ti s \ e r \ i m p o r t a n t . the name C:rrolingian Romanesque is suitable for the architecture. For the discerning historian can see that the general programme of earll' medieval architecture was already understood at the court of CharlemaEne and that charac-

teristic Romanesque I'eatures or elements were created and used, though not on the scale nor with the great assuranceof later times. f'he C a r o l i n g i a n R o m a n e s q u ew a s i n r e n t i r e I i t w a s also experimental style. Romanesque in the testtube rather than a well-knit. fullv articulated

under construction even when favoured by exc e p t i o n a l r e s o u r c e sa n d o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The impulse fbr novel alchitectural development came chiefly lrom the monasteries. A m o n a s t e r yo f i m p o r t a n c e o f t e n s e r v e dn e a r l y a l l the needs of a thousand persons or more, and thus presented architectural problems on the scale of a whole town. Yet its design would be more monumental, and integrated in a more sophisticated manner than that of a town, with the consequence that novel problems would arise spontaneously'.

liturgy fbr its magnificence. Priories on identical lines were soon founded. Louis the Pious, who succeeded Charlemagne in 8r,1, built the Cornelimiinster on the Inden, near Aachen, for him to regularize monastic life in the Emperor's dominions.s Benedict, and instructed The groups of men who withdrew fiom the ordinary pursuits of the world to live together under the rule ofan abbot, taking vows ofpoverty, chastity, obedience, and stability, lbund rich rewards in the spiritual pattern of the monastic liturgies. Such conmunities became oases of Christian life in the midst of wild countr) or social chaos; sound and strong, the monastic institute was able to accept manifbld opportunities to preserve piety and learning, to aid communications by turnishing hospitality to wayfbrers ofer,ery degree, and to enlarge the borders of Christianitv bv missionary endeaYOUr. .{lthough the monks were individualll'' vowed to poverty, the communities received great gifts of land and endou'ment; and in general thel managed their quite considerable resources well. f'he monks patiently developed and improved their properties, which were often largelv uncultir,ated or dcsolate when g;iven, and bv this process a ty'pical monastery would become the garner and the agricultural capital for a considerable surrounding area ; becauseof large land holdings it would have certain administrative and judicial lunctions too, in addition to being the spiritual capital. Much invective a g a i n s t u s u r p i n g a n d u n s u c c e s s f u la d m i n i s t r a tors has come down to us in the texts, and this f'act tends to obscure the excellent general record ofthe monasteries as orderly and peacclul islands within a society ruhich was struggling out ofdeep confusion.'l'heir industry laid the lbundations of economic recoverl in Europe after the Dark Ap;es. The larger monasteries presented intricatc administrative problems, and were the accepted schools for men of business and government. In addition they were the

The Arc hitectural Ambit It is important to realize in this connexion that the Carolingian Romanesque was an architecture intended for relatively small groups of people, and not a great urban architecture suclt as classic architecture had been. The population of the entire Roman Empire in Hadrian's time is believed to have been about 55,ooo,ooo. There were several cities approaching r,ooo,ooo in population, but all were in the south and east. The cities in the north and west had always been small, and the countrvside rather sparsely peopled. In the late classical period the population of the Empire declined, particularly in the cities, Rome being an e\treme example with a decline from nearly r,ooo,ooo to its nadir of about ro,ooo. Constantinople, which maintained a population of nearly r,ooo,ooo in the \{iddle Ages, seemed labulous to visitors from the West. Medieval London had only about z5,ooo people,and all England only 5,ooo,ooo, while the German urban centres had from 5ooo to ro,ooo people; l'rance was relativelv more settled and prosperous. It seems clear that most of the building operations were traditional, and were done, even in late medieval times, on the modest scale which we associate with villages.l The conditions of society were such that the solutions developed in Roman and barbarian times for the various problems ol' ordinary architecture were still sufficient, so that there was little occrsion for the exercise of new ingenuity in such work. Ambitious projects involving new problems were few in number, and with rare exceptions they were long

.Monasticistn Monasticism itself came to Carolingian times with the strong Roman imprinr giren to an originally Egvptian and cenobitical institution 'l'here by St Benedict of'Nursia (r. 48o 5.13). is indeed something of Roman grandeur and durability in the Rule which he compiled for his own monastery of Montccassino about 5zg. This Rule made its rvavthroughout Western C.hristendom on its os'n mcrits, and acted as an international constitution in the early Middle Ages when temporal government had broken down, and the monastic commonwealth remained as the only stable community 2 The way of Roman churchmanship in Gaul was smoothed by Pepin III, who introduced the Roman, and prohibitcd the Gallican, liturgv tn the Frankish kingdom, j54 68.Charlemagne reinforced the tcndencv by imposing on all monks a rule of Bencdictine character. Roman in spirit (78g). Benedictinism itself. then in relativc decline because of uphcavals. was enormously benefited by Charlemagne and his successorsfrom 779 onward, when a refbrm was inaugurated under St Benedict of Aniane (died 8zz). A splendid nt:w monrster]' was built at Aniane, which lies nerr Saint-Guilhem-le-D6scrt or Gellone in Languedoc, between Arles and Narb o n n e . I t d r e w o n a l l t h e r c s o u r c e so f ' a r t a n d





training places for talent in the arts, and the refuge of intellectual activity. Thus the monasteries did yeoman service in creating all four ofthe baseson which medieval civilization was to rest: (r) economic revival, (z) the fusion of the Latin and the Teutonic peoples, in which the conversion of the invaders, the unified world view presented by Christianity, and its common mode of thought were fundamental, (3) the afterlife of Roman law in the monastic Rule, the canon law of the Church, and the Holy Roman Empire, (4) the feudal system, which set up new hierarchies of power, and enabled the monastic orders to extend their influence and their benefits generally. The great monasteries, thus developing as imposing hnancial, educational, and territorial corporations, were lar larger, more complex, and more influential than they had ever been in Antiquity. Since many of their architectural problems were new, their architecture became the living and growing architecture of the time. (restored). r. Lojsta, palace Original ofr. rooo

P R I M I T I V EA N D L O C A L A R C H I T E C T U R AT LR E N D S With the creation of' a central power in the influences in architecture lrom the

cipal tool, and a traditional log-wall construction developed which came to its culmination in the Russian medieval spire churches. In the West, more sophisticated tools were used. and several schemes of more efficient, lighter construction were worked out. In the palace halls there was evidently foinery ofa high order adorned with intricate carving, of which the wagons and sledges found with the Norse grave-ships probably offer us specimens. At Lojsta on the Isle of Gotland a palace ruin ascribed to the period about a.o. rooo has been restored, and here one may see how handsome the primitive wooden forms can be, even without the lavish carving and colour which the original work doubtless possessedIr, 36.t]. Accumulating evidence shows that halls of the Lojsta type were used all over northern Europe for many centuries in noble, domestic, farm, and (later) church construction [4e]. They may even 'bay be responsible for the introduction of the system' in stone-built Romanesque. z. Greenstead, woodenSaxonchurch (part), ror3, brick basemodern

Palisade wall construction was used by the Saxons, and a solitary example of their work, dated ror3, still existsin the church at Greenstead, Essex [zl. Wooden frames with vertical sheathing and braced mast construcfion were used by the Norse. The clinker construction of the Scandinavian ships is essentially like weather-boarded construction in building. It may go back as f'ar as the third century a.o. 'Half-timber' construction among the barbarians may also be lairlv ancient, as Strzygowski believed. Excar,ations in the Gallo-Roman area have shown that Roman work in outlying regions must often har,e adjoined that of the barbarian settlers; indeed it seems likely that the barbarian builders near the borders ofthe Empire learned something also from the Romans.5 The prosperous household among the Germans would have a hall like that at Loista. or a more sophisticated building of similar character. Subsidiarl' buildings of' the same sort would gather, arranged about courtvards, and the number of such courts would be the measure of'the household's importance. It is probable t h a t t h e ' p r o l i f ' e r a t i n g q u a d r a n g l e s 'o 1 ' t h e g r e a t monasteries carry on something of this mode of agglomeration.b 'r,ernacular'or folk architecturewas of Such course f-ar from adequate lbr the nccds of an imperial building programme, but being rooted and native in the north, it would be bound to have some efl'ect on an-vimported st1,le.Specificallv, the mode of design where liamed wooden compartments make up a building is quitc different from that of classic architecture in brick, stone, or concrete. L,r'cn in the first attempts at strict imitation, the local habits and conditions would inevitably make themselles f'elt. Northern builders preler austere shapes, lbr their climate is severe on involved e\terior fbrms. Northern rooI.s arc stecp, in order to evacuate rain more quickll' and diminish the hazard of snow and icc. The exterior materials

north of Europe, it would be natural to expect Northern year 8oo onwards. The situation is well expressed in Charles Rufus Morey's reference to 'the naive effort of the barbarian races themselves to revive the Rome which their fathers had ruined', and his definition of Romanesque art as that'which reflects the gradual sinking of Latin culture below the Celtic and Teutonic surf'ace'. The architecture of these migrant and primitive peoples could hardly have the superb beauty, the 'coiling vitalitv' of their works of minor art, but as their compositions sought out the eccentric effects of nature itself, so their architecture alwavs was both functional and organic.a In the North-east, where primeval timber was abundant, the adze was the builder's prin-





which resist the weather well are nearly all either red or gre)', so that the colour range is limited. Yet in the Carolingian period the north'vernacular' architecture was obviousll' so ern simple that almost any really monumental new development would be largely dependent on Roman sources. l'he elements. the items, the f'eaturesof great buildings would be Roman, but the manner of their employ would be affected by northern artistic discipline and taste. During the Carolingian period both Roman and native elements were used increasingly, with admir' able inventiyeness. in church architecture.

we should now call fully monumental. All other tvpes of building, even the most ambitious, tended to have plain or uninteresting exteriors, and the layout of the cities gave little opportunit]', apart from the fora, for individual structures to present imposing effects, or to become dynamic elements in the city picture and the landscape. Such effects are achieved almost as a matter of course 6rst in medieval, then in Renaissance, Baroque, and neo-classical planning. On the contrarv, Roman civic works were often masked fiom the street or forum b1'enclosing porticoes, so that the compositions were inward-looking; typically they had the classicalhorizontality and self-contained unitv. In contrast the Romanesque, through bold imagination, came to be characterized by free, active, and arresting combinations of architectural forms. The Romanesque contributed greatlv to the development ofhighly articulated, expressive exterior and interior design. It laid the in that field, and tbundation ofGothic successes t h u s i t u n d e r l i e s s t i l l f u r t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t so f Renaissance and modern date: a notable differentiation, surell'', from the Roman. Romanesque variety developed out of Roman unity. For, from the first years of our era, the architecture of the city of Rome was the model throughout the whole area of the Western Empire. Provincial approximations, often imperf'ect because of different materials and other conditions, nevertheless departed little in essential structure, and not at all in ideals,lrom the augustexemplars in the imperialcity. The growing centralization ofthe state, the constantly increasing property holdings of the Emperor (amounting, it is said, to about a quarter of the area of the Empire in Diocletian's time), and the consequent spread ofuniform control in the des i g n i n g o f b u i l d i n g s , e n c o u r a g e dq u i t e g e n e r a l con(brmitv in practice to the architecture and e n g i n e e r i n go f ' t h e c a p i t a l . Although Rome's primacy in architecture departcd during the fifth cenlur), its imposing

Early Christian churches remained as an active inspiration while new ideals were developing for the Romanesque. Other tvpes of building made static rather than d1'namic contributions, but retained prestige as classic works. Even the shrunken wretched estate of medieval Rome to a fraction ofits ancient size, and scourged by malaria, private warfare, and disturbers from did not prevent high-minded popes abroad from maintaining the dignity ofthe ancient traditions of the Church, and with that dignity something ofthe lofty ideals ofancient architecture. Ancient Rome created no ne\rymonumental types after the Christian Roman basilica. Later designers, struggling on new problems without Rome's leadership, worked on a regional basis. Departing from the common and Roman theme, though conscious ofits significance, the provincial architects and engineers capitalized on the special variations in materials, skills, climate, and predisposition which fbrmer conditions, under the Romans, had tended to minimize. They even gained from such self-imposed limitations. Buildings with such local savour could be constructed more cheaply and would command the affection of folk in the locality from the very fact of being 'their own'. The result was, in the many regional schools of Romanesque architecture, a rich varietv unexampled in the parent imperial st1.le.

architecture continued to be built. Indeed it continued to be built fbr centuries. often with l i t t l e c h a n g e b e c a u s ei t w a s w e l l a d a p t e d t o c u r r e n t n e e d s .J u s t a s t h e w o o d e n a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the north was the 'background architecture' 'vernacular' there. so the architecture of the old Roman districts was the background architecture of the south. Almost the onlv demand fbr large new buildings came from the Church, and in consequence ecclesiastical architecture became the premier architecture from the time of C o n s t a n t i n eo n w a r d . The imperial architects achieved brilliant results in the new Earlv Christian architecture. - { f t e r t h e P e a c eo f t h e C h u r c h ( 3 r 3 ) , t h e l ' p u t the imprint of'unmistakable Roman grandeur on the Constantinian basilicas of Old St Peter's in the Vatican [3] and St Paul's outside the \Ualls. The churches which had been destroved throuehout the Empire during the persecution of Diocletian (:o: +) were pJenerallyreplaced r v i t h n e w b u i l d i n g s o l t h i s s a m e b a s i l i c a nc h a r a c t e r - t y - p i c a l l y ' w i t ha g a t e w a ] ' o 1 ' a p p r o a c ha ,n a t r i u m , a w o o d e n - r o o l e d n a v e a n d a i s l e s ,a n d an apse, often with a transept and perhaps sacr i s t i e sa d j o i n i n g i t . Eastern Christendom was able to continue t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f R o m a n v a u l t e d a r c h i t e c t u r ea s a living stvle, and applv them successfullv to the problems of church building, thoup5h under strong oriental influence. When the architects began to build masonrv domes in churches, the Byzantine style was constituted, in the time of Justinian (specifically, with the design of St S o p h i a i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ,5 - 1 2 ) . Carolingian designers usually had to be satisfied with cheaper buildings basilicas roof'ed in rvood. It is characteristic that thev sought models in the new East Christian sil'le when thela t t e m p t e da m b i t i o u s l a u l t e d b u i l d i n g s , b u t t h e l t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e dt e c h n i q u e s b y did not possess which Byzantine works were achieved. Such Carolingian works acquired a local salour because the builders had to do rvhat thev could on

O THE PERSISTENC EF R O M A N D E A SA N D P R A C T I C E A R C H I T E C T U R AIL The Romanesque which came after the Carolingian period profited by these erperiments, and b1' the dreadful experience of the Viking and Hungarian invasions. These incursions, with t h e i r b u r n i n g s o f t o w n s a n d c h u r c h e s ,o c c a s i o n ed a considerable ellbrt to build fireproofchurches in the ensuing period of revival, after the middle of the tenth century. Perforce the designers drew on the constructional experience of imperial Roman vaulted architecture. The nidespread and sucttss.fuluse of Roman types of vaulting as a clntrollins Jeature in design marks a distinction between the newer, Romanesque, architecture, irnd the older Carolingian. Examples of the ancient Roman stvle were built throughout noarly the entire area in which the Romanesque later flourished. The Roman manner of building, although it degenerated in the Dark Ages, remained as an ideal, and was never quite lost in practice. A Roman architect and a Roman engineer would easilv have undercontinustood the uork of their Romanesque ators. Yet there are obvious differences. Apart from commemoratiVe works and garden architecture, onlv the Roman temples had a character which

THETRANSITION F R O MR O M A N T O E A R L YM E D I E V A LA R C H I T E C T U R E Rome was indeed not built in a dav; but bv the beginning ofthe fourth centur]'ofour era it had been built, and the grandiose civic and religious organs of the Empire were becomingly housed. Coming in a time of decal', this meant that the wonderful system of working co-ordination which had produced these buildings would wither away through disuse. The tradition of masonrv vaulting on a grand scale was lost in this manner. Ordinarl., every-day,'r,ernacular'


P R E - R O M , \ N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y I - F - S

the basis of their Roman commonplace architecture and the wooden architecture of the North. Yet a traditional feature of church polity maintained the need fbr church buildings on a grand Roman scale. Originally, each citf in F-arlv Christendom had had only a single church, and the whole communin'expected to meet for services at one building. Increase of numbers meant that this would be a large building. Rome was exceptional in possessing three churches which, when they were built, could accommod a t e s u c h i n c l u s i v es e r ri c e s n a m e l y , t h e c a t h e dral of'the Saviour (324, rebuilt as St John L a t e r a n ) a n d t h e p i l g r i m a g e c h u r c h e so f O l d S t Peter's (323 6; the nave and atrium hnished a b o u t 4 o o , e p i s c o p i al a t e r ) a n d S t P a u l ' s o u t s i d e -I'hese were built for a the Walls (386-423). community' which numbered about 5o,ooo at the time. As a matter of course the congregations stood at the services, chairs being provided for dignitaries only. Later, when the chief metropolitan centres became entirelv Christian, such inclusive assemblieswere no longer possible,but the medieval cities of the West, being smaller, were able to maintain the old Roman practice. No doubt there was a compelling appeal fbr the bishops and architects of the West alike, in this situation. Fullv r5,ooo peoplecould crowd into the Ottonian cathedral of N{ainz (987 'I'he phenomenon obviousll' points to ro36).; an ideal of church br.rilding whereby the whole population could be accommodated on both the communitJ' and the parochial levels.8 With the disintegration of the Roman state in the West, the bishops gained in importance as l e a d e r s ;c i r , i c s p i r i t w a s m o u l d e d b y t h e s e m e n , who above all others were desirousof building noblv fbr the Christian communities, and could c o m m a n d t h e n e c e s s a r vr e s o u r c e s b e c a u s e o f t h c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e sw h i c h t h e y i n h e r i t e d f r o m thc Roman liovernment. Thus, in an odd way, Roman architectural thought is responsible for the huee bulk of the churches which inefface-

ably mark the silhouette of medieval towns. The vigour ofthe utterly un-Roman sky-line ofthese tolvns is the measure of the local initiatir,e, ima g i n a t i o n , a n d a e s t h e t i cp o u e r w h i c h w a s g e n e rated in Carolingian, Romanesque, and Gothic times. The powerful monasteries, when their turn crme in the Carolingian period and later, built churches on a comparable scale to house the manl altars, to satisfy the extensive requirements for choir space,and to provide an impressile setting for processionrl liturgies. Like the cathedral of a metropolitan centre, the church of a monasterv invariablv dominated its ensemble, even when the conventual buildings themselves were veritable cities. The orderly t h o u g h t w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e s ec o m p o s i t i o n sr e calls the planning which created the Roman colonial cities. The groupings are picturesque. basedon but it is an ordered picturesqueness, an organic distribution of functional elements. From the beginning time even in Constantine's the result was strong articulation in plan, ;:t'
,i-t ":


ffi Lt^i

P'iiI1, ',; ; d, r.:r


3. Rome, Old St l'eter's, 323 6, with additions, ro i. 5oo (the approach, the episcopia, rhe arrrum, the Imperial mausolet). Restoration study. Thc columns flanking the main portals were moved from recessedlateral porticos, filled in when the episcopia wrre built. The Triclinium is omitted (K.J.C.)

a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y ' b o l ds h a p e si n t h e m a s so f t h e church buildings. 'l'o review this process, for better understanding, we may recall that the first of the new elements to appear was the transept, which provided additional capaciq'to one side and ano t h e r o f t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d c h o i r p l a t f o r m s . T h e asceticaE l arly Christiansknown as monai0nt(s, devoted confraternities.and singers appear to have had a claim on this desirable interior space. In Old St Peter's (323 6) [3] its separatecharacter was indicated by its narrow entrances from the aisles, constricted as the]'were by columnar screens.Such a T-shaped plan resulted in an elevation of bold form which could easily be disting u i s h e d f t o m t h e c i v i c w o r k s o f t h e a g e .B y t h e filih century the Greek as well as the Latin cross plan (the former with arms of equal length, the latter with a west arm longer than the others) were also accepted, the latter perhaps suggested by svmbolism. All such buildiqgs were easily re-

cognizable as Christian; for the pagan crucilbrm buildings were small, and not for congregational uses. By contrast, this special purpose of the church was most obvious: the light construction and thin walls. so different from the voluminous imperial vaulted works, admitted of no disguise for the functional interior shapes arising from practical needs. Pylons and towers were also established by the sixth centur]' as important but ancillary elements. Their advent marks the beginning of a verticality which became increasingly characteristic as Early Christian and Carolingian design gave way to later Romanesque, and that in turn to Gothic, where almost every structural and decorative line f-eelsthe vertical imoulse. The pylons ol thc exrerior proprlrea ol the (never finished) late classical temple ofBaalbek were inherited bv a basilican church erected in Its main courtyard by Theodosius. Thus, accidentally, Theodosius's basilica was one of the very first to have a truly monumental entrance

precedent was probably fbllowed in the f'agadesof the Syrian Early Christian churches, but their pylons or dwarftowers, flanking a porch, were attached to the west fronts, and at once gave an unclassical look to the designs.') times. Towers for Fortification were a sign ofthe new 'I'hey were occasionally built beside



S1'rian churches during the Late Roman period. In the West the coming of the barbarians and perdistent local war made them importanr; for the church building was usually the mosr capacious and substantial building in the community, and consequently the refuge. 'Lantern' towers, with windows admitting light above the space in front of the altar, were also brought into church architecture on a practical and f unctional basis.l'rIn the East, masonry domes were replacing such towers by a.o. -5oo, and Byzantine architecture was the result; the Early Christian lantern towers live on, to the present day, in the central domes ofByzantine, Armenian, and Russian churches.





In the West, mere constructional expediency might have caused low towers to be built at the crossing of the nave and transept in basilican churches, where intersecting trusswork is awkward to construct and ugly to behold. A low tower is easily built at the crossing, with the nave and transept roofs stopping against its walls. Windows are easily introduced into such a tower without much extra weight or risk, and thus by the fifth century such lantern towers were much used in the West, even in churches without transepts. The use of church bells provided another practical element which distinguished the new Christian style. Small bells were used in Late Roman times to call the faithful to prayer. The monks used them in their liturgies, and for a long time the bell-ringer stood in the space bet w e e n t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d t h e m o n k s ' c h o i r , w i t h the bell mounted on a roof turret overhead. often above a lantern.ll Becauseall three of'the tower types previously mentioned towers fortification, lantern, and belfry
4. Tours, St \{artin, as in 47o, restoration studl The elements are certain, but all details are hvpothetical (K J C.) O o 5M. 15FT.

spite the lact that the original church was replacedin the sixth century, showedits vitality historical and in later works of considerable Among thesewerethe monartisticimportance. ofCentulaor Saint-Riquier(79oasticchurches 8oo) [5], Gernrode(96r-twelfthcentury)[75, 76], and Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire(c. ro8o, twelfth century) [zor, zo3]; alsothe cathedrals of Ely (ro83, 1323).374land Avignon (twelfth century) [r94]. St Louis IX, King of France, wasbaptizedin sucha building,of Early Gothic at Poissl'-sur-Seine. The destroved style, Gothic cathedralof Cambrai exemplified the theme

handsomely. The flamboyant church at SaintRiquier is, like the church of Saint-Quentin, an example of such a Gothic building being carried fbrward and finished in Renaissance times. French colonists brought the new theme to the New World, as is shown by the old church of Saint-Jean-Port-Joli near Quebec (r779). In view ofwhat the Franks and the French achieved with this idea in the development of medieval architecture, there is a happy historic symbolism in the fact that Clovis, their first great king, received the Roman consular insignia in the old church of St Martin at Tours.

appeared in the design ofthe influential monastic (later collegiate) church of St Martin at f'ours, this building was clearly, from our point of view, proto-medieval [4]. The vertical elements had transformed radically and for good the basic Roman basilican theme.12 Aesthetically and symbolically, this is a matter of great importance. The composition of St Martin was not horizontal, self-contained, and inwardlooking, as classical compositions are; rather it was made up of aspiring and intersecting forms. In St Martin, with its two axial towers, the new dvnamic mode is unmistakable. Once established. this new mode of composition was instinctively accepted in the Roman area leavened by Frankish immigration and versed in nonclassicalartistic modes. Once it was well assimilated in Charlemagne's dominion, the Carolingian Romanesque style was fully constituted. The scheme of the church of St Martin, archaic though it was in medieval terms, and de-

4e. Early South German constructions Brenz, St Gallen. Rcstoration based on excavations by Boda Cichy (K.J.C.). Wooden church, r. 65o, on stones and chassis; successor church, r. 73o, in stone (destroyed)



A R C H I T E C T U RIE N NORTHERN . ? r -8 r-t T H E R E I G \ O F C H A R L L M . { G \ E7 The character of Carolingian Romanesque mav easily be seen in the buildings raised under Charlemagne's own patronage. The themes are in general Roman, and the labric continues Roman traditions, but there are evident examples of Bvzantine and oriental influence. More important still, there is an originality which achieves often captivating effects both 'I'he in architecture and decoration. buildings made up an orderly programme, like the political acts of Charlemagne. Earliest among the churches was a new building at Saint-Denis (later roy'al pantheon). The old church (built about 475 by-St Genevidve and dedicated, according to legend, bv Christ himself, 636?) was replaced, beginning about 75.1, by a new work dedicatedin 775. According to careful studies based on partial excavarion,' this was a wooden-rool-ed columnar basilica with a spacious transept extending slightll. beyond the aisle walls, a lantern tower, and a west end of experimental form. Charlemag;ne's f'ather, Pepin, was buried at the entrance. To augment the dignity of this part of the church an apse was projected, which would have made the building a 'double-ender' like many notable later Carolingian churches, but t$ o small towers and a porch were ultimatell. built, linking the church with the more usual type of Romanesque church f'acade. This earlv church was b a s e do n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l R o m a n b a s i l i c , r :s e er h e plan, illustration j78. Next among the important churches built b1. Charlemagne was rhai which uas .onr,rr.r.d

in 78.2 fbr the monasterv of Aniane. Ret'erence has already been made to its great reforming abbot, Benedict of Aniane. Nothing remains of the church, reportedlv a magnificent building 'westwork' with a erected on the advice of' Charlemagne. The edi{ice may be ultimatelv responsible for the earlv medier,al flowering of church arts in the region. It offered a sumptuous beauty to the sen iceofthe liturgv.r Benedict's project was indeed lbrward-looking, and it came to full fruition in the North at a later date. Following this, during the decade after 7go. came the most characteristically- Northern and energetic ofthe church designs, the reconstruction of the important monastery of Centula or Saint-Riquier, near Abbeville [5]. T'he work was on a very considerable scale, and it was carried out when Angilbert was abbot, the 'Homer' of the Palatine Court and one of its l i v e l i e s t p e r s o n a l i t i e s .H e l e a v e st h e i m p r e s s i o n that he was an e\trovert and a rathel show!' m a n ; a n d p e r h a p s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i ch a s s o m e thing to do with the remarkably novel and monumental character of his buildings.s LIe was linked to Charlemagne b1'mutual afl-ection, and the building had much direct aid fiom C h a r l e m a g n e i n t h e f b r m o f g e n e r o u sf u n d s a n c l the lurnishing of craftsmen to work in stone, m a l b l e , g l a s s ,s t u c c o , a n d w o o d ; m o r e o v e r , t h e great patron ordered bases, columns, and mouldings to be specially transported from Rome. T h e n e r v c h u r c h l v a sd e d i c a t e dt o t h e S a v i o u r and All Saints, but the chicf altar, in the apse, $ a s r c l a t e dt o t h e t o m b o l S t R i u u i e r , a n i r s c c t i c who died in 645.







'. x ru:'lv'AN D'( soZiil '!,,f.-iir,(l . ,, . 'u l i ^ r'.6 , ,. . i c l i 3 - r q r n' P : o c a o r c E L(e^'-r'r"r; i t( -

on a forest of piers and columns. It contained a font and an altar. The vaults ofthis whole section of the church served as a platfbrm for a chapel ofthe Saliour in the fbrm ofa tall spire-like central altar space, ': cut off from the main nave b]' an arched screen and surrounded on the other three sides byaisles and salleries. The placing and bold firrm ofthe chapel were clearh didactic in intent: to emphasize the cult of the Saviour in a rather superstitious period when it tended to be obscured bv devotions to local saints and wonderworkers. The growth of medieval feeling since St N{artin in Tours was built is well shorvn by the fact that at Saint-Riquier the entrance element was an entire vertical church, with vestibule, subsidiarv altar and lbnt below, and a chiefaltar, dedicated to the Saviour, at the platform level. The galleries of the westwork were assigned to a boys'choir during serr,ices; the bovs sang with great effect as an angel choir in thc solenn
. . _ q * _ . -

scheme ol'framing lbr wooden spires has continued in use down to the present t i m e ; i t l v a s d o r . r b t l e sa sn original developrnent in medier,alcarpentrv. Il'the drum and spire lverc open, as the engravings show, an observer on the pavement at Saint-Riquier would seea most intriguing telescopic efl-ectlrom below. Beyond the westwork lav the nave of the m a i n c h u r c h , b a s i l i c a n ,w i t h a i s l e s ,a n d a w o o d en roof-. In the middle of the nar,e stood the altar of'the Cross. as is usual in monastic churches. Space to the west was left open lbr congregational use and processions, while the area farther erst was kcpt pri\ate, the main part of it being marked off by a chancel paraper or screcnas the rcgular choir of the monks. Tlvo minor altarswere near the scrcen in front ol'it o r b e s i d ei t ( p e r h a p s i n t h e a i s l e s ) . f'he monks'choir probably extcndedinto the crossing ol the tlansept, and the transept as usual had minor altars (fbur at Saint-Riquier). Here, as wls customary, the monks enteredthe church by the transept lvhen conring lbr services; typicallr. the altar ncar the cloister doorwav was more important than the orher minor altars beciruscrelics placcd there were venerated bl each monk as he cntercd. 1'he bell-ringer s t o o d b e t l v e e nt h e c h o i r a n d t h e m a i n s a n c t u a r y of the church, under the belfry. Stucco reliefi (e.r gipsr) of the Passion,Rcsurrection, and . { s c e n s i o nd c c o r a t e d t h i s p a r t o 1 ' t h e b u i l d i n g . . { t S a i n t - R i q u i e rl h e c r o s s i n g r o u e r w a sl r v i n ( a t 4 u a l i s lt o t h e d r u m a n d s p i r e o f t h e c h a p e l o f ' the Saviour, and, like its mate, was flanked by two tall round stair toners. The main sanctuilrv extended castward bct*een ancl bevond thc stair towers, composing handsomell. in an arrangement which became tradition:rl. I m m e d i a t c l v e a s t o f t h e c r o s s i n g t h e r e r v a sa sanctuarr bay which contained an altar dedicatedto St Peter, and bchind that thc tombs of' St Riquicr and his two companions. 1'he ba1' seems to have scrved as choir spirce lbr thc

a mast.





,,: '.tir,

' . 9



I o l l 8 , c n g r a r c d i n t 6 t z ( l e . l i) , 5 r a n i l n . S r i n t - R i q u i e r . H i r r i u l i m a n u s c r . i p td r a w i n g o f antl skctch restoration as in 3oo (K J C ; rrylr). F,xcarations show that the tower o1'tlrc chapcl ofthe virgin and the Apostles (b\ttom tl'5t) was bascd on a srmbolic dodecagon uith aislcs. not radirting chapcls, and thrt thc clclister {f,s I ler} large tri:tnglc

liturgies, when one or two choirs of men sang in the main church. Two slender round stair turrets of stone flanking the outer vestibule furnished access to the upper parts of the westwork, and composed beautilulll' with a tall rounded staged tower set over the central space asthe Chronicle of Hariull'shows.5 New studies conducted bv the :ruthor indic a t e t h a t t h e m a s o n r J ' c o n s t r u c t i o no l t h e w e s t work extended upward onll' as f'ar as the base of the round drum, and th:rt this drum, likc the spire above [5], was of wood. l'rvo engraved copies of Hariulf's manuscript show the drum opening up into the spire, :rnd suggest a crissc r o s so f ' b e a m s a t t h e b a s eo f t h e s o i r e . W e h c a r o f a c h u r c h o l ' 7 3 5 - 8 7 a t S r i n t - \ \ ' a n d r i l l c .n e a r Saint-Riquier, in which rhe spire was built about a mast, with the supports of the r,arious stages arranged like horizontal wheels on the mast.t' Possibly the criss-cross ol beams at the b a s eo f t h e S a i n t - R i q u i e r s p i r e s u p p o r t e d s u c h

The scheme wls basilic:rn, uith two arial 'I'ours, rowers,as at St \{artin in but so imaginatilell' elaborated and so d-vnamic:tllvcomposed as to eridencc Illl maturitv in the Carolingian Romanesque st1le. The church rvas about 2-5o {'eet long, and rvith its atrium mcasured about 'I'hc c r o s s i n ga n d t h e m a i n f h g a d e , each crowned bv an elaborate tower, reached a qo feet morc. h e i g h t o f ' a b o u t I 8 0 f e e t . +J ' h e a t r i u m h a d a r i a l a n d l a t e r a l e n t r a n c e - $ ' a v s ,e a c h w i t h a t o w e r ; t h e p o r t i c o e so f t h e a t r i u m s u p p o r t e d a n u p p e r passagc giving acccss to a chapel installed in each to\ler the earliest example we know of this interestingarrangement.

Grander in sc:rle and more imaginative still 'westwork', or entrance element, of the was thc m a i n c h u r c h , w h i c h w a s t h e e a r l i e s tr e a l l ) ' i m posing and boldll- articulated fagade in church architecture a historical landmark. At the base there was a vaulted outer vestibule which cont a i n ed t h e t o m b o f A n g i l b e r t a n d a r e m a l k a b l e painted stucco relief of the Nativitl' on a gold mosaic ground, surelv the forerunner of the sculptures which gathered about the portals of Romanesque and Gothic churches. Be1'ond this there was an inner vestibule which served as narther or antechurch - in effect a low, shadowed western transept rvith its vault carried


pne-nouANESQUE Er Y L E s A N D P R o r o - R o M A N E S Q Us

;17 T H E C A R O L T N G T AR NO M A N E S Q U.E

ol' St Riquier', a semicircular apse paved at a level higher than the nave, and containing the altar of St Riquier with a baldacchino or,er it. This apse was marked offby a screen of six marble columns brought from Rome, and thirteen small reliquaries were placed on the beam. Monrstelies usuallv have, in the sanctuary area, an altar for the chief'ceremonies, including the capitular mass of the day, and a l e s s e ra l t a r w h e r e t h e m o r r o w m a s s i s s a i d . I n this, as in so many other wa)'s, Saint-Riquier ,"o5 6.1,pical.; The wonderf ul design fbr Angilbert's church, dedicated in 7gg, evidentll made a sensation, and echoes of it are perceptible in ecclesiastical architecture fbr centuries. The west*ork theme, that is the theme of a tower-like lvcst block with an entrance and \,estibule and a chapel above this, underwent a l o n g d e v e l o p m e n t .F 6 c a m p i n N o r m a n d y ' h a d an early'west\\.ork, fiom which, perhaps, the m o t i f p a \ s e d t o E n g l a n d . R e i n r s ,a g r e a t a r l i s t i c centre in the ninth centurv, as the Utrecht Psalter demonstrates, built a cathedral in the grcat da!'s of Archbishops Ebbo (8r6 4I) and Hincmar (8+-s8z). This building wasdedicated in 86.:, antl it sccms rvithout question to have becn reprcsented on Hincmar's sarcophagus, where the \lestern torver, the nave, the lantern t o w e r a t t h c c r o s s i n g ,a n d t h c a p s e w e r e s h o w n i n s o m c d e t a i l . I r r o m S a i n t - R i c l u i e r ,R e i m s , a n d a l s o C - o r b i ct h e m o t i l ' r v e n t t o G e r m a n l . The westuork of Reims uas the inspiration of that of thc cathedral of Hildesheim (dedicated in 872. sincc rebuilt), and the westrvork o f ' C o r b i c i n P i c a r d y 'i n s p i r e d t h a t , d e d i c a t e di n 8 8 . 5 ,a t C i o r v e r o n t h c \ \ ' e s e r l z z , z 3 l . I n f l c t , the design of Saint-Riquicr had an enduring succcssin Germanl', where its influencc can be traced from gcneration to generation, through 'l'he centuries. cathedral of \[ainz comes to


There were nine towers in all on Angilbert's m a i n c h u r c h . I t i s t h e 6 r s t k n o w n e x a m p l eo f s o l a r g e a g r o u p o f t o w e r s s y s t e m a t i c a l l va r r a n g e d on one church building. There can be no doubt that similar groups of later date are in debt to the astonishing original. Examples are Saint-B6nigne at Diion Iro8l of nine towers, Santiago Irz3] planned with nine, Cluny Ir.19] with seven, and roor-r? with so on to the Early Gothic cathedrals such as Tournai [339] planned with nine, Laon with seven, and Chartres with six at least. All these buildings as planned p;avemuch llller expression to the vertical impulse than the executed work. All were intended to be much more like Saint-Riquier in external effect. Befbre quitting Saint-Riquier we should take note o1'the two chapels in the cloister. Of the c o n v e n t u a l b u i l d i n g s i t i s n o t p o s s i b l et o s p e a k ; thel'', like the atrium, have been omitted from the miniature, and have been entirelv replaced 'I'he arrangement of the old on a different plan. 'trianptular', offers cloister itself, reported as dilficulties, but the chapels appear to be drawn with knorvledge and care.e The chapel dedicated to the Ever-Virgin Mother of God and t h e H o l r ' - { p o s t l e sw a s o r i g i n a l l y a s p i r e - c h u r c h . dodecagonal with an ambulator.v. It v'as a realll' cxciting northern version o1'San \''itlle in Ravenna. The other chapel (of St Benedict and primitir e or the Holl' Abbots) was a barn church of the 'r'ernacular' t 1 ' p e ,d o u b t l e s sn o r t h -

influences in the north. It was designed bv Odo of Metz and begun in 792. The building has alwal'shad cathedrtl rank; it was dedicated in honour of the Virgin bl Pope Leo III in 8o5, and by good fortune has come down to us almost entire, though it underwent rcstoration in g81 and r88r. and has consequential Gothic and Renaissance additions- The area of the palace courtyard also survives, surrounded bv later buildings which incorporate some vesriges of old work l6e and nl.

It is easy to divine the general lavout of the group as it was in Charlemagne's time. T'he p a l a c eh a s r e t a i n e d i t s o l d a r i s , n o r t h a n d s o u t h . and its arrangement about an oblong courtvard. The Sala Regalis, with an apse added bv Charlemagne fbr the throne, was at the north, on one o l ' t h e s h o r t s i d e s ,w h i l e t h e l o n g s i d e sh a d o t h e r a p a r t m e n t s a n d g a l l e r i e s ,f u n c t i o n a l l v d i s p o s e d . 'I'here were quarters lbr officials, clerics, and servitors, for the School, and for the assemblv. 'I'he imperial aparrmenrs were dienified and

6e and n. -{achen, thc palacc. and thc palatine Chaoel. l a r g e l v7 q u t ( o . s . plan, and modcl uf r,1f,;hr l,.n Firrgut

ern, rvhich lve hare alreadl' considcred. This chapel, the lean-to roofs or,er the transept and lateral parts of'the chapel of the Saviour in the m a i n c h r . r r c h ,t h e c r e s t i n g o f t h e c h u r c h n a v e , a n d t h c t h r e e r c m a r k a b l c s p i r e s ,a l l c o n f i r m t h e northern imprint on the architecturc of'SaintRiquier. \Ve pass now to a considerationof the bcst

:.:;, f,


known of' Charlemagne's buildings, the Palamind: the building ot 978 and its successive tine f.hapel or llinster at -{achen (AixJaC h a p c l l e ) " ' [ 6 - r o ] . I t t e a c h e si n t e r c s t i n g l e s s o n s transfbrmirtions through 85o 1-.ears are mcrelv v a r i a t i o n so n t h e C e n r u l a t h e m e ' [ 7 8 , j i 3 ] . rcgarding Roman antl B1'zantine architectural



ample; they included a bath and an audience chanrber. f'here is no doubt that the group \r'as intended to be reminiscent ol'the Lateran Palace in Rome, which gave its name to a part of'the establishment, and suggested the placing of a bronze statue brought from ltaly. Reminiscences of Rar,enna also a Roman capital are m o s t c l e a r l y 's e e n i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e C h a p e l , which fbrmed the south end of the ensemble. R e b u i l d i n g a n d a d d i t i o n s h a v e d e s t r o v e dt h e unity of the Minster gioup, which, in the beginning, had a noble and easill' understood monumentality. The church building was the climar ol- a vast centralized s)'mmetrical composition m e a s u r i n g a b o u t 3 o o f - e e to n t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d transverse axes. The whole design wrs more elaboratethan that of San Vitale in Ravenna. which obviouslv inspired it. There wasa monum e n t a l e n t r a n c e w a \ a t t h e r , r c s l e r ne r r r e m i t l of the main axis, lbllowed by an atrium with g a l l e r i e so n t w o l e v e l s r v h i c h w a s d o m i n a t c d b y the tall westu'ork i'acade of the church. l'he

courtvard could be crowded if need be with about Tooo people. The Emperor could make official appcarances at the tribune in the wcstwork o1'the church. which rvith its niche recalls the laqade of the Palace ot the Exarchs in Ravenna. Flanking spiral stairwa-vsin cylindrical turrets Eiave accessto the throne room in the tribune of the Minster, and continued upward to a chapel rvhich containcd Clrarlemagne's remarkable collection of relicsrr [(r,t and al. f'he \Iinster itsclf was a compler composicentral space. tion arranged about a tall vaulted octagonal 'I'he westwork connected the Nlinster at the tribune level with the court and the palace. The throne was in the tribune, directlv over the main portll of the church. F rom each side of the thronc area the tribune continued as an annular gallerl-, divided from thc octagonal central spaceby columnar screens, to a sanctu:lrv of its own opposite the tribune. At the ground level a decp porch led to the interior [gJ. Therc the visitor finds an annular

Palatine Chapel, 792 8o5, Iigade, lateral view, and interior 7 to g. Aachen,

..4 _.,rii




aisle, vaulted and rather dark, which, like the gallery, embraces the octagonal central space. This annular aisle led to a sanctuary'opposite the entrance and below the upper sanctuarv, where the great Gothic axial chapel norv stands, to twin chapels ofaisled and also provided access basilican type, now destroved, lvhich were symmetrically' placed on a cross axis, one to the north and one to the south ofthe main building. Unlike the galleries, the annular aisle opens on the central space through undivided, big, plain arches, well proportioned with respect to the arches and screensof'the gallery above. The exterior wall on both levels is ingeniously arranged with sixteen sides. In the aislesthe cardinal and diagonal sides join the eight arches of the octagon in supporting groin vaults, and clever triangular penetrations fill out the vault 'lhese same sides have on the remaining sides. ramping triangular vaults above the gallery,

carried on generous diaphragm arches. The trianglesthus formed leave the cardinal and diagonal ba1''s of the gallery with a square shape, and here, on the diaphrxgm arches, eight ramping tunnel vaults are raised. These come into the octagon above the screened arches and provide an unyielding support for the clerestory w a l l a n d t h e h i g h v a u l t . S m a l l p i l a s t e rb u t t r e s s e s stiffen the exterior corners of'the clerestorv eli-ectively. The tall octagonal central sprce has a very special character. We must think if it as enriched rvith several altars and their liturgical furniture, but even so its tallness and the persistent senseof compartmentation make it seem 'I'his verv different fi'om an ordinarv church. lends colour to the idea that Odo of Nletz conceir,ed it basically' as a tomb house, but the similar and slightl5' earlier dodecagon at SaintRiquier was nevertheless a chapel.

The net effect produced by the building is not Roman, yet there is an assurance and urbanity which make it a worthy successor to the works of Antiquitl'. In spite of its resemblance to San Vitale in Ravenna, it is more Roman than Byztntine. Rich fittings, including a mosaic on t h e c e n t r a l v a u l t ( r e s t o r e di n I 8 8 I ) , m a r b l e c o l umns and bronze parapets brought fiom Italv, an organ ofByzantine type (8rz or 856, now lost), a splendid pulpit (gift of Emperor Henrl' II, about ror4), and a huge light crown (given by Frederick Barbarossa in r r68) contributed a superficial Byzantinism, to be sure. (n fact, however, the theme of San Vitale was radically simplified. Brick and the Bvzantine technique of light terracotta rault construction uere not available; the warped and domed Byzantine forms were replaced by tunnel and groin vaults, and on the highest level by an octagonal domical (or cloister) vault, all of Roman inspilation. The fact that Roman ruins had to be demolished to obtain the necessary stone, and that rich materials were scavenged elsewhere, shows what a special effort the Minster was. Linked by date(8o6)and by programme with the Minster at Aachen is the interesting Palatine group at Germignr,-des-Pr6s Ir r-r j], near S a i n t - B e n o i t - s u r - L o i r e , r 2b u i l t f b r T h e o d u l p h , bishop of Orl6ans, a Goth from Septimania (Provincia Narbonensis), and member of the Imperial court circle. 'I'here are slisht remains o f t h e p a i n r e dh a l l sa n d t h e r m a e o f r h e p a l a c e i,rs o r a t o r y o f ( i o d t h e C r e a t o r a n d P r e s e r v e ro f A l l Things existed, with little change, unril the nineteenth century.'r Heretofbre we have seen how Carolingian architects used Roman, Earlv Christian, Byzanrine, and Germanic lbrms. .\t Germigny-des-Pr6s the tincture is Bvzantine and oriental.I Moreorcr. the other eramples are grand in scale Germignv_des_pr6s is minus_ ; cute - a charming architectural plavthing. 'I'here ts a tower-like square central s p a c e .t h e m i d d l e one of a set of nine vaulted comDartments sustained on four piers in rhe middic of rhe build-

t r and I:. Gcrntignv-dcs-l)rds, C)ratorr', flo(r rcbuilt ;867 76, plan antl r icw h'om thc eirst (the mlin apsc orig-inallr had fl:rnking absidiolcs)

Io. Aachen, Palatine Chapel as represcntcd on the Krrlsschrcin


P R E - R O ] \ T A N E S Q U E A N DP R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y L E S



But the type is one which we owe to the Roman world, and its effective development took place in Armenia and the Byzantine hnds. The general arrangement is anticipated in the Roman praetorium at Phaena (Mousmieh, near Damascus),r5 b e f o r e a . o . r 6 9 , a n d i t a p p e a r si n t h e c a t h e d r a lo f E t c h m i a d z i n a s r e b u i l t i n 6 2 8 . r 0 By the tenth centurv it was established in the Eastern Empire as the typical 'lbur-column church', which is the most important of all the later Bvzantine church types. The chapel at Germigny-des-Pr6s antedates an-v knorvn Bvzantine example, but the strong oriental flavour makes it clear that the type was not originated in Neustria. Yet something must be conceded to the Carolingian architect. He 'double-ender'like laid the church out as a cert a i n o f ' t h e g r e a t C a r o l i n g i a n b a s i l i c a s ,t h o u g h , u n l i k e t h e m . i t h a d r h e m a i n e n t r a n c ec u t t i n g through the western apse. He verv ingeniously and picturesquely placed Carolingian arcaded 'flving screens' under the tower walls, where the light plays very pretfily on them. The rather barn-like nave is a much later addition. The central space was lbrmerly about tlvelve l'eet higher than it is at present, and formed a tall lantern and bellry. Exactll'how this was arr.3.Gcrnrigni-des-l)r6s, Oratorr',tlo6, rcbuilt r867 76, interior ranged in Theodulph's time is lar from certain, fbr the oldest drawings seem to show a Romanesquecentral tower; but we may perhaps suppose that this was a reconstruction resulting i n g . O n t h e m a i n a n d t r a n s v e r s ea x e s t h e r e a r e t u n n e l r , a u l t sa t a n i n t e r m e d i a t el e v e l , w i t h a p s e s just bevond, and the corner compartments \\ ere vaulted with little domes on squinches at a lorver level. The corner compartments at the eirst opened on lateral apses flanking the main a p s e .T h e o r i e n t a l f l a v o u r o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s d u e a r c h e si n p l a n a n d e l e v a t i o n . ' f h e s e to horseshoe were certainly inspired by Visigothic art, and t h e p l a n a n d e l e v a t i o no f ' t h e b u i l d i n g m a r a l s o have been inspired b1' old Christian work in Spain. f i o m a h r e i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . I n a n v c a s et h e tall lantern and belfry is a Germanic scheme, and the oriental elements were) so to speak, arrangedaround and below it.rt A brutal and ignorant restoration of r86776, carried out over the protests of the Soci6t6 fi'angaised'Arch6ologie, has left us rvith an ina c c u r a t e m o d e r n c o u n t e r fe i t o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t Carolingian monument. Some fragments of the original were incorporated in the reconsttuction. Interesting remains of its fine decoration in stucco lvere destrol'ed or denatured, the more

regrettably becausethe rich fittings ofthe chapel - the furniture in white and coloured marble, the metalwork, and the fabrics have all been lost.' Connected with Germigny-des-Prds by its horseshoearches and their stucco decoration is the little church of San Benedetto at llals or Malles, near Trent. It is dated about the year 8oo. The horseshoe arches, three in number, look in upon an open, box-like central space, which is the nave. There are traces of fresco decoration. Near-by Mtinster in Graubiinden (Grisons), in Switzerland, is a contemporarv add more monumental example of the same arrangement, thoup;h without arches. Another building, in old Neustria, with finer wall-work than those which we have considered, brings up the question of the Gallic masons. It is doubtful that Notre-Dame-de-la-Basse(Euvre at Beauvais actually dates fiom the lifetime of Charlemagne, but after being accepted as Carolingian, it is now assigned to the period of 987 98.le It is a fragment of the compound early medieval cathedral establishment of Beauvais. The entire tenth-century church of Saint-Pierre, and all the easterlv parts of Notre-Dame made way tbr the celebrated Gothic building Notre-Dame-de-laIt+]. Basse-(Euvre was a handsomely proportioned basilica with a plain interior and a sreep roof which gives much characler ro the finc gable, adorned by a great cross, on the l'aqade. The wall-work is regular and excellent, with patternwork in the masonry over the windows. Other tragments of such construction, datable to the tenth and early eler.enth centuries. point ro a well-established s c h o o l i n r h e n o r t h a n d , n e s to l ' France. The 'Gallic masons' of rhe resion had an established reputation, which was well deserved. Texts speak of heavv work in larse cut stone blocks more antiquorun which *"r-oaarthe horseshoe

(Euvre, r4. Bcauvais, Notre-Dame-de-la-Basse eighthcenturl( i) or 987-98

sionally used, but such masonry was ordinarilv confined to quoining or alternale coursing. as seen in the tenth-century works for the monks of Saint-Philibert at Grandlieu and at Tournus, 'Gallic where masons' were obvious[v emoloved [24, g9). f'he more usual Gallic wall-work of good character was composed of much smaller materials - a rough core ofrubble enclosed by neatll' cut facing-blocks of stubbv rectangular lbrm, set with wide mortar ioints. Pattern-work facing often recalls the barbarian r/oisazzy'stvle.'where


p R E - R O N I A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y L E S


everything becomes decoration'. but it was derived from the classicRoman 0Pern(reticulatum, mittum). Occasionally there are whole sl)icatum, walls of pattern-work, interspersed sometimes with degenerate gable and panel decoration in relief. The work of the Gallic builders may be traced to England: Benedict Biscop called for G a l l i c m a s o n sa b o u t 6 8 5 , t o b u i l d J a r r o w " ' I r 5 ] .

eighth-centurl' church o1'the monastery (at Lorsch) there was a large open court, and the gateway stood free near the entrance to it, like a Roman triumphal arch in its forum;21 however, the Lorsch gatewa-vwas built as a threearched open hall, like a propl'laeum illogically standing unattached.Abbot Richbod is known to have replacedthe wooden monastery build-

transformed into a chapel, sometimes rvrongll' identified rc the tcclesia xaria, achapel of'about 86o attached to the church. Nor is this transformation at Lorsch out of line, fbr the propylaeum of Old St Peter's had an altar of St Mary and could be usedasa church upon occasion , as, for example, when the emperor \\as received at the \iatican Basilic:r. Another curious combination of Carolingian medievalism and classical revivalism involving Old St Peter's occurrcd at Fulda. The first church there was founded by St Bonil'acc (W.vnfrith, the great English missionarl') in 742; the monastery,one of the great lights ol'northern Europe, was founded in 744. A small church of 75 r was rebuilt after 7go in the lbrm of a basilican nave with its apse flanked bv tlvo round towers, as at Saint-Riquier. The relics of St Boniface, who was martvred in 754, were brought to the monastery. To gir,c them a prop e r s e t t i n g , a t r a n s e p t a n d a p s ew e r e b u i l t w e s t ofthe new nave,on the model ofOld St Peter's in Rome, where, in fact, the transept was at the w e s t .T h e e n d c o m p a r t m e n t s o f O l d S t P c t e r ' s , and even their bulls-eye windows, were reproduced at Fulda; furthermore, the length of'the

degli Abessini (befbre8r5), and Santa Prassede ( a b o u t 8 r 7 ) a r e r i g h t l y a d d u c e d a s e x a m p l e so f basilicas in Rome which, by their imitation of I'eaturesof Old St Peter's, show the tendency to look into Rome's own past for inspiration, at a time when Charlemagne himself was lamiliarly called Flavius Anicius Caelusbv '\lcuin. Thus, in the sum, we find in Charlemagne's time an architcctural revival lvhich was archaizi.rg but it was f'ar more than that. The new idcas set forth in the major buildings have a basic importance for the wholc historv of Romanesque architecture. The Basse-(Euvre at Beaur,aisstands fbr the fine tradition of Gallic mason work. Lorsch, Fulda, and the Roman churches stand fbr the will to make Rome live again in a classicalrerival. Saint-Riquier stands lbr the northern vigour and bravura which transformed Roman architecture. Aachen with its relative simplicitv stands asa northern interpretation ofa Bvzantine theme, representinB the old Roman i d e a o l s u b s t a n t i a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h s u r v i r , e si n the hear'1'Romanesque of medieval Germany. Finalll', Germigny-des-Prds t1'pifiesGaul'ssusceptibilitl' to Byzantine and oriental influences, and its greater receptiveness to sophistications than Germany'; thus it is a fbrerunner of the acc o m p l i s h e d . s u b t l e R o m a n e s q u eo f F r a n c e .

r5. Jarrow, wall-work,r. 685

gatewa-v, .. 8oo r6. Lorsch, monaster!',

accomplishments ofearll' masons prepared the wal' fbr immense Early Romanesque constructions at Poitiers. at Chartres, and elsewhere in the Loire country. 'l'he famous three-arched gate\!a!.at Lorsch seems to be connected somehou (perhaps t h r o u g h V e r d u n a n d N 1 e t z )w i t h t h e i r r v o r k , b e cause of the excellence ol the pattern-work masonr\'. This f-eatureand the remarkable composite capitals, and other sophisticated details, point to it as an interesting Carolingian example ofclassicalrevivalism anacademicdesignsuch as might be expected to issue lrom the court of Charlemagne Ir6]. In front of'the important


ings in stone,and the gateway may have lliled to be speciall.vrecorded on this account, for such propvlaea were used in the ceremonial monastic liturgies as processional stations, iust like other parts of'the conventual establishment. I'he direct original of the Lorsch gatewa]. was obl i o u s l l ' t h e p r o p l ' l a e u m o f ' s i m i l a r d e s i g na t O l d St Peter's in Rome [r]. where great visiting dignitaries were received. Lorsch repeats the g e n e r a ls h a p e ,t h e a r c h e s ,t h e c o l u m n s , a n d t h e windows of the propy'laeum of Old St Peter's. A corresponding three-arched gateway was built at Cluny also. The latter became part of t h e a b b o t ' s o a l a c e .w h i l e t h e o n e a t L o r s c h w a s

western transept, z5o f-eet,is close to that ofthe great original. Behind the ncw apse a large courtyard was arranged, as at the cathedral of R o m e ( S t J o h n L a t e r a n ) . - l - h en e r a ' w o r ka t F u l d a was proiected in 8oz, dedicated in 8 r g, and provided with its uestern cloister in 8zz. A comprehensive recent studv convincingly brings out the importance of Old St Perer's in the Carolingian revi'r,al.2:Old St Peter's stood for the last glorious moments of the ancient capital,in Constantine's golden age ol'Roman tmperial Christianity. The Carolingian architects turned aside lrom buildings of intermediate date which had resulted from the rise ofByzantine power, the influx oforiental monks, a n d t h e s u c c e s s i o no f G r e e k and Syrian popcs. Santa Anastasia (about 8oo), Santo Stefano

CHLIRCH ARCHITECTURE IN'fIIE NORTHERN P A R TO F T H E E M P I R E , A T E RC A R O L I N G I A N S U \ D E R 1 ' I I FL Germany The fhmous manuscript plan ol'r. ,t.o.8zo in the monastic librarv ol'St Gallzr lr7] was doubtless preparcd in the ambit of Benedict of'Aniane, or 'Beseleel, of Einhard himself , that the man filled with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in unders l a n d i n ga n d i n k n o w l e d g ea n d i n a l l m a n n e r o f workmanship', lirst commissioner of works and director ol the imperial workshops. Einhard,


P R E - R O N { A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O - R O I \ t A N E S Q U E S T Y I , T , S

who came from the monasterv of Fulda shortly after 7go to be a pupil of Alcuin in the Palace School of Aachen, was intellectually a classicist. He became the personal lriend and adviser of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.2a Hence the plan of St Gall presents an authorized conception ofa large, well-organized monas.terl',which might have been built in any prosperous part of the Carolingian realm. It is now clear that the layout was drawn up after a council of 8 r 6 at Inden, near Aachen, and this somewhat imperf-ect copv sent with alternative dim e n s i o n sb - vA b b o t H e i t o o f R e i c h e n a u( 8 o 6 - 2 3 ) to Abbot Gozbert of'St Gall (8r6-37), who had not attended the council. f'he method of drawinp; and the fact that the plan was not closely folloq'ed after the oldest parts of the church rvere built (at the east, 83o5) have given the impression that it was merely a diagrammatic lay'out, which is f'ar from being the case. It could easily be translated into mo'l'he la1'dern form and built with little change. out was in fact modular (4o-foot squales, z1lbot sub-module) as Walter Horn has shown. 'l'hus we see that the Roman tradition of modular construction was present in Carolingian rvork, and it was without doubt transmitted to later times. 1'he group was intended to be constructed on I'airly ler,el ground; fbr the whole scheme is included within a rectangle,slightly diminished at the south-lvest becauseof'a wane in the parchment. Various small elementslike beds, which indicate scale, show that the great rectangle was to measure about .16o b1 64o 3o,1-millimetre 'I'he Carolingian f'eet. church nave with its lpses was to be about joo feet long, and with its aisles about go l-eetwide; the transept was to be about rzo feet across, and the cloister about roo feet square. In imagination we shall visit this group asit is known from rhe plan. When as tisitors we are surprised to 6nd the western or approach side occupied by an area 45o i'eet wide and r4o f'eet

across assigned to the hostel for poor wayf'arers and the quarters for servitors, horses, and larm a n i m a l s ( i n c l u d i n g a p i g g e r - r ) ,w e m u s t r e m e m ber that the existence of the monks lbr whom the group was built was a retired existence, interior to the monastery and centred on the cloister ancl the altar. The ancillary'buildings fbrmed l ernelofchurch a s o r t o f r i n d a b o u t t h e e s s e n t i ak and cloister. From the monks' point of view all the ancillarv buildings were in the background n o t i n t h e f b r e g r o u n d . a s t h e v a p p e a rt o t h e a p 'I'he proaching visitor. terrain to the east of'a monastic group tends to be someuhat private; g u e s t sa r e l i k c l y t o b e p l a c e dt o t h e n o r t h , m e n i a l activities to the south. and service courts to the west in the tradition:rl monastic lavout; this is true at St Gall. Only one longitudinal axis luns entireh across the St Gall plan. On it an ample walled avenue ertcnds for r6o f'cet from the westerlv outskirts of the monastery to the entrancc svstem of thc main estahlishment. The importance of'this ke1-point of crrculation is signalized b1 the presence of two cylindrical towers, each with a chapel at the summit.'Ihe the ctlindrical suggestion for towers came ultimatelv from



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the stair towers of the narthex <rf'Srrn Vitale in Ravenna, perhaps; but pairs ol'towers had been built at Fulda, Aachen, and Saint-Riquier before the plan of St Gall was made.r5 Earl'r' monasteries ofien showed lights in such towers. 'I'hc arrangement fbr St Gall, as shorvn on the plan, difl'ers Irom all of the others, for thc towers 1rere attached outside a semicircular portico, *'hich looked across a little garden strip towards the western apse, and gave entrance on e a c h s i c l eo l t h e a p s e t o a n a i s l e o ( ' t h e c h u r c h .



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r 7 . P l a nl b r a m o n a s t c r t c , . 8zo. St Gall. Basedon a diagramin the ChapterLibrrrr_r, Some*hat rcsularized . small satcllite o m i t t e d .G r i d o f ' . 1 o - f(tr z r b - r ' n e t r c ) buildings in the church, somcwhat more squarcs looscll appliedelsewherc, basedon the church axis

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Adjoining the cornersofthe church there were fiom the portico. That t r v o v e s t i b u l e sa c c e s s i b l e to the lefi led to a whole range of residential, s c h o o l , a n d h o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g s . T h e v e s t i b u l et o t o t h e H o s p i c e ,t h e C l o i s t e r , t h c r i g h t g a v ea c c e s s and (be-lond a wall) to the menial parts of the 'l'he c h u r c h . w h i c h c o n t i n u e st h e establishment. main axis, was bv f'ar the most important individual element. The old plan shows it with a s i n g l e t r a n s e p t , a n d , l i k c F u l c i a ,n e w l v c n l a r g e d i n 8 o z r g , w i t h a n a p s e i r t e a c he n d . For the western apse,dedicated to St Peter, the lirst designer sacriliced the imposing axial rista which entering risitors erpect in great 'lhe churches. s m a l l l a t c r a l e n t r a n c e si n d i c a t e The monks' that the lunction of the building is diferent. 'Opus Dci' is perlbrmed quite without regard to public attendance, which can nevcr be more than incidental. T'he spccial c h a r a c t e ro f t h e m o n a s t i c r e g i m e a l s o s h o u s i n the interior arrangement. Although thc church w a s b a s i l i c a n ,w i t h n a v e a n d a i s l e sl i k e t h e r a s t ancient churches designed fbr public assembh', the pavement area, instead of being openr was c u t u p b r p a r a p c t s c r e e n si n t o a s e r i e so l ' c o m partments, each with an altar, and accessiblebv paths, somewhat liko corridors. These wals w e r e a l s ou s e d a s p r o c e s s i o np a t h s . Thus we find the nar e divided, lrom west to east, into the western choir, the Chapel of St John Baptist (with a fbnt), the chapel o1'the cruplaced at cifix (with a larse crucifir, t_v-picall-v'' the rltar), and the space in liont of the eastern ( s i n g e r s ' )c h o i r . E a c h o l ' t h e a i s l e sh a d f b u r c h a p e l s , m a k i n g t r v e l v ec o m p a r t m e n t s i n a l l w i t h i n t h e n a r e a r e a . { n d t h e c o m f a r t m e n t a t i o nc o n tinued in the transcpt, rvhich had a chapel and an Apostles' altar in each arm, and the monks' choir between. T h e s a n c t u a r va t S t G a l l h a d a s p c c i : r lh i s t o r i cal interest. Here were sung at lcstival-time thc o l d e s t o l - e x t a n t t r o p e s , c o m p o s e d b 1 -t h e m o n k Notker the starting-point fbr the historl. of mcdieval drama and lvric. The sanctuary bav

was square, and contained the high altar, dedicated to St Gall, set over a crrpt. l'he altar in the adioining eastern apse (pendant to that of St Peter) was dedicated to St Paul. At the left of the sanctuarl' was the scribes'room, lvith thc librarl.above not a large room, fbr the medior at nost e v a l l i b r a r i e s r v e r en u m b e r e d i n s c o r e s a f'ew hundred codices. in rrddition to the necessarv service books. At the right ofthe sanctuarv was the sircristv, lvith the restrl- above, and an annexe where sacramental hosts and chrism were prepared. The passageslbr cilculation in the nave u'erc prolonged across the transcpt, gir,ing accessto the dir,isions there, and to thc c r v p t , w h i c h d o u b t l e s s h a t l a n a l t a r a l s o ,r a i s i n g the number of altars within the church to sevcnteen. 'l'he monks' entrance fi'om the cloister u as b1' wa1'of the south transept; once arrived at the crossing, he tbund the main sanctuarl to his leli towards the western apse. right and the minor altars stretching off to the -I'he 'doublce n c l e r ' a r r a n g e m e n t i n c r e a s e d t h e s e n s eo f e n c l o s u r e ,a n d t h u s w a s d e s i r a b l ea n d n a t u r a l i n a m o n a s t i cc h u r c h . B e c a u s e o f i t s p r e s t i g ci n n l o n astic architecture, the arrangement came to bc u s e d i n c a t h e d r a l st o o , w h e r e i t w : r s m u c h l e s s appropriatc. The great axis of St Gall continued from the church to a small curved courtlard, and so intcr the monastic quarters. These cannot be describecl here: thc reader mrrst be reI'erred to tl-re diagram Ir7], or fbllow the itinerarl-, with a detailcd commentarv on the monasterl"s life, in Note 26. What is known of the tvpe of lbbric in all of t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s? T h e c h u r c h c e r t a i n l y ' ,a n d a s much of the remainder ls possible,hacl well'l'he rooling was o1'timber. built walls of stone. the wide spansbeing trussed and coveretlwith tin or shingles. NIan1. of the lesser buildings were o1'timber or half-timber and roofed with shingles, while modest structures like stablcs, p e n s , a n d h e r d s m e n ' s s h e l t e r sm i g h t b e o f w a t -

tle work and thatch. On looking at the plan ofst Gall one is strucli with the number of subsidiary buildings which have a central hall with narrow apartments at the side, and which must, therefore, have looked somewhat like basilican churches. Such buildings might be constructed with either framed or masonry rvalls. In some casesthe outer chambers were carried entirelv around the central space, as in the Almonrv and the School, while in other cases the Almonrl. kitchen is an example - the smaller rooms occur along one side onlr'. It is worth noting that such one-sided buildings are lrequently represented in Carolingian miniatures; they abound, lbr instance,in the Utrecht Psalter (about 83.u ). Thel' have been considered fanciful; the truth seems to be that thev were a familiar part of thc architectural scene in Carolingian times. The subsidiary buildings as represented on the plan give us a lively idea of the lost traditional wooden

architccture of the North in the Middle Ages a fact of great intercst and sis_ nificance. One would expect that this vert. important e s t a b l i s h m e n ta t S t G a l l w o u l d b e s u r r o u n d e d bv a stockade, if not an actual girdle wall, emp h a s i z i n gt h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s a w o r l d i n i t s e l f . S t was, however, insufficiently protected when the Hungarians attacked it earlv in the tenth centur]. Of course, e\-en rhough it was self-centred, a great monastcr-v did look outward. It had its variouspossessions u,hich it received supplies, its various ecclesiastical dependencies, its associarionswith other nrona s t e r i e sa , n d i t s c o n n e x i o n sw i t h R o m e . Once a monastery was well established, the m o n L s d e v o le d t h e m s e l l e st o m a n a e i n g i t s o p e r ations, rather than to labouring with their own hands. The number of serr.itors.and artisans w o u l d b e a t l e a s te q u a l t o t h e n u m b c r o f e c c l e s i Gall


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astical persons, and might be more. The reformed orders, whose members performed more manual work, usually had less to offer the reviving medieval world than the illustrious institutes which stror,e to be intellectual and artistic capitals for their respective regions, granted that to serve as agricultural and industrial capital of a region was indeed a great work fbr a monasterv to perform. Another ensemble of considerable importance which claims attention here is the palace g r o u p a t I n g e l h e i m , n e a r M a i n z I r 8 ] . ' Z iW o r k s were begun under Charlemagne and finished under Louis the Pious. Excavationsshow that t h e p a l a c e w a s l a i d o u t i n t h e c l a s s i c a lm a n n e r and built of masonr\'. Rangesof various rooms occupied three sides of a vast court, of which the fourth side was bounded by a special axial composition. There the great hall, set broadwise at the fbot of an atrium, communicated by gallerieswith the palace church, which lay at t h e e a s t .O n e i s s t r u c k b v t h e n u m b e l o f c h a m b e r s a u g m e n t e d w i t h a p s e s ,a s i f ' t h e y w e r e c h a pels; in fbct, however, these recesseswere com-

monly used to give monumental character to important rooms of several kinds. They were so used in the Sacred Palace in Constantinople as rvell as in the Lateran Palace at Rome during this period. The second court at Ingelheim was semicircular; the festival hall, which lay between the two courts, was a trefoil. Church forms predominated in this palace. We are fortunate in having a description o1' the paintings at Ingelheim in an account br Ermoldus Nigellus. In the church were scenes of the Old Testament and, opposite, corresponding scenes from the New. Such monumental and lucidlv arranged cycles underlie the didactic schemes developed later b1' Suger at Saint-Denis,and others. The great hall had paintings from secular historv, deeds of ancient kings and heroes, Ninus, Cyrus, Phalaris, Remus, Hannibal, and Alexander the Great, and, opposite, scenes of a more contemporarv history the ibundation of Constantinople, and events of the reigns of Theodoric, Charlemaene.r" Charles Martel, Pepin, and



Chapelol St Jrnuariusabove 6. Kitchen 7. Cloistergarth ll. Chapelof St Pirminius

r g. N{ittelzell trlinster, Reichenau, s k e t c h r e s t o r a t i o na s i n r . r o 5 o ( G r u b c r )

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P R E - R O M A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U E S T Y t , E S

TlrE cARoLINGtAN RoMANlsqur.


Belbre the break-up of the empire of Louis the Pious an ephemeral prosperity made possible the construction of many churches. Basilican churches are regularll'triapsidal with transept, otien with passagesand cr1''pt, regularll' aisled, and pror,ided with towers and a narthex or at least a narthex only at the west. Among these are St Justin at Hiichst, near Frankfurton-N{ain (after 8oo, or c. 825), and Einhard's own church at Steinbach (8zr).:'r Einhard's church largely survives, and its original form is easily traceable. It had a p1''lon-like entry with a lateral compartment to each side. The nave terminlted in a sanctuar]-separated by a screen and provided with an apse; lateral chapels with apses fbrmed a sort of dwarf transept which c o m m u n i c a t e d o n l y w i t h t h e c h a n c e l .E a c h a i s l e gave rccess to a crucilbrm crvpt under the corresponding transept, and a more elaborate cruciform crypt lay on the axis between. zr. Oberzell,Rcichcnlu, St George,836 and later

Ref'erence should be made to the area, important in early Carolingian history, which lies to the north of ltaly. Venerable for age among its bishoprics are Chur (fbunded about 45o), Constance (578), Augsburg (about 6oo), St Gall (6r4), Strassburg (r.675), and Regensburg (739). The great early shrine ofthe region is St Emmeram at Regensburg, where there was alreadf in the eighth century (Z+o-8o) an important basilican church of pilgrimage. Burned in r o2o, restored under Henry II, it has interesting sculpture of c. ro65 in a lateral porch, but has lost character through further rebuilding. Sentimentally and historically great is Reiche'Insula Felix' of nau, the enchanting monastic Lake Constance.:roIt was a frequent stoppingplace on imperial iournevs, and a powerful centre fbr missionarl' effort. Like a gentler, more accessible Athos, it has had a profound reliEious influence. Its church architecture is

c o n s e r l ' a t i Y ea , l m o s t c l a s s i c a l .T h e r e a r e t h r e e - St Peter at Niederzell dating from 7g9; sites the Minsfer at Mittelzell, founded in 724, enl a r g e d a n d d e d i c a t e d i n l l r g ( w h i c h r v a sl i r t h e r enlarged in the tenth centur]'i and provided with a western apse and tower, dedicated in ro48) [rg, zol, and st George, oberzell, 836 (containing later construction also, including a crypt of 985) [zr]. The churches are basilican, set in serene and opulent countrl'side, with the aura of the monastic centuries still hanging about the scene. The School of Reichenau is famous fbr its paintings, both miniature and architectural. St George, Oberzell, has a particularly impressive ensemble of old paintings. The churches have survived with forgivable changes down to the present, and there are indeed f-ew places where one ma\. enjoy so satisfactory an impression of a Carolingian painted church.

Corle,t,ontheWeserIzz,z3lalsohelpsgreatly to visualize the developments of its period. 'the corr,ev is New corbie', founded in gzz bv a colonv of monks from Corbie in, nor fbr from Saint-Riquier. -{rchitectural influence came from Saint-Riquier by way of Corbie to corvev, where a westwork was built between 87j and t18,5. Though this design, being Germ a n , i s h e a . r , i e ra n d l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d , a n d though, about r146, the middle of' its fagade was carried higher between the old pair ofstair towers, this rvestwork is the best existing repres e n t a r i v eo 1 ' t h e S a i n t - R i q u i e r f r o n t i s p i e c e . A t Corvev the galleried spire church was not car_ ried up to a rounded pinnacle, but rather to a square tower of the tvpe which the Germans strikingly, cill a Halmhaus..l From the point of view of future develop_ ments, this westwork at Corvev was less important than the original east end. -I.he two

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later At Corvey, and at Saint-Riquier in the reliquarr chapels lay belond the t h e crypr, There is good antique precedent church apse. and where it occurs' no arrangement, f91 this problems arise. But the most condifficult very ofOld St Peter's in s p i c u o u sp r e c e d e n t t h a t p l a c e dt h e m a i n a l t a r d i r e c t 6 o e ) ( a b o u t Rome ly above the Apostle's first tomb. In some cases the church sanctuarv was elevlted because the sacred spot was at or near the level of the nave Davement; this was the case at Old St Peter's. but in other casesthe tombs were below ground, and crypts rvith special srstems of access had to be built. From the time of thc construction in Rome of St Paul's outside the Walls, sanctuaries and chapels were customarilv oriented. If correctly oriented chapels were attached to the access corridors about the tomb chapel, an awkward angular corridor resulted, and the circulation

of a press of pilgrims was difficult. Nevertheless this arrangement marked an advance, and there are two influential examples of it still in existence, which were built in France during the period which we have under consideration. The venerable monastery on the Isle of Noirmoutier, off the west coast of France near Nantes,built a priory church in 8r4 rg at D6as, near the Lake of Grandlieuir [24-6]. This church had a nave with aisles, a crossing with stubby transepts, and the usual three apses. -I'he island was so situated as to receive the full brunt of' the Norse raids which began at this period and continued through a dreadful century. The monks had to abandon Noirmoutier, but the1. took the relics of'their sainted patron P h i l i b e r t w i t h t h e m t o D 6 a s ,w h i c h t h u s b e c a m e Saint-Philibert-de-Grandlieu.A pilgrimagedeveloped, and in 836 g the monks adapted the priorv church ver.v cleverly fbr this cult. The

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sanctuarv aisleseach had a chapel at the end, a n d t h e s e c h a p e l sc o m m u n i c a t e d b v a n a n n u l a r corridor, curving betwcen thern outside the great apse, with a cruciform chapel beyond the apse and on the main axis. Here indubitably w e h a v e t h e g e r m o f t h e s c h e m eo f a p s e , a m b u l a t o r r ' , a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l sw h i c h i s o n e o f ' t h e finest contributions of the Middle Ages to religious architecture. The German churches lbr generations kept to simpler schemes fbr these c h a p e l s .T h e i d e a w a s d e v e l o p e d a n d s y s t e m a tized chiefly in the area which we norv call France.

cult of relics. Until

the eler.enth century the


b o d i e so f s a i n t s l a i d a w a t i n t o m b s o r s a r c o p h a g i werc, if' possible, lefi undisturbed. Beginning probably' with a reconstruction (r. 6oo) of thc s a n c t u a r yo f O l d S t P e t e r ' s i n R o m e , t h e a p s e s of'churches with such relics were often arrangcd rvith narrolv access corridors under the par,cment.rr Such corridors followed the interior curve of the apse, and connected axially with the tomb chamber, or crypt, under the high 'I'he altar. ever-increasing numbers of pilgrims d e s i r o u so f v i s i t i n g t h e s e t o m b s p u t i n t o l e r a b l c pressure on the narrorv corridors and exiguous crypts. At the same time, there was an increasc in the number of ordained priests among thc monastic and canonical clergy, which in turn augmented the need fbr altars and chapels. Additional altars could be used for the exhibitiorr o f r e l i q u a r i e s ( t h u s i n c r e a s i n gt h e i n t e r e s t o f t h c p i l g r i m a g e )i l ' s u i t a b l e a c c e s s could be arranged. Partitioning oft'the nave,as at St Gall, was impossible in a church where great crowds ol pilgrims gathered fbr festival liturgies. The solution lay in a corridor round the apse, with c h a p e l sr a d i a t i n g o u t w a r d t r o m i t .

24. Saint-Philibert-cle-Grirndlieu,8r4 r. ii47, navc lookins east k' srnctuar,\;nnc

picrs.. tooo, roof modern

Frantt The great architectural achievement of France in the period of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald is the basic solution of thc dillicult p r o b l e n r o f t h c a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r y , a n d r a d i a t i n g chapels. In large measure the solution was worked out in the basilican school of western France, to which we have already referred. 'l'his problem assumed importance with the greatly increased interest in pilgJrimages and the





(or a little later) it was included within a little vaulted crypt church possessing a corridor around the tomb chamber. In 85o g an apse !chelon with an angular processional path was ingeniously built around the little crypt church, and extended to join a rotunda at the head ofthe main axis Iz6o]. This arrangement of apse 6chelon and rotunda also had an important future in Romanesque and Gothic architecture. It was becomingly inaugurated, for the Emperor C h a r l e st h e B a l d h i m s e l l ' c a u s e dt h e r e l i c s o f S t

25. Saint-Philibert-de-Grandlicu,

Germain to be installed in the crvpt (859). It was then decorated with fine paintings, which
ambulatorv and chambers under sanctuary, looking west, r. 847

are among the oldest murals now existing in France.3a In 872 the relics of St Martin were brought to this crypt from Tours, because of further Norse forays. The clergy of St Martin's then had first-hand experience of this remarkable c r y p t ; w e s h a l l p r e s e n t l v s e et h e r e s u h . At Chartres Cathedral, because of the renowned pilgrima !ie, the church was rebuilt af ter a fire of858 with a curved corridor arouncl the a p s ei n t h e c r y p t a great impro\emenr. l96l turthermore, the rounded apse wall was pierced, giving a good view of the apse liom the a m b u l a t o r ya n d r i c e \ e r s a . , , p i e r c e d a p s e sg o b a c kt o R o m a n r i m c s , b u t t h e p r e r c e da p s e w i t h an ambulatory was novel. It produced interestrng.aesthetic effects by uniting the apse lnd the ambulatorysparialt]. Felicitous useof rhis idea wts made in t h e R o m a n e s q u es r y l e a t Jumidges a b b e y( r o 3 7 6 8 ) l J 5 7l , . n j i n t h . C o r h i c s t r l c ar 1\otre-Dame i n p a r i s ( r r6 3 ) .

2 6 . I ) e v e l o p m e n t o f ' t h e c h e r e t : t c ( a h o t a) . r . 8 r , 1 . 1 7 ,S a i n t - l ) h i l i b c r t - d c - G r a n d l i e u ( G r e c n ) ; o (ltclop). r.8-5o 9, Slint-Germain, Auxcrre. crlpt (skctch rcstoration b1 K.J.C.)

original apse was demolished, and a square sanctuary bay was built with a new apse beyond it. Narrow exterior corridors led to a chamber u n d e r t h i s a p s e , w h e r e t h e s a r c o p h a g u so l ' S t Philibert was installed b1'839 and still remains. The sarcophagus chamber and the narrow lateral passageswere at ground level; consequently the floor of the church apse was raised above the level ofthe nave pavement. In order to provide additional altars and a better approach to the tomb under the apse, the narrow corridors were soon replaced by a series o f c h a p e l s . T h e s e w e r e s o a r r a n g e dt h a t a r a t h e r awkward processionrl path (somewhat like that of Corvey) was provided at the ground level. running entirely around the apse. The path gave access to the sarcophagus chamber from the east, so that pilgrims could visit it without dist u r b i n g s e r v i c e si n t h e m a i n p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h .

The new chapels were placed 'step-wise' or 'ladder-wise' in plan (t:n ichelon in French) z6a cl, whence the nrme of utrseiche lon for this f lc:rture. which runs through a whole series()l i m p o r t a n t c h u r c h e s d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r - vo 1 Romancsque ancl Gothic architecture. The apsc !chelon of Saint-Philibcrt-de-Grandlieu \i'as built befbre 847, but served the monks onll until 858, when, the region being overwhelmeci b . vt h e N o r s e , t h e c o m m u n i t y m o v e d t o C u n a u l t in Anjou. 'I'he o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a p s e6 c h c l o no f t h e n i n t h ccnlur.\is in the crvpt of thc abbel church ol Saint-Germain at Aurcrre. Here were vencratcd the relics of that great fifih-centurl churchman. who prepared St Patrick lbr hi. Irish mission ol 432-6r. St Germain's tomb was below the church pa\ement lerel, anJ u n d e r t h e m a i n a p s e . I n a r e c o n s t r u c t i o no f 8 - 1 t

o +



lr ) i I L-.I
t l



srYLEs p n E ' - n o v A N E s Q U E A N DP R o r o - R o M A N E S Q U E

However, the Carolingian architects went farther than this, cleverly uniting the lessons of Saint-Germain at Auxerre (859) with those of Chartres Cathedral (after 858), in a new church of St Nlartin at Tours, built in go3 r8 after a d i s a s t r o u sh r e l z 6 , 9 5 , 9 5 A 1 . Here the aisles and the larger part ofthe nave were open to the pilgrims who thronged the church. The remainder of the nave contained the canons' choir, which continued eastward to ioin the sanctuarv and apse, with St Martin's tornb at the head, close to the middle of the apse wall. The aisles were continued at approximately the same level into an ambulatory which c u r v e d r o u n d t h e o u t e r s i d e o f t h e a p s ea n d a l 'St Martin's Rest', lowed the faithful to reach viewing it liom the back through openings in the apse wall. Quite as important, the minor chapels which we have seen obstructing the naves or making awkward corners in the apse 6chelons of older churches were here built as round absidioles, like those of the cr.vpt of SaintGermain, Auxerre, but radiating from the outer wall of the ambulator-v as a whole. This design rvasa perf-ecttunctional solution, and a genuine integration of the difficult elements of a pilgrimage sanctuarY in a monastic church.3n 'l'he creation of such a remarkable feature as t h e a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r y , a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l si s a
z(rl. Skellig \Iiehael. monastic clustcr, ,. ft2-l I Thc usual girdlc lvall is replaced in large part b1'the cliffancl the precipicc cliff

sign of maturity in the experimental French Carolingian Romanesque. This achievement marks a stage in our exposition; it is a landmark on the road to the mature Romanesque sty'le. I t i s l o g i c a l , t h e r e f o r e ,t o i n t e r r u p t o u r s t u d r of French architecture at this point in order to consider developments of Carolingian date and marked national character in Ireland, England, Scandinavia, Spain, and Italy. Localism and practical experiments resulted in successful buildings which, being admired, really al1'ected the mature Romanesque and Gothic stylcs which later came to these areas from abroad. Yet the study ofthese early regional works is not really a digression. Mature Romanesquc when one ofthese successarchitecture resr-rlted 'I'he lul local stvles coalesced with two others. 'First Romanesque' style of north Italv carried forward the tradition of Roman vaulting. Its contact with Carolingian architecture in thc Rhine Valley produced the splendid Rhenish R o m a n e s q u e .I t s s y n t h e s i si n t h e R h 6 n e V a l l c l the Carolingian Romanesque basilican st1'le of the west of France (the style of the Basse-(Euvre at Beauvais, Saint-Riquier, St with Martin of Tours, and sirnilar works) resulted in t h e m a t u r e p h a s eo f F r e n c h R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i tecture - the dJ'namic group of stvles rvhich underlies Gothic architecture.


p R E - R O I , I A N E S q U EA R C H I f ' E C T U R E I N T H E N O R T H , O U T S I D ET H E E M P I R E

Northern design as developed in contact with Roman traditions within the Empire showed great vigour and originality. Outside the area of' strong contact with Roman architecture the resourcesavailable for building were smaller, the problems simpler, and the results less spectacular. Yet these more remote buildinp;s often have interest in their own right becauseofindependent local conceptions, and the skilful use of local materials and methods Celtic in lreland, Germanic in England and Scrndinavia. Compositional types here in the North, as well as in pre-Romanesque Spain and Portugal, tend to be additive, or compartmental. Where preRomanesque buildings have been preserved they are now seen to hare a precious sarour, though in the glorious days of the full Romanesque development rhey must have seemed

L6rins and the Egyptian desert, Ireland quite naturally had an unassuming church architecture. Many of the early structures were undoubtedly of wattle work or palisading, with steep root-sas required bv thatch, and no such sophistication as rounded apses. It is known that the royal hall atTart was basilican. Buildings of any pretensionat all were built with timber framing, m7re Scottorum as the Venerable Bede say's (73r) of a Lindislarne c h u r c h o f r . 6 5 5 . I t i s p o s s i b l et h a r s u c h s t r u c tures affected Scandinavian building; for the raiders (795 ff.) became settlers afrer 834 without losing contact with the mother country. 'Cogitosus', about 8oo, tells of St Brigid's church at Kildare, which'occupied a wide area, and was raised to a towering height'. Commonplace buildings, many churches among them,

1 1 1:'

o o

15M 50 Fl

s m a l l , c r u d e , ' h o m e - m a d e , a n d o l d - f ' a s h i o n e d . had the shape of simple cottages with steep For this reason they have been replaced at all r o o l ' s . I n t h e m o n a s t e r i e sa n d a t s e c u l a r s i t e s of the important sites, and we are left with these were often multiplied into 'church cluscasual representatives no one of which excited ters' instead of being replaced by larger strucspecial wonderment in the ase in which it was tures; the con !iregations would gather within built. These examples shoiv, hou and around such church buildings. At monastne tnvading Romanesque i n h e r i t e d s o m e t h i n g teries the various conventual structures would from the earlier styles, and thus developed local b e a r r a n g e dr a t h e r c a s u a l l y ,w i t h i n a g i r d l e w a l l . varieties. A number of buildings in permanent material IRELAND Ireland was the first of' the pre-Romanesque areasto become creative. Its intellectual impor_ tance and ecclesiasticalinfluence, international ..o-p. from abour knor+.n. Re_ ll 5so, are r.r.ell ttoT Imperialcentres and led b1 an ascetic lt'^o_t_. stergy whose spirirual roors reached back to h a v es u r v i v e d f r o m C a r o l i n g i a n t i m e s , b u t s i n c e their analysis more properly belongs in the volume of the Pelican Histor.y oJ' Art which is d e v o t e d t o t h e a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , ro n l y b r i e f mention is made of them here. 'I'hc island of Skellig Nlichael [26.r] providcs : rs p e c t a c u l a r sitefbr a group of small stone-built m o n a s t i cb u i l d i n g s , ' c l o c h a i n s ' ,o l ' d r y - w a l l c o n struction with flat corbelled beehive domes.





22. GallarusOrator]', ncar Dingle, seventh centurYor later more oriental in character (as we should expect -fhe in monastic work) than is usual in Ireland. simple church and the austere cells are irregularly placed on a shelf I 8o feet long and roo f'eet wide, ofold reached by 67o steps along the lace of the rock, which forms a precipice 7oo f'eet high. The group has had its present character since 823, or rather, perhaps,since 86o when it was re-established after Vikine raids.'I'he monks lefi it for the mainland at some its scriptorium, has Columba's House', a shrine-house dating fiom 8o4, or perhaps afier gr8.r The church is rectangular in plan, and elegantly tall in proportion. In section the roof is rather like an A. The outer part is of corbelled construction in stone, with a small pointed chamber at the apex. The space below this (represented bv the area under the cross-bar of the A) is the tunnel vault over the main walls of the 'St Kevin's Kitchen' at Glendalough, chulch. realll'an oratory, is a similar building, of ninth'St

28. Glendalough, St Kevin's Kitchen and round towct, r. rooo by stands the relatively large ruined cathedral of St N{ary, formerly roofed in wood. It is stylistically classified as Primitixe becauseofits great simplicity. Associated with it there is a characteristic round tower, classified,as Transitional (to Romanesque) in stvle, ro3 feet in height, r6 feet in diameter at the base. The round torver tall, delicately tapering, smartly capped by a conical stone roof is the most poetic of the Celtic architectural creations. No towers are more graceful than these upwardpointing stone fingers of lreland. There is no better example of the bravura of basically Northern design. It is likely that the beginnings 8o back to Carolingian date. Watch-towers ancl refuges were needed when the Norse raids began in 795. The tall tower identified the church site liom a distance; it marked the cemetery, a n d s e r r , e da s a b e l l r y a n d l a n t e r n o f t h e d e a d . Yet it was constructed as a practical refuge; the door was set well above the ground and reached by a ladder, and, moreover, a port made it possible to overturn the ladder ofan attacker. Spiral stairs and floors of wood occupied the interior, a n d l o o p h o l e sm a d e i t p o s s i b l et o t h r o w m i s s i l e s from every side. Of one hundred and eighteen such towers which are reported, thirteen still exist in fairly perfect condition - the tallest, rzo feet high, on Scattery Island. Note should be taken also of the Irish high c r o s s e so , fwhich nearly three hundred medieval examples have been traced, and of very remark-

aftcr ro6-1 [u6.r]. 'I'he GallarusOratory near Dingle lzTl ts an century style [28]. It became a nave-and-chaneleganttranslationinto corbelledstone of'the cel church through the addition of a shed-like cruck house('all roof, no wall'). It has been sanctuary, now destroyed. A sacristy at the east centuryto the and a small finger-shaped tower on the ridge variouslydatedfrom the seventh eleventh.Kells, a well-known site, famousfor w e r e o t h e r e a r l y a d d i t i o n s ( a b o u t I o o o ) . N e a r




able cult oblectsin metal' It was through such werewarmworksthat the simplelittle churches ed and embellished:in Prior and Gardner's 'the crafi ofdecorationin Byzantine and phrase, Carolingianbuildings was the setting of precious objects against a backgroundof structure'.r The old Irish churches are indeed widowed now without their furnishings. Norman influencesplay upon this architecture in the twelfth century (asat CormacMac, c. rr21Carthy'sChapelon the Rock ofCashel St Kevin's of in the tradition which is 34 L2gl, at Glendalough)but the Cistercianinfluence, wasmore at MellifontAbbeyin I I.+2, beginning Although suchchurch buildingswere effective. more imposing, they were severe,and earlier Irish austerityof designlives on in them.

NINTH- AND TENTH-CENTURY N S A X O NE N G L A N D A R C H I T E C T U RIE Here again, because ofextended analysis in the volume deloted to medieval architecture in Britain,a only limited mention is given to the architectural works in question. It was a muchdivided country'rvhich struggled towards unity through the labours of Egbert of Wessex (829 39, the first to bear the title of King of England), Alfred the Great (87 r 9oo), Athelstan (924-4o), Edgar (9-59-75),and the great Danish sovereign Cnut (ror6 45), who wrought well as an English king. In the church architecture ofthe period there are many reminiscences of older forms. The nave-and-chancel plan was widely used both in wood and in stone. The compartmented plan, clearly that of Wil(rid's cathedral at York (767 8o), which had thirty altars, survived in smaller buildings. Such a plan existed, Ibr example, at the fabulous pilgrimage shrine of Glastonburv' Excavations show that the letusta Ecclesia,5

originally of late antique date, was augmented by a series of small elements built of stone, with wooden roofing: a nave and plrticus about 7oo, and a narthex, chancel, and lateral porticus before goo. Further, about g5o St Dunstan added twolaterrl porticus and a tower at the east ofthe church, as well as a free-standing tower-chapel xt the west. This brought the length of the group to about 25o feet. The plan was thus cloisonni, and it exemplified the old scheme of two axial towers, which became popular in English pre-Romanesque, Romanesque, and Gothic architecture. Continental relations were strong in the time of King Edgar (959 75), under whom, with St Dunstan, the refbrm of'the Benedictines made salutary progress in England. St Dunstan, who had been abbot o1' Glastonbury, became Primate (96o), and his companion monk, Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester (963). Both men were artists and loved the arts, and both were well placed to further the cause ofthe fine arts by precept and example. Winchester Cathedral jo. Pembridge, bclfi r' torrcr, lburtccnth ccnturr (traditional lbrm)

[ 3 3 4 ] w a s r e b u i l t b y E t h e l w o l d , a b o u t g i 3 o ,w i t h a lireat five-stage wooden tower. The organ at Winchester has its place in the history of music and the Winchester school of illumination is iustiy renowned in the historl of manuscripts. We knorv from terts that there was in this period a considerable amount ofcathedral buildas a ing, including Canterbury, which was rebuilt 'double-ender' with two lateral plrticus.

These monuments, on a llirly grand scale, have all been destroved. Hence we must fbrm our ideas on the basis of secondarl' monuments, of which about two hundred survive in whole or part. From the viewpoint of this volume the following ought to be mentioned: Elmham Cathedral," Deerhurst,t Wing,n Worth," Breamore,1'' Barton-on-Humber,rl Earls Bartcln (originallv an excellent example of the Saxon 'tower-nave' church),1r and Bradford-onAvon.r3 Parenthetically,Pembridge should be mentioned for its fourteenth-century belfrytower, rvhich closelv approximates r Carolingian rtrrritus aqes [3o).

ofthe Kings. Buildings now roofless zq. Cashel except round towcr and CormacMcCarthl''s Chapel,of t. ttz4-11


" "'" Wfrffi" yw&


.lr. Worth, church, tenth cenfur\(?), looking east qz. I3rcamore, chrrrch, tenth to\\'er

Elmham- a ruin, has a slcnder T-plan, plus an a p s ea n d t h e t t , v o c o m p a r t m e n t s w h i c h f l a n k t h e nave just 'ries t of the transept. Dcerhurst is fb I its staunch western tower, its lateral compartments (three on each side, with the usual rnarrow doors of access), its characinteresting teristic narrorv chancel arch, and its exceptional (destrol'ed) s.=vcn-sided apse. Worth has a round apse, aL so erceptional [3r]. Breamore is i n t e r e s t i n g f b r i t s s t a g e dc r o s s i n gt o r , ' e r[ 3 2 ] a n d the remains , tf' a Saxon carved rood panel. has its substantial towcr, Barton-on-Ht-mbcr ample, squarc, and tall, with bluff cut-stone quoining and work, which strips of cut stone in the wallgive a dccorative suggestion of' tower lbrmed the middle part of
33. Earls Barton, church, tower, tcnth centurv( ?) L,h..nru..

Tth roth

98o 99.t


fiaming. This the Saxon ctsrurch; it was augmentcd bv a smaller cornp;-rtment on thc cast, and a similar

one on the rvsst. The paired lvindorvs, archcd or mitred, arc charactcristicalll' divided b1.iolly 'mid-rvall s haf'ts' with rings. Earls Barton tower ', and is indeed a lavourite Saxon i s g r a n d e r 13 3 m o n u m e n t . I r r a l l o f t h e s et h e m a s o n r f i s r a t h e r

33A. Winchestcr, Saxon cathedral, gg.l rogr lexcavations and studi bv Nlartin Biddle)


p R E - R O M A N E S Q U E A N D p R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U ES T y L E S



and 35. Bradlbrd-on--{r'on, .1.1 S t L a w r e n c er,. 9 7 5 ( ? )

Saxon relieli

some of considerable interest

w i t h e a r l y R o m a n e s q u e w o r k i nL a n g u e d o c , B u r gundy, and Fleury (Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire).15

the interior is strikinglv handsome Ir, 36,11. Halls of this sort had been built lbr hundreds of 1'earsbelbre the latest date about rooo which can be assigned to Lojsta. At Onbacken in Sweden there are remains of a double-aisled 'guild h a l l ' . L i k e I - o j s t at h i s b u i l d i n g h a d f r a m e s ' r t i n t e r v a l s t o s u p p o r t t h e r o o f s t l ' u c t u r e .H o w ever, the posts were lbur in numbcr in each fiame. Instead of' drvarf'walls Onbacken had wooden palisaded walls, r'ertical or slightlv inclined, at some distance outsidc the lrames [ 3 6 n 1 .S i m p l c r s t r u c t u r e s , s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e , were grouped in the farm establishments. 'l'he remains of p:rgan temples in the earlv periocl inclicate structures ol-square plan. At G a m l a U p p s a l a , w h i c h r v a sp r o b a b l l ' t h e g r e a t est pagan cult ccntre of'the region, the mcdieval church was built largely'on the site ofthe chief temple. Excirvation has yielded a part of' the stones which supported its timber-work, and the pattern of its plan [3{rc, 348]. In this case there was a square central compartrnent, with corncr timbers or cr z f'eetin diameter and a smaller post between on each side. Whether the central compartment was free-standing in a peribolos measuring about 75 by 85 feet, or surrounded by' aisles reaching to the enclosing wall, is a mattcr fbr debatc. In anl'case the outcr wirll was supported bv light posts,and relativelv low, while the large corner timbers indicate a tower-like proportion lbr the ccntral square. \\'c postulate aisles, r'ith a gabled entrance. T'hus the tcmplc was distinguishcd fiom the residcntial and guild halls prer,iouslv referred to by its r all construct i o n a n d i t s c e n t r a l i z e dp l a n ; i t w a s , h o u e v e r , a relatively late building, not long anterior to its descliption by Adam of'Bremen (about roTo). H e c a l l si t a t r i c l i n i u m , a n d n o t e st h a t i t c o n t a i n e d s t a t u e so f ' T h o r , O d i n , a n d l i r e y a . ' ; At the datc mentioned, Christian building w a s a l r e a d yu e l l a d v a n c e di n S c a n d i n a v i a .F r o m ncighbouring Germanv some influences mar b e t r a c e d o r s u s p e c t e d ,b u t t h e N o r s e c h u r c h r v a ss e t r , r p lrom Britain, and its architecturll his-

S C A N DN I A VI A T h e f o r a y so f e a r l l ' m e d i e v a l S c a n d i n a v i l n t i ' e e booters are well known, and several of the beautiful ships rvhich were their instrument so lithe in form, so beautilul in decoration have been given back to us bt' archaeological excavationand stud]'. What is not so llidelv k n o w n i s t h e h i s t o r ] ' o f t h e w i d e s p r e a dc o l o n i z a tion and trade which follorved the piratical raicls. In the ninth and tenth centuries S*edish dynasts organized the oriental trade bv rva\. ofthe Russian rivers and built the state which became C h r i s t i a n R u s s i a i n 9 8 9 . 1 6I n t h e W e s t t h e i r colonization of Iceland (847) and Greenland ( 9 8r ) w a s e n d u r i n g , b u t t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h m a i n land America (q86 ti.) pror,ed ephemeral, likc their hold on considerable territories in the British Isles. -{ll Scandinavian architectural work of this earliest period is lost, and is to be rough and ordin a r l ' w a l l s a r e a b o u t z l l e e t t h i c k ; s p e c i a lw a l l s ma1'be much thickcr. 'liee-hand', but artractive. 'I'he been shown that the lower part of the church probabll'dates back to Aldhelm (c. 7oo); it was reworked lvhen the parts above the belt course s e r e a d d e d . F o r t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,o n a c c o u n t ol' its accomplished character, we prefer thc date of'973, in St Dunstan's time.l+ Sir Altied Clapham, in summing up this art, rightlv savs that it 'was a direct offshoot ofthe Carolingian stem, guarding the salient characteristics of its parent stock' but with a sort of bumbling localism. In the mid eleventh centurv it was much in need of the vigorous ne* impulse which camefrom Normandy to Edward the Conf'essor's Westminster Abbey. Enigmatic still is the relationship of the Saxon carvings to the sculptural art of Germanl. and France. The influence of the Winchester illuminations on French sculpture is admitted, but we do not have sufficient links to connect the deduced only from foundations, fragmentan. remains of superstructure, and the trad;tional leatures of conservarive later buildings. Swedenand Gotland provide remains u'hich indicate the character of the earlv palaces xnd d w e l l i n g s ; a t L o i s t a o n G o t l a n d a p a l a c eo f s o m e s i z eh a s b e e n r e b u i l r o n i t s o r i E i n a l f b u n d a r i o n s . I t t a k e st h e l b r m o l a l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l $ i r h dwarf walls of earth and stones i the entrance is at one end, and the hearth is near the middle. At intervals there are pairs of posts resting on stonesin the earthen lloor, dir,iding the intcrior l n t o a n a v e a n d t r v o a i s l e s .E a c h p a i r o t p o s t s supports a trans\erse liame lbr the roof' of' thatch, which sweeps in an unbroken slope on each side from the dwarf wall to the ridge. A smoke-hole opens over the hearth. The timbcrs are,rough in the reconstruction. rather than c a r v e da n d p a i n t c d a s r h e v d o u b t l c s sw e r e i n t h e o r t g i n a l ,b u t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a ll i n e s i r r ef i n e . a n d

Among the eristing church buildings, St Lalrre'nce at Bradlbrd-on-Aron is perhaps the most satisfactorv. It is a nave-and-chancel b u i l d i n g , $ e l l c o n s t r u c t e do f c u t s t o n e . I t h a s a charactcristically' narrow chancel arch with interesting rcliels ofangcls (pcrhaps tiom a rood) set in the wrrll above it [34]. There are narrow doorwal's on thc other three sidcs of its minuscule nale (25 (eet long, rj feet 8 inches wide, and verv high - just over 25 leer).The windows a r e , a s u s u a l , f ew , s m a l l , a n d p l a c e d h i g h i n t h e 'I'he wall. lateral doors opened inlo plrticus, of which thc southern onc has been destroyed. Apart fiom this the exterior is verl perfect; it is beautifulll proportioned and decorated with elegant shallorv arcading IrSl. Recentlv it has



o' ,!

Srrpporrs Jorposts a (H"l,potheticaL) WoLLs ---------Roof Hips -----" Ritlges Shoft of Tower ---

tory probably begins there. By the year goo the 5sxldinavian population was probablv Christian in the British areas controlled by the Norse , the Earldom ofthe Orkneys, including parts ol' Scotland; the Kingdoms of the Hebrides, of Dublin, of Northunlbria, and ofEast Anglia;together with the Five Boroughs. Christianization ofthe North rvas tardier, but it was well begun by g5o, and it was established by law fbr Norway, Iceland, and Greenland in the vear rooo. Inevitably one is led to suppose that many early

tory. In Iceland and Greenland there are representatives of pioneer and archaic forms. The old Icelandic sees of Skdlholt and H6lar have lost t h e i r e a r l y b u i l d i n g s , b u t r u s t i c s i t e ss t i l l p o s s e s s houses with banked lateral walls and interior 'fhe framing, like a simplified Lojsta. faqades a r e o 1 ' w o o d ,a n d t h e r o o f c o v e r i n g i s s o d r a t h e r than thatch. Churches werc built in this rvav, even recentlv (Fhigumyri, about 1875, and -Ihe \i 6imyri, r 8zz [371. St6ri-Nripur church in Arnessysla [38], with aisles,recalls the palace at Loista even more strongly. Groups of old barns and houses olten seem but little changed in general appearance lrom the prehistoric lirm

o a


lBr-1 !t,

l l_

15 .l\{


!r-! l_

5() r'T

Christian buildings on the Scandinavian peninsula were simpie wooden versions of the naveand-chancel type ofchurch which was common in England and Ireland at the time, or threenavedhalls of'the Lojsta or Brenz tvpe Ir,4aj. Thfodhild's tiny church (r. roor), crcavrted at Brattahlid near Gardar [36o and 3gB], resembled Lojsta, except that it had a squarish plan, like a temple, and a woodcn fagade. Thc banks and roofinp; were ofsod. Excavation has revealed the plan of a more ambitious church in Sweden. This is St Mary Minor at Lund, dated afier rooo (b,-vro5oi) [36E]. Its rvall-work was like that of Greenstead church in Esser [z] - built, that is, ofvertical logs f l a t t e n e do n r h r e e s i d e s a n d i o i n e d b 1 ' s p l i n e s .



"J H

tl t t l--

.i6. Plans o[ errll Scandinavinn buildings A. Loista, palace, r. rooo e. Onbacken,'Guild Hall' c. Gamla Uppsala, temple fbundations o. Brattahlid,'l'hjodhild's church, r. root s. Lund, St N'larr N,linor, r. tooo .5o

centurv r,. Holtilcn, church, eleventh c . U r n e s ,c h u r c h ,r . r r z 5 u. l,omen, church, r. i tllo t . N o r c , c h u r c h .r . r r g o J ( belur) . Garrisonhall, Danish reconstructiDn

The chancel, z5 feet square, was offset from the nave, which was about 33 feet wide lrom wall to wall. Aisles were marked offin the nave by posts which (two by'two) carried the transverse frami n g o f t h e r o o f s t r u c t u r e . T h e s a n c t u a r y ,o p e n ing from the nave, had a similar roof construction, except that the posts were carried around at the eastend to form a sort ofnarrow ambulatorv. T . h u sS t I l a r y M i n o r , t h o u g h r e s e m b l i n g a b a stllca,was a curious conllation ofthe basilica, the nave-and-chancel church, and the pagan hall. Unfortunately it is not possible to follow the sub_ sequent historv ofthe tlmber church in Swcden. Although about zoo were built, not one is extanti only fragments in museums remain. On the other hand, Norway and Insular Scan,. dinavia have p..r..""d the elements for this his-

vicw ol'church, rlizz .i7. Vibimyri, Skagafjdrbur, model of'framing, r876 38. St6ri-Nipur, Arnessysla,

P R E - R O M{ N E S Q L L , q R C H I T h C T U R E I N T H E N O R T H , O U T S I D E T H E E M P I R E


establishmentsof Gotland and elsewhere.Somewhat the same story is told in Greenland, which was evangelized through a mission entrusted to Leif Ericson, shortly before his journey to America (roo3). There were ultimately seventeen churches serving about two hundred and eighty households, a monastery, and a nunnery. The White Church (stuccoed), at Kakortok, a perfectly simple little stone-walled building, mentioned in r3o6, still survives, roofless; but the cathedral of Gardar (Igaliko), founded in trz4, has been destroyed. Excavations show that it was a small cruciform stone building with a wooden f'agade and roof construction [3ge]. Other buildings in the cathedral group, serving as residences, were built like the traditional Icelandic houses just mentioned. A related group, much simpler, has been identified and

Excavations (Trelleborg, Aggersborg, Fyrkat, in Denmark) show that the grear Viking military camps were very different from these settlements. Within an encompassing earthwork (circular at Trelleborg [3gcl), impressive garrison halls resembling the guild hall at Onbacken [36n] were arranged in fours, lbrming square courts, and these courts were reduplicated, with passages (each in a quadrant at Trelleborg). The walls were palisaded. Bowed out in plan and supporting big roofi, they softened the strict geometrical s)'stem [36JJ. Churches built entirely oItimber represenred an advance on ordinary wooden structures. In r8g3 L. Dietrichson had traced three hundred and thirtv-two timber churches in all Scandinavia, of which trventy-fbur werc extant, all in Norway. An important church (Trondheim, 996) is reported in the reign ofOlafTryggvason, under whom the country became officially Christian, and archaeological remains go back

ig\ ( abor'eand hclon, ) . Gardar, cathedral group, twelfth centurv


excavated at L'Anse aux Meadows, on the tip of Newfoundland. It represents the eleventhcentury Norse colonization in Vinland.r8




*1\ S/ / r*
--+4 --





.. . :....:li: , , . , . - . -'*. Il


bank _

39c. Trelleborg, camp,

L , i l_.]_]_

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' ' I ' I


39u.Brattahlid.Thjodhild's church, r. r oor (rcstorcd)


3oo FT


P R E - R O M A N E S Q U EA N D P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U D S T Y I , F , S

P R E . R O M A N E S Q L I EA R C H I T E C T U R E



to the reign of St Ola{'(roI5 3o), the church in question being that of Garmo (destrovedr88z; c l e m e n t sa t L i l l e h a m m e r ) l t n a s a n a r e - a n d chancel church in wood, an example of the oldest, most persistent, and most numerous t]'pe ofchurch.1" Holtilen church (r. lo-5o I looi norv in the Trondhcim Muscum) [36r] is the oldestertant e s a m p l e .I t h a s t h e t r p i c a l s t o u t p o s t sa t t h e s i r sllient angles of the nave-and-chancel plan, with rebated sills sustaining an ingenious t o n g u e - a n d - g r o o l e p a l i s a d eo l ' s t a v e ' w a l l c o n struction. About ro6o a church of similar form r v a sb u i l t a t U r n e s . S u p e r b e x a m p l e so f N o r s e carving survive on the wall planks and doorwav of this church - wonderful interlaced animal lbrms, exultantly' r'ivacious, subtly modelled in flat and bolcl relief classic examples of'tameless r,igour and beaut-v[4o]. Such work must be dependent ultimately, in part, on Irish illumi,1o.L.rncs.carrings on flank ot'church' r. ro(ro,re-uscd

nrtion. but the earlier Norse panels, unlike tht Irish rvorks. contain little except animal fbrrns: it wos later that scrolls of leaf'age,ribbons, antl hunran figures were introduced The doors antl doorwats ot timber churches uere olien prtserved, on account of their beaut,v, when the c h u r c h e s t h e m s e l v e sw e r e d e s t r o y e d , a n d t h i s is the case at Urnes, rvhere the door and f'agaclc l hurch of r o(ro c a r v i n g so f t h e n a v e - a n d - c h a n c ec elaborate more side ofa north the into rvere built church about r rz5 [36c]. T h i s c h u r c h . U r n e s I I , m a r k s a d e c i s i v es t e l r t o w a r d t h e c l a s s i ct y p e o f f u l l l ' d e v e l o p e d N o r s c timber church. The shallow oblong; sanctuarr has two corner posts as usual, and two interior' p o s t s a l t h e e a s t ,r c c a l l i n g t h e e r r a n g e m c n t a t S I \lar1' \'Iinor in Lund. The nave at Urnes II. somewhat larger than usual, has walls supported b,v the customarr'lbur posts at the outcr corners. But $'ithin there are sixteen tall frecs t e n . l i n g m a s t - l i L es u p p o r t s ' m a r L i n g o l l ' l a t c r r r l aisles and a returned aisle at both east and \\'csl The masts rest on stones and a chassis; thcl alt bracccl all round at mid-height, whcre tl'reir nunrber is augmentedbl two on the axis (omittcd belolr to make the intcrior more spaciou:' \ b o r e t h e a r s l c st h e m a s l s c a r r \ a c l e r e s l o l \ rvall,and at the top the]'are ioined togcther all r o u n d b 1 ' a p l a t e , w h i c h c a r r i e st h e t r u s s e d r o o l and a helliv pinnacle. There are suegestiotr t h a t t h e d c s i g n e r s h a d b : r s i l i c a nc h u r c h e s t ' i stonc in mind. The mitsts, (br instance, hrr' Romanesque capitals at mid-height uncler app l r e n t a r c h e s( u h i eh a r e i n f r c t er r c hm ' l d e u p ' ' tlvo adioining lvooden gusset braces) Th! t b r i d g i n g l b o r e t h u a p p a r e n t a r c h e ss u g g e s t s tritbrium. and the small round rents abor'' ( ' W i n d a u g e n ' ) s u g g e s tc l e r c s t o r vw i n d o w s ' a ba:llHolrcrer much thc church rcsemhlcs i c a , t h e m a s t e d s t r u c t u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l yd i f f - e r e n i ()l a s t r u c t u r e o f ' t h e c c n t r a l t - v p e 'l i k e a g r o u p flag-poles all bound together circumlerentialll I t m u s t h a v e b e c n q u i t e s t r i k i n g t o s e et h e m ' r s t '

' On tall masted structure was invented to distinsucha churchwasunderconstruction while the churches bv emphatic vertical emthey extendedup into and sup- euish lorpf.tion f r o m t h e p a l a c e si n s u c h g r o u p s I f o r t h e p h a s i s aswellasrheir upperstructure olrrio tr,.."'ite would be larger and predominantly hori-palaces rvhich the aisle roof'and the braces Ii"r. "f to the aisle walls' Despite its oblong zontal. One is struck, too, b1' the small scale of " '.ilp. look like carvings' the early mast churches; they would ,na the Romanesque-looking - indeed, like enlarged lersions of boxes that of the tower-like iewel essence ,t.".ft.m. is in church models (a popular lbrm ol'reliquary) UPPsala' Gamla t..Plt prgrn ' "t beside the palaces. Only'the later churches are Fiedal at (about r r25)shows Th. r"-. p.riod chttrch' generous in scale. in the Valdres a nave-and-chancel of Such then is the background ofthe church by an rtpse' is augmented tha sanctuar-Y o,hara in studied be may by an extenor Borgund, the details of which and the whole is circumscribed the A trusses' ingenious The with a proiectingporch on the axis' the diagram [421. ambulatory ---These t-vpesof bridging, bracing, and gussets architecturalmotifs, combined with various worth attention' as is also the basic well are reIi' of the naveof Urnes rhemastedscheme of supporting Norse tirnber chassis of the building. Pairs sult in the classiclbrm of the (#), and the masts angles, right at at Borgund,the oldest beams cross church,bestrepresented The exrectangle' the central about raised harmo- are extantexample(about r r5o) [4r]' The powerfully brace the beams the parts of tended is parts niousefect of the many subtly related and masted structure and support the aisles no lessremarkablethan the skilled craftstnansupbe would skid or chassis a Such uary porches. shipby which it is achievedNaveand sanct it in conabove ported on stones; there is nothing like confidentlY rise pinnacle) its with leach Borgund At tentional basilican construction' the arcadedexterior porch' their graceful silwith a number' in twelve are Iinials and spire- the main masts houettebreakinginto gables, half-mast' on each u p p e r a n a n d i n t e r r a [ , w i d e lets. The delicatescaleand small memb':ring (ernphasized by cut shingles- now for saf'ety flank ofthe nave' Grinaker (r. r r6o), Lomen [3(rH]' and other oftenreplaced by tile) are remarkablyeffective rr8o or c h u r c h e si n t h e \ a l d r e s r e g i o n d a t c d in thenaturalsettingofrough uplandvallels' the upper struccarrying masts four have later Neither Urnes nor Borgund is an irnportant otherwise a nave-and-chancel and onenaturallylookselse- ture in what is ecclesiastical place, are not and church rvith an apse added These naves of so accomplished where for the genesis II and Urnes of those than smaller much very perfect One thinks inevitablyof King a scheme. the scale is larger' consequently ('ross and Borgund, SigurdMagnusson's Church of the Holy scale of the thirin Kungahilla which wasbuilt in r r 27,after the forecasting the still ampler belicved that puStrzvgowski pilgrirnage tecnth century. King's return from a spectacular four-masred tvpc t h e o f e r a m p l e s e a r h ' r a t i t e a wo:tder, to the Holy Land. It wasaccounted o f m t r s tcd struclure' but t r a d i t i o n t h e g e n e r a t e d surrived, but no detaileddescriptionoi it has four-mastcd Free-standing and it wasdestroyed in r I36. Another possible without elidence. ofthe belfries the for developed were prototlpeis the churchwhich wasconstrllcted structures the masts with Borgund, of that churches; alongwith a palacelbr King Sigurd's brother Eystenin Bergen,rrr7. The structureof the slanted against the swing ofthe bells, is t1'pical Nore church (r. r rgo) [36 tl presents a square that of simple Palace hallsmust haveresembled whole churches indeedthe nave with a post at each corner, and the Perhaps in manv respects.



Borgund' r' r I 5o; classic examplc aJ ar,d 42. e g i a n ' s t a r e - c h u r c h ' , e x t e t i o t I ttl t f ' t tst t ( I Jf the Nort secttsn s1d analYttcal


pnE-nonaANr-seuE AND pRoro-RoMANEseuE sryLEs

middle part of the construction carried on a s i n g l e m a s t . S h a l l o w t r : r n s e p t a lr e c e s s e s and a s q u a r e s a n c t u i r r va l l h a v e a p o s t a t e a c h c o r n e r , making seventeenfor the whole church. Fli (r. rzoo) and Nes (i. rz4o) have the nave-andchancel plan, plus a rounded apse and a central mast. The whole structure is arranged and braced in stagesaround this mast, and therefbre comes to rcsemble thc central mast of'a Carol i n g i a n c h u r c h s p i r e ) o r t h e w o o d c n s t e e p l eo f 'I'his an American Colonial church. n'pe flourishes alongside the navc-and-chancel, the 'l'orpu, (Lonr, quasi-basilican ,. r rgo: .\rdal, r'. rzoo), and the Borgund ty'pe(Fantoft, from Fortun. r. r r 6o 8o ; Gol, now at B1'gdor-,Oslo, . . r 2 o o ; H e g g e ,r ' . r z r o ; R i n g e b u , r . r z - i o ; H e d dal or Hitterdalen in Telemark, near Hiarrdal. r. rz5o). In the interiors which have bestsurvived the centuries the wood has largely been lefi unp a i n t e d . T h e r e s u l t i n g r i c h t o b a c c ob r o w n u i t h d e e p v e l v e t v s h a d o u s i s t e r r ' f i n e , a n d i t s e t so f f the glint of metalwork in the lurnishings and l i t u r g i c a l g e a r .T h e b r i g h t c o l o u r s o f v e s t m e n t s , the gal hues and sober black of peasant costumes appear to great adr,antage in this warm rtmosphere. The intcrior carvingsof thc churches are relativell simple, but thel' happill,' a c c e n t u a t et h e s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e l i n g , a n d g i v e a certain movenent in the half light. The contrast between the sercnity of the Norse church interiors, and the extraordinary r,err,e of their ertcriors. is not the least remarkable ol'their mi-tnvartistic Yirtues. B e c a u s et h e m a t e r i a l u a s p e r i s h a b l e ,w o o d en churches began to give wav to stone structures as early as ro5o. Norman England, u'ith its characteristic heavy masonrv construction, began to influence Scandinar,ia er,en in the reign of'Sigurd Nlagnusson (rro3 3o). At that time

cousins of'the Norse werc alreldv at work on the cathedrals of Norrvich a n d E l 1 ' ; S t a v a n g e rC a t h e d r a l w a s b e i n g b u i l t . from about rrz3 onward, in a reflected Rom a n e s q u es t y l e . T h e S c a n d i n a v i a n sd i d n o t a d o p t t h e I r i s h idea of church clusters, and therefore, as timc went on, the mast churches became unsatisfact o r v n o t o n l v b e c a u s eo f t h e i r m a r e r i a l , b u t a l s o because ol' their small scale and their limited capacity (eren with the people standing at services, as rvas usual in the N{iddle Ages). T'hc congregations became larger, and the ceremonies more elaborate, involving !reater numbers of clergt than in earlv times. Recent atten)pts to build mast churches on a moder.n scale, so as to provide space fbr sizable gatherings seatedin pews, have been aesthetic f'ailures. while the cutting away of masts, and other changes in medier-al buildings, fbr the samt p u r p o s c ,h l v e b c e nm o s t u n l b r t u n a t e . \t'hen the stone-built Romanesque came ro Scandinaria, it took on, as in the church ol G a m l a U p p s a l a t " 1 3 4 7 , 3 4 8 ] ,s i m p l e a n d a u s t e r e Northern forms which make their aesthetic point through the bold and elegant expression of bulk so much so that modern imitations of French and Italian Romanesque and Gothic

the Anglo-Norman

5flAPTER {

p R O T O - R O \ { A N ES q U E - { RC H I T E C l U R E I N S O U T H E R N t r U R O P E

It sounds like a plelsantr]- to say that Roman that is to architecture is proto-Romanesque befbre coming architecture say, a Romanesque the authoritative and constituted medieval style. But there is a kernel of truth in it. The methods of commonplace Roman building were continued with little change during the Dark Ages in the southern and more settled parts of the Empire area, awaiting the time when a grander architecture should be possible. We have seen that Carolingian Romanesque architecture intellectuallv marked out this future development. It is only rr habit of thought which prevents our calling it simplv Romanesque. That tcrnr calls up a group o(' styles of somewhat later date, somewhat more mature structural character, more importantly characterized by vaulting, and richer in plastic embellishment, but not essentially different in conception. Similarly, the st1'les of' southern Europe w h i c h c o m e b e t r v e e nR o m a n a n d R o m a n e s q u e might simply be called Romanesque il'our habit ofthought were different. Two ofthem are so close to both styles as to merir the name ot proto-Romanesque. 'l'he architecture of Asturias, Galicia, and neighbouring Portugal in the ninth and tenth cenruries was like a hboratory experiment in Romanesque, perlbrmed in a remote region lnd not absorbed into the main current of architectural der,elooment. In the Byzantine Exarchate and Lombardl a similar 'l:irst d e v e l o p m e n tl a i d r h e sroundwork tbi rhe Romanesque' ,tr-.I., *ii.h carried on the living s t r e a mo f R o m a n lrchitecture, and contributed s o m e t h i n gt o a l l t h e m a t u r e R o m a n e s q u es t y l e s .

T H E A S T L T R I AS NT Y L E Thc \loors came first to Spain in 7r r as a small interventionist fbrce under Tarik. lor whonr Gibraltar is named. The ineffectual Visigothic kingdom crumbled before them, and they embarkcd on a serious work of conquest which brought them across the P1'reneesinto France '-['hey w e l e o n l l ' h a l t e d b y C h a r l es in 7r 8. \,Iartel in 732 in the fbmous battle fought between Tours and Poitiers. The new state was not well organized until the middle of the tenth centur!'. and the Nloorish borders receded, but the \loslems continued to alllict southern lirance b1' (bra-vs, and b1' their' fierce, longcontinucd piracl, in the \lediterranean.'Iher d r o r e o u t t h e m o n k s o f ' X ' l o n t e c a s s i n oi n 8 f i . i and desolatcd the monastery; they captured r \ ' I a y e u l ,a b b o t o f ' C l u n y , i n 9 7 z , a n d h e l d h i m fbr ransom; their devastations are reported from Switzerhncl in g4o and from northern Spain in 997 8. During the initial period of relative Moorish Septimaniawasrcconquered(76o 8) weakness, by Pepin III, alter which the Spanish March of Charlernagne (Catalonia and Navarre) was lib'l'he celeaction at Roncesvalles, erated (777). brated in the Song of'Roland, occurred in 778. B i r r c e l o n aw a s c a p t u r e d i n E o r . In the north-western corner ofthe peninsula, where the old mountainous Asturian realm of Visigoths about the Sucvi (only subdued b1-'the 6zo) had not been o\rerrun b1' the Moors, the Spanish Christian state was reconstituted jurid i c a l l f i n 7 I 3 b y t h r : l i n t a s t i c b a n d o 1 'c l e r i c a l , m i l i t a r l , a n d l a y r e l u g e e sw h o h a d b e e n d r i v e n

works seem unwelcome and intrusive. f'he earlier buildings in masonrl' were rather primitir,e in construction, and thus carry an odtl flavour of the First Romanesque which is r,err appealing. Ilven the vitalitv ofthe timber church tradition had little effect on buildings designecl fbr stone, lnd it is indeed pr<lbable that thc architects considered the fbrms of the woodcn b u i l d i n g s a sa n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f t h e i r e n g i n e e r i n g t1'pe, and fhus not applicable in stone-buiit work or suitable for an1' kind of superficirl imitation.



r Oviedo,San Julidn de los Prados,

there by the invading Moors. Under Alfonso the Catholic (Z3q 5Z), the new Kingdom of the Asturias or of Galicia began to expand southward, and to plant Christian colonies in the border zone which had been desolated by the constant raids from both sides. Legend has it that the Apostle St James the Greater aided the Galicians in battle, whence he acquired his name of Nlatamoros, his rank (maintained even in the twentieth century) of Colonel in the Spanish army, and his association with cockle shells. His supposed tomb, identilied as such in 8r3, became a national shrine almost immediately, and led to the foundation of a Benedictine monastery, Antealtares, in the reign of 'fhis king made Alfonso the Chaste (7gt-842). Oviedo his capital, from which the kingdom was ruled until gr4. A metropolitanate was e s t a b l i s h e dt h e r e i n 8 I r . r By the end of the eighth century the architects had constituted a national pre-Romanescue stvle of considerable technical interest.

The oldest remains go back to about 78o, and there are well-preserved examples covering the whole span of the ninth and tenth centuries. Among the chief monuments was the cathedral of Oviedo, founded in 8oz, which was an interesting group of buildings by a designernamerl 'I'ioda. A reliquary chapel, the I'amous Cdmara Santa, still survives [58]. Another maior monr'rment, now destroyed, was the double cathedral at Santiago de Compostela (8lg-rt6), which has been excavated in part, and is known to hare resembled other Galician basilicas (Santullano. Lourosa l54cl), though the cast end, with thc shrine of St James, was rather more open and elaborate. Yet satisfactory represcntatives of the \sturian st1'le of archirecture. painting, antl sculpture survive; they are being maintainecl and cherished. At somotime between 8rz and 842 (perhaps about 83o) Tioda built for Alfbnso the Chaste' adjoining his suburban palace in the fields neat' Oviedo, the basilican church of'San Juliin dc

l o s P r a d o s ,o r ' S a n t u l l a n o ' [ + 1 , + + ] . T h e n o r t h transept was elidently contiguous to the palace, for the king's tribune opened into it. The transept is relatively wide, roofed in wood, and higher than the rest of the church. The remainder of the building is composed around the transepr in the lamiliar agglomerative Germanic fashion.'I'here is a plrticus at the south end of the transept; the sanctuary and chapels are oblong tunnel-vaulted compartmentsr of which the central one, only, is brought to the eaveslevel ofthe transept b1'an upper chamber (perhaps a refuge). The ample nave, likewise wooden-roofed, also reaches merely to the transePteaves. It is providcd with aisles, a western Porch' and a wall belfiy' or espadaia. The recent restoration has uncol.ered the rather rough, but Bood and substantial masonrv of the church. and its astonishins interior decorations. These guite unexpectedly turned out to be a symbolic 'fhirrycSmposition in the pompeian sr1le. ct8ht baldacchino motifs are fiqured, in refcr-

ence (it is thought) to the thirty-eight Councils which had thus lirr been held in the Spanish Church. These paintings are among the most interesting of their kind. Yet this court chapel gives only a hint of the richness ol Alfbnso the 'everything', says C h a s t e ' sb u i l d i n g s a t O v i e d o : 'the King adorned the Monk of Albelda (883), diligentll' with arches and columns of marble, with gold and silver, and so with the royal p a l a c e ,w h i c h h e d e c o r a t e dw i t h d i v e r s p i c t u r e s , all in the [Visilgothic wa\', as they were at 'I'oledo in church and palacc alike'. There were a governmental building and a thermal establishment in Oviedo also in these great da1's. O n e o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n gA s t u r i a n c h u r c h e s IIe, dateslrom the reign o1'Ramiro I (843 -5o). incidentally', contended successlully with the Norse raiders of whom wc have heard in previous chapters; they did not get a lbothold in Spain as they did in England, Ireland, France, a n d t h e ' I ' r v o S i c i l i e s .R a m i r o ' s c h u r c h a d i o i n e d



SantaMaria de Naranco,consecrated tl48 45 rnd 46.

t h e p a l a c ea n d b a t h s a t N a r a n c o , a p l e a s a n th i l l s i d e p l a c c n e a r O v i e d o . I t w a s d e d i c a t e di n 8 4 8 to Santa N{aria, and has come down to us in a perf-ectstate, except for the loss of a two-storcy compartment on one of thc long sides; opposite the entrance, and balancing the entrance porch l+S, +61. The architectural lbrm of the upper p a r t s h o w s t h a t i t w a s b u i l t a s a b e h , e d e r e ;v e t the structure was certainly used fbr sacred cercmonial in connexion with the king as fbr instance when he departed fbr war. The cxisting old parts ofthe church have no suitable location fbr an altar. since the ends of the hall were doorways opening on unglazed 'I'he cxterior porches. best solution of the difiicultf is to suppose that the altar stood in the destroyed compartment opposite the existing entrance porch. The altar would then occupl,' manic palacc hall. the thronc-place of a layout resembling a Ger'l'he long hall itself would be gathered outside the church, would hcar the liturgl' through the open end compartments.

Similarll', the populace gathered on the slofc ncar thc inrperial palacc hall at Goslar [,.t+,]rS lbllowed thc proccedingsthrough openings rn the f'aqadeof the hall. In point of development Santa N{aria cle N a r a n c o o c c u p i e st h e p o s i t i o n l b r S p a i n w h i c h Germignv-des-Prds has in France, Aachen in 'St Germanv, and Columba's House' in Ireland. The masonrv work is somewhat rough, but ol excellent quality, having ashlar, used with admirable skill, to strcngthcn it in logical place'. 'l he mein block ol rhc building hasa crlpt ,,1 three compartments, the central onc covercLl ( o n d u a r l u a l l s ) h r a h e a r r a n d s l r o n gt u n n ( l r a u l t w i t h t r a n s \ e r s ea r c h e s o l a s h l a r . 6 n 1 , , r t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d i n t h e m e d i e r a lc h u r c h a r t h i tecture of the West. The end compartmcnt\ (ol'rrhich onc \\as a bath) are ceiledin uor,.l. Each of the cr1'pt compartments sustains a conrpartment of the superstructure, taller in pr,,portion, lighter and more sophisticated rn construction. Pairsol atrachcdcolumns car..,l in fine barharicsttle carrl an interior

which thins and stiffens the wall, so rhar it is logically designed to take the thrusts of the tunnel vault above it. The vault again has transversearches, and an extra arch is placed in the middle over the widest arcade arches (fbr the size of these is graduated). Under the other transverse arches there is a decorative strapand-medallion inset which srrengthens the wall. Though ir was rauntetl u, ,urporring unl. thing in Hispania (Moslem Spain) therc is n e v e r t h e l e sa s haunting s e n s et h a t t h e u h o l e b u i l d i n gi s s o m e h o w in debr to onental motles or construction, probablv through \risigothic and Moslem ,..hi,..,u."1 works as much as e l s e . Y e r t h e G e r m a n r c a s p e c t so t t h e lnl Li"* must nor be tbrgotten. tts palacehall llttd]nt the effector'making ir into a .rransepr :lit lid t o , u r 1p e w h i c h i s o r h e r w i s e k n o u n i n ;tlufn' Abdin in Vesoporamia), but rhc

There is no doubt as to the position and shape of the missing two-storey compartment, in the upper part of which we ma\ supposethe altar t o h a v e b e e n p l a c e d( i n 8 4 8 ) ,I b r t h e m a r e t o t h i s compartment still exists on the opposite side, with its approach stairwaysand vaulting complete, applicd, or'apposed', to the main chamber in Germanic l'ashion. In fact, the building was composed, basicalll., in the manner ofthe Saxonchurch ofBradfbrdon-Avon [:+, :Sl, exccptthar rhe Asturian work 'l'he is vaulted with admirable soliditl'. cntrance porch and its mate come in iust where thev are structurallv needed to abut the main tunnel vaults lbr such vaults, when ther. ha.r'c anv c o n s i d e r a b l el e n g t h , i n v a r i a b l v t e n d t o p u s h o u t their supports and sink at the crown. In Naranco we have an appropriate solution (on a small scale to be sure) of the problem of vaulted church architccture which pror.ed to be obstinateh' difficult throughout the Romanesque period. It is also rvorthl of'note that the spur buttresses are proportioncd like developcd

a sort of'transept lbr magnatcs, and thc pcople,

is Cermanic; tbr iJ^tittlll] modear Naranco isanagglomeratron or aspiring and ll,t-l-t',0j"* 'xrtrsecting
forms. The flanksare divided into 'ctt D?YS by slender ashlar spur huttresscs.

P R O T O - R O M A N L S Q U EA R C H T T E C T U R Ft_ N S O L i T H E R NE t r R O p E 93 (oltposite and belon). Santa Cristina 47 and 48 .. Lena, 9o5 Io de 49 ( risht ) . Santa \{aria de \'Ielquc, r. 9oo

Romanesque buttresses and logicalll' disposed. The embellishment of Santa Maria de Naranco, while not Romanesque, nevertheless uses deg e n e r a t ec l a s s i cm o t i f s , n o r e l c o m b i n a t i o n s ,a n d even minuscule figure sculpture (in the medallions), and therefore we may say that it too gives a hint of future Romanesque fbrms. The church of San \liguel de Linio, near Naranco, lbunded in 848, is a curious and ingenious r.aulted building, now incomplete. It rvaslaid out as a columnar basilica with a tunnelvaulted nar e and angular sanctuaries. The fbur terminal bavs ofthe aisles had transverse tunnel vaults at a high ler,el to abut the nave, and large transennae in these transept-like bays (ofwhich t r v o s t i l l e x i s t ) g a r , ea g o o d l i g h t t o t h e w h o l e interior. San Nliguel has remains of paintings and a brave attempt at architectural sculpture.

There are interesting capitals and medallions. a s a t N a r a n c o ; t h e c o l u m n b a s e sh a v e c a r v i n g s , and an ivorv book cover was reproduced, enlarged, in flat barbaric str,le on each iamb of thc main portal. There is an odd suggesrion of Earh Gothic tracerv, even, in the interesting transennae or pierced stone lvindow screens of San \Iiguel. Entirclv raulted, like Sanra N1ariade Naranco, the charming little church of Sanr,r (,ristina de Lena [+2, +8] must be included as shorving an interestingl development ol'the Nirranco thcme. Santa Cristina has an entrance compartment with a tribune lrom which onc looks up a longitudinal tunnel-vaulted nave to ir platform and sanctuarv compartment, markcd off b1' a verv interesting and fastidiously carvecl barbaric chancel parapet and arcade. The main

vault is abutted b1' chapelJike compartmenrs 'apposed' to the flanks ofthe nave. All the vaults are tunnel vaults, and all, except that of the tiny entrance way, have trans\rerse arches. All the walls are stiffened b1' spur buttresses. This church was probablv built shortly after go5, or at any rate in the reign of Alfonso III, the Great (866-9ro). There remains to be mentioned the engaging _ little tunnel-vaulted basilican church ol Val de d.dicuted in 893. ft has \loslem-looking Pios, horseshoe a r c h e si n t h " e, a n c t u a r r a n d t h e c l e r . e s t o r y .a n d t r a n s e n n a e b u t a l s oa n a d d e d l a t e r a l porch with prophetic, Romrrnesque-looking g r o u p e dp i e r s c a r r l . i n ga t u n n e l r a u l t . d a r c d i n rne tenth centur\. On a tinl rcirle, it offers a Eood solution ro tlifficult problems. and. lil,r: santa Maria de Naranco. has endured.







Little if anl.thing survives to represent Earlv Christian basilican architccturc as developed b1' the Visigoths except San Juan Bautista at Baios de Cerrato (66r), rvith its horseshoe a r c h e s , i t s d e g e n e r a t eR o m a n c a r v i n g s , a n d i t s s q u a r e - e n d e c ls a n c t u a r ) ' ( o n e o f t h r e e , w i d e l l ' s p a c e d ,w h i c h l b r n e r h , l o o k e d i n t o a w i d e t r a n sept). Vaulted architecture is represented by the church of Quintanilla de las \''iias, whcre construction appearsto have been interrupted h r r h e C o n q u e s r .s h o r t l r a l i e r '7 r r . What this Late Roman church st.vle beclme under strong N{oorish influence we may infer liom the interesting raulted church of'Santa Maria de N{elque. dated about 9oo [49]. It is





solidly built ofashlar stone on a cruciform plan, and vaulted, with an efl'ectivc use of horseshoc i n t h c i n t e r i o rd e s i g n . arches Simpler lvorks resembling San Juan de Baios and N{elque were built by-refugeeswho were drir,en out of the \'Ioslem dominions by a rec r u d e s c e n c eo f i n t o l e r a n c e a t t h e e n d o f ' t h e ninth centur.v. This episode was a catastrophe for the Visigothic style, which was a citv architecture; fine churches were destrol.ed in the \loslem dominions, and the similar buildings in Christian territories to the north suffered in the great raids of'Almanzor at the end of the tenth centur)-. The Christian kingdom, which was centred at Le6n alier gr4, settled man!' of the rellgees, who were called \{ozarabs. Mozarabic architecture under the circumstances $.as reallv a local variation on Late Roman archi-

tecture, representing the end ofan old tradition. It undoubtedlv contributed a certain spice an( oriental suavitv to Spanish Romanesque. Lobetl rosettes, prominent eaves-brackets of oriental character. and horseshoe arches were transmitted to Romanesque by the Mozarabic st1,le. Its influence is probablv to be traced in beautifull1' modelled leafage cut en lltargne or ett riserxe that is, rounded back from the ashlar' thce in N{oorish or Saracenic fashion. asainst ir sunk background. The church of San Miguel de la Escalada. near Le6n [5o], is the finest and most accessiblc of the N{ozarabic works. It was part of a monasterv built for refugee monks from C6rdoba in gr2-r3. The visitor linds himself in an austere but surprisinglv sophisticated ensemble. Thc architectural membering, the proportions, thc

manaeiement of'space and light are all scale,the 'I'he church is basilican and lastidious. very except for the apses, which are wooden-rool'ed plan, three in line rvithin a fiorseshoe-shapedin blocky mass of masonrt' at the east end of the church. Each apsc opens through a horscshoe a r c h . T h e e a s t b a v o f e a c h a i s l ei s v a u l t e d , a n d a 1: chancel screen of elegant horscshoe arches line across the nave. Graceful horsethe carries shoearches divide the nave fiom the aisles, and the tin-vclerestorl.windorvs have the same prett\' shape, which was once more used lr'hcn a finc side porch was added about 9.1o; adioining, there is a heavv tower, with a chapel, of still later constructlon. S a n t i a g od e P e n a l b a f 5 r l , f o u n d e d i n g r g , i s a good, but a more rustic building. It is an odd c o m p o s i t i o n o 1 - p a i r s a n a v e o 1 - t r v ob a v s , o n e de Pcialba, lbunded grg 5r. Santiago newll constructed. Likc thc Asturian buildings, it has a somer,hat Romanesquelook, but 'chiselt h e c o r n i c e h a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i cN l o o r i s h curl' brackets. In the interior of Lebcia therc

5o. San Nliguel de la Escalada, near Le6n, c. gtz


r l l ) o n a L r r i r c a ,r . t 1 - 5 o ; 3 . C b r a r r u b i a s , ' l ' o u eo

ai -:-'. t

o f t h e m c o r e r e c lb v a l o b c c ld o m e ; a l o b e d v a u l t over each of the tlro apscs (onc of them of norseshoe plan, both ofthem in angular blocks of masonrv); a pair of'lateral compartments, torming a sort of transept. at each sidc ol'thc domed bar,. S a n t aM a r i a c l c l . e b e i a , n c a r S a n r a n d e r 1521, was built in gz4, under Asturian influence; it resemblesSan \,Iiguel de Linio, rvhich rvasthen



P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E r N S O U T I I E R N E U R O P E


are square piers with addossed columns which look r,erv Romanesque, and suggest that Peninsular skill may har,e been drawn on in the tenthcentury revival of vaulting f'arther north. However, the bold horseshoe arches give Santa Maria an unmistakably N,Ioorish atmosphere. The tunnel r,aults have a diaphragm in the nave to permit a clereslorl. Thev are lransrerse in 'I'his the aisles,and parallel over the sanctuaries. arrangement is r,ery good statically, and it builds tellingll of it that up rather prettily in stages. \'Iiss King said 'the Spanish remper, like the

from this time. fluence is traceable in Catalonia Cuxa actually represents the reorientation of Cttalonta, towards France and Italy, and the emergenceof a Catalan nationality in the time of' quite fiir the great Abbot Oliba of Ripoll. It is to state that a national architectural style was adumbrated ifnot rcalized in the churches built under the auspices of Oliba and his family. In Oliba's rebuilding at Cuxa (roog 4o), influenceslrom abroad are fused with the abiding

east) has long been known. The ruins of'the main storev, with its polyfbil nucleus, have recently been uncovered; and it may be that there was an upper level as well. The marble cloister of Cuxa, dated about ro28, is well known. It ion, hasbeen partl) rebuilt in the recent restorar as has the nave ofthe church. Oliba's fbmily was connected with the construction of San Pere de Roda,6 a castlemonastery which stands up splendidly above

Br.zantine, craved the myster],- of enclosed s p a c e sw , h e r e l i g h t f ' a l l s s t i l l 1 . . .a . nd... curved surlaccs bound the r,ision, and brood'. A rare example of civic architecture of the period is the Tower of Doia Urraca at Covarr u b i a s , sd a t e d a b o u t 9 5 o [ 5 3 ] . I t i s h e a v i l y b u i l t of Nloorish-looking ashlar, with a strongly battered prolile , and is empty to half-height, where it is tunnel-r'aulted. The upper part (nolr denatured through rebuilding) is cntered through a horseshoe-shaped arch at this ler.el. In Catalonia, the intcresting horseshoc-arched portico of San Feliri de Guixols has been preserved. Catalonia entered upon a flourishing epoch at this time, under the Counts of Barcelona, who held it staunchll- against the -N{oors, but were nevertheless in contact, as septimania had been, with Peninsular cir,ilization and the N,Ioslems. -N1uch history centres in the abbe,v of Ripoll, which became the dynastic pantheon; in 977 a vaulted church with fir'c apses was consecrated there. Surviving decorativc elements 01'this building have unmisrakable Ntlozarabic character, though it was not built b1. r e f u g e e s[ 7 r ] . Another abbel ofimportance, San Nlichel de Cura,+ was founded in 878. Its 'fiftv monks, twentv servants, extensive lands, thirtv-volume librarl', hle hundred shcep, fifiy- mares, lbrty pigs, tlro horses, Iire donkevs, twent\ oxen, and onc hundrcd other large horned animals' were put under the protection ofNIiron, Count


W u

and e. San \{ichel de Cuxa, 5p (npposite) and eleventhcentur)', 955-74 of church planand southelevation




I totl cr,.r't'nr

ru rEl
O O to s IO A1 30FT

of Conflent and Cerdagne. Within a centurv ol these beginnings the abbe]'rvas powerful antl had built an important church (955 71) [51] Parts of this structure which still survive shol that it was sty'listically \'Iozarabic, like contemporarv Ripoll. It had a plain, long, stoutly constructed wooden-roof'ed nave and two shortc:' aisles all opening on an extendcd transept. \ pair of absidioles opened through horscshoc a r c h e si n t o e a c ht r a n s c p t a r m , a n d a d e e p o b l o n g s a n c t u a r v e x t e n d e d e a s t r v a r do n t h e m a i n a x i s . In this period Count Oliba (-abrcto made rt long risit to Itall', with a y-earat Nlontecassino. Returning, he multiplicd Benedictine mona s t e r i c si n h i s d o m i n i o n s . a n d m u e h c n l a r g t , l t h e C a t a l a nh o r i z o n . ' iA C l u n i a c a b b o t , G u a r i n . was installed at Cuxa in 962, and Cluniac in-

Moorish tradition. Investigations at the church show, for instance, that some of the N{ozarabic horseshoearches were modified in Oliba's rebuilding. Two large rowcrs of Lombardic character were added. East of the old sanctuarv an angular ambulatory with three eastern chapels was built; clearlv there is a relationship to French examples in the tradition of SaintPhiliberrde-Grandlieu. West of the church o1' Cuxa, where there had been a platIormt the quatrefoil chapel ol rhe Trinitr uas built on the axis. l e a r i n e a n a t r i u m r n i r hl a r e r a l :ntrances (as at Parcnzo, or at an Ottonian sitc) rn tront of'the 'l'rinitv main cloors. Thc was a vaulted c h u r c h o l ' r h c c e n r r a lr r p e w i t h I i a n k i n g of which rhe cireular crlpr (also $irh l'l:.' tlanking a i s l e s ,a n d a r a u l t e d c \ t e n s i o n r o t h e

the coast near Gerona. As at Cuxa, there was later building strongly influenced from Lombardl--,but the temper of the whole church goes backto Oliba's time, and, like Cuxa, it hasgrand scale and marked local feeling. A text ascribes the interesting chevet to Tassi, who relbrmed t h c m o n a s t e r yo f S a n P e r e d e R o d a [ 5 5 , 5 6 ] , a n d obtained ro]'al French and papal diplomas for it before his death in 958. A consecration is rep o r t e d i n r o z z . I t h a s b e c n e s t a b l i s h e db y S e i o r Gudiol Ricart that the building took its general character at this time. The oldest work is a crypt with an ambulatory, above which is an apse with an ambulator]'. The ambulatory has an upper gallery with windows which light the apsc,and altars were installed in it; one thinks of Chartres (858), Charlieu (r. 95o), Abbot

P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E I N S O U T H E R N E U R O p E


S 4 t : .L o u r o s a , p a r i s h c h u r c h , g r z a n d l a t e r

and Saint-B6nigne, Dijon (roor euarin(962), lorT). Excellent ashlarstone was used for the 4chitecturalmembering.The appliedcolumns, and the horseshoe the shapeof the voussoirs, odd way recall Germigny-des-Pr6s, an in alches whichwasbuilt by Theodulph, who camefrom this region' sanctuary SanPerede Roda hasa trapezoidal and a capacious bay,a transeptwith absidioles, nave with striking T-shaped piers; the latter haveapplied shaftswith a varietJ'of beautiful half-Moorishcapitalsrelatedto thoseof MozarabicCuxa. Quadrant vaults with transverse coverthe tall narrow aisles;the naveand arches are coveredwith tunnel vaulting,with transept an arch spanning betweeneach opposite pair nave of piers.This higher and more elaborate to be the result of a changeof plan is believed in the eleventhcentury. The resulting design probablyinfluencedthe nave of the eleventhin century church of Saint-Andr6-de-Sordde

French Catalonia - an examole noted for its earlv sculpluls 1156. \\ihile we have followed the convention in calling this Catalan work Mozarabic and Lombard, Sefror Gudiol Ricart is nearer the truth in classifying it as a voung national style, like the Asturian.T Further study of the monuments and svstematic presentation would help greatly. One final Mozarabic monument, in Castile, mav be introduced. As a kind of swan song of the style in the eleventh century we have the extraordinary hermitage of San Baudelio de Berlanga, near Burgos [57]. The plan is like that of a Norse single-masted church with an oblong sanctuary, but the superstructure, all vaulted, is very different. Its very blockl'and austere exterior conceals an interior of fantastic architectonic richness. A central cylindrical pier rises to sustain a set ofeight radiating horseshoe diaphragm arches, which carry a domical vault with a very ingenious little shrine arranged in 57 ( helon).San Baudeliode Berlanga, r aintitrgs c l r v e n t he e n t u r \ ' u . ith tuclfrh-centurp

,W<--1 ,





55 and 56 ( abue und right ). san Pere de Roda, near Gcrona, consecratcd rozz, finishcd latcr



the masonrv above the pier. A raised choir, really an oratory, is sustained prettily on a forest of slender shafts placed in quadrille (oriental f'ashion); horseshoe arches carry the platform. the interior was decorated by an extraordinary series of frescoes, dated about rr5o, which symbolize the reorientation of the area, toward France, for the style is quite Romanesque.d The strong tide of influence lrom the Moorish South of Spain in the tenth century, which we have been considering, also prevented the expansion and further development of the Asturian proto-Romanesque style. When, with the progress of reconquest, the capital was moved to Le6n, the kingdom was much more open to outside influences than distant Asturias and Galicia had been. As the eleventh century progressed, irresistible artistic influences came from France with political reorientation and the reform of the church which was effected bv C l u n i a c m o n a s l i c c l e r g _ vf r o m F r a n c e . T h e twellth-century rebuilding of the Cdmara Santa in Oviedo [58] shows this clearly. Formerly

Conversely, however, knowledge of Moorish architecture increased greatly, from the year rooo onward, among lay folk, technicians, ancl churchmen who had contacts with Spain. Such knowledge was widespread in areas where Romanesque architecture was being formed ar the time. Saracenic elements are, in consequence, a component of the mature Roman_ esquestvle.

$ (oplosite)and 6o. Cividale,SantaMaria in Valle, the "Iempictto', c.762 76(?)


THE LOMBARD KINGDOM The strange Tempietto of Santa Maria in Vallc at Cividale'r [59, 6o] is perhaps most easily explicable as a proto-Romanesque work Roman architecture surviving in a local variation under Saracenic influence, like the Asturian and Mozarabic churches. Santa Maria is traditionalh idenrified with a building built by Q6z 76) atwhich time the Lombards had south Italian connexions. The building has a groinvaulted nave and a sanctuary with three parallel tunnel vaults carried in an unstructural fashion upon columns. As is the case with San Baudelio de Berlanga, the exrerior is very plain and the interior is very rich; possibly Moslem influence lrom south Italy is responsible for this. There are no horseshoe arches at Cividale. and we


Cirnara Santa,r. goz. 58. OviedoCathedral, The nalc somcwhar rebuilt, and embellished with sculpturein the twellih ccnturt

, l






should not expect them here at this time; lbr they spread only after being assimilated into the Nloorish art of Spain. There is clearly some outside influence in the decorative stucco mouldings and bands of the interior of Santa Maria. Stucco work was practised with rare art by the Saracens and Byzantines; also more often than we are likely to remember, by pre-Romanesque and Romanesque sculptors in both France and Germany. What is most remarkable at Cividale is the perfect preservation of a frieze ol six beautiful standing figures in stucco, gracefully posed, and b o l d l y m o d e l l c d l i k e f i n e R o m a n e s q u ec a r v i n g s . They were applied as integral plaques to the wall. Perhaps a refugee from the Byzantine iconoclastic controversy was the artist; even the Byzantinism sculptures. The Lombards, aggressorsagainst Rome and Montecassino, are generally thought of as destroyers. However, they had a fairly well organized state, with administrative cadres at Pavia, their capital. After the conquest (774) the Franks utilized these cadres, and thev aided in the task of setting up Charlemagne's empire. Yet there are two established facts which give the Lombards a place in the history of protoRomanesque architecture. Rotharis, the first of their kings to issue laws in his own name, registered the privileges of the builders in 643, and thus had something to do with the organization and revival of architecture in the region. Again, about 7 r 4, King Liutprand issued a diplomr with respect to a price scale for architectural and structural work.lo Milan, the metropolis of Lombardy, had been a great centre in classical times, and came to be so again, especially after the conquest of Lombardy by the Franks under Charlemagne (774\. One would expect an architectural revival to begin there, and indeed this occurred in the ninth century. I{owever, King Rotharis's of the near-by Exarchate and explain the character of the Venice would

charter of 643 ref'ers to the builders as magistri commacini or comacini, and on this basis it has been supposed that there was a guild at Como which created and spread Lombardic architecture. If the Comacine rdgime was observed ovcr a wide area, comacini may have come to mean simply builders, as lambardos came to mean masons, even in Spain. That there was a guild organization of some sort, involving establishcd ideas of responsibility, training, and compensation does not admit of doubt, and we owe Lombardic architecture to the creative work of thesc guildsmen. On the other hand comacini is an obscure word, and it cannot be shown to have a connexion with Como, nor can Como be shown to have had a central'masonic' guild organization of wide importance. The word comacinr dropped out of use in the early Middle Ages. Because pryX,avi in Greek, machina in Latin, and rnacina in Italian may mean a frame or' scaffold, magistri comacini has been interpreted ,naster-clmpanions of the sco.ffold. Because the tradition of architecture was better maintained in the Greek Exarchate than in Lombardy, thc name may be connected with some obscure Greek word - or e\en p4xayrrd6, which mean: contriver or designing Whatever the meaning, the comacini wrought well in preparing the architectural revival in Lombardy.

the Exarchate. This latter iurisdicRome and up by the East-Roman Emperor set tion was ylaurice about 6oo' was conquered by the Lombecause they threatened the bards in 7<2, and, pope,it was freed from their rule by Pepin III, pho gave it to the Roman pontiffs (7-5.16). The Byzantine Exarchate, with its continued Eastern connexions, maintained an architecture which was at one and the same time a living continuation of Late Roman architecture and an active outpost of the newly-constituted Byzantine No other early medieval stvle had so august a lineage. As Ravenna paled in turn, the Ravennate style was simplified until it could successfully be put at the service of the struggling barbarian kingdoms. Thus, without a break, it became a proto-Romanesque style. Its roots and its stem are Roman; its branches are authentically the First Romanesque style, Tomb of Galla Placidia,r. 45o 6r. Ravenna,

aptly so named by Josep Puig i Cadafalch, who first clearly discerned the significance of this fact. Outside the Exarchate, the style was first used and spread by the Lombards, which iustifies its older name, Lombardic. In the end it made an architectural reconquest ofa large part of the area of the West-Roman empire, and for that reason the French have called the style tmperi,tl, or Ju Bas-EnPire. The Erarchate has several important Byzantine monuments, which our exposition takes up merely in their proto-Romanesque aspect. Galla Placidia's 1'amous tomb 16rl, built in the decade or two before 45o, looks towards Romanesque architecture through its perfectly straightlbrward brick exterior, with simple corbels and decorative arcading of the sort which becomes the most ('amiliar adornment of the First Romanesquestyle.

T H E B Y Z A N T I N EE X A R C H A T E After Rome's glorious period, the centre of administration fbr Italy was moved to Milan (in Diocletian's time) and then to Ravenna (4oz), but the life of the Empire at that time was most vivid in the East. Yet Milan was flourishing in the period, which is that of St Ambrose, its grett bishop (374-97), who baptized St Augusttne there in 384. The abounding fertility of the l)o V a l l e y k e p t M i l a n p r o s p e r o u se v e n d u r i n g t h c unhappy rule of the Lombards, and when thrt was terminated (774), the region cam !into el en closer relationships with its neighbours, papal



P R O T O - R O M A N E S Q U EA R C H I T E C T U R E I N S O U T H E R N E U R O P E


(Fr6mista). and a group ol Soanish church in and near Rarennai but the round liut.h.t plays a distinctly minor role in church tower the engaging idea ofa chapel at the design. Even tower' recordedin the plan ofSt r o u n d top ofa represented as far as we know in never was Gall, The square belfry tower, an actual building. Lorenzo in Milan (t. Zlil, at San adumbrated added in 754 started supposedly with the one rapidlv to the east front ofOld St Peter's, spread to Lombardy and thencc, through the First became almost universal. style, Romanesque

the west f'agade, flanking the main door. At Cluny the crossing beltry, instead of being a wooden turritus uqet, was built as an oblong 'I'his tower of somewhat Lombard character' living process is a perl'ect case of a Roman idea on in the Exarchate, taking medieval form there, and, after being systematized by monastic practice, being spread to Lombardy and thence to great areasof Western Christendom. S a n t ' A p o l l i n a r e i n C l a s s e( S : : + 9 ) , t h o u g h a fine basilica ol'the ancient type, is also important lrom the point of view of incipient medi'l'he evalism. apse and thc lateral chapels at the east end build up in boldly articulated forms which lbrecast the vigorous handling of masses -I'he bold west front in medieval architecture. h a s a n a r c a d e da x i a l p o r c h ; t h e a d i o i n i n g d w a r f tower with its mate (now destroyed) made a ' ant'Apollinarc p a i r o f ' p y l o n s l t t h e f b g a d e . r tS also has an archaic example of the ambulatorv crvpt like that ot Olcl St Peter's. It is sometimes dated as earll as 8oo; at anl rate it is an addition, and probablv ol'the ninth centurl'. Also interesting fbr our purpose is the upper part ofthe Baptistery'ofNeon in ltavenna, possessingan undlted but earll' example of the pilaster strip with arched corbel-table between, which is to be the hallmark of the First Romanit is lbund, in Italy, Dale s q u e s t 1 ' l c ,r v h e r e r - e r matia, France, Spain, Switzerland, and Ger'I'his part of the Baptisterv wall is olien many. ascribed to the eighth centurv, but it ma1'be carlier. The same applies to the fiontispiece of the s o - c a l l e d P a l a c eo f t h c E x a r c h s r t [ 6 j 1 . H e r e w e h a v e a b u i l d i n g w h i c h i s c x t r a o r d i n a r i l . vl i k e t h e maturc Romanesque of Lombardl l'et in f unction like thc gu:rrd quarters of'thc (-halki at thc

A bell large enough to be heard at a distance could not properly and decorously be rung from the crossing space ofa church becluse ofits verv the exterior belfr5' $eat inertia. Thus inevitabl.v wall (bell-cote or wall belfrl') and, for grcater height, the belfry tower, were developed, the nrme campanile being doubtfully connected withCampania. ra The Benedictines. centred at \Iontecassino, which is in Canrpania, carll' adoptcd bclls Nothing certain remains at \'lontecassino, vet Benedictines built some of the carliest known belfry towers, in l'act square belfries veritable Roman ,arra.s, built up integrally from the ground at Ravenna. Earliest is that of San temporar\, Svrian architecture. In I'act, San Vitale has three types oftower the pylons ju:r mentioned, a round stair tower attached to the narthex, and its mate, carried up to form .l cylindrical belfrv aftcr the Benedictines took o v e r t h e c h u r c h i n g r o .L 3 Pylons, though thel'are occasionally.seen in the early church architccture ol'the West, clid not have a long history there. -I'he round stair tower continued in use, usually on a small scalc. 'l'here were exceptions like the Irish round towers, the flanking stair towers ol' SainrB 6 n i g n e ,D i j o n ( r e a l l y L o m b a r d F i r s t R o m a n c s q u e ) , m i n o r t o w e r s o f c e r t a i n G e r m a n c h u r c h es (like Trier Cathedral), the belfrv of Pisa Carhedral (the famous leaning tower), one importanr Giovanni (Benedictine in 89J); San Pier NIaggiore has a contemporary square belfr-v, according to Corrado Ricci. A sign of'carly date in the various belfiies ofRavenna, he observes, is the fact that thel,are not s]'stematic in their location with regard to rhechurches.l: Most important is thc fact that the squirre belfry was adoptccl early in Lombardy', and spread thence to Burgundl', where it appcared oetore the end of tho renth centurv. 'l'hrough Abbot Odo of Clunv and his successors, wh<l

62. Ravenna, San Vitale, .52647 San Vitale (Sz6-+l) [62] has a number ofinteresting f-eatures.Its plan suggested that ofthe Palatine Chapel at Aachen, where the columnar screens are simplifications of its pierced apses. 'I'he entrance-tower-and-reliquary chapel at Aachen with its stairwavs is, though difi'erentlv proportioned, partly dependent on the narthex of San Vitale. This is true of the westwork of Saint-Riquier also. The exterior of San Vitale has decorative arcading and pilaster strips which are bolder and more in 1brm than thoseof the mausoleum of Galla placidia and are hencc to be counted in the prehistory ol'thc First Romanesquc style. Flanking the apse at San Vitale there are two pylons somewhat resembling those of'the con_

x n e w L o m b a r d l w e l l , t h c s q u : r r eb e l fr v b e c a m e m a i n e n t r a n c c o f t h e S a c r c d P a l a c ei n C , o n s t a n tamiliarin n o r t h e r n E u r o D e .B o t h t h e n a r t h c x o l ' t i n o p l e . T h e p o r c h , g u a r d r o o m r v i t h d o r m i t o r ' 1 . Saint-Philibert at 'I'ournus (rlatcd about t.;<.1o courtl'ard, and chapcl of the Sar iour, are orgatotg) and nized in Blzantine fashion,and were probablv that of the second church ar Clunr. built betwecn with the protcctive palace wall, when the built, 9 4 8 o r q 5 5 a n d t 1 8 r .r u r . l . . o - ptete by Lomblrtls bt'gln to c\lend thcir poucr. alter the 1,car rooo, had a pair of beltiies on








LOMBARDY year 8oo in LomThe style created about the intern:rttonirl reallv first the became bardy were earllRornan..qn. style. Its ramifications and France southern to spread to Dalmatia, countrv' Rhine to the to Burgundy, Catalonia, work' and even to Hungary' Late Carolingian s a t i s f i ctor]' a s t r o n g ' as we shall see, formed with of'France' west in the style and consistent imposing monuments (now lost) to its credit'

into venna to the comacine masters' and thence u r e ' a r c h i t e c t R o m a n c s q u r ; o f the current building In the Dark Ages there was littlc

63. Ravenna, Palace ofthe Exarchs,after7rz 7r2. All was surely built befbre the f'all of the Exarchate in 752, and is described as old by Agnello, writing befbre 85o. Yet the wall-work ofbig bricks, the paired openings, the decorarivc arcading, the vlulting, and the buttressing ale practicall]- identical with Lombard Romanesque work produced in the four following centuries. Corrado Ricci believed that Romanesque terracotta insets as lbr example at Pomposa [3or] in the porch and campanile built in thc eler,enth century by Abbot Guido ol'Ravenna a r e o f R a v e n n a t e o r i g i n . O t h e r f ' c a t u r e so f t h c citv's architecture were also widely known ancl c o p i e d . T h e o b a l d , b i s h o p o f A r e z z o , s p e a k s0 1 'Nlaginardo arte architectonica optime erudit,i whom he sent to study in Ravenna in the vear Ioz6. Nlaginardo moved on a rvell-trarellerl road. to a I'amous source of architectural knowledge.lT

which calted lbr the scrvicesofhighl!'instructed never prol'essionalmen, but there rvas probably unavailable' rvere nren such ruhen a timc -l'he was man who drew the plan of St Gall an tor namc Greek the like a Greek p4XatrroE'.rrchitect W4avi being the worcl for an intrl-. ot cate device ol some sort' The d'p4rccrctav indesomewh'rt the Greeks rvas a responsible, 'clerk of the works''1 William of Volpendent constructlon lvall It had an excellent s-vstemof was both a b o i a n o . b o t o f ' S a i n t - B 6 n i g n e, D i i o n , developed by the Gallic masons' but no tradiendu s abhas trov r e'-c.r pr trc itp and' rx 6; "' tion for vaulting on a large scaleor at high ler els' 1*1Xav et ipsum rtpustbctond0' tnsumugistrttscondttcentlo In the other regions named, the incoming Lomtlttstrutlautes tlignun tlii'ino cultui tentplunt bardic style pushed local building methods into the patron c o n d i t i o n s m e d i e r a l U n d e r xerunt'.2 discard; western France maintained its own manage his 'First Romanwould generally have a delegate to traditions unaffected by the might inwhich opcration' sirle of ihe builtling esque'. Leo of o1'materials' transport and 'style' in the literary sense clucle supply It was no mere the rebuilding described carefullv u'ho Ostia. which was transmitted from the Exarchate to Desidenus' was pros-Ystem of \[ontecassino b1. Abbot Lombardy, but a living and efrfrcacious l'he master builder' dclegate' bably the abbot's of building, with a particular skill in vaulting' would direct the dpVtircrrr;t'' Greek like ihe In this we recognize Rome's ancient skill in comaster masons and work ordination. T'he practical, working s-vstcms r,arious groups of on a gangs. Gangs would hale their forcmen which produce a building are more important as come actuall-v would somc iarg, proje.t, and than literary-minded critics suspect' and can . s i t e t h c t o only be appreciatcd to the full by personal t e a m s conThe magistri in charge ol thc practtcal participation in the intricate teamwork b1'which e v e n it. b u i l d i n g ' r c r l a struction lould huilcl successful building operations are conducted 'idea man' gar'e them only a or the l1ryXavffi6E This aspect of the art can be traced tiom Ra-





linear diagram with the chief' dimensions as g u i d e , b e c a u s ee x p e r i e n c e , i n t h a t a g e o f c o n vcntional and even habitual procedurcs, dictated the sizc and matcrial of the walls. as well as thc spans and the intcrior proportions. T'hat is how the plan of St Gall could satisiyan early medieval master.'I'he dimensioneddescription o 1 ' t h c a b b c - vo f C l u n v o f 1 o , 1 3 was madc from a similar linear diagram, as we know from the obserrcd fact that many-of the dimensions include a room or corridor width plus one wall. With incrcasing size and complication in buildings, a more numerous group o(' proii'ssional desig;ncrsand clerks of the works came into being the magistri par excellence. Evidcncc lbr thern in the earll' period is shadowl', but in Gothic timcs their function is far too well recognizcd ancl too spccialized to be of recent 'l'he creation. myth o1'thc dc\'oted f'aithful spont a n e o u s l vr a i s i n g m c d i c v a l s h r i n e si s d i s s o l r . i n g , n o w t h a t r e i e r l n t d o c u m e n t a r v e v i d e n c cl b r t h e buildings has bcen discorercd and studied.' U n t i l t h e t o r v n s a n d t h e m o n a s t e r i e sb e c a m c large, the masons neccssarilv worked as travelling bands. It was the samewith bell-fbunders, g l a s s - m a k e r s ,s t u c c o w o r k e r s , l r e s c o p a i n t e r s , and mosaicists, fbr a longer period. Bernardo, who had l French name, and fiIn' master masons, manv of thcm indubitablv French. were crrlled b1' bishop Diego Pcldez to work (trom ro7-q onwards) at thc rcmore Galician c a t h e d r a lo f S a n t i a g o d e C o m p o s t e h . Y c t A b b o r Suger lt Saint-Denis, onlv a f'erv miles from medieval Paris, was no better oll. When his grclt church rvasundertaken (about rr1.5) he r v a so b l i g e d , a s h e s a \ s , t o c a l l c r a f i s m e n f r o m v a r i o u s r c g i o n s a n d c o n s i d e r a b l ec l i s t a n c e s . a A,n atelier thus assembled might become rooted; it would gir.e training to local talent, and in time become a centre lrom rvhich craftsmen coulcl he sent elservhere. William o{'Volpiano brought crafismen lrom his native Lombarclr.a , n d i t i s b e l i e v e dt h a t t h e i ' w o r k e d o n h i s abbel church in Dijon, begun in roor. From

the abbey of F6camp in Normandy, wh116 William ruled, he received the plea: 'In 16. mattcr o{'the craftsmen sf our buildings whiqS we arc commencing, we beseech that you \ill hastcn to send them to us, fbr we reall-v nce4 them Q,alde nnbis necessarii sunt)' - in a regiol which was slowly recovering from the devasrrtions and (afier g r o) the new immigration of the Norsemen.5 For a considerable area this process o{'crlli dilfusion started in Lombardv. Lomhardus bccame the word for mason at an early pcriod. Clearlr, the more-than-half-Latin Lombard builders were onlv doing for the revir,ed Empir.r what their forebears had done for the Romrn Empire. One might call the First Romanesquestrlc the st.vleofthis Italian architectural reconqucsr. It is worth noting also that a large portion of the work was clone lbr the monasteries. q'hich from the earll"tenth century onwards becanre i n c r e a s i n g l vt h e i n s t r u m e n t o f p a p a l p o l i c v a n d implcmented the first stages of the conqucst of Europe which Gregory VII and Bonilhce VIII achieved. Rome. revir.ed once again in the Renaissance, made another anrl more lamiliar architectural reconquest. The magistri nmacini1 had more than thc a n c i e n t r ep u t a t i o n o f ' I t a l i a n b u i l d c r s t o r e c o m 'l'hey mend them. had a new type of wall construction, r'hvthmically decorated and pleasanr to look at, which lvas pracrical and proved irs t u s cu f l n e s so v e r t h e r v h o l e l v i c l ea r e ao 1 ' t h e F i r s r Romanesque stvle, e\.en where conditions wer( p r i m i t i v e . T h e v a d o p t c d t h e B 1 ' z a n t i n et y p c 0 l oblong brick (rvhich, because of thc mapistrr. has come dorvn to us) and built whole walls ol it as we do. without fbrm work. instcaclof maki n g p u d d l c d c o n c r e t ew a l l s l a c e d w i t h t r i a n g u l a r t a i l i n g b r i c k h e l d b - vf-b - rms, as the Romans did Such comacine walls wcre called opus ronra'fhc rrrrs,'. ancient Romans had used facing stoncs also, but the First Romanesque wallwork which der.eloped from this was called zrpr.ri

stones ,,,.,,- The masonsmerely split small [rtut""".^ ^ h"iclr-like shaoe. and used them toub'"J s or rounded rircr

t!"i"iiio'" sh ke. ck-ri bri alt': ::1.I ilL .lll]

iik. bri.k"':'9i'i1

,;,1',t fi I*"::Tl':: II:."Tf,'l,Tll"-",1: ot horizontalcourses [*;;;'into :ilt'l.t ll:

:l'l^:,. ^_.r i.o^ninr rsrr

by the tntt was doubtlesssuggested iio.r. and worl' herringbone or spt( ,ii.n, rO,' Romrnesqut F irst the of irliounat in buildings a great 'l centering or f-alse-work u'hich provided the elevcnth.centurr" he hearting h eld in b o a r d s l i t t l e lrtn S h o r t "",,t n o t p u d d l e di n s u p p o r t i ; g m o u l d . ^ j . o r . o f a s t o n ew a l l u a s bed the poles formed and trusses bl poritio., rather 'So-.tim., and lbrm' but \4as iroro, inriat t facing earth was heaped on the tbrms lnd somecare' vault was roughrubble laid with a "'inJun.i.", credit is giventhesemen lbr their moulded, where the Sieometrvof the stones shapcd roughll-' fbrm' for therrmor- difficult. On thc materials ol the skillin findingexcellent haunches the and mortar' in laid good qualitv' wcre *nl.ft is almostinvariablyof with hearting work ln up brought were vault endur"t, *h"r"u., found. It makesthe wall-work
of r llr4 33, liom the south-east eleventhccnturv' in tradition of church 64.Milan, San Vincenzoin PrJto'

The walls ing, anclthe vaults solid and stlong was occawhich were ofien covcred \\ ith stucco, represent to tblse ioints sionallv ruled with has a ashlar. Ilut stucco, properly applied' stripped beautyol its own. It hastoo often been in {iom interiors; on the exteriors it vanishcs v e a r s ' about two hunclred \-aults werc huik, like Romln raults' orcr






the First Romanesque style, p5roinvaults were f r e e l y u s e d ; a p s e sw e r e r e g u l a r l y v a u l t e d , a n d tunnel vaults were also common. In lvork which can surelv be traced to Lombards, tunnel vaulting is little, and r,erv cautiouslv, used at high levels. For crossing r,aultsthe Lombards used a derivative ol'the Roman domical or octagonal cloister vault, rather than the Byzantine dome. The Lombardic crypts, groin-vaulted or,er a quadrille ofcolumns, are characteristic, and are widelv used within the areaof the style. By the tenth centurv architectural membering of ashlar was again in use. Second-hand c o l u m n a r c a p i t a l sa n d s h a f t s w e r e b 1 t h i s t i m e almost unobtainable. The practice ofmaking big blocks especiallv for their places brought about a p r o g r e s s i re i m p r o \ e m c n t i n t h e m a s o n r r ' . 65. Agliate,San Pietro,chevet,style ofr. 87s

Milan, the Lombard capital, has lost its Carqr lingian and First Romanesque buildings. These have, however, a good representative in the simple columnar basilica of San Vincenzo in Prato [64], a brick structure so conser\.ativel\ rebuilt in the eleventh century that it was accepted (except certain details) as the church of r. 8r4 j3.i Its only vaulting is in the thrct parallel apses, henceforth characteristic of this type ofbuilding. 1'his part ofSan Vincenzo has the tell-tale First Romanesque pilaster srrips and arched corbel tables, with typical arched recessesunder the ea.r'es of the main apse. San Pietro at Agliate, near Milan, rhough now assigned to the eleventh century, well rcpr e s e n t sw o r k o f t h e d a t e f o r m e r l t ' a t t r i b u t e d r o i t , , . 8 7 5 [ 6 S ' ] .I t h a s a b a s i l i c a n n a v e a n d r u o

columns' with a \ault , i s l e s ,c a r r i e d o n r e - u s e d a n d a p s e sa ( t h c h e a d o f h l v s s a n c l u a r \ r t t a ^*r l'he buildcrs did nol rentttre ile composirion under the tunnel raulting ol the i'.I...r,or. b a 1s ' b u t t h e a p s e sw e r e p i c r c c d u i r h lrn.r,,ur, lbr the thrust ol a semidomc r nindo*t s usual' than that of tunnel or groin vaulti, less plattbrm is raised at San lg. fh. sanctuarv there is a spacious groin-\'aulted pi-atro, ""a under this plat(brm' crypt *ith lirteral entrances the church as at level ol' at the pavement San Pietro at Agliate Classe' in Sant'Apollinare wall-work' is stone-built. ofcrude but attractive parts with the and a comparison of the oldest how easil-v twelfth-centurY campanile will show gre\l' oLlt Romanesque mature theaccomplished passing' the of the more primitive stvle ln baptistery should be mentioned as a companlon example of a building of the central n'pe (about goo). Santo Stefano in Verona. rebuilt about 99o, has a cr1'pt and an apse,each of'which is supplied with an ambulatorv, the upper one opening on the main apse through an arched colonnade. Ivrea Cathcdral (be(bre rooz) has the w r e c ko f a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c l i o n . ' B e f o r e l e a l i n g t h e s ee a r l v b u i l d i n g s . m e n t i o n should be made ol screral interesting monuments which show continuing Brzantine influence in Lombardl'. San Satiro at \Iilan (ti76) is, except for Renaissance additions, a perlect Byzantine four-column church. Its tower, dated a b o u t r o 4 3 , i s o n e o f t h e e a r l i e s to f t h e c h a r a c 'lhe apse of teristic Lombartl square toners. Sant'Ambrogio has mosaics dating from about 94o, when the present svstem of, choir apse,and flanking sanctuaries was built' Three monuments near the borders of Lombardy show the First Romanesque stvle on the threshold of maturity, lacking onh' the greater finish of execution and perhaps the sculptural embellishment which are lbund in the Sccond Romanesque style. 'lhe lirst of these buildings is the bantisterv of Biella, near Norara, a cen-

tralized edifice clated about to4o, with sophistic a t e d u s e o f s q u i n c h e s a n d b u t t r e s s e s ,t h o u g h rough in construction. Nlore conventional is the stone-built basilica of San Paregorio at Noli," {est of Genoa in Liguria. Its exterior is u'ell composed lnd gracclulll' dccorated lvith pilaster strips and arched corbel tables. f'he apses' the cr\pt, and the aisles are vaulted. Substantitl p i e r s o f ' l o g i c a l l y 'g r o u p e d e l e m e n t s s u s t a i n t h c 'l'his was r,aulting and the high clerestorv wall' t i m e' t h e x t b u i l d i n g o f t Y P e a ler-v acccptablc about rozo 4o. The third monument, San Pietro at Civate, near Como and Lecco, is dated irbout ro4o. It is a double-ender' uith the entrance passageflanked prettill.b-v two absidiolcs {bcing east lvithin the mass of the western apse' 'l'hese three elements open upon a woodenroof'ed nave through three arches beneath a tvmpanum fiescoed rvith the Victorl o'r'erElil' 'fhe altar of San Pietro hls a rcmarkable old baldacchinoresembling that of Sant'Ambrogio in NIilan.

IA DALMAT and The f urther spread of the Lombard st1--le' in the round church tvpc, are both exemplificd San Donato N Zad^r (Zara), Yugoslavia, built - or during thc Frankish occupation (8tz'76) i') describccl it was when befbre latest at 9,19, o f This building has an interestinganticipation anAn chapels the ambulatory with radiating nular aisle surrounds the central space' irnd exo p e n s o n i t t h r o u g h a r c h e s ,w h i c h a r e s i n g l e cept at the east, rvhere there are three arches rusting on columns. Opposire lhese t-rprnings a r e t h e t h r e e a p s e s .C o n t i n u i n g f r o m t h e a p s e s ( t o e a c h s i d e ) t h e e n c l o s i n g w a l l h : r s a s e r i c so f niche recesses.

AND ANDORRA CATALONIA Westwarclexpansion of the First Romanesque Lombardv stvle across thc south of Frirnce fiom





i s c e r t a i n b u t n o t w e l l m a r k e d b y e a r l y .m o n u m e n t s , t h o u g h w o r k o f F i r s t R o m a n e s q u ec h a r acter survives in the cathedral of Vence. Thc stvle sureh camc to (,atalonia bv land and by'. s e a . I ' h e C a t a l a n s ,t h e n a s n o w l i v i n g o n b o t h slopes of' the Pr,renees in Rousillon and the eastern part of the Sprnish N{arch of Charlemagne, werc in a lbrtunate period, rvhen the Countl' of'Barcelona was flourishing;. The new modc at first coalesccd with and then supplanted a stronglv Nlozarabic architectural st\1e. N { a n v g o o c le x a m p l e s x e r e b u i l t , a n d s t i l l s u r vir,e almost unchanged in back-countrv places lvhich have cscapcd thc der'.rstating effccts of' later prosperity. The result is that the Irirst R o m a n e s q u es t y l e i s b e t t e r r e p r c s e n t e di n C a t a lonia than anywhere elsc.rl It must be noted that the stvle, rvith its characteristic masonrv rvork and decorative sys66. \Iontserrat, SantaCecilia,giT or latcr, fiom the east

tem, came into a region which built successlirl p e r h a p s P r o v e n q a l ex a m p l e s . tunnel vaults related to Roman, \Ioslern, ,r111 'l'he resultrnq

tunnel-\.rulted work is more properlt callrcl Lombardo-Catalan Iiirst Romanesque. -fhe interest ofthe stvle residcsin its ex|111 v a u l t i n g a t a n e a r l ) ' d a t e ,t h o u g h w o o d e n - r o o l i d churches were also built. Senvor Puig i (.atlrrlhlch believes t h a t r a u l t e d c o n s t r u c t i o nt a n l r q traccd back to the middle ol the tenth cenrur\, He datcs thc church ol' L'Ecluse (La Clu:rr1. norv in French Catalonia (aisled, with thlee p a r a l l e lt u n n e l v a u l t s ) , a b o u t 9 5 o ; s o a l s o S a n t a at Amer, dedicated in 949; and Sanra Cccilia de Montserrat [66] an interestinq church, perhaps the one dedicated in 957. In that 1'ear St Stephen at Baiiolas rvas rebuilt in t h e s a m ew a v a f t er b e i n g b u r n e d b v N o r s e m e n . 'I'hese buildings had thcir slopinpt stone roots \{arir

filling abore the web ol 61i directly .' .tlbblt is practicalin southernbut ^iiif,. r.rut,. uhich oprnlon Conserrartre in not, climales lnt tiiat dates particular) in Gudiol.Ricart of Senor later' Low and unassomewhat )iJ.nur.tttt are ver] happilyrelated l"r;"t, the structures setting.with a look of naturalobiects ,]il than buildings' rather '*"Tur, the year rooo a notableexampleof "fr.t Lonbardo-Catalirnstvlc was built this vaulted spur of the hugc mounsn 1 pi.tut..que Canigou,r: above Prades the callecl ,ri" rn"* Long-continued neglect Catalonia' in Fr.n.h about sixt-v-five ,..,orrtion nccessar-v trda " and lovingly well was work the ,.rr, "go, but a witness' irs stands building the that ion. ,o in its inspiring original setting'to the complete ('haracarchitectrr. of that remotc agc [67-q]' to St (dedicated monasterlis a it teristically

lro m

l[[l ilq


5 n

roor z0 6r rnd 68. Saint-\'lartin-du-(-anigou, e (rrstorccl), intcrior and analltical perspcctir

I o o r 2 ( )( r c s t o r c d ) . 6 9 .S a i n t - . \ 4 a r t i n - d u - C a n i g o u . view from the south

Martin) with the austere, solidly built church and conventual quarters arranged about a small cloister. The rooms command lovely views. Awinding approach road leads to and through a splendid big tower, strategically placed and crowned with Moorish stepped battlements which break its substantial mass against the skv as happily as the characteristic pilaster strips and arched corbel tables model its ample surfaces. This tower composes beautifully with the rocky masses and with the building group; it is contiguous to the church on the north-east. The church is on two levels. Its crypt has tunnel vaulting with transverse arches carried on two frlesofgrouped piers, except at the head, where there are two oblong piers and two columns carrying a set of nine groin vaults iust in front ofthe three apses.Beyond the west end ofthe church crypr there is another, which supports a platform in front ofthe church proper. The latter is as long as the two crypts together, ilnd consequently the three church apsesextend beyond the crypt rpr.r, to*r.ds the east. For its period, the superstructure of the church is a remarkable achier,ement. The three long tunnel vaults which cover the nave have only ten interior two sets of four supports

columnar shafts with simply-can'ed capitals, separated bl two grouped piers supporting arches which greatly strengthen the middle part of the building, where a tunnel vault is most likely to collapse. The tower, the lateral recesses (including a chapel with a quadrant vault), and the monastery buildings abut the high vault so well that only a fraction of it collapsed during a century's neglect of the rooling surface after the secularization and abandonment of the site in r785. The church interior is lighted only from the ends, which might seem to be a defect in the building - but, in f-act, many of the monastic services take place at night. Also, it was usual for the monks to know large parts of their liturgy by-heart, and therefore natural light was not so important. Clearly, Saint-Martin-du-Canigou is an excellent piece of architecture: the more so because it is of earl-v date - roor to roog (for a preliminary consecration) and Ioz6. The monk Sclua, who superintended the building, became t h e f i r s t a b b o t i n r o I 4 , a p p a r e n t l y - a f t e ra p r e liminary regime under Oliba, abbot of Ripoll and Cuxa, later bishop of Vich (Ausona)' whom we have already mentioned.rr



f'he architecture of the period came to a high point at the monastery of Ripoll under Oliba. A spacious cruciform church with double aisles, transept, and seven apses was begun about rozo (possiblv incorporating some older work), and dedicated to the Virgin on r January ro3z)l [7o-3]. Afier many vicissitudes the building was restored (imperf'ectly, romantically, and too radically), between r886 and r893. Its magnificent plan was unmistakably inspired by Old St Peter's in Rome, and the vaulting as Roman imperial works. The nave vault is modern, but parts ofthe transept vault are old. Santa Maria de Ripoll was without doubt one of the grandest works in the First Romanesque sty.le. The rough stone, which is usual in the stvle, and the heavy, obstructile piers (which made the modern tunnel vault possible) give a sombre character, but it must be remembered that the church had extensive fres-

coes, a iewelled altar, and a mosaic pavemenr with animals and sea monsters. The chief strr_ viving embellishment of the building is a carlg6 doorway ofthe twelfth century, connected iconr ographically wirh manuscripts created in thr scriptorium which flourished from about g5o. Ripoll was one of the lights of its age. ft had a large library (246 volumes in ro46), and it5 school was illustrious for works of historr,, poetry, astronomv, music, and mathematics.L; T h e r a n g e o f O l i b a ' s o w n a c t i v i r i e si s i n d i c a t c d by his personal friendships with Pope Beneclict VIII, with Gaucelin, the great abbot of Fleurv, and (it is said) with Hugh of Semur who became abbot of Cluny shortly after Oliba's death. 'I'he stone sculpture at Saint-Martin-cluCanigou, Cuxa, and Vich is not remarkablcl but at Ripoll there are still in existence a lcrv interesting pieces which show the influence of fine Moorish workmanshipr(, [7r]. With good

(restored Santa\4aria' r ' ro2o-.12 rz and73 -Ripoll. and ui"* lrom thc south-cast ilan

7o and 7r. Ripoll, Santa\'Iaria, r. rozo 3z (restolerl r 8 8 6 g 3 ) ,i n t e r i o r( n a r ev a u l tm o d e r n ) , and capitalin N{crorish stvle.tenth or clerenrh centurr







stonc-carvers becoming available in Catalonia, and because the milieu was intellectual, it may be supposed that some members of Oliba's circle suggested the serious, doctrinal use of figure sculpture on church exteriors - a noveltJ' in Western Christendom. In f'act,thc use of apocalyptic themes carved in relief on church portals was initiated in early eleventh-century Catalonia, and with it one of the most brilliant episodes in the historv of sculpture. Concurrently, the use of ligural decoration on the arcades of cloisters inaugurated one of its most poetic cpisodes.tT Such enlarged use ofrrpocah'ptic iconography was the more natural in view of thc special interest which northern Spain and southern France had in the subject, resulting lrom imaginatively illustrated and widely circulated manuscripts of the Commentary on the Apocalypse 'Ihe church of. bv Beatus of Li6bana (78o). Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines has the oldest preserved architectural example, a marble lintel dated rozo-r, with Christ in gloly, two angels, a n d s i x o f ' t h e a p o s t l e s .T h e f i g u r e c a r v i n g i s obviously archaic, and hardlt glyptic in style: it looks like a cop-v of stucco-lvork or metal repouss6 [74]. Saint-Andr6-de-Sordde (inspired churclr,lintel, ro-:.oI Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, 7-1.

by half-Moslem San Pere de Roda, as Serior Gudiol Ricart says) has a similar lintel, more 61 less contemporary, but showing details of Nlrsl e m o r i g i n . O n t h e f a g a d eo f t h e c h u r c h o f A r l c s sur-Tech, Iater a Cluniac prior.r, is a cr,rsr. datable to ro46, with Christ in glory and the s 1m b o l s o f t h e l b u r e v a n g e l i s t s . r s The marble employed is local. It has bccn used since antiquity. Well-carved altars wcre made of it and exported; late examples turn up 'l'his in Clun1, (rog5) and Toulouse (ro96).r'q same marble was also used for cloister capitals, lbr example at Cuxa in French Catalonia and at Toulouse. The intellectual and art-loving Cluniac

purposefula sysrem in so conr incing and n te t je l "c ,u f id rti. can lhese doctlina] a s dctelopment and French Catalonia' Languedoc' llrir ", BurgundJ lrter 'momcnt to Catalonia' R.turning for another influences lntroforeign thc that *a try t"t a b o ut rhe \car looo a r c h i t c c t u r e t h c ,".aa inro the marurc Romanesquc to ]u"ntutltl brought m eanwhile mant tardr exhut ,fr.i"n' R o m a n e s q t r ew e r e s l i l l p r o F i r s t r n . ,*0f., of apse: and. tower: gire much r n . i , i'o'JJ. to the countrvsidc This is particu""i.r".,., i n . \ n d o r r a ' t h i c h i s ( i n a w a ) ) b u t "u. Santa (oloma' " i ,' c o t lre ntinuation of Catalonia round tower of .nnaorrr, has a handsome produced Catalonia ,*.tf,fr-i.ntu.1. style' Later maturer the in works finished many beautif'ully much cherished' was turn its in *fti.ft ,ryt., signed in f'frri ls tt . explanation of the contract b c t r v e e nt h e p c r i o d ) l r 7 5 ( r e a l l yi n t h e G o t h i c Raimundus and Urgel de Seo the Chapter of the catheLambardus, who engaged to work on The lanbudtts' dral with four compani on ofthc example excellent an is church they built mature Lombard Romanesquc st-vle[233']' when This old st-vlewas not cntirely givcn up Verv Catalonia' reached the Gothic eventuall,v often the sun-baked sober brown bulk of a thirteenth-centur-y cathcdral or a fburtccnthcenturv tower will be esscntiallv Romanesque' The church paintings long retained a Roman'I'he esque beautiful museum at Barcelonaincludes rc-mounted ficscoes, baldacchinos, altar lrontals, and many other obiects 'I'here is no place rvhere associaterl with the culr. a better contact with ccrtain spiritu:rl aspects ol Romanesque art ma]' be attained.


and the regions around Clun.v and Diion (whither the st-vlewas brought about 9tl7 follow it to or roor by William o{'Volpiano), we in gz9' Cluniac becamc Romainm6tier,rr which later and date the 996 church, For the existing ofthe i s a c c e p t a b l e ,b e c a u s eo f t h e r e s e m b l a n c e church olclestparts ofthe building to thc second I o 5 ; ' 8 I ) r . [ro4' 955 at Clunv (948 or

GERNIANY radiating abSt M:rry, the circular chapel with Wiirzburg' at Nlarienburg, Feste the sidioleson but tts has been claimed as a monument of 7o6, Lombardic its and identification is not certain There was featurcs appear to be of later date'12 b-v Italian of Germany penetration a continuing onrvards' inllucncc from Charlemagne's time Romanesque' with'First but eristing examples less like the f'eatures look to the practiscd e1'e than lrorks of Italian architectural missionarics in the trained likc the achicvements o('Germatrs to rvilling vet building, tradition of Carolingian to adopt and technique vaulting their improve ,u.h f-.",u.., as Lombarcl pilaster strips':rrched German c o r b e l t a b l e s ,a n d b l o c k c a p i t a l s ' G o o c l ashlar' ercellent with f'accd r,r'allconstruction, Romanesquc was superior to Lombard First o o o r k .a n d t h e g r a n d t r a d i t i o n o f C a r o l i n g i a n than an]'monumentllitv was more imposing Northland t l r e t o b r i n g c o u l d l t a l i a n s t h c thing at th(j tlme. buildings One ot the oldest conspicuous L o mbardic t h e o f t e r s i o n G e r m a n sholving a be St pilastcr strips and arcading appears to the Otto under Pantaleon in Colognc (begun This in 98o) [77l Great. ;rlier q66, cledicated through its church hatl manv outside cont:rcts Lombardic vcr-r {hmous atelicr o|enamcllers (szq q8)' .l.toil upp."., carlv rlso in Wimpf'en as oi the C o b l e n z ' C a s t o r , S t \Iore doubtful is example A s t r i k i n g c e n t u r l t e n t h cnd of the the church at o f t o r v e r f a q a d e t h e i s c i t e d often htrt this -\littclzcll on lhe lsle of Rcichenau'

monks, who used Resurrection iconographl in their liturgical processions, had priories at Saint-Beat, Saint-Pons-de-Thomidres (ro13o). and Arles-sur-Tech; it is certain that thel- cr;ll a b o r a t e d i n t h e s p r e a da n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s sculpture for cloisters and portals. Of this more will be said later. In the architectural constructions of the earlier period there are man) scrltered examples of sculptural ernbellishment. 'l'het'occur b e t w e e n9 7 5 a n d r o 8 o i n B u r g u n t l l , Saxon England, German.v, and Byzantium, btrt the-ycannot (at an-vrate for the present) be con-

T H EK I N G D o M o t ' A R r . l r s We have alreaclvsccn the expirnsion of the Lomb a r d F i r s t R o m a n r s q u es l \ l c i n l o L i g u r i r : i t moved up the Rh6nc Valle-v to Switzcrland and Germanv in the tenth centurv. Leaving asidc



work, according to recent studies, must be assigned to ro482rIzo]. The Lombardic themes, once integrated into German architecture, were spread far and wide, and easily reached neighbouring Hungary and Moravia. Thev also much later reached Russia in a modified form, probably from Germany, and contributed superficially to the elegant beauty of the twelfthcentury churches in and about Vladimir. Rascia (naissant Yugoslavia) borrowed Lombardic motifs from early Dalmatian work, and perhaps also from Norman-Apulian buildings acrossthe

Adriatic. I'he imprint of Lombardv was strong at first in Yugoslavia - at Studenitsa (r. rrt1.;y. Zhicha (rzoz-zo), and Visoki Dechani (r.i:7 35); a reminiscence surlived the change ei orientation which made Serbia a Bvzantinr state, and counts for something in the beautl o1 churches like that of Manasija. contemporirr\ with the Turkish conquest. Thus the rhythm of the Late Roman pilaster strips and the ripplc ot their connecting arches lived on to appear in the architecture of the medieval empires, German and Slavonic.:l

o CflAPTEn



queathed to us by the Early Romanesque flownotable conever, the renewal brought about 'Ihere was' tor struction over a wide area' militart o f d e r e l o p m e n t g e n e r a l which we have i n s t a n c e , a st-'-'le The First Romanesque are graced w h i c h s i t e s o f t h e m a n l architecture; from Ravennato Old Russiacameas followed numbering nearimprove- by German castles (ultimately technical some bringing ,n .pi.oa., time' Yet the this at to the lv were ibrtified system an attractivedecorative *nL architecchurch the in was people ".ra the end of the heart of the ,rahit."tur. of Germany near are preserved' c h u r c h e s t h e w h e r e a n d t u r e , (936 73)' The inde,.ign of Otto I, the Great of the Christheystill breathe the massive unity and greatpowerof Germanarchitecpendence in GerTraditionally of the tian Imperial communitl. ,ura ,ra themselvesan external sign still)' England (as in Byzantium in u.r<'l -any, of the secondimperial Renaissance' grandeur aspect the Church was cherished as the spiritual Ottonian. called power had of the communitl- under the sheltering Sincethe Carolingianage the country Popes' the with Conflict ruler. of an anointecl terribly from wars with the Slavs'the suffered international who were developing an eftbctive dynasttc from as well as Magyars, the Vikings, goYernment' greatly iniured the ecclesiastical Saxon The internecine feuds'

*.rkn... and by King Henrv I' the E m p i r e . ilynasty was inaugurated but desDuring the confusion which had all from Fowler, who reigned 9rg to 936 He began the Papacy fell to Empire, Western the troyecl of putting the governmentln the long process to the nadir. It was monasticism which came order - assuringthe frontier, and refusing to its g r e a t m onks T h e C h u r c h R o m a n he is r e s c u eo f t h e Characteristically buy off the barbarians. a c c u s t o m edto u e r e P a p a c l t h e r e f o r m e d rememberecl in architectural historv for works u h o abbot.rean obedience which at Merseburg,Werla the unqualified of fortification,especiallv monastery, and this conceptlon' his in ceives imporwhere (near and Quedlinburg. Goslar),

in schism applied to the Papacv, resulted developed't tanturbancentres subsequently rz45) and a fbtal loss (ro54, Church Ett.t.rn ti. are'in the churchdesigns Whilethe Orlonian the Western ls a of authorit-v bv the gol'ernment of th.ere Carolingian tra<lition,agglomerative, ( r o 7 f r ' z 5 o)' r r i m e s tlew, commandingskill in the composltronoI E m p i r e a t c r i t i c a l s t ill unavoidw a s i t G e r m a n f m e d i e v a l In their varied elements, as Louis Grodecki's on churc.hmen ancl rely to rulcrs the lbr able monograph L"lrchiterrure otlttnicnne(Paris' servlces church organization fbr many essentlal I958)admirabl)proves. reabbots ranking The support' becamethe and for fiscal Saxony,because of the d.vnasty. principal bishops the but importance, architectural centreof gravitf in Germany' and tained anct more becomingly act as court figures' Produced or influencedchurch designswhich could go\iernmental important are among the most impressiveof those be- thel' came to have




a t t r i h u t i o n s ,a l o n g l r i t h c o p i o u sl . c s { ) u r c e s an(l c o n s i d e r a b l ep o l v e r . U n d e r t h e s ec i r c u m s t a n c e s the construction of a number of'r,erv imposing; c a t h e d r a lb u i l d i n g s i n O t t o n i a n a n d I i r a n c o n i a n times needsno f urther explanation.Grouns of b u i l d i n g s l r e a s s o c i a r e tw l irh ccrtain hishons. a n d r e l l e c r r h e i r ( a s l e , i n a l l c a s e sm a r k e d b r c l e m c n r a ls t r e n F l hr n d s u p e r b g r l n t l c u r . Otto the Great (9j6 Z3), who rcnewed rhe Imperial office in 96z, developecl Magcleburg as G e r m l n r ' s g r e a t b a s t i o na g a i n s rr h e S l a r s . H c f b u n d e c la c h u r c h h e r c , s e r r , e db v B e n e d i c t i n c s 'l'rier from (955), which in 967 became the c a t h c d r a l . T h e b u i l d i n g r v a ss o m e u h a t s m a l l e r than the cxisting Gothic structure, which in_ corporates columns of porphr,r.v, granite, ancl marble brought fiom Italv fbr the original build_ i n g . \ l a n _ vt l c t a i l sa r . t . u n c l e a r . - r e ri t i s c c . t a i n that the layout resembledthat o1'thecarheclral o l ' P a r e n z o ,w i t h a n a t r i u m a n d b a p r i s r e r l . a t the a n d 7 ( r .G e r n r o d e S . t C l r i a k u s ,q 6 r a n d l a r c r . 7.5 r i c n l i o m t h c s o u l h - r r c s,lr n di n r t . r i u r

w es t ; t h c n a \ . e w a s a v a s t w o o d e n _ r o o f t d bastlic a n s t r u c t u r e v r , i t hc o l u m n a r s u p p o r t s i t i s crr_ ; t a i n a l s o t h a t r h e e a s t e r na p \ c \ a s f l a n k c t l 6, t w o r o w e r s , a n c lt h a t t h e c a t h c d r a l w a s t b r t i f i c , i -l'hc chrrrch inaugurateda ser.ies ot ,.1r,,.,i b u i l d i n g s t h e c a t h e d r a l so f N { a i n z , A u g s b L r r s . . en(l \ orms among rhem. bur r.ebuilding 1,,r, d e p r i v e d u s o f t h e s e e x a m p l e sa l s o . Yet Otto thc Great's period is well repr.csenlcd in middle Cernrrnr br rhe lbrnrcr. .1,,r,_ r,en t church of St Cvriakus at Gernrode h S,I r,l, founded in 96r b1' l{arerave Gero. ,/c/i,,,,,,,, hre S l a r s . I r i s a b o u r h a l l r h e r r z , . 7 r , r / r i , r r a g a i nrs o l \ I a g d e b u r g ' so l d c a r h e c l r a C l. crrrr,r.le i, ,.,, u e l l c o n s t r u c t e di n c r c e l l e n t u s h l a r m a s o r r r . r Except lirr the atldctl \restcrn ,1,r., ,,.un..,,,.,1 g a l l e r i e sa . n d e x t c r i o ra r c a d i n ga b o r e t h e rirl.r. C e r o ' s c h u r c h , r r c c n t l - rr e s t ( ) r e ds . till exist,.rlmost unchangcd. It is handsomclv austerc in t h c i n t er i o r . w h r : r er h e r e i s , r t i n e r h r t h m i c l r . a r_

ofcolumns undcr arches with substantial ladon piers.2The crossing is stronglv narked' mrsonry proportions, here, nt the east end, are and the y94ical. The exterior is a graceful interpretation though without the lanterns. of Saint-Riquier, the Empress Theophano (d. qqt) Jtis saidthat qrve funds to complete the work, which is a f,ne exampl. of bold Ottonian agglomerative comPosition' S t P a n t a l e o ni n C o l o g n e , a l r e a d l m e n t i o n e d , should be recalled here as a work of the reigns of Otto the Great and Otto II, built with a sLrbsidy from the bishop, Bruno, who was Otto the Great's son. Of thc work bcglrn afier 966, finished and dedicated in g8o, onlv the wcstwork with three towers retains its original character[771 St Pantaleon, 966-8o; porch modcrn 77.Cologne,

In the reign of Otto II (97j 8t) the major church enterprise was the ncw and greatcr crrthedral of \'Iainz, begun under Archbishop \\rilligis in 97tl.r (-arolingian influence,and influence from Old St Peter's in Romc, were strong in the design, and thc grand scalcol'the building is perceptible to-da]', fbr thc majcstic lines of the verr ellborate existing cathcclral uere largel.v detcrmincd by Willigis's building. Its red sandstone bulk is sharplv cletached against a long woodcd ridge, and it stands on a lorv shelf above the Rhinc close to the con'Ihis latter riler llows flucnce of' the N{:rin. directh' toward the cathedral, which is thus risible for many' miles down the vallel'. The cxisrinqcalhcdrxl hus rcrerse oricnlation.inherited perhaps lrom Willigis's building, and c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e v e r s eo r i e n t a t i o n o l ' O l d St Peter's.It was fbrmerll'approachcd, like the latter building, through a propi,-laeum-chapel of St N1arl' and an atrium. At \'lainz, each of these featurcs would scem to have occupied a square about r2o f'ect on a side, ancl the nar,e, r v i t h t r v o a i s l e s ,t l v o m o r e . I t i s s u p p o s e d t h a t there rvas alreadv in Willigis's time a western transept about 6o f'eet rvide and zoo I'eet long rvith a single apsc, and that a church of the central t]'pe. perhaps thc Constantinian cathedral, lav bevond. Herc there would be an analogv lvith St John f.:rtcran, thc crrthedral of Rome. \ \ i l l i g i s ' s c a t h e d r a l r v a sb u r n t o n i t s d c d i c a t i o n d i r v i n r o o r - ; ,a n d w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n s i m i l a r f b r m ( t h o u g h p e r h a p sw i t h a t r c l b i l w e s t s a n c t u a r yr v h i c h i n c r e a s e dt h e c o m p o s i t e l e n g t h to about 6oo fcet) bv Archbishop Llardo. \ new 'I'he new east tledication took place in roj6. f a g a d co f \ I a i n z C a t h e d r a l h i r d a c c n t r a l a p s e , 'doubleand the building \ras consequentlv a ender' like Fuldrr. The flanking round stair t u r r e t s o f ' t h e c a s t l h g a d e ,a n d s o m e r v a l l - r v o r k , are now ascribed to Bardo's roconstruction. 'I'hrough t h i s a n d n r o r e o \ ' o rt h r o u g h m a n l s u b sequent building episodes notablv in to6o

o rTON tAN RONt 4NLsQr E

o li;l3iff ,:iifi ffI ffi,:i: ", i:t,1iti1:il.t",



on the scale of' the eristinp; large and in 994 building. It had a pair of' square inportant towers set flanking the aisles, at thc east or en_ $snce faQade,which, as in the other Ottonian m e n t i o n e d , h a s a n a p s eo n t h c a x i s . j cethedrals The tower arrangement is handsome, and came to be widell used. Italian and French eramDles o f t h e d i s p o s i r i o na r e w e l l k n o u . n 1p a r m a ( . a i h e dral [3o8, 3o9] and Roucn Cathedral), but a connexion cannot be traced; howeler, Augs_ burg Cathedral is probablr in thc linerec of s u c ht o w e r - p a i r s i n n e a r - b l H u n g a l , i r n d t h u s it was an influential dcsig;n. The successor o f O t t o I I I s . a sh i s c o u s i n . t h e saintedEmperor Henry Il (rooz 24) of happ,v memory. Characteristicallr. a great deal of.

n Il



monumental church construction u,ent forward during his reign, and the remains which har,e come down to us nobly exemplif'v the tempcr o f t h e t i m e . H e c r e a t e da n e N c c n t r c o l . i m o c r i e l p o w e r a lB a m b e r gi n t h e e a s r ,w h c r t , a carhedral and residence were built in the r.ears roo2 12. Henry II was interested in church relbrm: hc grouped a congregation often abbeys about thc

Carolingian cacher has beenmain_ .ti:2,.,t" SharedberweenOtto tarned [78,3j.31. II and Otto III is thc original church of Wimpf.en age is recalledin the i, Tri (9;9 _,Charlemagne's Ruhr 9;; a hexagonai countr). b-t'the western buildine ba choir and ,"*.;;;; I'Iinstcr at Essen, which b.rcxcararion), rhelaqade raarea tor..* ,1"^t"_*u (.s,_const ructlon.programme otto III (e83rooz).a and still exist A .u.tou. i n,-lr i"ri. i::i]f' with rs srmplerrhan that n".r1go1 galleries,resembling of Aachen.Th" d"o;*.;., ;; a {iaction in a dcep rccess, o1 Palatine. thc bold arch Chapel. was built hcre ^the as a a gallcrr at westcrn ", ".n;:;r;,., choir. Abor.e ; rhe corners rlse two it sr simple oct;ra squarefagade gonal rower set between,l.o totyers-. ,rrtLtlt brillianceof.rheEmperor anct '.,-t:...t:lr.jt ine nrs napnsr.. ruror Gerbert r-r.asis rhecase of Aurillac. frr., l"p.'i lr parenzo fCrrr," I r a 1 1 , . a n du , jrh rar.iarions. It.(.igs-roo3), and their interestin an'rii n t h e O r r o n i a n .lllll.. qurt]-atrheopening of i,tagdebursand .\{ainz. of the newmillennium, rhc Suchatria Li;l:U..ts; Ort: III (983-rooz)i, -:.. rhan merelv enrrance not *,.il ,.p."_ wa_r.s; _l:isn:f )_.^.-: it is sented known rhat thel.had in architecture. a spcciali_pu.iun.. in N{entionshould be processional Iitureies. made, however,of.thc ncw cathedral of'Ar-rgsburg, which ras startctl

ga t h e d r a lr,c s t o r n l r o r 7 9 .S t r a s s b u rC nr r r t l r ol tagade a,s i n l o r 5 f l . ( K a u r z s c h l

it r',, jl; ::-?l:" "ri"ii'.:il:'":A;''::

Pa,a tin"e d;;;i';; T#::1 ;I..|;:';;,X,[j

old monasterv of St X.,Iaximinin 1-rier, and rva. fiiendll. to the Cluniac monks. Henrr, me: .{bbor Odilo ol Clunr ar Ronte in ror+. rh, c o r o n a t i u n . r e r r , p r e s e n t c dh i m n i r h thc, im. perial crown and orb, and is said to have visiter tllalUcf in companl, with Meinwerk, bishoy ofPaderborn, in ror5. Undcr Henrr II, abour ror5, a start $,a. made r_rn a great Earl\ Romanescluc cathedral a. S t r a s s b u r g .E x c a r a t c c l f b u n d a t i o n s s e e m to in_ dicatc thar this building u,as planncd ro har, n o b l e s q u a r e r o w e r s a t t h c t b g a d e ,w i t h p o r c : a h e t $ c c n . s c ( d i r . e c t l ri.n l i o n t o l t h c a i s l c sa n . na|e respecti\ ell IZq]. In \.ieu, of the f]ct tha. a s i m i l a r n a r t h e x f a q a d eu , a s n c w l v f i n i s h c c l a: C l u n r . i n r o r 5 . m a v w e s u s p e c td i r e c t i n f l u e n c e, T h c p a i r c d \ y e s t e r nt o u . e r so f s t r a s s b u r g . bcini attached t l i r c c t l r t o t h e e h t r r c hp r n p a r .p . . f i e r r . the t1'pical carhedral frontispiece, lvhich er,er:_ tuallv prer-ailedover rhc triparrite Saint_Riq uie: t h e m c .S t r l s s b u r g i s i m p o n a n r t o o , s i r h Reicl( j n a u ,a s t h c t r a i n i n g g r o u n d of Benno ofOsn:b r i i c k ( r . r o z 8 8 - 1 ) ,r v h o u a s i n c h a r s c of tl. o f i i c co l r r o r l s f b r H e n r r l l l a r r . lH e n n I\.: l:. b u i l t c a r r l e s{ o r t h c I a t t e r . , 'fhc Strassburg tagacle scheme wls aclonte_ in a lair . f b u i l t l i n g si n n c a r _ b r a r e r . \ll serc basilican i n t b r m . i r i t h c l e r u s r o r i r .a :r : nooden roofing, simple in plan :rnd austere r: their architectural lines. The list incluclcs th, cathedrals of Basel (ror9), ancl (.onstanc. (to(r989);the abbelsof Einsiedcln (rorr o, Sch:rH hlust.n (ro.5or)+).Sr \trrclius. Hirs,:. ( l o r t i 7 r ) , a n c ' I , \ ' l a r m o r . r t i e( r , \ I a r r r s m i r n s t c r. t h e l a t r e r f a q a d e ,c l a t i n g f i o m t h e t w e l f t h cer_ t u r t , h a s ( ) c t a l l o n a lc o r n e r t u r r e t s . u . i t h a t;.. a n d g e n e r o u s l l p r o p o r t i o n e d s q u a r ea x i a l bell-, tolver behinclrhem.. N c r v c o n s t r u c t i o n r v a si n i t i a t e c lu n d e r Hen. II at \\iorms (,athedral, t,hich has largclr pr,-

rowers was un u.iu--.iol'JatH".i'; i'..ffl;

scrrccl its olcl character throughout long_co:_ t i n u e c lr e b r r i l d i n g . H c n r v I I ' s g r c a t c t . r u n . s e l l c , . Burchard, bishop ol \\iornrs, rvas responsib: for this work.





RO\r{NLS()t E


II and Bishop \4einrverk, together with Odilo of Cluny, arranged the penetration of-Cluniac monks into Germanv, fbr the bishop refounded .{bdinghof'at paderborn as a Cluniac priory in ror6.', f'he church, cledicatecl in ro36 and partly replaced in ro58 78 aftcr a fire, is interesting as rhc firsr example in north Ger_ man\'ro be built on Cluniac lincs. Beginning in roor; Bishop \Ieinu,erk also built a cathedral in Paclerborn with the western c h o i r i n a t r e m e n c l o u ss q u a r e t o w e r , \ . e r v u n _ mistakablv Germanic in fceling, er,cn without thc tall steep spire, which is of larer date Igol.


imposing louer and ils accompxn1ln,, s t a i r r u r r e r sr e c a l l ,i n s e r . e r c a n d p o r , e r t u lt r r l i nian fbrm, the chapel of the Sar.ioura . t Sr;,,tRiquier. 'I'he cclectic spirit of' Meinwerk is fr,rrthe, p r o r c d b r t h c c o n s t r r r c t i o n .i n , o r 7 , , , t 11.,. chapeI of'St Bartholomew near the cathedrrl t1i 'Greek' workmen.r0 'I'he aisled, nrri. rupof domed compartments carried on two ljles o f ' c o l u m n s ,h a s a M o s l e m c a s t t o i t w h i c h m a l e c u s s u s p c c tt h a t t h e G r e e k s c a m e l r o m t h c s o u l l of ltalv. f'he columns har.e quite exceptional carved capitals, remarkable for their plasril


an itgclrhen fhe sfonec:l[\ er \\Js \ er\' v i g o u ri n t h e b . r o n z cc a s t e r ' t h e i r o r r c a r r c r ' fr, Uaf,ina r e P o u s s cw o r k e r I d I l ' 3pdthe is the connerion with Italv of' Important too b u i l d e r b i s h o p Bernward ol' Hildesheim. the p eninsula in C)tto III's srritc t h e t o who went ' in roor This subject inevitablr calls up anothcr northBishop Bcrnu-ard's cherishcd German church H i l d c s h e i m " [ 8 2 - + 1 .T h e b u i l d a t St Michael I ooI, had a detlicationof thc a b o u t b e g u n ing, crypt in IoI5, lvhich is alsothe date ofits celebratedbronze doors, now installed in the cathed-

s t n t c t i o n o l \ \ i i l l i g i s ' s h r r g ec a t h e d r a lt h e r e , a n d he served as bishop of Hildeshcim lrom gg3 t<.r r o z u . S o m e G e r m a n i r r t h i s t o r i a n sa r e i n c l i n e d to bclicve that Willigis's church of 978 roog underlies St Nlichael, though the latter church showed considerablevariations on the theme. Its compositionis tvpical, bold, and skillul. St Nlichael now shows everv indication of its original arrangemcnt, lvhich in some \r'al.s rvas unusual. The westcrn part has a transept terminatetl at each end b1-galleries and a slc'nder ext e r i o r s t a i r t o $ e r I b r c o m m u n i c a l i o n ,c o m l ) o s ing handsomell. with a square lantern at the

8o. Paderborn Cathcdral,tirgade, to corniceof torvcr roog 8 r . P a d c r b o r nC , hapel o f s t B a r t h o l o m e wr,o r T 8z Hildesheim, r r6:, navebefirrcreconstruction St N{ichael,roor .1.1, ral; by Io33 St N{ichael was complete. Reconstruction ofthc church after screre war damapJe has given us back the original clesign, rvhich is qedibly ascribed ro Bcrnrvarcl himself. IIc hacl oeen at Mainz as subdeacon during the con'I'herc crossir.rg. are irlso a spacious silnctuar\' b a 1 ' a n d a n i r p s e ,b e n e a t h w h i c h l i e s t h e c r 1 ' p to f 'l'he rorS. crlpt is reached by a semi-subterr a n c r n p a s s a g eb u i l t o u t s i c l et h c s a n c t u a n a n d cnclosing it. Thc eastcrn part of the building


E A R I , I E R R O M A N E S Q U ES T Y L E S

o I toNtAN



83and8.1. Hildesheim,St llichael, roor 33, r r(rz, aislebefbrereconstruction andsketch restoration as in roor I i

has never had a crvpt, and its sanctuarr bav lvas s h o r t e r , b u f o t h c r u i s c t h c t l c s i c n r r . t st h e s u n t c as thar of'thc westcrn part_Betwecn thcsc t\\o nearh' s\.mmetrical terminations strctches the b a s i l i c a n n a v e * i t h i t s : r i s l e s .' l ' h c s o u t h a i s l e servcd as a sort of intcrior narthex, since the t w o m a l n e n t r a n c c sa r e t h e r e . V i s i t o r s t h e r e l b r c c n t e r e t l t h c c h u r c h ' b r o a d r v i s e ' ,a s I h c m o n k s 'l'his did. curious contrldiction of' the basic b a s i l i c r r np l a n w a s l o g i c a l i n a m o n a s r i c c h u r c h w h i c h f i r l l o r v c dt h e t h e m c o f ' S a i n t _ R i q u i c r a n d S t G a l l , a n t l i s r e c h n i c a l l , rr e n i n t e r e s t i n g . 'I'he ercr-memorablc bronzc doors in the cathcdrrrl \,vercreirllv madc fbr the latcral main c n t r a n c e so f S t \ l i c h a e l l l l q l . A s a l r c a t l v r c _ p o r t e d . t s i s h o pf l e r . n , w a r d r i s i t e c lR o m c i n r o o r rvith Otto III, and he lived fbr a tinre in the

\oung cmperor's palaceon the Aventinc. nclr 'I'his .SantaSabina. latter church still posscsses I pair of' fifth-ccnturt carr-cd rvooden (loors rvhich perhaps sugisested the norks at Ilildesheim. It was a flourishing pcriod lbr church art ol t h i s s o r t . C ) n cr c c a l l s t h e b r o n z e E a s t e r c o l u l n n madc fbr Bishop Bernrvard bcfbre ro2z, no\\ in Hildesheim Cathedral, ancl .\bbot Gaucelin's bronze tnu/rt11llr at Saint-Benoit-sur-Loirc (about roz6) also thc altar of'thc ])alirtine C h a p c l i n - { : r c h e n ,g i r c n b l O r t o I I I ( q 8 - i -r o o , :) . and the splcndid pulpitthere gilen bvI{enn | [, h i s s u c c e s s o ra , n a d m i r a b l c a c h i c r - e m e n itn c l e ctl. d l t e d b et u e e n r o o 2 i r n c lr o . z + . 'I'hc g^orp;cou st r l d e n a l t a r f i o n t a l p r e s c n t c c l g br the Emperor I lenrr ll ro thc crrhcdral,,1

B a s e la n d n o r . i n t h c C l u n y N { u s e u m i n P a r i s , poses problemsrlso. It is dated about rozo, ancl obviouslv represents a cliflerent stream of'artis_ tic development as well as a difl'ercnt method (repouss6)and a tlill-ercnt material. The loss of' monuments of rhis kind through fire, pillage, l e v i g 5x , n f l r c m e l r i n gi s o n l r t o o u e l l a t t c s t e d h1 d o c u m e n l sB . ut liom the rigour ol rhc Hildesheim doors antl thc pcrtlition ot' rhe Bascl rrontal a conviction emsrses that these cannot b e c a s u a lo r s p o r a d i c *ork.. St ch untlerstandIng and skill as thcse monumenrs show presupposea tradition ofbasic cralismanship transmitted from gencralion ro gcnerirlio;. lr is Q u l t ep o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r o g r . r eo f - p r e c i o u s a l t a r trontals ancl other ecclesirstical Iurniture rvith ngure sculpture clclavcd the rcnaissance of

figure sculpturc in stone hr ahsorbing nrost ol' the 6ne talent available firr g'ork ol'that scale and charactcr. Sculpture in stone rcceired an occasional i m p u l s e , p e r h a p s .f i o m m c n * h o w e r c a l s o a b l c to work in somc othcr mcdium. and werc callcd upon to producc ligure sculpture for special positions rvherc onlr stone rvor.rldbe suitablc. This situation u'ould account equalll' for the carvings on the (destroved) sarcophagus of' Abbot Hincmar of Reims (d 8zz)rr and the f i g u r c ss e t o r e r t h c o u t e r d o o r s o f ' t h e g r e a t a b b e v church of st Ilmmcram at Rcgensburg shortllafter ro4g. NIetal-shcathed statuarl' and relicf'.s 'I'hc had firrmcd cores of wood or mastic. wax h i s b u l k a n d o f bronze-uorkcr's sensc model. rhe reDoussdworker's hammer and drill,




worker's chisel and fini:hing proccss' 1 6 ei v o r y t h e d e s i g n sw e r e p a i n t e di n c l c r a t i o n a n d( s i n c e b l o cks belbre being ctrt. and tinted on the even the manuscript and fiesco aft.rwttd) gcneral p a i n t e r s ' c r a f tw c r e a p r e p a r a t i o nf o r t h e s c u lp t u r e i n s t o n e . f i g u r e o f renewal

in its monumental, fastidious austeritl', and grand dimensions,oler a bold and simple plan. -I'he church is a ruin, like that of Hersf'eld (fiom a b o u t r o j 7 , o n a n o l d e r s c h e m e )[ 8 5 , 8 6 ] ; b o t h r e a c hi n t o t h e r e i g n o f H e n r l - I I I ( r o 3 9 5 6 ) . 1 r M o r e i m p o r t a n t , h o w e r e r , i s t h e c a t h e d r a lo f '

Speyer. It was the d,vnastic pantheon of the Franconian house, and though like the othcr ENIPERORS FRANCONIAN T H E S A L I . { NO R it has been Kaisardome - Mainz and Worms much rebuilt, it has presened, better than thel have done, the simple and assured grandeur which marks the finest buildings of the German Earlr Romanesque 187 qrl. \ \ o r k u a s s t a r t e do n t h e e r i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e uncler Conrad II abor'rt ro-3o, and the remarkable crypt [87] dates liom the initial period. 'l'he whole area under the transept was marked o f f b y p i e r s i n t o t h r e e s p a c i o u sc o m p a r t m e n t s ' each with four stout columns, to carrv connccting arches and nine bays ofheavy groin vaulting.

(Ioz4 39)' the Under Conrad II, the Salian and a forward, went Strassburg of cathedral related building, the magnificent abbe-vchurch of Limburg an der Haardt (roz5-45), was The reforming Abbot Poppo of Stablo, begun.13 under Cluniac influence, had it built near the Stammburg of the Franconians' It inspired many other such structures. Cluniac influence is perhapsultimatell'responsible fbr the western tower pair and the tower at the crossing, but the
ti.5and 86. Hersfeld,, ,. I037, un an older scheme

temper of the building is unmistakabll'German

87.Speyer Cathedral,cr)pt, ,. Io3o antl later



F,.,',rr,./.\,.,,i,r r_,j-,,.,. 'ror..( itlo, Cam^,tt,tt, /r{j




@ 7!1 i lJd | |N |J J | ! 'IJ ,@ ../

.tI,,r,. .,. .! /o..1 Z7-l r I ur.,, ttt I, tll td2t1-,

of the crypt forms, of'course, the The vault t he transcpt and sanctuar\ of thc nlatform of 'Ihese mcmbers are cnptop.t [88[ ihur.h by a massire precipiceof wall. with rall

t4aa%a%fs %&%&*&s*
88. SpeverCathedral, r. loqo-nincteenth centurr',plan

. ,,Iil

" l o s etd west of the apsc. Westward ,tri, o*.tt iust ertends the hr'rgenave, with from the crossing aisle on each side. The groin-vaulted r spacious thick; it includes a zo f'eet is about wall western portal and two spiral stirirdeepdouble-splayed thickness. The stairwal's enormous this waysin flanking towers at an upper as themselves detach

#'' f

level,and to the west of them a large open porch (with tribune and a great octagonal tower) was laid out. This brought the total lcngth to about is almost exactly that of Chartrcs 435 feet, which Cathedral. Comparison of thc two uill strikingly show the overrvhelming stout simplicin' ofthe German design [891. The nave at Spever has a span ol about 45 feet, which is close to that of thc cathedral of Beauvais,widest of the High Gothic churches. Its height is approximateh' twics this dimension. The length of the nave proper, about 235 feet,is about fir'e times its width, and ranks with the grandest and largest achicvements of both Romanesqueand Gothic. The walls o1'the nave bearan obvious resemblance in design and scale to a Roman aqueduct, though the model was probably nearer the exterior elevation of the Basilicaat Trier. 'f he nave piers at Speyer measure about 6 by 8 feet plus engaged shafis, which,on the nave side,continue upward as the s u p p o r t so f a t a l l b l a n k a r c a d em e a s u r i n g a b o u t 85 feet to the soffits. This arcade cncloses the aisle and a series of large clerestorl' windorvs, and it provided support originalll-, at a level over ninety feet from the pa\emcnt, fbr a rast timber roof [go]. Construction wcnt forward on the nave from about ro4o, under I{enry' III (Io39-56), and t h e r e r v a sa d e d i c a t i o n i n r o ( r r , perhaps when the great church in its woodcnroofed phase had been brought morc or less to completion. go. Spci''er stud] of intertor Cathedral,rcstoration rs in ro6r(K.j.C.)

N i n e s i m i l a r u n i t s c o m p o s et h e r , a u l to f a n a r e a under the sanctuarv bav of the church, cont i n u i n g e a s t w a r d i n t o a s e r i e so f s i x m o r e , f i t t e d i n t o t h e a p s i t l a lh e m i o c l e ; t h u s t h e c r 1 , p tu n d e r t h e s a n c t u a r va r m o f t h e c h u r c h i s l a i d o u t w i t h two files of lbur columns each.-\ll the columns 'cubical' har.e (or block) capitals of'rvhich the

origin is Byzantine or Lombard, but a peculi,rr weightiness here makes them seem Germrnl indeed, the form was widely used, with intere :t_ ine lariations, in German Romanesquearclri'I'he simplc and ample powcr ol rhe m a t u r e G e r m a n R o m a n e s q u ei s a l r e a d v p a t c n t tccture. l v t o b e s e e ni n t h i s c r y p t .

A new period of construction (rollz rro6) starting under Flcnrl I\' finally sru the nave r,aulted, as was probablv intendcd liom the 'l'he u l t i m a t e r e s u l t , a c h i ev c c l u n t l c r bcginning. I-othair II (rr37). is verl impressivc, but on account of the olerwhelming scaleit must be visited to be apprcciated [9r1. .\lternatc piers of'the original nare werc strengthened with s h a f t s a n d c l o s s e r e t ss . o that the]' now mcasure nearly' tcn f'eet across, in order to sustain six i m m e n s c d o u b l e b a 1 ' so f ' d o m e d - u p , u n r i b b e d g r o i n v a u l t i n g s c p a r i r t e db v t r a n s v e r s e a r c h c s . 'l'he c r o w n s a r c a b o u t r o 7 f ' e e t( . 3 : ' 6 r m e t r e s ) from thc pavcment, higher than an]' other Romanesque navc lault; thc basic mcastlte-

{t q 8l '
-.: il r' l-F

adital 3t:t4
-:i * ,, tl

i. i

f:o .tr :i

i .r it

j a , r;l

ll9. SpeverC.athedral, rcstoration stud,rofnorth flank as in ro6r (K.I.C.)



wcst' ol narc'lrrol'ing r a t h c d r r l 'i n l c r i r r r - q n e v eC 9i,''rljo-o'and ^rcltth eenturr t'cet (-14 was prohahlr roo Carolingiiln ment a little lcss)hetucen l$o undcler.attar oa poln,t..1'he crossinghas a rault hall'as ,in.a ' thc loliiest Romancsquc rault in ii*f, rgtin o . , r gonal torrer carried on squinches' ,-!r.ri w i t h t u o s ta g e so f a r c h e d w i n d o u s ' p i . t . . d ,.,"a vertical elcment, though not teleit is powert"t Saint-Riquier' as indecd does s c o p i c ,r e c a l l s stairtowers near thearrangcmeno r f lso slendcr towers' eachofthe great octagonal vaults Gothic Beauvais and Milan havc nave pavement' thc lrom feet I-58 about to reaching tower at and the highest tault ol thc crussing was about 44o fcet from the palement' Beauvais But these Gothic designs werc built in a st-vle which was engineered specilicallv to permit 'l'he lair combreath-taking eft'ects of'height. Clun,Y Romanesque with parisonsfor Spel'er are III (ro88-rr3o), whcre the nave was 98 f'eet or, high and the maior crossing about r19 better still, with the Basilica Nova of Nlaxentius clear and Constantine in Rome (e.o. 3ro ff. span83 feet, height rzo I'eet) fbr Spever is aftcr all basicallrand solidlv Roman in conceptron. Speyer has something of that serene largencss which is the common possession of all things well inspired f rom Rome. The late eler,enth- and tll'elfih-centurl' altcrationsat SpeJrerwerc carried out in a stvle which ts very close to thc maturs Lombard Romanes9ue - the eavesgallerl', upper clcrestorl', decorative arcading, pilastcr strips, corbel tablcs, arc all close to Lombard originals. In fbct, Germany and Lombardv, brought close bf impcrial politics, coalesced, logicalll. cnough, in their architecture at this timc. Nlorev believcs that, ,.ulptorc ol rhe da1 uorking in Lomlint. b a r d yh a v e s i g n e d C e r m a n n a m e s .t h c a r t i s t i c oevelopments of Germanv in the eleventh century were actuallr transmitred to Italr and oroughtabouta slc u l p l u r e r h e r c . I ' renaissanceu

At Spe.ver afier the ruin of 1689 there was much Baroque re building at the west end of the cathedral (r772 8),tt'but further rebuilding in the Romanesque revival period (r. r8zo and later) gave it back its original scheme, though the new work is dry. Speyer is not subtle, but anyone who understands masonry will love the tremendous clifl--like massesof its walls and the heav-vover-arching testudo ofits vaulting. M a i n z 1 3 3 3 ,3 3 4 1a n d W o r m s [ 3 3 r ] t h e o t h e r Kaiserdome were likewise the object of considerable works during this period. So also was 'lrier the cathedral of [33o],tt a Roman monument translbrmed into a German cathedral af ter r o r q , i n t h r e e s t a g e s ;t h e y e a r s r o 3 9 6 b s a w a handsome west lront built, and an eastward ex'I'he f'amous church tension was built still later. of trefoil plan, St Mary in Capitol, Cologne, was huilr in its first form beginningabout ro4o [.335' Laach, a per3371. The abbel' church of Maria f'ect example of the mature Gcrman Romanesque, was, to be sure, founded in ro93, but the building was built slowly, in a st1'le quite unaltected by Gothic impulses, though the dedic a t i o n t o o k P l a c ei n I r 5 6 . gz. \'Iaria Laach,abbcl'church, lbunded Io93, dcdicatedrI56, interior (bcfore modern additionsand embellishments)




1. t\laria Lairch,abbc1. church, 93 (oppostte dcdicatcdr r 56, I iov fiom thc norrh_wesr foundedro9-3, studl,as in r.. rollo; se.e also.1z7,3zg 94.Goslar,the Pl'alz,rcstoration

x{aria Laach Isz' glr is beautifulry set in verdure near the Laacher See, and Or.ran,r-, quite lovely picture of ther'e,-dc'elopcd Germanmedievarmonastery;forth"g.oup..rp..,s traditional planning The aspect e'en of fhe late buildings harmonizes with the order work,

buirding among rhese earrier work,- of Gernr,rn *r_rnarqu.. It oughi ro be mentionecl at this point thrrt the pfhlz at Goslar [g4, jzgl rs beriercd to ^rrc been built in somewhat it, p....nt torm rr\ Henrl' III, whose livourite residence ir '.r..|;3;;:::,,

dominates ,h;;;l

H'desheim. -{ small at,ium riesberow the

wesrern apse. Within, ,n. l,::,Oi*

Lombard_influenced version of St Mi.t r"i .i

i, u,ry .oo,,,,;;;;; ;;:ffi';"'l;";::.';]

i..'i,.i, 0"., *."un,,.u.,,,,,,, j11'":-::]."',i" .-o exrenslons

have givcn a rwelfih_ccnrrrrr

on^,,, Resia was tui,"u,,, ro.5o which c,r_

Luy a.,.t a semidome. architectu.ol tbrm, or the intcrior arc austele,quitein.onr.n.,ro,h..,.,..,"..r"O"., decorations and rurniture havesomewhat diminished the serenityof this fine a..;gn. i'h;. serenitfis the essential reasonfbr placingthe 'I'he

fllHT",:i.l cathedrar) ri",",',re 't:r,. a*ork o|Hen'v ",?:llti::11^i1r-' tIi. whole un group ,rrr was s.;.q;;'#::t'J ;ifi':ij 1,0.. "r,r*. expressionof the power which rhe sanctuary has a similar
,,u.tll:"t and the Empire posscssed in Hen.'s ,",.tuttt ttlilo,n.. group, little known bccause so r.ecentll. excaiatJ,' ;r- ;;;;';; Alrerheirigen,rr i.innnrur.n in switzerrand, aateds[6111y lrrtb.. ,oag.,, Bevondthe apse ofthe churchl,rl.

is sturdily_ tru II.b";, ,;;,.*U,n. 9oi."a oi uitte.rbot_ortr,.,i"r.

(.apella Rccirr

a court in the fornr o1'an extendcd lozengc. $.ith a r c h i t c c r u r ea r o n c c ; l ' o r t h e s p l e n d i d c l u s r e r of. a t r i a p s i t l a lo p r . n - n a \c c h a p e l a r rh e h c a . l o t .i r I Romanesquemonuments ot twelfih_ and thira quatrefbil chapel occupied each of the lateral teenth-centurl' Germant. represents thc full potnts of the lozenge. 'I'his scheme was tn poser of'the Enpire, and it is rhe culmination tmagrnative autr;mentation of'the court bevond of the great renewal of architecture within thc t h e a p s eo t t h e L a r e r a n B a s i l i c r ; n n n - " 1_ - U j I r r ' i d el a n d s o f c e n t r a l E u r o p e . l l o w e l e r , build_ and it is a pitv that it had ro bc demolishecl to ings of grear interest were built, especiallv in t*: * r t f o r l , r r g e rn r c d i e r a l c o n s r r u c r i o n s . France. while thc Rumanesqrrc of Germanr t n e m a fu r e r C c r m a n R o m r n e ) q u ( s l \ l e c o n _ . *us bcing creatr.r, l r)(l dcr cloped. -l hcrelore,to i" use.rhough nor exclusireh. i . r s l a ( c a s a v o i d g r e a t t o o :n l "e t:1 a departure fiom chronological t t h i r r c e n t hc c n t u r \ . . I t i s c a r r t o l . o r g i r et h e s e q u e n c e ,o u r p l a n o f c x p o s i t i o n n o w c a l l s f b r \rermans thcir a c o n s c r r a t i s r n , r , r h e no n c h a s a d _ s t u d r of the Frcnch works which, asthe Roman_ rnired and understood thcse splcndicl monu_ e s q u e s t y l c d e v e l o p e d ,a c l u m b r a t c d t h c G o t h i c rnentsofa g l o r i o u s h i s t o r i c a lp e r i o t l . l n d c e c l rhe s t r . l em o r e a n d m o r e , w i t h o u t a c h i c r . i n gi t . T h e n a t t t s t i cl e m p e r of the Cermans uas so wcll ir u i1l bc lppropriarc to r isir rhe manl and etpressed i n t h i s R o m l n r s q u c s t r . l er h i r r ;rlllarer \ d r i o u s r e F i o n so l r h e E m p i r c , w i r h t h c i r '(.vres tirsci_ ol architecrure in Ccrman_v hare shoun nating local stvles which remaincd Roman_ some.influence o l i r s b o l t l n e s s ,d i g n i r r . r n d esque, bcfbre considering the Romanesque ol' austeritv \ormandv lnd rhc il.-.1.-1,.rn... rhc arcls one poinr ot vieq ir woulcl bc logicnl ro where the stvle was actrrallv transfbrnred into u o n t l n u e "^llo* our analrsis ol German Romanesuut. Gothic.


F R A N C E :9 0 0 1 0 5 0

T H EA M B U L A T O R Y We have iust passed in revicw the relatively conservativeEarly Romanesque st)'les of Lombardy and Germanv. In this architecturc we seehow an attractil'e, fairly uniform stt'le resulted when the builders turned to ancient Roman monuments fbr inspiration, revived the Roman manner of planning, and l-elt the fbrce ofa living stream of influence from Antiquity as the Lombardic First Romanesque spread. The buildings are ordinarily cogent and practical; often competent rather than inspired. In France it was different. Delivered at last from the'Norman fury' in gr r, when the treaty
gs. Tours, ,St Nlartin, renth, eleventh, and thirreenth centuries. exca\ations of'chcr.ct

located at the head of thc apsc, ancl also to a scries of round chapels attached to the peripheral wall ol'the corridor'. This was the first ambulatorl with radiating chapels irrranged in what was basicallv the dcfinitive fbrm, and it brought to fruition the dcvelopment alreadyref'erred to in our chapter on Carolingian archit e c t u r e i n F r a n c e . B e c a u s e< r f ' t h ec h i c a n d s k i l l

96. Chartresf,athedral,apscand ambulatorvol' latcr construction with superincumbent crvpt, [i-5ll

of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte laid the foundations ol' the great Norman duchy, France could rebuild. Before long there were signs ofan intellectual, spiritual, and architectural revival in the northwest, in Aquitaine, and in Burgundy. That traditional inventive flair, that active skill in composition which had created the silhouette of Saint-Riquier, turned for a centurv to the morc difficult problems of plan and articulation in the maior churches. 'I'hen during half a centurl it absorbed the lessons of the First Romancsque style into this more highly er.olved pattern of church buildins. and ar the micldle of thc eleventhcentury stood ready for its great age. As already indicated in a prcvior.rschaptcr, it was actuallv durine the last effective Carol i n g i a nr e i g n ( t h a r o i ( , h a r l e s I I I . 8 9 . ; 9 2 . 3 )r h a r tlt n.* architectural ushercd in hv epoch r.r'as the reconsrruction ol st Martin at Tours lq5l. -t lte church ly was dedicated in 9 r 8 u ith a ner.r built annular aisle or corridor cnclosins thc sanquar), and so arrangetlas to gire Jcces\fo the tomb of Sr Nlartiri ('Sr 1\l:rlrin's Rcsr'),

q-5e.chartres cathcdral, plan 01'crvpr (H. H. Hilberrl'). The apsc, amhulatorv, and rrtliating chapcls of8-58 are encbsed trithin the cheiet ol the cathcdral lbundations ol rozo 1o, rvhich arc in turn encbsc,i bl the Gothic fbundations of r r94 li. (not shown)



FR.{\CE: goo r o-5o


of'this solution it may be considered the beein_ ning ol specifically French derelonmenr; in R o m a n e s q u e a r c h i l e c t u r e .I What existed(most probably by 9rg, admit_ tedll' by ror4) was like the crypr and ambula_ torv built at Charrrcs after g5g [95.r, 96], plus r a d i a t i n g a b s i d i o l e s .B u t a t T o u r s , a s D r C a r l Hersel-, a carelirl student of'the problem. has obserred, rhe high lelel of the ground water prevented this arrangement lrom beine a crypt: 'St Nlartin's Resr' was only slightly below the pavement level. The ambulatory and radiatine c h a p c l s t h e r e f o r c b e c a m ep c r f o r c e a b o l d l v a r t i _ c u l a t e d e x t e r i o r a d j u n c t t o t h e a p s e ,a n d a r c h e s like those of Chartres, pierced in the aose at S t \ l a r r i n , u n i t e d b o r h r h e a m b u l a r o r va n d t h e absidiolesvisually with rhe sanctuarl. 1he generous size of thc absidioles attache<l to the outside of the ambulatory shows clearly that the c o r r i d o r i t s e l f u a s n o t m e a n l y p r o p o r . i i o n e d .l t opened towards the sanctuary on the axis. at 97. Vignorl', priorl ghurgh,4. 1s5e

Martin's Rest', and perhaps elsewherc x. w e l l . ' l h e r em a y h a v e b e e nw i n d o * s i n t h e an:. but possibll ir was dark. resemblingth. ,pr.,,t Vignory (dated about ro5o) [97]., T'he ambulatory and radiating chapels of St Martin nq rebuilr after the fire of gg7, and dedicared in ror4, were undoubtedly of mature form and proporrions, with the apse wall carried on , light columnar arcade. This very b.rurirul architectural disposition, so acceptable from the point of view both of symbolism and ol.enui_ neering s(ructure. was a capital conlribution Lr, the art of religious building r r r I 3( )]. O t h e r t r a c e so f a n e a r l y s t a g ei n t h e d e v c l o n _ ment of the ambulatory and radiating chaptl, exist in the excavations ofthe cathedral o1-C_lcr_ where masonrv of a building d e d i c a t e d i n 9 4 6 5 u 1 1 - i y s s i,n t h e f o r m o t a vaulted rectangular crypt enclosed by a half._ oval corridor with four angular radiating chapels attached to its periphery.3 Each of the chapcls was arranged as a crypt-shrine or conftssio. While the form of the superstructure is not certain, critics follow Louis Br6hier in suppos_ i n g t h a t t h e a m b u l a t o r y w a s o n t w o l e v e l s ,a r r d that each of the attached elements was in eflect a little oblong church two storeys high, pr.o_ vided, like the main sanctuary, with an altlr a b o v e i t s c r y p t . T h u s i t w a s m o r e e l a b o r a t et h , r n the apse of' St Martin of 9o3- r 8 perhaps it r as ; better integrated and more open. The work rirs greatly praised for its beauty, and the name ol its author is known Al6aume (Adelelmus). .r cleric who was also skilled in the arts of soi(ls m i t h i n g u n d s c u l p r u r e .H e m a d e a o r e c i , , r , . reliquarv s(atue of rhe Virgin ro be ;er ,,n r column behind the high altar, and seen wirh wonderment fiom the ambulatorv. Obviousir' mont-Ferrand,


to other Auvergnat \ / e l o p m e n t . rA l l w e r e u n d e r r v a vw h e n t h e H u n featurewhich passed usual garians visited the region with fire and sword in shurches' g37 and 955 and stirred the Burgundians to the conthat ambulatorl characteristic is It in increasingly'sophisticated undertake fireproof' vaulted construction. Thc be used, to tinued connexion with more and more r e s u l t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p l a n a n d s t r u c t u r e form, and in vaulted churches. At Clermont- make the Burgundian churches of'the time r,erv completely ambu- important fbr the historv of medier,al archiRomanesque fully developed a Ferrand and a bcauti- tecture. Aliaume's design, htory replaced At St Philibert's Abbcf in'I'ournus a derivaful Gothic chevetreplacedthat in turn.
A BURGUND I I . .D E V E L O P N 4 E N T . S was early made towards the RomanProgTess esqueideal in Burgundy because ofthe unique coniunction there: easy contact by wav of the Loire with the active school of western France; early contacts by way of the Rh6ne with the Lombard First Romanesque st)'le; strong contact by way of the Sa6ne with the Empirc. In addition there was a cult of rclics, and, more important, there was an active monastic detive of Aldaume's ambulatorl' still exists [98 rozJ. In g4g this abbel was at the end of the l o n g p e r i p a t e t i c so f t h e m o n k s o f N o i r m o u t i e r , who, drir,en in 836 from that island to thcir mainland priory of D6as or Saint-Philibert-deGrandlicu, as alreadl noted, were once more d r i v e n o u t i n 8 5 8 a n d u l t i m a t e l y - c : t m ew i t h t h e rclics of St Philibert to Tournus in 875. The m o n a s t e r vs u l l e r e d f r o m t h e H u n g a r i a n s i n 9 3 7 . D u r i n g a s c h i s m i n t h e m o n a s t e r v ,t h e P h i l i b e r tine monks went (q45 g) to Saint-Pourgain-surSioule in Auvergnc, when the ambulator,v of

98.Tournus,Saint-Philibert,.. g5o r I 20 and latcr, air r icw f rom the south-wcst

thc upperambulatorr.openeo dn lhe sanctrr,,t.,. Worth noring is rhe fact that at St Nlarrrn only the apsesof Saint-Germain, Auxerre, wcr ! reproduced; at Clermont-Ferrand, onlv the oblong bars, omitting rhe rotunda. This exnlairn (he cven number of radiatingchapels, an urr-



gg ( t,porite1'I'ournus,

Saint-Philibert'fiom the south-east \ m b L r l a t o r r( ) ; ( r r o r { ) .l o \ \ ( r r l 2 0 r' rooo

Saint-Philibert,narthex' roo.Tournus'



$ i-i ;1-

FRA\CE:9oo lo5o


was still a ol'Clermont-Ferrand thecathedral ''l'he new church new structure lo-nrpi.uoutty q5o' was raulted in l]'ioutnu., begun about and linished centur) of the elercnth in..outt. thc high under ir crlpt contains l( ,tro. "iour plirceola and Philibert Sr ol relics the ii^, fr, c h a p e lo f ' a n t h e c e n t r a lr a d i a t i n g i n tonour fbr the tomb of St .n.foting ambulatory honoured in the monastery was who Val6rien, cameIrozl' the Philibertines atTournusbefore

nave, with intercsting parallel transverse tunnel vaults on diaphragm arches, after ro66. Thc Chapel of St Michael above the narthex, with primitive sculptures, hirs interesting quadrant vaults in the aisles, while the nave has a clercstory above with a tunnel vault with transverse arches, and the tie-beams still in position (about ro2o, or perhaps later). There is a strong imprint of the west of Francc on the plan and structure, except in the Chapel of St Michael,




This plan, wirh irs fir'e radiating chapcls of' oblong plan, was repeated at the levcl of'the main church. 'I'he crvot was cledicated in 979, and there is tenth-century work abo\e it, extending past the transept to the massive threebay narthex.'Ihe vaults, howevcr, arc latcr in tht uppe. ambulatory, alier a fire of roo7 or Ioo8 (dedication r o r g ) ; i n t h e s a n c t u a r ya n d a t the crossing, about r r 20; the high vault o1'the

where the Lombard characterlstlcs are strong' Pilaster strips and arched corbel tables decoratc thc exterior therel the original bclfrics (now augmentcd br a twelfih-cenlury to\1er iIt thc north) are Lombard First Romanesque in st1'le The quadrant vaults of the Chapel of St Michael may be related to those of the trilbrium galler-v of Saint-B6nigne' Diion, whcre Lombards were a t w o r k l i o m l o o l , a s u ' e s h a l ls e cp r e s c n t l y '

ror lnd ro2. Tournus, Saint-Philibert, analvtical pcrspectivc and ( appositt) cross section ancl longitudinal section, r. 9io I r 20



The memory which goes deepest at Tournus is that ofthe monks working tenaciously through a c e n t u r y a n d a h a l f t o b u i l d a n a d v : r n c e dt y p e of church while conditions were still primitive. T h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o no f ' l a t e r b u i l d e r s l o s t s o m e thing of the simple nobility which is always evident in sincere early works of architecture. In passinpl,reference should be made to in'lhe teresting work in the ambient of Cluny. priorv church of Charlieu (fbunded 872) ap' pears to have been rebuilt about seventy years later as a vaulted building with an ambulatorY arcade and eastern absidiole, perhaps at the suggestion of Abbot Odo of Cluny, who came 'I'hc (iom St Martin at Tours. tunnel vault of the nave doubtless improved the acoustics fbr

chanting, which was Abbot Odo's special lbr'11, An interestingcrypt ambulatorv with radiatiln chapels at Saint-Pierrc-le-Vit, Sens. il;1s,.1 about g2o 4o, has also been connected with 5, i n1Nlartin thro ugh Odo's having'reformed' S',r Pierre-le-Vif in 938.b At (,lunv; itself new problems of plan rrs1s u n d e r t a k e n i n a r e b u i l d i n g w h i c h s t r e t c h e do r e r nearlv a centurv after 955, perhaps alter a lilse start on a round ambulator-v corridor in 94S. lt may be said briefly (fbr we shall return to the Cluniacs) that the Frankish vilia wherc the monks installed themselves in qro, and theil church (Cluny I, dedicated in gz7), provecl insufficient within a generation. Construction {rfr larger church was undertaken about 955 by

a si n I o 5 o( K J ' C ) rr'nv. themonaster\ ro5'"'*-'





abbel church, longitudinalsection ro3. Cluny, second a s i n r . t o r o ( K . J . C .; p a r t l vh v p o t h c t i c a l )

i Lilabfr


1i i


_t.t ,

. '..&J,





ro,g. Clunl', rcstoration studl of the monastcr\ liom the east, rs in ro43 (K J-C.)




Mayeul, coadtutor (abbot 963 94) - and a systematic rebuilding of the monastery began when the new church (Cluny II) had been dedicated (98 r ), extended by a narthex, and finally tunnelvaulted (about roro) [to: 5]. Typical Romanesque roofing, with vaults of stone, remarkably enhances the beauty oImusical ellects in particular, the musical effects of the linear Gregorian chant and the massive organum. The Cluniacs pref'erred tunnel vaulting, which gives most felicitous acoustical results, and the fundamental irnportance ofchanting in the services made it worth while to build tunnel r auhing in spite ofthe grare engineering problems which were encountered. Paul Henry 'It Ling writes: was this music which embodied the Romanesque religious ideal, without which the art of these centuries presents mere samples of architecture, sculpture, or literature.' The chevet ofCluny II was based on the apse 6chelon scheme; it had, however, a square sanctuary with flanking corridors for processions. Each ofthe corridors was flanked by a so-called ' c r 1 p t '( r e a l l l v a u l ( e d a s e c r e t a r i u m ap t avemenl level). while at the head ol'each corridor there rlas a horseshoe-shaped chapel, with thc halfor,al main apse between, accessible from both corridors, and provided with three altals side bv side which were used in sequence for the morrow mass. f'he narthex was arranged to receive the Sunday procession, which passed round the cloister;it paused fbr a Galilee station 'l'here were two before returning to the church. belfries above the fagade of the narthex, and anothcr, ol tall proportions, over the crossing. This rrrrangement, no$' so common, \las a novelty in the tenth century. 1'he monastery layout was based on a square 3oo feet (of 34o millimctres) on a side. It differs lrom the St Gall plan in having a chapter-house (an important novelty) with a Lady Chapel beyond, frequently visited in liturgical proces'I'his probably resulted from Abbot Odo's sion. having vowed himself'to the Virgin and empha-

sized her cult.8 The Cluny plan also difleq,1 from St Gall in placing the novitiate soLr15 " t h e r e f e c t o r v .T h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e w e l l b t ' i l r 1 1 j 'l'1.,.. had a certain warm austerity of design. were roofed in wood. Recurrence ofeven dins.. s i o n s m a k e s i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e c o n s f r u c t i o l l1 0 1 . lowed a consistent plan to accommodate a66u, roo monks, finally achieved about ro45 lvhsn, poetic cloister with marble columns was finished by Abbot Odilo (q94-ro48). Abbot Odilo built extensively throughout the Cluniac group of monasteries, and it is important to know something about his accomplishment. Attentive study of a dimensional description (ro43) of a monastery in the Consuetudinary' of Far('a, near Rome, which folbwed Cluniac customs, together with excavations at Cluny by the Mediaeval Academy of America, have made it possible to reconstitute the plan of tenth- and eleventh-century Clunr' Iro5], 'l'his is important because, in principlc. all Cluniac monks were professed at Clunl-; thus the architecture ofthe mother house was knoun. and presumably admired, throughout thc u hole group of associatedhouses. At Clun-v some ranges of the buildings, z; f eet in width, were laid out inside the basic aoo-Ibot s q u a r e ,a n d s o m e o u t s i d e . s o t h a t j 2 5 - l b o l J n d 35o-(bot dimensions occur. The ancillarv buildings prorided 3z places for sick and rttired '' m o n k s . 3 o o r m o r e f o r n o r i c e s .r z l b r t h e a h h c r pauleri or poor pensioners, about roo for Jutllillt forming the devoted service corps of the ntrtnastery; 40 places were provided for men ancl 30 l b r w o m e n g u e s t si n t h e g u e s th o u s e ; t h e h o * f i c c could take in about roo wayfarers, accolllmodated perhaps as the delightful capital frttrn S a n G i l a l L u n a ( T , a r a g o z ai\n d i c a t e sl r o o j : r h c g r o u p s h e l t e r e da b o u t 4 o o i n a l l . Small, but worthy of notice, is the elemcnr " i n d i c a t e d a sa g o l d s m i t h s ' a n d e n a m e l l e r 5 ' s h o p sr o r i , l eJ I t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t a s p e c i a lr o o m r . r ' ap fbr the scriptorium in early eleventh-centtrrJ. Cluny. Space for it was availabie in or near the

capital SanGil' carvcd Luna(Zarag'ozal' ro6. t urv ions'tt tltth cen ii""i"g *.yr"*is' accomnrodat armarium he northwalk of the cloister'with the The q8;. After a term as pnor at Saint-Saturnin for the library closeto the transeptdoor' of monasterl' historic the re{brm large it"., .t or.r, to librrry at Cluny contained a relatively with.a eft-ectivell. Saint-B6nigne, which he did number of volumes- 57oin the twelith century' and rn chosen monks from Clunv' of group and at a time when Durham reported 546 WilAbbot customs Cluniac with i..u..l"n.. Montecassino 7o. still turther' customs Cluniac thcse of the Burgundtanac- li"a ,pr.u,l The most spectacular bl him in personal styte' to ott *, monasterics held complishments Earll'Romanesque the in (pertraps He reformed monastic houses a veryinstructireexampleuhich summedup union. Norincluding area, wicle a over in the tenth ioo ,.u...ty) theprogress ofchurch architecture this influfoundations Nor-"n F.oin Dijon lt wasthe -rna,n. century, wasSaint-B6nigne into England' where Clunv itselt'*i achievement of Willian-roi Volpiano "r,.. ,,.."-.d dircctll (at Lewes) from to77 (near He is a goode'tample w a s r e p r e s e n t e d Ivrcaand N or ara).rn ma-v be A thread of Cluniac influence ofthe nobleecclesiastic; for his godmotherwas. or,*ura. work' architectural William's Abbot i" of ir"..A the Emoress Adelaide, rvife successively tn action his for but he is much more important Lothair il I andOtto thc Creati he uasa relatire Romanesque First the Lombardic of variouserandccs of the Empire, with in- launching pcrsonal abilities as ,t1-1. in durg.,ndy' He had fluentialcoin."ion, in ltalv, Burgundy, Lorbe certain that he . .I.rig.,.., and it seems to raine, and Normandl. William uas a monk at and perhaps also carSan Michele de Loceclia' near Vcrcelli' but brought Italian masons, the wolk' tcchnicalll of some privi- r, Diion ; but AbbotMayeul,exercising Cluny'sspecial
to Clunv in lege, received him' ancl took him


r e p r e s c n t sl o c a l m a s o n s B e t w c e n Burgundian' produced an entirclv r aulted church , t . V ]r.t l o n g . .b c g i n n i n g , i n t h e f i r s t l e a r o l . t h e aoi f.., oor ) | ro7-o l Raoul Claber lli, m;tl.nniu- 1r a t the time. and this building t h e r e *rr r to"f 'uhite mantle ol churchcs' of the p r . t r ir, tn his lamous phrase' the world then "it.n , f n. church had a notable pilgrimage to ou, on. u n c i e n t a p o s t l co f B u r g u n d r ' . b u t l , t o m b o i rh . for much more than its size and iapo.,"n, *r, and the lact rhat twu kinds ol' I t uas a rcal architectural epii t . b u i l t masons had thus fbr been created what of tofite,^silmmi roor tll, ro7to rog. Dijon, Saint-Bdnigne, (K ( . i v p t ( t e b u i h r 8 5 d ) ': k c t c hr e s l o r i r l i o n J ) ' .estor.dplan ( \' S. \\ crhci ' K J C ) "nt

in church architecture. We cannot be in error if we attribute its design to the favoured, alert, brilliant. and widely travelled abbot himself' 'zl diximus, et praesto est Raoul Glaber writes cernere, totius Galliae basilicismirabiliorem atque propria. positione incomparabilem perfcere dis'l'he main What elements appeared here? church, dcdicated in Ior6 or IorT' was a highly elaborated basilica; the eastward portion, dedicated in ror8, was a highll' elaborated rotunda; so that, in essence,the scheme was that of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and consequently a bequest from Early Christian times' The intermediate monument appears to have been Saint-Pierre, Geneva, as built (a funerary basilica) about the year 6oo. Saint-B6nigne was
o o 5 20 z5\! 80 IrT


r s::t'lliH i'ifl:i,:l:: ;1,

n LJ Knosn rhr,,uglrttudits ht t9+6' Dr \1i.. SLrn,l.rlanJ \\crhtt. rvirh rerisitns b1 K.J C ' 1965 ( lb some extent h!pothetical and depcndent on analo8r) s Ll \l,,nrrnt building\. n"$ r mu\tunr ro:n lt't

Trans\erse scctnn ol nr\r looking east

ilhbcHrlinrrJ. _

I i

rzthcenturJ Romanesque additions

.fi,> r"ifJfi

Plan at principrl


Longituclinrl sccri{)n


E A R L I [ , RR O j \ l A N E S Q US ET Y L E S



vaulted, which is Roman; it had nine towers and turrets, which is Carolingian. Work continued on the church and adjacent monastic buildings, and there was a gencral declication in r ro7. A Gothic reconstruction and Revolutionarv vandalism have destroved the building almost complerely. 'l'he rorunda was well studied by Dom Plancher and presented in his Histoire glndrale et lalticuliire de la Bourgogne (r739); but we owe much ofour detailed knowledge of the building to a more recenr investigation which makes it possible to describe t h e b u i l d i n g a si f i t s t i l l e x i s t e d . r 2 The entrancewav at the west of the basilican church was a porch with flanking stair towers, a Germanic motif . The nave was double-aisled, like the greatesr Early Christian basilicas, but it was built like a Roman stadium or circus; the nave arcadesresembled aqueducts. On cach side the inner ofthe two vaulted aisles stepped up to a virulted gallery, and that to a clerestory wall
l Io. Southwell NIinstcr, nave, r. r rto

with a wall passage. Between the clerestorl, q 111. a tunnel vault was turned, reaching a height 0i t b r t y - s i x f e e t .a n d w e l l : r h u t t e d b y r h e s r a t l i r r r x like construction stepping upward towards j1. s p r i n g . I n s p i t e o f r o u n c l p i e r s ,e r t r a s h a f t s i n 1 6 . gallery,different stonework,and wooden rxq11_ ing, the nave of Southwell Minster [rrol rrsembles that which existed at Dijon. 'Ihe rri_ lbrium piers at Southwell somewhat rccall thosr at Saint-B6nigne, which were designed Moslem f'ashion with columnar shafts at the corncr5, tluadrangulatim stutute, joincd bv a ,kind of crown'(the upper vaulting?). A tower rosc xp the crossing. For access to the tomb of Sr Bdnigne there was a dcscending stairwav, nelr the main west door, ancla vast columnar crrpt extended under the navc, thc transept, and lhe sanctuary just beyond. fhe transept was vaultcd, and the clcreslorr passagecontinued round it into two remarkable. well-buttressed quadrant-r'aulted chambers lt the gallery level, flanking rhc sanctuarv brrr. The aisles flanking thc sanctuarv had gr.,rin v a u l t s , t h e a p s ea t t h e c a s t h a d a r c a d i n g ,a n n u l a r p a s s a g e sa , n d a g r o u p o f ' c h a p e l sb e 1 . o n d . In thrs very intcresting part of the work we havc the germ of thc great churches of the Pilgrinrrrgc Roads, that wondcrful inter-regional group of d e s i g n sw h i c h i s t h e f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a lm a n i f c s r a t i o n o f t h e m a t u r e R o m a n e s q u e .S a i n t - B 6 n i g n c thus makes the connexion between the Lonrbardo-Burgundian international Ifirst Romrnesque stylc and grcat later projccts which trrr s u r p a s si t . The systcm of apses at Saint-Bdnigne wit5 , remarkable combination of the 6chelon, thc anrb u l a t o r v , a n d t h e r o t u n d a , o n t h r c e l e v e l s .' l ' h c ambulatorv was rcduccd to a curving arcacletl corridor ol' gracelul proportions; the centr;rl absidiole was represcntedby the rotunda (ll:0 on threc ler,els) and the rotunda itself'hacl rrn apse echclon in the shape of a central squareended projecting chapel rvirh a small apsc ,rt each side of'the entrancc,ar the principal lercl.

passage of thc nalc comThe clerestory wirh rhc rool b1 t$o stair turrcls nunicated apsc. thus bringing the number ot'fhe n rt ,f,. ot turrets on thc-basilica to 6re ,o'*.r, into the rottrnda' and raas Jrsrrg. .ontinued t h e r e l i o n r t h c t w o s u b s t a n t i a lr o t r n d l....riUt. which tbrmed the communication lri, ,o*... of that part ol thc design. A touer r'ras svstem to thc (as1 ol thc rotunda' but oiann.d iutr b u i lt as a littlc church with a towcr illogicalll'on thc apse' Later perched own ofits in thc tower svstem) changes there were other out the original makc to is diflrcult it so thxt - but, ifone counts the prominent censcheme tralwell ofthe rotunda, there were nlne towers on the church. It had a remarkably strong and bold silhouette, rather riotous; but all the same, here was an entirelv vaulted building rising to the challenge of mcdievrl fbrm in church architecture as conceived br the designcrs of SaintRiquier. Of this strange and wonderlul ensemble onlv the nethermost parts of the eastern half have survived. The apse 6chelon of thc basilica, the ruined tomb in the apsidal space, a lbrest of stubby columns (some with extraordinarily energetic Early Romanesquc capitals) and the easternchapel were cleirred and restored in the nineteenthcentury. It is possible to obtain onll a hint of how curious thc rotuncla was, with its t w os t a g e s o f d o u b l e a n n u l a r a i s l e ss u p p o l t e d o n a forest of columns, and its dome arrangied rbout a phenomenal arcaded cy'lindrical well opento the sky through an oculus. Basicalll', the rotunda went back to the Pantheon in Rome; Its stairways connectcd it with Saint-Riquicr; the architectural cletail lvas mostl)- Lombardic, out the uppcr cornicc ol the rotunda had (though peri,.ps nol in rorS) \4oorish lobcrl soffitpanels and chisel-curl brackets. The openwork arcaded well ocldly recalled thc telescopic oPen-work spires of Saint-Riquicr. The small vaulted bavs on cvlindrical columns of the lower stages of ih. ,oiu.r.lo recallcd f'amiliar Lom-

bardic crypts and Moslem vaulted constructions. The quadrant or cove vaulting of the upper stage came to bc most important in Romanesque architecture ?rs its dcvelopment continued. Clearly then Abbot William had his rvish; he made the church of Saint-B6nigne nirubiliorent basilicistotius Galliae. But the building was not a mature design, and, above all, the basilica was impossibly ponderous. There were twentv-fbur piers about sir bv six feet or largcr in thc basilican part of thc church, which thus u:rs nrlde fireprool br r,rulting et the cost ols er i o u s l - vb l o c k i n g u p a l a r g c p a r t o f t h e i n t c r i o r 'lhe thirty.-trvo sltpports ofnave and aisles area. occupicd about one-tellth of the floor area west an intolerable proportion llhich was apparentl]' not remedied b1. a Rotwelfth ccntury : manesque reconstruction o1-the h t e r a G o t h i c c h u r c h r c p l a c e dA b b o t W i l l i a m ' s of the crossing basilica. Saint-B6nigne produced a f'erl architectural echoes, though not of the first importance. W u l f r i c ' s C ) c t a g o no f r o 5 o , i o i n i n g t w o m u c h older Saxon buildings at the venerable abbev of St Augustine in Canterbury, was inspired b1. Crown' at the rotunda at Diion.r|Becket's C-anterbury Cathedral is essentiallv a Gothic rotunda, ultimately inspired from Scns and Diion; the same mav be said of the rotunda o[' Trondheim Cathedralin Norway. Nearer home. and in the Romanesquestyle, is the church of' Charroux. more obviouslv derived from Willianr of Dijon's dcsign. However, only the structural a d r a n c es i g n a l i z e db l S , r i n t - B d n i g n cw a st ' f g e n archileclttrt. i a n c ei n R , r m l t t e s q u e c r a ls i g n i fc ,t.H[, WOODEN-ROOFF-T) SPACIOLIS BASILICAS 'lhe high and ample nirve of Saint-Philibcrt at Tournus wasfor a timc (about Ior9-66) covered 'l'here were other elaborate by a wooden roof. French churchcs of the time which also had




t O5o


wooden roofing, but all ofthem have now been destroyed; indeed it is diflicult to present a clear idea of these important were influential in their period. For the north of France, the church of NIontier-en-Derr{ (q6o gz) deserves mention fbr its tall nave with a high clerestory, carried on a handsome arcaded false triforium, ruined in the Second World War, but norv restored. The sanctuar) rvas replaced by'a finc Gothic chevet in the Middle.l,ges. , Saint-Remi at Reims had as its titular the ancient churchman who brrptized Clovis the F r a n k i s h k i n g . T h r o u g h t h i s a s s o c i a t i o nt h e cafhedral of Reims became the French coronation church. while St Remi was honoured in an abbey near by. In roo5 thc monastery undcrr r r . Reims,Saint-Remi,I oo5 "+9;Gothic shaliing, upper arcade, and i'ault (prc-19r7 photograph) designs, which

took what was intended to be the largest churclr in Gaul a vast basilica originally planned 16 have double aisles, a transept, and an apss 6chclon. Collapse due to enlbrced neglect, u hile the church was near the fiont line in the f"irst World War, hls cost us most of the originnl navc, an interesting construction with bundltd piers decorated in stucco, and a pretty gallcrl enriched by arches paired under a serics <-rt'cnclosing arches,somewhat as in the PilgrimLrgc churches. The tall clerestory wall above tire 'l gallery had semicircular exterior buttresses. he 'I'hc transept had returned aisles. early Ronrirnesque building, somewhat curtailed from s c h e m eo f r o o 5 , w a s d e d i c a t e d i n r o 4 g b y l ) o p c Leo IX.r5 In later times a Gothic vault \\as built over the navc [rrr]. A handsome [arh Gothic apse, ambulatory. and radiating chaIels which have survived, now terminate the building on the east, and the nave has been ucll restored. 'fhe nert reallv conspicuous great woodcnroof'ed basilica was Bishop Fulbert's cathcdral o f C h a r t r e s ,b e g u n i n r o z o [ 9 5 e ] .1 !T h e t r a d i t i o n at Chartres was basilican. The church of 7-1.ireplaced an older building which had a woo(len lool'; a hre of'858 in the church of 74i ncccssitated the Carolingian reconstruction ag.rin r,rhich has been mentiorr.d llooden-rooled previously. The latter building was burnt in rozo, and was replaced b1' Fulbert's church' also a wooden-roofed structurc. but unusuallJ imposing and spacious. It so happens that tte know the architect's name - B6ranger, whonr the cathedral chapter ref'erred to as arIda,r hurttrt whcn he died (ro5o). In thc new ([x1111. rrl ro2o Bdranger took the theme of apse, an.rbul a t o r r . a n d r a d i a r i n gc h a p e l sn e u l l e x e m p l i l r e J 'l'ours ( g g 7 r o r 4 1 ,a n d a p p l i e di t h a n d s o n r u l l it o n t h e c h u r c h l e v e l , a n d a l s o i n t h e c r y p t , * h e te 'l i t e n v e l o p e d t h e o l d a m b u l a t o r y o 1 '8 5 8 . h e o f r o z o s t i l l e x i s tu i r h t l r e i r thrcc crypl chapels a m b u l a t o r y a n d a l o n g c o r r i d o r o f a c c e s s{ ) n each side [96], Ibr they were built into the strh'

the present Gothic cathedraloi structuresof ' 'rrg4-r 260 much th. ,nrin church ol lo2o was not lt had a cathedral existing thc than emaller a ridgebelfrl lts length *..t*ort"nd probably and the clearnare span axis. 6f j45 teeron thc for size'rnd il was ir notable made of i+ f..t' 'Ihe nave and aisles constructed' Uofafy nrty supports interior toglthet had only eighteen about measuring area an in ,U-out 7 t""t square occupiedabout supports The ,r"by "o5l'eet. at Salntonetwenty-fifth of this area,whereas the area of one-tenth seen' as we havc B6nigne, Saint-B6nigne but to suppot'ts up wesgiven in Diion was fireProol" with its woodenroof, continuedto Chartres. dela.ved be visitedb1'the flames A lire of ro-1o

the dedication of Fulbert's cathedral until repairs were completed in Io37;moreover, Fulbert's church sufi-ered again from iire in I r37, a n d t h e w h o l e o l ' t h e s u p e r s t r u c f u r eu a s r u i n e d 'wondcrful and in a memorable disaster' the miserable fire' of r rg-1' !-r'en the stone-\'aulted n e w G o t h i c c a t h e d r a ll o s t i t s o u l e r u o o d e n r o o f in r836. Clearlv, in more than a thousand 1'ears its of successive fires, the wooden roof, fbr all C h a r t r e s' a t d i s c r e d i t e d b e c n h a s advantages, At many other sitcs - St Martin at'fours among them - the wooden-rool'ed basilica has had an equally sinister historv. The issue ti'om the situation presented bv cumSaint-B6nigne (fireproof' but impossibly bersome) ancl Chartres (seemly' but vulnerable to lire) was fbund ab<lut ro5o in improved

C a t h c d r a lc .rrPt" rrz. Auxerre




man1,fine churches and conventual establisfiments on the Pilgrimage Road. In ro4g onc n{ the great builders of all time, Abbot Hugn i i handling of vaulting problems. f'he first half C l u n v , t o o k o v e r t h e d e s t i n i e so f t h e g r e a t Ilu"o f t h e e l e v e n t hc e n t u r v s a w t h e l e v e l o 1 ' t e c h n i c a l g u n d i a n monasterv at a time when it was gy_ a c c o m p l i s h m e n tr i s e t h e c r v p t o l ' t h e c a r h e d r a l panding activelv and needed to rene\\ its o1' Auxerre (aboLrt ro3o) [r rz] shows this buildings everywhere. 'l'he and bv the middlc of the centurv the French ertraordinarv result achieved uithin b u i l d e r s w s r e a s f u l l v s o p h i s t i c a t e da n d c o m _ t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n si s o u r b e s t w i t n e s s t r , 16, pctent as their colleagues of the K(iserdoilte on excellence o1'the preparatory labours of tftg the Rhine. Increasing prosperitv and better Early Romanesque. Paul Henry Ldng expr.e sscs cir,il order made greater resources ar.ailable,for it verv well: 'Wherever we look we behold thrt c a t h e d r a l sa n d m o n a s t e r i e sa l i k e. T h e d e r . e l o n _ g r a L ^ i t d sa , legacv from Rome's most glorious ing pilgrimage ro.santirgo prrrricledrhr oc(.;rimes, which lends this period a trulr. arisro_ slon and the resources fbr the construction of cratic majcsty . . . equalled bl an inner forcc . . .,

m a s o n r t ' t c c h n i q u e t h e i n c r e a s e du s e o f a s h l a r stonc, better stcreotomi-, berter fbunclltions. bctter understanding o1'stresses,and better








G E N E R AC L ONSIDERATIONS Thanlongen Jblh to gottoil pilerinurs And Tulnars.fitr Io sttkrnstraunli strotld(s Piety and the open road wrought well lbr architecture in the second half of the eleventh ccntury. There were many collections of relics in western Europe by that time, and manl' \.cnerated burial places in the length and breadth of thoselands. But Jerusalem, Rome, and Santiago de Compostela drew tides of devotecl pilgrims trom far and wide, so much so rhat pror,ision came to be made in hosoices and monastcries along the road most particularlv along the road to Santiago, wherc the palmers were so numerous that a sense ol fellowship der eloped. The pilgrimages indeed appear ro us as an attracti\e social phenomenon ol the time. \m.ty Picaud. Fidel Fita. Joscph Bcdier. r'reorgiana Goddard King, \rrhur Kingsler' torter' Luis \ azqucz de Parga. Jose Maria

Lacarra, Jrran Uria Riu, Jesfs Calro Garcia hale u'rittcn about its poetrv. its cnchanting legend, its abounding life, and its beautilul -I'he thought makes one envy architecture.r Chaucer's squire, en route, of' course, to Canterburl Srng--rng hc e w r s , o L f l o l t ) n g e .a l r h c t h r I I c w i r sr s f i e s s h e i r si s t h c m o n e t ho 1\ l r r . 'o what Kingsler' h e a r t l c a p s r e s p o n s i v e l yt 'those long, but tlclicious kilo'the m)riad human metres' in f'ellowship with beings who trudgcd unending leagues to la1' Porter called t h c i r g r a t i t u d e a n d t h c ' i t 'r c m o r s c , t h e i r w e a l t h a n d t h e i r s i n s a t t h e f ' e e to f t h e - { p o s t l c ' . W i t h 'the real insight hc recognized and expressed inncr vitalitv, whether postic or spiritual I know nor, but still lbrcefulll living at Santiago,and unquenchably bcautiful there'.r The ancicnt monument which was recognized in 8 r -j (on what basis, we do not know) as t h c t o m b o f ' S t J a m es t h t ' s o n o f Z e b e d e c s o o n attracted ir local pilgrimage, rvhich is heard of :ts 'Ilre







earlv as 8++. Bf'' that time a Benedictine monaster]' alread]'existed at Compostela. 81' 86o the festival of Santiago, z5 Julv, was listed in the martvrologv of the cathedral of Mctz.3 This is a most rmportant f'act, because ecclesiasticscame fiom all over the Empire and from England to Metz in order to studv at the great school of' Roman chant which had been established there. 'I'hus an intcrnational pilgrimage to Santiago soon beg;anto develop. As earlv as 8g3 provision lbr a hospice is reported. In g5r Godescalc, bishop o1'Le Puy', made thc pilgrimage from France, accompanied by nearlv zoo monks. At this time the little Kingdom of Le6n as_ pired to empire, and the bishop of Santiago, as e a r l y ' a sg 7 9 , w a s s t v l e d ' B i s h o p o f t h e A p o s t o l i c See', though not in actual competition with Rome. In 9g7 Sanriago was the object of an and damaging raid by the great Moorish warrior Almanzor. -fhe pilgrimage persisted and grew in spite of such dangers lrom the south; despite local war in the Christian lands, and piratical raids on the coast bv Moslems and Northmen alike. I'hcre is a thrill in seeing and handling the classic manuscript of thc pilgrimage, the twelfih-centur1. pseudo-Callistine codex. containing Avmerv Picaud's Pilgrim's Guide (Book V) fbllowing a scries of books on the Offices of the church at Compostela, the Miracles of'St James (attributed to Pope Calixtus II), the Chronicle of the Lif'e and Translation of St James, and the Chronicle of the Expedition of Charlemagne to Spain (attributed to Arch_ bishop'furpin). The attributions are f'alse,of course, as is the statement that it was first ,received' in Rome; but it mav, as the colophon says, have been 'written in various places Rome, Jerusalem, Gaul, Italv, Germany', Frisia, and especiallv at C l u n r ' . l t c o n t a i n sf i a u d u l e n rl e r r e r s o lC a l i x t u s II and one of Innocent II which datesit r r rg. 'l h e a u r h o r . u h o s a r s h i m s e l fl b o o k r , c h . x r r r ; 'all that kinds of iniquitl,' and fraud abound in lmportant

the road of the saints', borrowed great names to gir,e a show of authenticity to his work. Unfortunatelv the colophon has led to rhs quite general supposition that the pilgrimass was dereloped b1 rhe abbel of Clunr. tbr ii, own profit, and lovers of the old Burgundral monasterv will be glad to learn that it is nori, 'lhere relier.ed ofthis onus. is a phrase in Chap_ ter xrrr of Book rv to the effect that in x comparison between regular clergy, ,black, monks and abbots and 'white' canons regular. the last-named melioremsnnctlrum sectem tcil(,nl - that is, imputing superiority to the canons over Cluniac and other Benedictine monks. 'l'he phrase cannot have been written at Cluny. 'fhe Cluniacs were touch)' at this time; Ibr it ras not manv vears since St Bernard,s disobliging Apologia to William of Saint-Thierry had stig_ matized the monks of Clunv ( r r z4) ; moreor cr, in r r 3z Abbot Perer the Venerable had rectifiecl Cluniac obserr,ances.l The roads of pilgrimage were necessarilv thc grand routes of communication, and would in any case have had monasteries and hosoices on t h e m . A 1 m e r 1 P i c a u di n d i c a r e s o r h e re s r a b l i s h ments in a number of placeswhere Clunv had priories; Cluny itself was not located on an1one of the Roads, and the houses described as Cluniac in Spain were for the most part mercll associated with the Burgundian abbey through foundation, refbrm, customs, or ecclesiasticel personages.Yet Clunv unquestionably favoured the Pilgrimage, and even more the Spanish crusade for the reconquest of the peninsuh. Cluny had influential fiiends in Spain chicf' among them King Alfonso VI, one of whose q u e e n s( C o n s t a n c e )w a s a n i e c e o f A b b o t H u g h . Clunv supplied great churchmen for the refornr and cxpansion of the Church in Spain, as the Christian statesoriented themselves towards rhe Latin centrcs ofcivilization while pushing their b o u n d a r i e ss o u t h w a r d . M u c h B u r g u n d i a n c h i r alry took part in this reconquest Portugal both. in Spain anrl

Pilgrtmas' tt Rc ii"1he (HerseY) - fours, St Martin (Roussirc) Sainr-Martial l' t,lrog.t. S:intc-l ot i. conqu"t' salnt-5ernrn ] Toulouse, (K J C ) ComPostela l. S.nritgode role in the Pilgrimage With the Cluniac it remains to be said that the understood, beffer M' Elie Lambert't have shown researchesof Orders other than the Cluniac that very well numbers of priories on the considerable haj 'l'he whole ensembleof estabPilgrimageRoads. was rationall--v hospitalit.v ofering lishments of some twenty intervals at routes, the along set a comfbrtable day's iourneying' miles apart One supposes an instinctivc or tacit understanding regarding this matter, such as there is to-day among the principal suppliers of the roadsidecommodities of our own times. There was sufficient place fbr evervone - Cluniacs, Augustinians, Hospitallers, conf raternities, and individual doers of good. In that devoted age, each of the Pilgrimage Roadswould naturally have developed a shrine of some importance. The international and inter-regional character of the Pilgrimage is emphasized by the f'act that the most notable shrines one on each road - had vert similar architectural form. These churches transcend the localism of their period Irr3, showing all fivel. St Martin at Tours on the Paris-Bordeaux road, Saint-Martial at Limoges on the V6zela-v P6rigueux road, Sainte-Foi at Conques on the L e P u y - M o i s s a cr o a d . a n d S a i n t - S e r n i n a t T o u louse on the Arles Jaca road, each r.rasa great church of the peculiar Pilgrimage t1''pc,with the ttnestofthe group at the goal ofthe pilgrimage, rn Santiago itself. The buildings embody an accomplished formula fbr ample, spacious churches of firenroof construction suitable for southern lighring and climare.'fhe1 all show askill in a..ign uia an assurance in composition

,r?. Comparali\e

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which rvould have becn impossible previous to 'l'he ro5o for structurcs of this classification. statical problcms were well understood, and the embellishment, particularly with charactcr. r el i e f sculpture, was increasingly Iine in quality and




church' is g'ran,1

in scale. It has a long nare rvith aislesan1 , gallerv, a widc transept, and a spacioussanltuarv arm, all covcred b!.tunnel vaulting carris6 in the caseof'Santiago. 'I'hcsc vaults harc rr1n.r s i x t y - e i g h t f ' e e tI r r 4 ] . to a unifbrm height

sustained' 1\pically' on '19 1tt v e r s ea r c h c s ittached shafts' onc of l o u r rvith ]"urr. pi.rt o l lhe nare wall to currr l a ( c t h e u p Jinn ttt.t the ground floor two olo n a r c h Ll, c a r r ) l h e i r s h a r c o f t h c a r c h c sw h i c h A.o, aisle bals' and rhe lburth frrr. ,tt. rrdioining b e t u q cn thc groin raults ol the a r c h .rrri.r rtt. c o r r e s ponding shali in thc galT h e fttt. "irf. a diaphragm arch which separates l.ry.rrri.. quadrant vaulting so placed as to ,*o Uryr of of'the high vault' In principle thrust absorbth" galleries surround the entire and aisles the ambulatory about the building. This means an above it, beneath the gallerv small aose,and a apse Elsewhcre therc ofthe windows .l.r..,ory the openis no clerestory. To enrich the design, were gallery the piers of ings between the typically divided by pairccl archcs resting. in the middle, on slender columns, and at the sides on the lateral shafts of the piers, under an enclosingarch which corresponds to the aisle arch - a very prett!'arrangement. Light reaches the nave,transept, and apsc directly lrom windows in the end walls and r lantern lower o\er lhe c r o s s i n g ;i t a l s o f i l t c r s i n t i o m t h c w i n d o w s o l ' the aislesand galleries. Since the churches were for canons or fbr monastic purposes' the naves were blocked at the head by the choir fbr thc clergy.By the eleventh or twelfth century it was customary to enclose thesc choirs with walls which obstructed the view liom the lower part ofthe nave to the altar. The wide transepts were designedto compensare for this, in view of the pilgrim thrones. For rhe chant the acoustics of' thesechurches are unexceDtionable. T h e g e n e r o u s l i n e s a n d c o n s i d e r a b l eh e i g h t of these buildings, emphasized b1' their bold towers and turrets, gave them a finc silhouette 'l'hose and a handsome which remain presence. are, after eight hundred years, still among thc n o b l e s tc h u r c h e s o[ l;r,rnceand Spain, and the qestruction of rhe others (Sainr-\4arrial at Llhoges and Sr Martin ar Tours) is grcatty regretted.

'fours, forward-looking as St Martin at ' p i l o t ' d e s i g n ,t h o u g h u s u a l .b u i l t t h e l e a d i n g o r through later rebuilding it departcd from the type which it had helped to crcate. SaintMartial nt Limoges had not so spaclous a transept as thc others. Beautifullv sct' Sainte-Foi at Conques is the smallest and most rustic Ir r[l]' Saint-Sernin at Toulouse is exceptional among the group in being partly brick-built. SaintScrnin was nevcr quitc linishecl, and it has sufiercd both fionr mcdieval additions and modern restorations; moreover, it has lost its suburban sctting and its group of conventual structures. Santiago has lost its canons' choir, and thr original Romanesquc exterior was construction building). Santilgo has the most commanding situation ; surroundS a i n t e - l r o ih a s t h e m o s t p i c t u r e s q u c ings. Santiagoand Saint-Martial were built of g r a n i t e : S : r n t i a g oa n d S a i n t - S e r n i n w e r c l b r t i fied; Santiago, Saint-Sernin, and Sainte-Foi have notable ligure sculpture. Santiago alone has a fully developed circuit o('aislesand galleries about the building. Santiago alone rvas planned tbr the full complement o('nine towers, rcalizing the Carolingian ideal (three wcre large, two werc of mcdium size, and four were corncr turrets). St Nlartin was planned with five towers' all large; Saint-Nlartial was planned with two Iarge touers and two or more turretsi SainlcIroi was planned with a large crossing towcr and a snraller stair tower, on the transept. On the practical side, for comparison with thc church of Saint-B6nigne at Diion, we should note that the nave proper of the cathedral of Santiago and its aisles, fulll-' vaulted, measure about 64 feet in rvidth and r43 feet in length, with zo interior supports in the lbrm of piers, each melsuring about l5 squxrc feet in rrea' This relationship would hold, roughly, for all of thc typical buildings. The nave of Saint86nigne, though dift'erently shaped, had almost masked between 1658 and r75o by Baroquc (though without spoiling the

r r-1. Santiirgo de Compostcla, .. r o7-5 r 2 r r , anahticll isomctric pcrspcctirc (Braunwald)





30 FT

at Saint-\lartial was enriched fiom velopment and by the impulse which came from c t G a l l -Gerben of Aurillac' later Pope Sllvester II, have seen at Ripoll in near-by Catashorn we - also in one way or another by the mullonia of the Pilgrimage Road. Io fple contacts Saint-Martial had become Cluniac at the career (between 936 and closeof Abbot Odo's seceded from the Congregation. had but g4z) After the abbey had suffered from a disastrous firein ro53, it was sold (in ro6z) bv the Count of Limoges, who did not own it, to Cluny, and it thus became Cluniac again under Abbot Hugh. When the new monks came, the old communitv and the Cluniacs were obliged to resort resisted, to force before they could establish themselves (ro63).tt In happier years which lbllowed, Cluny gave the monks of Saint-Martial a new

but opinion is unanimous that the church must have been finished about rrjo. The tall proportions do not indicate tardy date, but the bellry'over the crossing is clearly ofthe twellih c e n t u r y , a n d t h e b o l d n e s so f c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e apse - both internal and external - belongs to a design of the period about ro8o. The unfortunate western towers date from the nineteenth century. Before that time a plain front terminating in a double slope (like a Lombardic fagade) served as a backgJroundfor the entrance portalIrr6]. This west portal at Conques, dated about r rz4,rr is a most remarliable carr,ing, which still (owing to the characteristic arched hood) retains traces of its medieval polychromy, a circumstance which gives us the rare privilege ofseeing this composition of the Last Judgement as the

r r5.


St \,Iartin, rcstorationstudv oftransept as rebuilr .. ro-5o Il. (Hcrsev) Pilgrimage vaulting system might havc bcen extended to the nave, but plans werc changetl af'ter a Iire of rtz3.1 The reconstructcd transept of St Martin rr:rs built according to the Pilgrimagc formula, bur without the inncr paired arches o1'the gallcri bays Irr5l. Heavy tower porches were builr at the transept ends (in the trrrdition of'the Lrgrrlc tower of' 466 7o at St Martin); a lantern *ls built at the crossing, and eventually A monumental pair of towers at the lvest encl. 'Ihe ,rnrbulatory of'g97 ror4, which we would so ghdll s c e ,w a s r e p l a c e db y a n E a r l y G o t h i c a m b u l r r r o r J after a fire ol' rzoz, but that tbllowcd thc orhcrs in the ruin and demolition *hi.h nr"r,onk ,h. b u i l d i n g l a t e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t hc e n r u r v . N

church of the Pilgrimage type; for Cluny was not arbitrary or conformist in architecture. The newchurch was nearing completion when it was dedicatedin rog5, though the nave, evidently still covered at least in part by wood, suffered from fire in 1167 and evenrually had a Gothic vault.

r r 6 . C o n q u e sS , a i n t e - F o ir,. r o 5 o ( ? )r . r r 3 o , facade befbrcrcstoration

the same area as that of Santiago ; 3z piers aggrc_ gating 8ro square feet were needed to sustain the r.ault. Two gcnerations of'technical progress account fbr the difference: thc piers ofthe nave of Santiago occupy onlr. 3oo square fect, littlc more than one-third of the area which was re_ quired at Saint-B6nigne.

S A I N T E - F o lA T c o N e u E s r l T h e c h a n tt r a n s p o r t su s s p i r i r u a l l r t o t h e M i d d l e A g e s .A t C n n q u e r , i n a n d abour Sainre-Foi, we are taken back visually Ir r6 r8]. Sainte-Foi is very happily situated on a rugged slope in a remote valley with a p r * r y r . i l l a g e n e a r . .w h i c h tooks much asir did in olden times.The presenr church,small, elegant in Iinc, and beautifullv proportioned, *u, buit, slouly and progres," replaceolder construction, according ) :Y to -r beautiful plan pur into erecution bv Abbot --*urrrc a b o u t l o 5 o . T h e n a v e . w h i c h a p p e a r st o uc-the oldest parl. has bold proportions ( r :zj) 'orresponding t o t h o s e i n t h e r r a n s e p t( r . r o 5 o ) "'*rarhn ar Tours ( l r r j ( 3 ) 1 .. \ b b o t B 6 g o n *"i-jI07) b u i h r h e c l o i s r e r ,a n d h i s r o m b i s wt against certain older portions of the church,

ST MARTINAT TOUR56 The early tenth-century church of St Martin which we have discussed was consumed bv fire 'fhe in gg7. new construction afrerwartls hacl thc ideal Pilgrimage plan a long nave, a capa_ cious rransept.and ths first typically arrangcd apse, ambularorl,, and radiating chapels but it was wooden-roofed. About ro5o, when the transept was rebuilt, groin vaulting was usedin the aislcs and quadrant vaulting in the gallcries, as had becn done, a little differentlv. at Saint_ B e n i g n e .D i j o n . i n r o o t r 7 . A r t h e h i g h c s rl e v e l there was a ribbed tunnel vault. This tvoical

S-4 I N ? ' - A , { A R T I AA LT L I N T O G E S ' ) { t S : r i n t - M a r r i a li n L i m o g e s , i r w a s t h t . r r r .,r, 1 music rvhich rvas most ellectirch, cultir rrred Onc ma1 fairl_v s u r n r i s et h a r r h e m u s i e r l J c -

T H E G R E A T C I I U R C H E SO F T H E P I I , G R I M A G [ , R O A D S



e (ionques,saintc-lioi,r. I r t l ( o p p r t s i t)

r o - 5 o ( ? )r . r r j o , i n r c r i o r l o o k i n g c a s t a n c l v i e w f r o m r h r e l l l

Middle Ages saw it, alive and warm with vivacious movement. The influence of'the pilgrimage throngs may be felt in the choice and trcatment of the subject more picturesque, and much more popular in appeal rhun rhe apocallptic vtstonwhich was evoked f'or the morr intellectual devotion of the monks of Clunv. SainteF o i a t C o n qu e s n e r e r h a d c l o s cc o n n e r i o n s w i t h Cluny.

grimage group of churches. It rightll'' stands fbr a great moment in thc civilization ol'Languedoc, rvhich had its capital in Toulouse. Except fbr a short intcrludc, it was an Augustinian houselrhen the church was being built. At the t i m e i t l a 1 ' o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o l t h c c i t l ' , a n d h a c la considerable group of conventual structures, arranged about a cloister, on thc northern ( s h a d e d )s i d c . B e f b r e t h e d a t e o f t h e r e b u i l d i n g of Conques was suspectcd,the beginnings of Saint-Sernin wcre ascribedto the ro6os. Conservatire opinion now preftrs ro77, whcn the chapter of canons regular was institutcd, or ro8z-3, when Bishop Isarne of Toulouse tnstalledCluniac monks at Saint-Sernin, because

sAtNT-sERNrN AT TouLorrsr. A N DP I L c R I M A c E scLrLpruRE Saint-Sernin at Toulouser+ is by filr the most ta&iliar and the most ofien visited of the Pil-




-,tto *i.,u*f

(restored in the nineteenth centttr-v), r2r. Toulousc, Saint-Sernin, cheret (with later additions)' and ambulatorv (looking west)' c' Iofio

the canons, claiming exemption, refused him obedience. The chevet of Saint-sernin [rrg zr], of tvpical fbrm, was complete when the later archi_ tect of the building, Raymond Gayrard, took over about rog8. Meanwhile the high altar had been consecratedon z4 N4ay r og6 by the Cluniac pope Urban II in the presence offifteen French and Spanish bishops. A gift fbr rhe nave is reported in ro95, which means that the transeDt uas well adrancedbr rhen, and in r r r8 when Raymond Gayrard died, the splendid doubleaisled western arm of the church had been carried up to include the height ofthe windows o f t h e g a l l e r y ,b u t n o t v a u l t e d . p o p e C a l i x t u s I I , putative aurhor of the famous pilgrim codex, dedicated an alrar (or perhaps the uncompleted building) on rg July r r rg. The west front has been finished off simph., and remains an awk-

ward bulk, bringing the exterior length of'the church to a total of 359 feet. In order to support the staged belfry (largely of Gothic date) abor,e the lantern, the four crossing piers have been much enlarged, with resulting strangulation of the interior perspectives, but the exciting exterior silhouette, as seen lrom the east, is a partial compensation. The picturesque medielal fortifications and the old patina ol'the building were lost in a restoration, otherrvise unfbrtunate also,dating from r855 and the lbllowing r.eers. While Saint-Sernin is most importanr as an accomplished example of Pilgrimage archirecture, its carvings figure prominently in the hist o r y o f R o m a n e s q u e s c u l p t u r e . l s A s e r i e s0 f m a r b l e p l a q u e si n a h e a v y s t y l e h a v e b e e n b u i l t 'I'hel' into the ambulatory wall of Saint-Sernin. are datable to ro96 or earlier [rzr]. At the crossing there is a marble altar slab bordercd b!'

exquisite small ligures which is believed to be the high altar slab dedicated by Pope Urban II i n r o 9 6 .T h e p l a q u e s a n d t h e a l t a r , w h i c h a r e i n Pyrenean marble, make it easy ro trace the sculptural development from French Catalonia (Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, rozo r; Arlessur-Tech, ro46) bv wa1 of the ambulatory figuresand altar ( r oo6) to the Ascension on rhc P o r t ed e M i d g e v i l l e a t S a i n t - S e r n i n( c . r r r o ) a n d so to Cluny (c. trrz) and to the wonderful Portal o f M o i s s a c( r . r r r s ) . r n Conservxtive French ivriters claim a primacy . lor Toulouse i n l h e r e - c r e a t i o no l m o n u m e n r a l sculptute in stone. \'et the precious wreckage of o l t l e rs c u l p t u r e s sho* s that monumenfal sculpt u r ei n s t o n ed i d n o r r e a l l v c e a s ew i r h A n t i q u i t v . r^heAnglian ancl Irish ..orr.r, lare Saxon rer r c l si n England, figure sculprure dated abour roo5 at St Emmiram, Regensburg; ar sr

Martin, Tours; and at the Pante6n de los Reyes ofSan Isidoro, Le6n, still exist ; other important e n s e m b l e s( t h e t o m b o f S t F r o n t , P 6 r i g u e u x , ro77, a,nd the carvings of San Facundo, Sahagrin, ro8o 96) have been lost. A re-study ofthe material will show that Cluniac spirituality and love ofthe arts did a great deal to give increasing cogency to the sculptural themes in the late eleventh century.

SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA, G O A LO F T H E P I L G R I M A G E '-lhe modern pilgrim may come up the Via

Francigena ('Frenchmen's WaJ'') to Santiago de Compostela as his predecessorshave done for a thousand years and more. He will find a charning city of rain-washed granite which has changed very little since the eighteenth century'



dc ('omqoltel,a' SantiaFo r23. , stud-\u1ol lillnll s(ncmc' r !storaaion ut rPsc flYingbuttrcsscs Small rs (l(l(d:lllcr I I | 7 b a t t l e m c n t 4rd
, tOj5. t. I Ioo' etc ll!.J-L)

becausethe provincial government was long agoinstalled at busv La Coruia, and indifl'erent communications have tliscouraged modern det velopmentsat Santiago. L The splendid old cathedralr* frr3(.5), rr.1, tzz-61 still dominates the whole ofthe city, as it h a sf r o m t h e v e r l b e e i n n i n e . I t w a s n o t e n t i r e l v finishedrrntil rhe cnj ot the eighteenr h ..n, rr.,1. by which rime i t s m e t l i e r a l l b r m s h . . r db e e n disguisedon the exterior and partlv on rhe int e r i o r .f o r harmonv wirh rhe grrn,lilr. :pirir ot' 'fh. that gorgeous western faqacle (of the 'obradoiro,) "g". f l r n t . d u 1 .t h e p r r l r r c e of the lrch_ b i s h o po n the north nn.l ,h. cloisler cdihce on tlt .outh, is a magnifcent design in Churrigueresque. \{'ith tvpical Spanish rrr, rhe uanking s t r u c r u r e sn r . k . p , r c l a t i r e l r s i m p l e i n order to give full tulue to the extraordinarilv

e l a b o r a t ef r o n t i s p i c c e o f t h e c h u r c h . T h e l v h o l e great f'agade, 524 feet in width, gains greatl.v from the fact that the supposed tomb of' St James, the nucleus of all Santiago, is located within the building about twentv-five feet above thc levcl of the plaza, so that a high basement storcv was necessarv bencath the western raneie of buildings. The unfinished to$ers ol- the fbqade were carried up in masterly. Churrigueresquc one for the bells, the other lbr the carlacaor Easterrattle to a height ofzjz feet; also. a hcar'-v tower of defence adioining the transept $'as augmented in a similar wav, and provided with a clock. A Renaissance stairwav and platform give acccss to the church from the western plaza. Once past the door, the r,isitor is surrounded by Romanesque w'ork, and engulfbd in an atnro-

rzz. Santiago de Conrpostela, pucrta tle las platcrias, rozg and later

r70 t N T l - R - R E ( ; l O N A t ,A N D I N T E R N A I l O N A L A R C l t l r E c T r - i R E

s p h e r ef u l l o f ' w a r m t h a n d d i g n i t r ' . T h e w e s t e n d has an interesting crypt, which sustains the main vestibule ancl uith it the triple P6rtico de l a G l o r i a , r i c h l l ' e m b e l l i s h e d b y ' c a r v i n g s .I t i s a late and beautilul florvcring of I']ilgrimage sculpture, in arrangement, though not in subject, lieely inspired fiom the EircatCluniac poltal at V6zelay Ir24, r631. It was carved and installcd (rr68 tlS) b1,a master namcd Xlatthcw, shown in prayer on the base of thc mediln iamb. Formerll' the outer archrvay-srvcre open, and the thrce great cloorwavs,erch with iamb figures, the sculptured great tympanum, and archivolts all touched with colour, were seen trom the plazain the cavernous shadow ofthe vestibule. s u p p o r t sa t r i b u n e The vaulting of thc restibr.rle which is carried up as thc central motif of the laqrde. Thercfbre at Santiago we have essentially the old Carolingian rvestwork augmcnted b1 the portal sculpfures, and bJ the monumental tower pair. 'I'he original scheme for the front called lbr thesc same elements. but the carvings of the portal were on the exterior wall, and there were two archcs corresponding to the nave. 1'he s p a n d r e l so f t h e s e a r c h e sh a d a ' l - r a n s l i g u r a t i o n s h o w i n g S t J a m e s o f ' c o u r s e c a r v e d i n r e l i e f. This old scheme has been presclved at the transept portals, and that ilt thc south now contains carvings from the west portal and the north portal, as we know from the Pilgrim's Guide by Aymery Picaud, where they are appreciatively d e s c r i b e d .T h e n o r t h l a g a d eo f ' t h e t r a n s e p t w r s entirel]' rebuilt between ry57 and r77o, but (as r e m a r k e c i )i t s t i l l h a s i t s p a i r e d e n t r a n c e d o o r wa1's and prcserves its medieval name, the Puerta Francigena; the adfoining Plaza de la Azabacheria still recalls the pilgrim souvenirs of jet (a:ahacha) which used to be sold there. is still largely mediev:rl, and it The south fiagade is named after the silversmiths' sltops(platerias) which are even now in the old location near bv. the magnificent Bctween these I-agades.stretches z4o-(bot transept, lengthened b-vthe clock tower

to 2qg f'eet, with a clear interior length of' u r.i I'eet one of the finest of all Romanesque interiors. Its altars (in chapels at the east), togethcr with thosc of the ambulatory, were dedic a t e d i n r r o 5 ; o l d w o r k w a s c l e a r e do u t o l ' i t 1 1 r r rz. and it was finished soon after. All of this work, and thc sanctuary too, is marked b1 cusped and mitrcd archcs which savour of' Moorish influence. The scheme for the new cathedral was workcrl out shortlv aftcr roTr by Diego Pcliez, bishop of Santiago; preliminary work had bccn donc by rc77, when the propcrtv lines involved at tirc cast end of the church were scttled. On the Puerta de las Platerias the ceremonial beginning or the juridical fbundation of the church is lccallcd bv a bold inscription of unusual form, giving thc date V Ides ofJuly, Era r r r6 ( r r Jtrlr ro78), but a good deal of the cxisting rvork on the portal is later. Many carvings have the -I'here general character ofsculptures of r ogo- 5. i s a b e a u t i l u l s t a t u eo 1 ' S tJ a m es w h i c h w a s g i r c n b y A l f b n s o V I ( d . r r o g ) t o e i e t h e rw i t h a t l e r s t 'I'ransfiguration Port;rl. one fine relief liom the The fricze and jamb reliefs are somewhat disrebuilt ordcred, and it is certain that the portal has bccn once probably after a serious tonn insurrection and cathedral fire of rr17, alrtl latcr, when the west ancl north portals $crc remade. Bishop Diego Pelfez was deposed in ro8S. accused of complicity in a plot to invite Williant 'n lhe disturlrcJ ol \ormandl's intervenlion politics ol'the Kingdom. Diego Gelmirez tt,,,L o\rer as administrator (rog3), bishop (rtoo' r ror), and archbishop(r rzo). Repairing,vaulting, and fortifying the existing parts of thc cathedral involved a considerable eflbrt for hinr a f t e r t r r 7 . N c v e r t h e l e s s ,i n r t z 4 o r r t z 8 , t h c 'greater part' of the church having then becn built, Archbishop Gelmircz recommcnded thc cons(ruclion of,r cloister. It was douhtlcss 'rl thc usual Romanesque tvpe, rather small irt scale,and so it was rcplaced tn ,n. tt*,..nt" de ComPostela, Iz4. Santiago r r6ll rzI t ; as rernodelled resiorationitudyol lagade north tower finished later (K.J C )

century. Works were still in progress at the west end of the church when Aymery Picaud v i s i t e di t i n r r 3 r ( o r r r z o ? ) ; i t p r o m i s e d t o b c very handsome, as he says. The visitor entering the nave lrom Master Matthew's \estibule through the P6rtico dc la Gloria seesthe entire length ofthe nave' crossing, and sanctuary without interruption - an open axial vista of 25o feet, the total extcrior length of the cathedral, including the present approach stairway, being 365 feet. It is a ereat moment for the lover of the Middle Ag;s, when he finds himself within thc soft light and shadou of that harmonious nare, gazing towards the high altar which has been -l'he the focus of pilgrim devotion for so long' altar and its surroundings have been enriched

by Baroque httings, and the vista is liamed b1' two splendid Baroque organs at the head ofthe nave, all bright with gilding, silver, and colour; nevertheless the interior is dominated by the old Romanesque work in brown granitc the proeven rhythm ofthe nave bays,the elegant portions of the aisle arches, the sophistication of the gallery arches with thcir rounded tympana and slencler paired shafis' A flood oflight marks the crossing tower. An enormous censcr' insidc the Botafumeiro, is swung tiom a support of great clouds emitting time, this at testival x r o m a r i c s m o k c a s i t d e s c r i b e sa l s o - f o o l a r c is but above the hea<lsof the multitude' This liturgical rich extraordinarily one feature ofthe present tradition of Santiago, which dates in its -I'he popular aspects fbrm from Baroque times.

T H E G R E A T C } J U R C H E SO F T H E P I L G R T M A G L R O A D S


possessgreat interest - the of the festival also fireworks, the proccssion with giganthe fiesta, which do a darice in the cathedral t,fles, two of great high mass of St James's sanctuary after the general the outpouring of devotion and day, rnd spirits all are sweet with time and memories. From the early twelfth century'until quitc 'coro' at the east recently there was a walled-in end of the nave IIz5]. This monastic feature was introduced by Diego Gelmirez, who organized the canons, to the number ofsercntv-two (including seven with the privileged title of cardinals) as a community under the Augustinian regime. Santiago was apparently the first cathedral to have such a coro, and set the fashion in Spain. The opening up of the nave at Santiago has permitted excavations which are revealing the old church of 879 96 built by Alfonso III in the Asturian style, of which the church of Lourosa in Portugal is perhaps the best existing representative [54c].tt' The raised area in the sanctuary rests in part on the foundations of the tomb which the hermit Pelayo brought to notice in 8ri.

1'he Romanesque ambulatorl, and radiating c h a p e l st o o k o v e r t h e s i t e o f t h e n i n t h - c e n t u r y Benedictine church, as agreed in the negotiations of ro77. The charming and verv exceptional central chapel has the inscription Regnante Adelimso tempore Didaci in the time of Bishop Diego Peldez(who undertook the building) and Alfbnso VI the King (who was gcnerous to Santiago but even more so towards Clunv, to whose prayers he believed he owed his life during the preceding murderous dynastic struggle). It was he who, under Cluniac influence (ro7z), outlawed the N{ozarabic liturgv in Spain; under him, as the Kingdom advanced southward, man-v Burgundian knights and Cluniac ecclesiasticsaided in settling and organizing new territories. As a thank-olfering for the capture of the old Visigothic capital o1'the 'foledo peninsula, (25 iv'lay ro85), he gave immense subsidies which paid fbr about one-hall' of the abbel'' church of Clun)', as-$'c shall later see. "I'his conjuncture, however, was unfortunate fbr Santiago. Archbishop Diego Gelmirez in the heroic agle wished to make the see pri-


ri L-^.Jl

t25 Qert).Santiago de Compostela, n a v ef r o m t h e u c s r , . . l o 7 5 | r 5 o .s h o u i n gr h c traditionalmonastic .o.o, io* tlesrror cd r z - 5 , tS . a i n t e sS , a i n t - E u t r o p cr,o 8 r 9 6 . R a i s c d choir fbr monasticscrvices lr38l. Pilgrim crypt Irjgl openedrvideon nale steppedfor visibiliti' (destrolcd r8oz)





matial; he was a personal friend of Calixtus II. and ir looked as if he might be successful, hut the Cluniac Bernardo, archbishop of Toledo rrlier the recapture, kepr the ancient primarial c l i g n i r l l b r t h e o l d c a p i t a lc i r y . Within the present extensive residence of the archbishop of Santiago, north of rhe cathedral. there are remains of the palace which DieEo Gelmirez built./u Irs plan is in rhc shape of ai with the cross-bar a west rangiecontinuing the l i n e o t t h e c a r h e d r a l l a g a d e .T h e g u a r d hall and school were towards the plaza de la Azaba_ cheria. An interesting old liitchen and stairs connect with two handsome halls in the u,est range. The lower one has two lines of groin

vaulting supported by a median range ofslenql., and eleglnt piers; the upper room i, spl.n,i; " o p e n f e s t i r a l h a l l , i t s l a t e m e d i e r . a lu r u;no_ ing from corbels ornamented by r.ulptrr.s i; the musicians and the instruments which r,s[ to be heard there Irz6]. T.he uppermost panl of the palace have been rebuilt, Uut trn,,no ".. to hat'e been fortified, and connected by a bridg; with the upper works of the cathedrrl, nhiii also bristled with crenellations, added in .,,nsequenceof the dramatic town uprising in r r r 7. When the magnificent old battler of a bishop died, in rr3g or rr4o, after fbrty_odd y.un o'f command at Compostela, his palace ancl the cloister were probablv complete, and the carhe_ Ha,, rargell.lburteenrh cenrurr

complete enough bv Ir5z for thc surdral was certain contingent revenucs; bllt at of rclder the P6rtico de la Gloria, the upper time that o l t h e w c s t e r n f o w e t ' s .a n d t w o g r i m b u t o6fi.s tbrtified towers on thc east sidc ol' hand.o*. remained to be constructed. transept the Through all these and subsequent changes, thc beauty of the original building, the vitality of the spirit which created it, and thc enchantmenr of the Pilgrimage continue to be felt. Before leaving the Pilgrimage, it ought to be remarkedthat the great churches which we have seen served as sources for the design of many churcheson a smaller scale. No other buildings presented the full Pilgrimage formula, bur excerpts from that formula. r'arying from region to region and from building to building, are seenin much interesting twellth-century work. Romanesque churchesso much resemble the Pilgrimage ty-pe that older historians, not aware ofthe significant role of Saint-Bdnigne at Diion and St \Iartin Several conspicuous Aulergnat

supposed that the Pilgrimagc rype originated in Auvergne. Actualll, the Pilgrimage Roads ran through the area of six or seven regional schools of architecture to which we shall ref'cr in much more detail. Nlention should also be made of the accommodations rvhich were provided lbr pilgrims.rr Abbeys and priories on thc road normallv received pilgrims in their hospices or their guesr houscs according ro the travellers' condition; there were also, from an early period, hospices which were built with the pilgrims especially in mind. The earliest hospice certainlv mentioned i s t h a t o f O r e n s e , n e a r S a n t i a g o ,8 8 6 ; o t h e r s a r e mentioned in go5 (Tufron), roro (Antoiana), r o5z (Nijera), and afie r this the1. become numerous. In general large opcn halls wcre p r o v i d e c lf o r s l e e p i n g I r o 6 ] , s p e c i a lc h a p e l sh a d divine serlice, and special charities took care of the needs o1'sickness,destitution, and death rvhen the pilgrims encountered those misfbrtunes in their pious journcvrng.



rz6' Santiago de compostera. .{rchbishop'sparacc Festi'ar



ot the fire grcat churchcs olThe architecture Roads uas intcr-regional' interP i l g . i t u g . ,h. and concerned with a great nation"l in st1'le, Spain' Nlention has alreadl-' towards rou"a.n, preceding chapter of archithc in macle been the wa1' which arc detectural designs along P i l g r i m a g ct \ p c o f c h u r c h ' a n d pendeno t n thc and of ,h. fr.t that French master masons buildings' sculptors worked on man.\ Spanish But it most not bc fbrgotten that most of the pilgrims and artisans rcturned home; if there was a genuine florl' of'Pilgrimage architccture and sculpture, a counterflow should also be discoverable.' Emile Mile was discerning in the matter. He sensedthat a veritable tide of influence fiom Moslem Spain in particular from thc mosque of C6rdoba flowed along the Pilgrimage Roadsinto Francc, and added spice to numberless Romanesque designs on or near these routes.2 Le Puy presents a special case. It was continuously an important citv, and it has a long recordofsignificant contacts with more southcrly regions, including Nloslem Spain. Coins of Moslem tenor minted at Le Pu1' and lbund in the peninsula are proof.s of a livell' and continuing exchange. Le Puv was earlv awarc of Santiago de Compostela; Bishop Godescalc o1' Le Puy brought rhc first large rccordccl group of pilgrims there, nearly'zoo monks, in 95r, as we have seen. One of the two southern PilgrimaBe Roads ran through Le Puy and N{oissac. Moslem influen..,.o.rf'..r.d by' striking cusped t|ttt in arches and doorwavs, appears in both Places.
rz7. Lc Puv Clathcdral, cloister and tower, liom above; largch twelfih ccnturl

r z 8 . L e l ) u i ( - a t h c d r a lf,a g a d c , twelfth ccntur\' (rcstored)

Moorish influence is strong. It is the noblest building in the Auvergnat district of Velay, w h i c h b e i n g r o l c a n i ch a s p r o r i d c d a s p e c t a c u l a r situation lbr the cathedral, and a fine but rathcr grim granite,black and red, ofwhich to build it' 'l'he church, begun in the eleventh centurv, has a rather simplc crucitbrm plan. \t the headof t h e a x i s s t a n d s a h a n d s o m e s t a g e dt o w e r o f t h e

T h e c a t h e c l r a lo f L c P u y ' [r27, rz8l is thc rnost notable French monumcnt in which


I N T E R - R E G I O N A I -A N D I \ T E R N A T I O N A I ,



type, with arches, setbacks, and gables like those at Saint-Nlartial in Limoges

the chapel of'Saint-\,Iichel de I'Aiguilhc. 1n,1 d o u b t l e s s i t s s u c c e s s l u lu s e a t L c P u v e n c l 1 r a g c d i m i t a t i o n e l s c w h e i e .C . l u n i a c d c s i g n c r . ls rg_ came intcrestcd in these motif'.salso; the cus1.r.d arches o1' the trifbrium of the great chLr1.111 ( t o 8 8 l t . ) a n d o f ' t h e m a i n p o r t a l ( r r o ( r r ^ :r x 1 C,lunt' are wcll knorvn. The portal hacl tlli _ s, b o r d e r c d s p a n d r e l p a n e l sl i k e a N , I o o r i s h mih116 o r c i t 1 .g a t e . A s u r p r i s i n g n u m b e r o f c h u r . c h e s in the vicinitv of'Le Puy-, the Pilgrimage Ro;rtls. a n d C l u n y , h a v e c u s p e d a r c h e sa t t h e p o r t r l : L a S o u t e r r a i n e ,N , I o i s s a c , ontbron, and (irnzM g o b i c b e i n g i m p o r t a n t C l u n i a c e x a m p l c s .r [ ) o l r . r,ogue also foil windows and trilbrium arches had rhrir Saint-Etienne at Nevcrs, (.lLru.

and other churches ofthe region. The sanctuarv a n d t r a n s e p t so f L e P u v a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l v p l a i n , though the crossing has a lantern with octagonal vaulting. The old part of the nar,e consists of two plain bays, with octagonal domical r,aults on squinches. It is reached bv stairs from the ascending slope below the church. In the twelfth century the nave was extended out over sort of crypt the slope, forming an imposing opcn porch a which presents three cavernous

portals beneath the end wall of'thc nave and a i s l e so f ' t h e c h u r c h . T h i s i s a v e r v h a n d s o m e design, whether seen from a distance or at the head of the stcep slope as one approachcs from the west. The crvpt porch, gable, and wall belfries recall Santiago, but the detail has manv Moorish features, like zebra stripings in the coursed ashlar and the voussoirs, pattern-work masonrv panels, pointed arches, decorative with Cufic inscriptions. ofthe nave. cusped archcs, and flatlv-carved wooden doors 'l'his lagade is clearlv a

I t S + , r 5 5 1 ,a n d S a i n t e - C r o i x a t L a C h a r i t d - s u r L o i r c b e i n g C l u n i a c e x a m p l e s .T h e z e b r a - s o r k appears in the transr,erse arches o1' \'-dzelav I r 4 o ] . L o b e d s o l l i t p a n e l sl i k e m i n i a t u r e _ \ l r o r ish lobed domes appear, togerhcr with chi:clcurl eaves brackets, at Notre-Damc-du-l)ort in Clermont-l'errand, and were seen formcrlr in S a i n t - B 6 n i g n ea t D i j o n . I n g e n e r a ls u c h f ' e a t u r e s gave warmth and spice to thc stvle whererrr thel, rvere used. By contrast thc rather rough basilicas of the north seem \:crv Germanic. .rr.rd t h e t r , p i c a lc h u r c h e s o f B u r g u n d r - a n d P r o r e n c c vcrv Romln. Thc transfbrmation of' Saint-Philibcrt ;rt Tournus Iror, rozl into a fireproof buiJtling broug;ht about the construction of transrrrsc tunnel vaults which ma1' ha'r,e a \Ioslcnr or Asturian connexion, and an eleplant domc orer niche-head squinches rescmbling those ot [.c Itur, earlr in the tuellih centur\. l so .tr.h domes were built at about the samc timc ncrtr the entranceofSaint-Front at Pdrigucur l::il \ c o r r e s p o n d i n gp r o c c s su l t r l n s l o r r r r r t l i l l ) procluced an cvcn more remarkable conslrllc'l he tion at Saint-Hilaire, Poitiersr Irzg, rrol. t o m b o f ' S t H i l a i r e , t e a c h e ro f S t \ { a r t i n . l t t t . t c t e c la p i l g r i m a g e , a n d a b o u t r o z 5 a v a s t c h L r f c h . was undertaken, in which Queen Emnrrr.ol England, Waltcr Coorland the Norman llci.rr-

twelfth-century conception likc the wesr parts -I'he nave bays are stubbv oblongs in plan, and divided from one another bt dia-

phragm arches. There are corbel tables on the flank at the ler,el of these arches; abor,e, an intermediate stage has columns, arches, and nichc-head squinches which graccfully make the transition to an octagon, on which an octagonal domical vault is set. There are unmistakable N{oslem rcminiscences hcre. This is also true of thc south porch of the church, and to a lesser degree of the cloister, whcre partic o l o u r e d m a s o n r v a p p e a r sa l s o . I n a l l t h e r e a r e nearll- a hundred carved capitals of'Nloslem 'I'he type at Le Puv. granitic hardness o1'the material has gaincd suavity lrom its Romancsque and oricntal ambient without losing the r,igour of'fbrm appropriate to a carhcdral design on such a picturesque sitc. 'l'hc decorative cusped arches and zebra work are represcnted in Le Puv itself at thc portal of

I29. Poitiers, Sainr-Hilaire, nave .. ro2-5 ;lg, r'aulted later (twelfih and nineteenth centurics)


r3o. Poiticrs,Saint-IIilaire, aisle, . . I O 2 54 9 , vaultedlater (twclfih and nincteenthccnturics)

tect, and perhaps Bishop Fulbert of Chartrrr were concerned. Although the new nave ancl aisles in their first state had only recently brcn bcgun on an enlar.qed scheme which incr,rporated the fine old free-standing tower, rhe building. wooden-roof'ed, was dedicated in thq ) e a r r o + 9 . I t s c o l o s s a lo p e n i n t e r i o r s p a c c ,r \ ' f minating in a hemicvcle about the altar, lrrs quite Roman in its ample grandeur. About rr3o 68 the church was rebuilt antl v a u l t e d i n a s t r a n g ew a y ; t w o f i l e s o f p i e r s u e r c contrived to divide the nave longitudinalll inro three parts, of'equal height, leaving the midtllt bays square in plan, and the lateral bays icn narrow. The nave piers, strengthened by charniing intcrior buttresses in the fbrm of littlc arched bridges, were kept very slender ancl unobstructive, yet strong enough to sustain a series ofoctagonal domical r aults on diaphragm archcs a n d s q u i n c h e sw h i c h c o v e r e d t h e c e n t r a l p a r l o f the nave. Hele, as at Le Puv, the schemehas oriental even afier a nineteenth-centurr rebuilding necessitated b-v a partial demolition undertones in the Revolutionary era. Oriental undertoncs are f'elt in the aisles also, lor these are ofdoublc width, and vaulted, bay by bay, with a pecr.rlirr compound groin vault supported, some$'lut like the vault of San Baudelio de Berlanga in Spain [57|, by a tree-like central column and trumpet^ The efl'ect, thor.rgh achieved $ith Romanesque detail, has a strange Moorislt clchct, and reminds onc oi the groping soltttir-rnsof the Mozarabic architects two centurits earlier. . { t t h c h e a do l t h e n a r c i u s t d e s c r i b c d thcrt r. a spacious transept, also vaulted after it t'r,ts f i r s t b u i l t . a n d b e l o n d t h a l a h a n d s o m ed , r r l ' a p s e w i t h a m b u l a t o r y a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s ,r t l l o l -t u e l f t h - c e n t u r ) c o n s t r u c t i o ni. 'l irr hc l\loslem tlpe of rault which appear'> perfectcd fbrm at the mihrab of the mosqrtcoi C 6 r d o b a ( 9 6 r ) [ r 3 r ] , h a s e x e r c i s e dm u c h 1 , t ' cinltion. It uas imitared in Snanish G,rrhic

I3I. Mihrab of the mosque of C6rdoba' Moslem rihbed and lobed rirult' c16t

R E F I - E xF R o M T H E p t L G n t r u r a c r


'#., ,'i*j

,' r O ,- *. i

comes into the reflex architecture vaults, and it The odd destroved church Pilgrimrge. the of of Saint-Pi-de-Bigorre" had such a vault in a tall stagedtorver decorated rvith cusped arches; the church of L'H6pital-Saint-Blaise near bv a l s oh a s s u c h a r a u l t u h i c h s r i l l e x i s r s ,a n t l a

esque work. N{oorish_looking interlaccd ribs and lobed vaulting ser.eries continue to appear cvcn in Earh. Gothic times, but not in monu_ ments of importance.

O r i e n t a l c o n n e x i o n s t h r o r . r g hS p a i n by way ol'thc Pilgrimage are, howevcr. onlv a Dart of erample is perfecf to be found in Nar.arre, 6ore thc stor\.. North -{lrica and Sicily had their in the conventional but handsome octaRonal e l l e c t o n R o m a n e s q u c architecturc also; the church ol'thc Hol.r Sepulchre in Torrc* .l"l poinred arch and thc approxinrate catenrr\ RioT[r32, tY]. shapr for tunncl raulting clmc liom rhc \.ar I t i s a n o p e n q u e s t i o n a l s o w h e t h e r t h e s q u a r e F,ast.Being structLrral - rathcr than decorative, d o m i c a l v a u l t s o t t o w e r s l i k e t h e R o m a n e s u u e like almost all the refler architecture of. the belfryo[the cathedral of Or iedo (abour r roo). Pilgrinrrrgc rhesc Ncar Eastern morif , por,rcr_ t r a n s c p t a l l o w e r the ol sr Marrin at Tours fullr transfbrmed Romanesque architecture, as [rr5J, and one of'the lagadc rowers ofBaveux we shall see in Burgundv, Normandy, nn,t ih. ( a b o u tr o T o )d o n o r r e p r e s e n ta r , j t l c x o f \ l o s l e n r Ile-de-France. T'he tide of structural influcnce engineering; fbr the ribs support the middle of Ncar Easr is a part ol'the prehistory of IrT lh. the vaulting panels in the \,Ioorish f'ashion, not Gothic architecture, ancl as such will be ana_ t h e a n g l e s ,a s i n R o m a n a r r d r r . p i c a l R o m a n _ lysed in a later chapter.

r , 3 z ( u p f t ^ i t ( )a n d r 3 . 3 .I o r r c s d e l R i o , r h . H r , l _S r c p r r l c h rn cc . llih ccnrurr, :\ltlu l lt_ h,,f t. a n dc \ t c r l o r





T H E E A R L YA B B O T S ; (6coLECLUNISI[.NNE' THE Clunyl lies in southern Burgundv, nearlv due w e s tf r o m G e n e r a a n d a b o u t s i x n n r i l e s n o r t h of Lyon, in a region which was relativeh less disturbed during the invasions and local wars than most of France. Fronr the time of Cloris onward it tendcd to graritate to$'ards lirancc, but for a long time it was on the borders ol'the Empire, and maintained close lelationships there. It had eas1. communications in both directions. Clzniacun, said to be a Rom:tn station, was a villa under the Franks, and a possessionof the family of Charlemagne. ,\t the beginning of the t e n t hc e n t u r y i t w a s t h c l l r o u r i t c h u n t i n g l o d g c of William Duke of Aquitaine and \'Iarquis of Gothia, lying near the north-eastcrn extrcmit\.' o f h i s d o m i n i o n s .. { r r h c r n d o l a , i g o r r , , r . u n quiet life, he gave the domain to the noble Berno, abbot of Baume ancl Gienr. in the F r a n c h e - C o m t ed e B o u r g o g n e , i n o r i c , r h a r a retormed monasterv misht be established. When the -onk, .u-" to Clunv thev fbund a rural villa of the Romrrn trpe u.hich haclpcrsistedin the region, and can be recognizecl er.en to-day. In the tenth cenrur\, the countrr.sicle was dotted, rhough spitrsch. u.ith such cstabrlshments, tradirionalll posscssing a court u ith a master!s dwelling, its immediate dependencies,and a chapei. This part of the r.illa uas temporarily used as the monastcrv, and soon 19r5-27?)the first monastic church. Clunv I. w a sb u i l t j u s t ro thr norrhol ir.'l hcrewcrc rrlso, ot course, the various barns, shops, ancl living

quarters rcquired br, the agricultural exploitation, which continuetl under thc new iuspices uith servants, peasants, anct serf-s, irs befbrc. L i t t l c c h a n g c r v a s m a d e i n t h c i r e x i s t e n c c ,e x c c p l l h a l t h e i r l r t u n ( l ( r a m o n i l s l i cr e g i n r ew a s probablv morc fbrtunate than under lar controlA rcmarkable fbundation charter had been i s s u e d i n s o l e m n c o n c l a l e a t B o u r g i e s ,t h e e c c l c s i a s t i c am l etropolis of Aquitaine, on r r September gro) rvhich in laving the groundrvork lbr the new institution placed it under tlitrute to the Holv Sce. The Pope might intcrrene if'the housc becamc p;rarelv disordered, br,rtother'erempt' rviscit uas l i ' o m a n r e c c l c s i a s t i c ao lr lar interf'erence. The chartcr was conlirmed with this provision future b r , P o p e - J o h nX ( q r - + z 8 ) . most important fbr the 'l'he monas-

t c r v a c q u i r e d t h e r i g h t o f ' s a n c t u a r yi n 9 9 4 , a n d its prir,ileges were further supplemented bv Gregorl \' (997or ggii)and bv John XI\ ( ro.z4): I t s o h a p p e n e dt h a t C l u n 1 . ' sf i r s t a b b o t , B e r n o (gro z7), was at the sametimc abbot of-scveral o t h e r m o n a s t e r i c s ,e a c h o n e i n d e p c n d e n t . B u t his successor Odo (gzZ ,+2), b ] ' v i r t u e o 1 ' ap a p a l privilege issued bl John XI in g3I, began to bring monasterics under thc rule of the abbot ol Clun1.a.r .vrri. This was a noveltv among the B e n e d i c t i n c s ,s i n c e t h e R u l c e n v i s a g c ds e p a r a t e and independent houses. Becauseof it, howo c r , C l u n v w a s e n a b l e d t o b e c o m e b 1 ' 'f i r t h e most important of the carlier excmpt monas'l'he terics. d i s a d v l n t a g e so f t h c C l u n i a c s v s t e m lav in understandable local jealousy of, and r e s i s t a n c et o , t h e e v c r - i n c r e a s i n ge x e m p t i n s t i tution, and in the perennial faults o1'large-scalc c e n t r a l i z e da d m i n i s t r a t i o n .


I N T E R _ R E G I O N A LA I ' D I N l ' E R N A T I O N A L A R C H I T E C T U R F

C L U N \ ' I N T H E H I S T O R Y O F R O M A N E S Q U EA R C I I I T E C T U R E


Odo's abbacy was decisive in this matter. Hc was a saintly man, open-hearted, and of great warmth and personal charm. He left his position as prccentor for the canons of St lVlartin at T o u r s t o s c e k a m o r c a u s t e r el i l c a t B a u m e . a n d came with a group of'serious monks to Clunv, whcrc he became novice master. As a poet, musician, and prcceptor in music he was a lovcr of the arts. Under him the abiding spiritual li1-e of (,luny was so greirtlv cnriched that it became possible to send colonies of Cluniac monks to reform other monasteries, some of' which became depcndent on Clunv, and the group was lirrther extendcd b1' the fbundation of new 'I-he Cluniac priories. wonderful Cluniac chant went with them evcrvwhere. In principle, all monks were prof'essedat (,luny.itself . This process continuod, and so produced a spreading nctwork of monasterics which is propcrly called the Congregation of Clunv, under the rule of Aymard (942 c. 96j), Mayeul (t. gb| 94, and Odilo (994 ro.18).rThere was an increasinp;group-consciousncss. resembling t h a t o f a n ' O r d e r ' i n t h e m o d e r n s e n s c .S t H u g h (ro49 rrog) had a strong centralizing policv which preparcd the way' for strictll.-organized i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t h e C i s t e r c i a na n d l a t e r O r d e r s . At its zenith Cluny controllecl about r45o houses,of which about 2oo had some importance. There can be no doubt that the Congregation and Order of Clunv constituted a cultural unit within thc bountlaricsof Wcstern churchmanship. It would be easicrto recognizc this if its art had not not becn scattered, fbrgottcn, lost. The distinguished career of thc Cluniacs as b u i l d e r s h a s b e e n o b s c u r e db y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e (rnore than two centuries) which their m e d i e v a l b u i l c t i n g c a m p a i g n s c x t e n c l e d ,a n d b y . the f-actthat their achievements camc into architectural history without being recognized as Cluniac. rvriting more than a centurv a g o , a t a t i m e w h e n m a n , l . e x a c tr e l a t i o n s h i p si n \iiollet-le-Duc,

elchitectural hisrorr. wcrc not \.cr und(.t.\t(,rr{l s t r r c d h i s b e l i c lt h a r t h e C l u n i a cm o n l , l i l , rl,. Cistercians wcre sent out with pazrrl.i .,,pi., that is, of master plans which could not 6,i m o d i f i c t l .C l u n i a c p r a c l i c c * a s o f c u u r . . , , , , , . i n r o r c l i b e r a l .e s p e c i a l l rw i t h r e g : r r . J to chrrrt.lrtr I r a p p e a r sr h a r t h c r e u a s a n a r c h i r r o l p l . r , r , nj C l u n 1 , u s c l u l . e s p e c i a l h .l b r t h e l a r o u r , r t p y , o r i e s . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c w a s a c c u s e do f i n r c n r i n E 'l'he an eittle clunisienne.l phrase was ill_1irrcl. b c c a u s el a t c r F r e n c h a r t h i s t o r i a n s h a r e c o r n g to use the term ltole fbr such groups as tarh C i s t e r c i a nm o n a s t i ca r c h i r e c t u r e . w h i c h h , r . la remarkable inter-regional unity during the lirst c e n t u r y o f t h a t O r d e r ' s e x i s t e n c e .B v t h e i r c o n _ s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n tt h a t t h c r t , j s n o tltole clunisienne, these writers have obscuretl thc lact that unified groups do exist among,^ rhe buildings which were constructed bv the (.lun i a e sd u r i n g t h e t w o R o m a n e s q u e c e n tu r i e s The situation has been clarified b1' thc dcvoted labours of'DrJoan Evans.Over thc reers s h e h r s c a r e l u l l l i d e n r i f i e d ,i n r . . , . . u n , , . , . , visited, Cluniac works ofarchitecture, antl has p u b l i s h e d t h e m a s s u c h . 5I t w a s a m a t t e r o l s u r priseeven to her that aficr all that hashappcncd i n 8 o o r - e a r ss i n c e t h c f u l l f l o w e r i n g o f ( . l u n i , t h c r e a r e s t i l l r e r n a i n s( g r c a t e r o r l e s s i n c r r c n t ) ol .1,25 Cluniac establishments. represenrirre nearlv a quarter of the whole number, ancl all the areaswhere the Order did its work. 'l'o avoid confusion, we lbllow rhe Frcnch alrthors, and rel'er to these builclings as .grotrps', livc in number. First of all rhere was a widclv diliused group based on the church called Clunv II (r..q;5 . . r o o o ) a n d t h e a d j o i n i n g m o n a s t e r . v( r . 9 9 5 Io4.5)[ro3-5], which har.e becn relirrcd to in our chaptcr orr BurgundranDerclopmcnr. in l-rancc betwcen 9oo and ro5o. Thesc constrLrctions, with the great cxpansion of thc Clunirc m o n a s t e r i c s ( s u b j c c t a n d a s s o c i a t e d ) .b e c a n r c , somerimes closel), sonrclinres l o o s e l vl i r l l o n e d . ' l ' h e . l i m c , r r i , , ' , . J so to speak, paradignrs

o l r h e m o n a s t e r ya t C l u n y p r e s e r r e d description Con suetudinarr of r o43 wit nesses ,'.irir'f "tft the actual form ol'the mona l" tftir f..,, s does SS' Peterand Paular Hirsau' ,it.tyof 'ro3o t second'grotrp'of Cluniac iho.tly tft.t churches o1'subbegan to appear church"t $ith.a generous use ol' . o n t r r u c t i o n irnrirt were planncd with aisled nares' a s h l a r .T h e y transepts' ambulatories with iid., to*.t.d (or apse 6chelonsl in less amchapels radiating three apses), substantial examples' bitious grouped piers, capitals carved rvith leafage ancl vaults with transverse Lo,arquat, stout tunnel groin vaults over the level, highest the at irch", a i s l e s ,u s u a l l y a l o w c l e r e s t o r \ ' s o m e t i m e s a gallery; often portal carvings of some interest, and decorative arcading. The examples witll a p s e6 c h e l o n i n c l u d e C h a r l i e u I I ( r . t o 3 o 9 4 ) (r' ro4o r roo) lt$, t+4. 164, r651,Palerne near Clun,v, parish churches various and Ir35], a f t e r r o 4 o ; t h e e x a m p l e sw i t h a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r v , 'l'here u'ere and radiating chapels come later. various reductions of this general t.vpe also some without clerestor-vin the naYe, some with quadrant vaults over the aisles. 'groups' just menIn addition to the two t i o n e d ,t h e r e a r e , d u r i n g t h e a b b a c v o f H u g h o f Semur and later, three other groups which ma1' be distinguished.. The third group is relatcd to Sainte-Madeleine, V6zelay, the Jb ur t h to thc new chapel of St Ntary near the Infirmarv at Clun]., and thell/l to rhe great church there. The Cluniacs were more zealous fbr uniformity in customs, discipline , and liturgy than tn architecture. 'I'hereforc in addition to the 'series designs' noted above thcre are other specialgroups representati\re of'the local architecture, which varied from region to region. In the conventual structures which the monks built for their own habitation. local variation was lcss likely to occur. Such structures among the Cluniacs of the Romanesque period were woodenroofed and almost uniformlr- simple and una s s u m i n gt ,h o u g h w e l l - b u i l t . T ' h e 1 ' h a da n a t u r a l

tendenc]. to unitv bccausc of thc unifbrmitl' ot' the Customs; and wherever the)'are preserved, thel.breathe the same warm but austere spirit. In thc churches,built fbr divine worship, the p r e d i s p o s i t i o no l ' t h e C l u n i a c s w a s , b 1 ' c o n t r a s t , f b r m a g n i l i c e n c e .T h e l ' h a d a c o m m o n i d c a l o f h a n d s o m ep h n n i n g , s o l i d , e n d u r i n g f a b r i c , a n d 'l'his unitl'transcends to a of masonry vaulting. large degree the variations in gcneral form, silhouette, lighting, colour, and decoration. It necds to be reiteratcd that the f.luniac psalmodl', admired and imitated throughout westcrn Europe, was most beautiful whcn sung in r , a u l t e d . e s p e c i a l l vt u n n e l - \ ' a u l t e d c h u r c h e s . Thence, a generrl stimulus fbr vaulting

HUGH OF SENlUR ABBO'T Abbot Hugh was onc ofthe great buildcrs ofall time. He had an earlv and deep location to the monastic life, rvhich led him to Cluny in ro4r, r g e d s e r e n t e e n .o r p e l h a p s i n r o . 1 3 .I n r o - 1 8 ,a t the death ot Abbot Odilo, he was alread.vgrand prior of the mother housc; early in ro49 hc was elected abbot, at the age of twentl.-fir'e. He ruled a constantlv expanding Congregation and O r d e r o f C l u n r l b r s i x t l 1 e a t . .u n i i l h i s d e a t hi n r rog. His triendll' dignitl' gained the affection of the people, ecclesiastics,ancl princes alike. M o n a s t i cc h r o n i c l e r s ,w i t h r h ei r a c c o u n l so l ' puerile miracles, hardl-v help us to judge Hugh's true abilitiesand accomplishment'What he did r v a st o b u i l d a r e a l m o n a s t i c e m p i r e w h i c h f i t t e d admirablf into the f'eudal p:rttern of-the age a consolidated, centralized intelnationalmonastic 'exempt' houscs organism, ideally made up of like Cluny itst:lf-.Houses of the Ordcr multiplied l i t h i n i t s o l d a r e a si n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e S a 6 n e , Loire, Garonne, and their tributaries; cxpansion took place in the regions of the Seine, the Somme. and in thc Germanic lands, and to a lesserextent in England, Itall', and Spain. Hugh's famc' as a builder echocs in the Cluniac antiphon lbr z9 April, his annirersary and




ER C H I T E C T U R I C L U N Y I \ ] T H E I I I S T O R Y O F R O N , I A N E S Q UA


f'estilal dav Quomodo umplifitt'tttusillum, qui in diehus sttis uedifitai:it domum e/ t.r'altu,-itteilti)lunl sdttilunt D"nin,t, uhich was srrng in m:rnr maiestic which hc himself had built. During three-score vears ofiourneving on r,isit_ a t i o n s , h e m u s t h a \ , e s e e nn e a r l v a l l t h e l a m o u s structures some of them Roman tlren exist_ ing in wesrern Europc. Abbor llugh himsclf nust ha\e approt,cd (personallv or bv direc_ t i r e s )t h e p l a n sl b r s o m e r h o u s a n c l s ot'incliviclual b u i l d i n g s . 1 ' h e i r h i g h q u a l i n ' c a n l e a rc n o d o u b r ttrat -{bbot Hugh had an intclligent inrerest in building, and lar.oured good building. This lact rn turn had a fivourable ef1'ecton the buildine i n d r r s t r r i n g e n e r a lo r e r a l a r g e a r e a o f r . c s t e r n Europe, where monastic architecture still ranked highest in ordcr ofimportancc. Even wherc the (,luniac monks rcformcd a monrsterr. rvhich

reteined or regaincd its indepenclenc,.. n^,. b u i l d i n g sw e r e l i k e l r . r ob e b u i l t a r r h . b " - i , n;"1 o l - t h en c w r e g i m c , w h e n C l u n i a c i n l l , , . n , , ,,,,l s t r o n g e s ti i n a d d i t i o n l a r g c n u m b e r s ...1.u"t tstical works (some ol' them parish o w n e d b r t h c O r d e r ) w o u l d b e a f f e c t e . lr , , ,,,1",. e x t e n r b v n o r a b l e C l u n i a c d e s i g n sb u i l t i n their vicinitv. C h u r c h d c s i g n sb a s e do n C l u n y I I c o n r i n u c d to mulripll'uncler -{bbot Hugh. Of'smrrllqIxrches around Clunr-a st]'le related to (_lunr.ll a p p e a r sm o d e s t l r .a t t h e f o r m e r p r i o r l . o f ' l l l a n o t (r. ro5o) or more importantly at Chapaizc, (r. Io5o and later) [r34]. Among the relatcd buildings of consequencc a t a d i s t a n c ef i o m C l u n y a r e G i g n v ( l a t cc l c r en t h centurv) and Baume (probably twelfth ccntLrn.) from which monasreries Berno and his fbllowers

to colonizeCltrnr in qlo' Cign\ r o d q o n ef b r t h "*ittti" the Order when the handsome new 1.".1 came in latcr' {t La *tt ir,urrtt 9 " i 1 t ' l " l , T test da u ght cr ol' Cl u n 1 Ii-rrire-tut-l-oire''eld built'' ro5q t ro7 "' i.iur.rtofsimilarplan,nas La Charit6' thc choel, n e a r li-chrrpuou*. Clun-r I I' r o6o'closell,recalls irrra.Uor, S w i t z e r l a n d ; i n I r 15] Otlilo strrrAt Payerne as wc nos' have it church the but rebuild, ted to ( v e r yw e l t r e s t o r e d 'a n d s u r e l v t h c f i n c s t R o n r i t n c h u r c h i n S w i t z e r l l n d ) t l a t e st i o m a h o u t esque is. almost cnlirel\ from thc r o + ot o r l o o , t h a t H u g h. It is tunnel-raultcd, as A b b o t o f time Cluny II came to be Romainmirtier near bv, a good example of the First Rom:lnesque on a plan resembling that of Clrtnl' II, was carried forward with tunnel vaulting r. ro8o.t This period saw considerable influence in Switzerland of the sister Congregation of Hirsau,where the life and the liturgv rvere closely m o d e l l e do n t h a t o f C l u n y ; a n d t h i s l a c t m a v be traced to a certain extent in architecture. Abbot Wiltiam of Hirsau is cloubtless responsible for certain resemblances bcnveen Cluny I I and Allerheiligen (ro78 I{.) [r-i6] at Schaffhausen, for example, and Ulrich of Zcll for those at Rueggisberg and elseuhere. Ulrich, formerly Abbot Hugh's secretarv, had transmitted the customs to Hirsau. Buildings of the Hirsau Congregation have a certain unity ofcharacter, and rightlv or rvrongly they go by the name of 'Hirsar.rer Schulc'." T h e r e i s a l w a y sa m a r k e d G e r m a n c a c h e t e v e n at Hirsau itsell. where the olan is closer to that of Cluny II than orr. ,nould expect from the mere fact of similar Customs. Substantial masonry' heavy mouldings, and (ordinarill) simplo ornament characterize their buildings. Columnar shafts of slightly conical rather than cylindrlcal form and block capitals are used. The rool-.s, a so r i g i n a l t yi n t h e n a r c o f C l u n 1 I I . a r e w o o d e ni the corridors flanking thc sanctuurr, though opening inward t h r o u g h a r c a d e s ,r s i r l ( . l u n \ Il' arclrequentlv br a llat wall at t he t.r-iirr..l

cast,like the

'I'he 'cr!'pts' atrium, at Cluny II. paired the towers, and the basilican narthex

appear also, in somcwhat Cluniac form. Apparently, fbr examplc, thc old church of St Aurclius at Hirsau (ro5g 7r) was made over about r r zo. somcwhirt increasing its rcsemblancc in plan to Clunv II. Bv that time the important abbev church of SS. Peter and Paul at Hirsau had been built by' Abbot William. It was closcr to the pattern of Clunl II, though much later in date (ro8z gr), more finished in its t'abric, and larger in scale, the axial length being 3zo feet over all. Excavations indicate three recessesin the cast wall o1the sanctuar-vfbr the thrce matutinal altars of the Cluniac use which stood side by side, as in the the round apseof Cluny II. Unlike Clun1,', church had two such recesses in cach of the

r . i . 1C . . h a p a i zc eh , u r c h( n o t C . l u n i a c ) , .. ro-5oirnt du c j l i h c c n t u r t , f r o m f h e c l s t

r-j-5. l)avcrne, priorr. church.

. . l O - l O/ . I I O O . n a \ C

r36. Schaflhusen \'linster (.{llcrhciligen), r o T l la n d l l t c r



lateral conrpartments; the latter opened on the sanctuary through three arches and this was as at Cluny. The atrium was built and rebuilt b e t r v e e n r o g - 5a n d r r z o , b y - w h i c h t i m e i t h a d been covercd or,er to form a narthex fronted bJ' two western towers with doorways between, likc that ofClunv Il. The church and monastery were ruined in r69z, leaving little beyond one o f t h e w e s t e r n t o r v c r s( t h e E u l c n t u r m ) a n d l i n e s of old wall-work to represent the Romanesque cra. A s u g g e s t i o no f ' C l u n y - I I i s a l s o f o u n d a t S a n Juan cle l:r Peia, thc national pantheon of Aragon, where the monastcry was relbrmed by Clunv as exrly as ror4 (or ro.z.z)t ,he church being dedicated in rog.1.r" Celtain other monaste r i e sf b l l o w e d t h e C l u n i a c r u l e . b u t t h e S p a n iards were then, as nolv, jealous of their indepenclence, and most of such monasteries were r37. Levre, San Sallador,dedicatcdro57; t h e n a r ev a u l tG o t h i c .n o t ( - l u r r r a c

rather than submitte d ,n Clun-r-.It is impossible now to study the crpni sion of Cluniac architecture in Spain bccaq5o the major abbev churches hare been derrr,,,,1j - O f r a ( r o 3 3 ) , N d j e r a ( r o 5 6 ) , S a h a g i r n( r . . rogo_ qq). anclCarrion de los Condes (ro7b. rs,,-1. I l o u e r e r . S a n S a l ra d o r a t L c y r e r e m a i n . . a ; d it is a Spanish version of the Lady Chape I ngn,. the infirmarl', finished in ro85, at Clunl I r371. San Pons de Corbeira also remains, a hanclsomg building in the Lombardo-Catalan m a n e s q u es t v l e ( t h o u g h d a t e d a b o u t r o 8 o ) . Firsr Ro'fhe

associated with,

prettv niches in the interior ofits apse mar have b e e n s u g g e s t e df r o m S o u v i g n v , n !x r C l u n r . r r W c m u s t s u p p o s et h a t t h e C l u n i a c a r c l i i r e c ture of Lombardy was local in Sixtythree possessionsin north Italy were confirmed to Clunv by Pope Ulban II in rog5, at thc rime when the Lombard rib-vaulting was being rlcleloped. Obviouslv the Cluniac order musl have had something to do with the spread ol ribvrrulting westrvard from Italy, for deriirttive lbrms appear in the remarkable crypt at SaintGilles (after rrlo) [1891, and perhaps in the e\en more remarkable west tower, with upper chamber, of Moissac, dated about rr3o Ir6ll]. But, most unlbrtunately, reconstructions he\e all but obliterated the Cluniac buildings in Lombardv. This is true e\en at the prineipal house, San Benedetto Po, where we would be h a p p y t o s e et h e b u i l d i n g s r a i s e d b y i t s i a m o u s patroness the Countess Matilda friend t() l)ope Gregorr \'l l. to AbborHugh and to the ahlrot's godson, Emperor Henry IV. She was hostess to them all when thev met, as historv C a n o s s ai n r o 7 7 . In France, as in Spain and Italy, the phcnomenon ol locaiism appears in Cluniac archit e c t u r e S a i n t - E u r r o p ea t S a i n t e s ( r o 8 r , 1 6 ) l r . z . ; t . r - ; l { .r 3 9 l a n d I l o n t i e r n e u f , n e a r P o i l i ( r ' : ( r o 7 6 9 6 ) , b e i n g r e d o l e n t o f t h e P i l g r i m a g ea n d of the west of France, Chitel-N{ontagne (, rroo) of the Auvergne, Layr'ac (ro7z.8-5) ;rrrc1 Nloirar (i. rogo) of the south of France. upper part ofchoir' Saint-L'utrope' r38and r39. S',rintes, ro96' and cr1'pt' rotlr q6 <leclicatcd



Norable fbr its local Burgundian character is ccnrur\. or'rhe Cluniac priorv pilgrimage church of'the N{adeleinc lll.:1.'.:,1: the famous cnurctr ol Charlieuor lronr that ol .l,nz1 r 4 r , r 5 8 , Je_ r 6 z , f r 4 o , r 6 r J , I o c a t e d *ytzelay at Duc, dependenr on Saint_lIartin, Autun. For._ pdrigueux the head of the Limoges road to Burgundian .half-_Gorhic,, "t ll:.1":rl :::::. Compostela. It was builr during an cphemeral\.e of V6zelar. .mural; is r,er.1, handsome, (luniac regime ( I o96- r r j7). An altar was conrn character. Thereis no triforium thegenerous ; secratedin a new east end (r ro_1). ,{bout r r I q a clerestorl. windowscorneunderramping lateral . W e s t e r ne x t e n s i o n \ i l s s t a r t c d : t h e n t h c oltl n e n e t r a l . i o in ns t h e g r o i n . r a u l to { .t h e n a r e ., Carolingian church burned out, betwccn (r r zo), r_ne Iine ol.tlcscenl lrom \.t:zclat rnd was replaced before thc dedication (t,32;., i u l t i m a r e llre a < J srh ei n r c r n a r i o nG t . a l; h ; ; r ; ; l ; wirs the lirst one built on u g.n.rou, The church sh . ich o f r h e( . i s r e r c i a n u U..on,ii.rJ'in scalein France where the nar.e and aisles ";ff arc a laterchapter. covered by groin r.aults dir.ided ba-v b_v bal. -{s hisroricalstuclies accumulate, _ the role of with transverse archcs. The design ma-v ilerire Cluny' in the creation of the mature ,,rlf. from the o.lder portions, clatctl near the end of. Romanesque

"i archire*urc becumes .1.;;;;. ;

r4oand r4r. tr,izcla1, Sainte_\Iadeleine, intcrior o f n a v er , . t r o l 3 2 ,a n d a i t . r i e l r



r.+2. Clunl', the monasterv plan in r r57 (K.J.C.)


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proiectswhich Abbot Hugh undoubverious and of conception dear. I.argeness held iedly theseworks' characterize scale of nobility betweenearly Romanesque The difference scaleis at once apRomanesque and mature of the enlargement Hugh's Abbot in Darent lateron in Clunv and Clunv. at monkr'quttt".s monastery all III, the definitivechurch ofthe plan Ir4z]' general impressive an to according professed seventy about were there ro4z ln monksat Cluny, a fairlv usual number, but underAbbot Hugh the number had increased to 2ooby ro85, and there wasa further increase to about 3oo in rrog, at the death of Abbot Hugh. Vast new constructionswere therefore not only in the monks'own part ofthe needed, buildings fbr agriconvent,but in accessory cultural exploitation, for storage,for menial in thosefor and especially services, A part of the hospicebuilt by Abbot Hugh, in the great forecourt of the monastery' still The upper storeyofit is largeenough survives. to serveas the municipal theatre of modern Cluny. Originally it was 49 feet wide and ryg feet long, substantially but plainly built, in ro77-g;it had a stableat leastroo feetlong; the dormitory above it had an impressiveunobstructedinterior space3r feet high from the floorto the eaves, or 48 feetto the ridge.Another indication of grand scaleat Cluny comesabout the year ro8o, when the refector]'ofthe monks wastrebled in size and decorated with an imrnense frescopainting of the Last Judgement; furthermore,under Abbot Hugh the monks' dormitory was extendedby one-third in area. It remaineda plain room. When further augmentedby Abbot Peter the Venerablein the twelfthcentury,it measured and 34by zzo f'eet, z6 feet in height to the eaves.The capacious l f r o 8 i 5 - r j o f e e tl o n g lt* Ltdy Chapeo nas been mentioned;the infirmarl was also considerablv (Dimensions herearein enlarqed. English 6easure. t

Church designs for the priories of SaintFortunat at Charlieu, Saint-Pierre at Souvigny, and Saint-Etienne at Nevers also show the increasing scale of Cluniac architecture. At Charlieu.l6 the little tenth-century church was replaced after ro3o more or less on the lines of Cluny- II. Hower,er, it surpassed its prototype, being substantially built with generous use ofashlar stone, and planned from the beginning for heavy tunnel vaulting over a clerestory. The faqade,under way bv the time of the dedication (rog4), was embellished by a fine portal. To iudge by its handsome lines, elegant proportions, and other similarities, the fagade at Charlieu was designed by one of the architects who worked on the new abbey church begun in ro88 at Clunyl; It+1, t4+l.

dcdicatedro94, inner r43. Charlieu,Saint-Fortunat, portal ofnarthex (main door ofnave), r. Iotl8 9o





r44. Charlieu, Saint-Fortunat, dedicated ro94, section o{-nar e and elevation of original f'agadc(Sunderland) tq5 (bclon,, rgil7. Nelers, Saint-Etienne, largel1.,. Ioll-1 97, nare t \oers, Saint-F.ticnnc. |+6 t,,pp,,sit l. largel1r. rofi.397, casl r icw, with the towers rcstorcd according to an old drawing

church possesseda double-aisled nave 8o tegl rvide overall, double transepts, and o{'corr15. a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r y , a n d r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s . r 8 The works at the Cluniac priory o1' Sli11Etienne, Neversl" [r45, 146], are a clear siqn that Romanesque architecture had indeed achieved maturitv. The beautifullv articulated plal of Saint-Etienne, with apse, ambulatorl'' and radiating chapels, transept, and nave gracclullv disposed, was carried up in a superstructurt of fine ashlar masonry, which made it possible to diminish the bulk of the interior supports and carr]' the naYeto a considerable height, with rrrcmarkable ribbed semicircular tunnel vault trrcr a clerestory. Elegant arcaded screensstrengthen the transept near the crossinpJtower. In plan, the church is a reduction of'the Pilgrimagetr pc,








same incrcasing scale is exemplificcl in the succcssile churches at the important prior]' of Souvignv. The old church of'92o, rebuilt a b o u t r o 3 4 , w a s I 2 0 f e e t l o n g a n d z o f ' e e tr v i d e . Thc new one, dcdicated complete in lo6-i, was 27o f'eetlong j and f rom I oqo onu ard this was inthe imposing definitivc crcased to about 3 ro f-ect;


ancl resemblesworks crf near-b]' Aurergnc. tn sectionalso the nave is like that ofa Pilgrirrrge h i r r cq u a t l r l n t i r t L t l t t h u r c h i n t h i r tt h c g a l l e r i e s ing, but the galler.r arches do not hat, tl'' p r e t l ] p a i r c d c o l u m n s w h i c h g r a c et h c l ' i l r : r r On rhe other han.l t"' mlge churclr gallcries. P i l g r i m a g e - t 1 ' p en a v e s , i m p o s i n g a s t h e v \ r e r t '

under the high did not venture a clerestory' vault. At the Revolution the three handsome towers after the patofsaint-Etienne, disposed ternof Cluny II, weredemolished, lnd thus the churchlost the airy silhouettewhich it had had for 7ooyears.Saint-Etienne Cluniacin became ro68. After the monasticofliceshad bcen re-

ro63 built, the cl^urch was taken in hand about reis it and gifis, large of under the stimulus thc time p o r t e d a s c o m p l e t eu i t h i t s l o w e r s a l o f i t s d e d i c a t i o n( r 5 D e c e m b e r I o q T ) ' an Earll' A Roman Imperial architect and this builrespect both would Christian architect which either advantages all the has it Ibr dine.





Roman or Earlv Christian architecture could give to church construction. At the same time the designer showed perfect command of what the Carolingian age had created. He brought all these elements to a new and self-consistent canon of expression and proportion which is lull of energv, confidence, and serenity - a mature new sty'le worthy to take its place on a par with the older styles. There is no trace of archaism here, and no problem posed by the d e s i g n e rr e m a i n s u n s o l v e d .

a t i v e o f t h e c e l e s t i a lJ e r u s a l e m . a p l a c e r r [ s 1 u the dwellers on high would tread, if it coultl b" b e l i e r e d t h a t h u m a n a b i d i n g - p l a c e so t r h i s . , r r r are pleasing to rhem'. When rhe grear ncw church and its monastery were fully shaped 11d walled, after rr8o, the group with its cluster of fifteen towers on and about the church aouallv looked like medieral symbolic drawings ot rhe Holy City. One thinks of Bernard de Morlaas, of Cluny, who gained here his vision of Jcru_ salem the Golden L'rhs Sion il.ureu,pat/ia laclea, ciae decrtra. . .

the monks. Even at a late period one aeoh61r,of rites( I 682): for.Mabillon r+ i r r t ""tion, t i m es' you are a h u n d r e d m a j e s t v i 1 6 y o us e ei t s on each occasion' the classic overwhelmed r _ ) + lr 5 5 ' r 5 7 ' r 6 7 l ' R o m a n e s q u lct + 7 5 2 , C l u n y l l l r e p r e s e n t e dt h e m o n a s t i c a c h i e v e better than any other edifice. ment in building have held the entire membercould it Actually of the Cluniac Order. had thc ship, standing, greatchurch O r d e r e v e r b e e n a s s e m b l c d . ' rT h e focus must be understood in these terms, as a logicaland the whole Order, of devotion for the ly a more splendid building than any which Abbot Hugh had seen in fbrty years ofiourneying throughout western Europe. It was planned as early as ro85, and its 6rst great patron was Alfonso VI of Spain, whom Abbot Hugh saw in Burgos at Eastertide ro9o. Even before rogo Alfonso had sent Abbot Hugh ten thousand

'talents' as a thank-ofl'ering for the capture of 'l'oledo on z5 Ntay ro85.22 Preparations for the building of Cluny III probably'began in that year or in ro86. As the monastery had been building almost continuously fbr decades, no new crew had to be fbrmed, nor any new arrangements improvised for rnaterials and transport. One suspects a new direction in the works from about ro75 onward, becausethe 34o-millimetre foot of Abbot Odilo s time was then given up in favour of the zg5millimetre Roman fbot. Influence from Desiderius's N'{ontecassino (ro66-75) is practically certain. The 295-millimetre fbot is basic there, along with unusual pointed arches and vaults, a strict mathematical layout, and exceptionally exact setting-out, all of which reappear in Cluny III (see below, pp. 302 3).

Saint-Etiennc at Nevers provided a complete 'statement' of mature Romanesque architecture, more was required at Cluny itself, because the church building there had a rraDscendent role to play. To the monks whose devotion centred there, it was an earthly represent-


The Ecclesia N1afor, Cluny III,20 was the hearth of the whole spiritual household ol the Cluniac Order. It made a great sensation when it was built; 'indeed they celebrate as if at Easter every day, because they have merited to go into that Galilee' savs Abbot Hugh's bio-

; r" ^i^

r47. (ilunr'. rcstoration ofthe abbel church as in r798, drawn in on a contemporarV air'iew t18 (o|?ositc).(,lunl Abbel', restoration studr: bird's-eveview from rhe sourh-east as in rr57 (K.J.C.)







Careful study of the existing remains above and below the surface has revealed a rather strict mathematical layout and a modular system in the design of Cluny III. Relationships of this kind are well known in medieval churches, and Viollet-le-Duc has a good deal to say about them,rr but the inlbrmation which we have in vincing becauseofcopious exact measurements taken in the excavations. The architect was a monk of Cluny - Gunzo, a retired abbot of Baume and a musician Qpsalnista ptaecipuus). [Ie probably settled the general scheme. His gifted collaborator H6zelon (d. r rz3) is reported as a mathematician, and as 'labouring long'to achieve the work. The great design exemplilies both the prll)ortio and the symmetria of Vitruvius, whose De Architectura was in the Abbey library. Proportio plstulates a principal dimensiouin orderly relotionship nith its components. At Cluny III the fundamental stem of the church, 53 r feet long, was portioned offin 'perfect numbers', 6 (centre to chord of the apse), r, plus z8 (the sanctuar-v bay), and 496 (the choral and processional part ofthe church, extending to the western foundation bench). Simple fractions of 496 determined the projection of all salient elements in the plan (248, t z 4 , 6 2 , 3 r , r 5 j f e e t ) . I n t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r et h e 6oo-foot length was so divided that the various parts made up 4oo, 3oo, 25o, 2oo, r50, roo, 50, and zq-foot sections. Again, the high vault of the nave. roo feet to the point, was slstematically related to the interior impost levels (at 8o, 6 6 ' i , - 1 o ,a n d z 5 f e e t ) . V i t r u v i a n s y m m e r r i ap u s tulates a minor unit, repeated in building up the design. Chny IIl, in this sense, had modules Tolero f 5 , 7 ( s y m b o l i c ) , 8 J , 2 5 ,a n d 3 t f e e t . 2 a ances never exceed lbur inches. The plan of Cluny III was the first to have full-scale double transepts in the chevet. This arrangement made it possible to transfer the choir (iom Clun-r'' II as early as Io98, and to accommodate, near the high altar, the great

a s s e m b l i e s o f t h eC h a p t e r sG e n e r a l ( r z r z m o n l o in r r3z). Through Lewes Priory after rotyo t[. double transept passed to England, and thr:reafter, with Canterbury (c. rogT ff.), to English Gothic. forward with unusual speed,on Construction ofthe church, once begun, n c11 'an admirable 'which plan', as Peter the Venerable savs, distinguishes the church {rom all others on rhe globe'. H6zelon probably managed the building enterprise. The official Jim.datio of the church dates from 3o September ro88. Five altars in t h e c h e v e t w e r e d e d i c a t e do n z q O c t o b e r r o g 5 , when the Cluniac Pope Urban II, a refugee f rom the activities of the antipope Clement III in Rome, was on his way to Le Puy and ClermontFerrand to preach the First Crusade. Thc trvo transepts had been finished by 14 March r roo, when Pedro de Roda, bishop ofPamplona and one ol' the active French reforming clergr in Spain, consecrated the chapel of St Gabriel in the existing stair tower attached to thc great transept. The west front of the main nave f r 57] w a s b u i l t ( r r 0 7 - r 5 ) b e f b r e t h e a d j o i n i n g i n t er i o r bays, but these were complete and vaulted b1 r r zr, according to the original scheme of Abbot Hugh's architects. N{eanwhile Pope Gelasius II. driven ftom Rome by partisans of the Emperor Henrr' \', hrd taken refuge in Cluny ( r r rg). He died there' and the six cardinals of his suite, still at Clunt, had met and chosen Guy de Bourgogne, archbishop ofVienne, to be GelasiusII's successor, He took the name of (.alixtus II. \['e hate herltl of him before: the Pilgrimage Codex of C:rlirtus was ascribed to him. After an interval he rcturned ro Cluny, where he canonized Abbot Hugh in r rzo. In the great church a partial firll of vaulting in the nave, rI25, was quicklv rcpaired. The gencral dedication ot the churclr ,l a n d t h e v a s t n e w m o n a s t i c g r o u p w ; r sp e r f o r n r e by Pope Innocent II on z5 October rr3o.-' 'l'he bold massing of Cluny III ."as expressive Ir49]. Chapels rnd stepped fornrs

respect to Cluny III is unusually clear and con-

I49 Cluny, third abbcy church, cast view ofnrodel



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, ..

l i k e a n e n o r _ m o u s l la u g m e n t e d G e r built up, in the minor transept: lour 6igny-des-Pres' l o wers ga\t \ erticalmo\ ement f o u r c l a p a t rt n a g t . t , , t . n s e p t I | 50l These aspiringforms ,orh. in the part of the building which c l u s t e r e d were 'l'he nare' with thc q , a sd e v o t e d d o p r a l e r . usetl lbr processions' gate a beyond. narthex horizontal to thc comremendous contrasting the massive position, which brought up at

western towers.


scheme was thus a combi-

nation of the central t-ype, the double-transept t y p c , a n d t h e b a s i l i c a nt v p e o f c h u r c h . I n d e s i g n the building brought together the grandeur of Roman work, thc abounding vigour of Carolingian work, and a dynamic quality which makes it an authentic fbrerunner of Gothic architecture in certain particulars. The masonry walls at Cluny have substantial dimcnsions. Curved and screen walls in various parts of the design wcrc ncarly lbur f'eet in thickness; the outer wall of thc nave aislcs was six f'eet, and the nave clerestory wall (pierced by many windows) eight feet Ir5r]. The piers, of which there were sixt1. in the main church, 'l'he measured about eight f'eet on the axis. vaulting, however, was very light - the cells

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r 5 o ( u p p l s i t cC ) . l u n r ' t h i r d a b h c rc h u r c h ' eiterioo r f e r t a n t s o u t ha r m o l g r e a ll r r n s ( P l ' , . r o g 5 - rI o o



, o f S {rl ' I I z r , r 5 r . C l u n y ,t h i r d a b b e l ' c h u r c hr stud-vof transversesectionol' restoration at the right ba.v (K.J.C.).Thc three-arched nave r5o in illustration , n da p p e a r s s t i l le x i s t sa


r52. Cllun\, third abbel church, capitals and shafis li'orl the sanctuar\ (as placed in the fbrmer abbel granarr), r. Iotl-5

windowed clerestory, but it is known to harq produced the rvonderful acoustical effects which were dcsired. T h e s i r n c t u a r l 'o f C l u n - v I I I focus of all head, centrq. w a s t h e b o l d e s t ,m o s t i n t c r e s t i n q , and most beautilul part ofthe church Ir5r, rq2,

r 538, r 54]. The apse was tall, and slender in proportion, not quite as high as the main vault. Fir q elcgant r:rdiating chap !ls looked in upon thc a m b u l a t o r y , w h i c h h a d c l e r e s t o r yw i n d o w s o n the outer side to correspond with the tall gracrf u l a r c h e so p e n i n g i n t o t h e s a n c t u a r v .I n t e r c s l ing small sculptures of the Vices and Psrchomachia on the outer wall contrasted with larger motifi on the column capitals, where an allegolr o1'the monastic lif'e, virtues, and divine prarse lbrmed a beautiful semicircle about thc tlrr chief altars. This enclosing arcade had eight tiee-standing columns.zn The ends of the apse arcaderested on tuo capitals which were placed to the left and right, respectivel!', of the two altars in the sanctuilr\. These altars themselves were included lvith thc capitals in another allegory. The Fall was represented to thc leli. and the Sacrifice of Abrahanr (prefiguring the eucharistic sacrilice) at thc right. Incense rose, s-vmbolicalll, fiom the alt',rrs past the allegorical carvings o[ the arcade to a rast liesco of Christ in glorl with the cclesti,rL c h o i r s o n t h e a p s ev a u l t . T h i s p a i n t i n g , l i k c t h e mosaic figures at Celalir and \lonreale l.:;; . dominated the rvhole nave of the church. rtn open length of 425 Roman or 4II'3 English I ' e e t .T h e s u b i e c t i n v e s t e d t h e n a v e w i t h a g r r t e in the contemporrlr\ dignitl'which we may sense fresco of the monks' chapel at Berz6-la-\'ille I r 53e], where Abbot Hugh loved to go for reposc at the end of his life.r; T h e a p s c w h i c h h a s j u s t b e e n d e s c r i b e ds t t s remarkably light and ingenious in constructtorr. 'I'hc ,td miraculum su.fulta, as Mabillon says. dcsign of the tvpical interior bars oecurteJ s i n g l v i n t h e a d j o i n i n g s a n c t u a r \ ' ,p a i r e d r n t l t e
153('cB ) c r z d - l a - \ ' i l l c . a p s i c l a lf i e s c o . r . r r o o : ( t r ) ( ' l u n r I I I ' a n a l r t i c l l s e c t x ) n . o l n 1 tn 0 l t r t n s c l ) t . (K .l ( shoring altars ot thc sanctuarr rnd all thr tlcrcu rbsidiolus of the eheret

being from thirteen to eighteen inclres in thickness, and slightl,-vpinched or pointed in shape, like oriental vaults, as a means of diminishing thcir thrust Ir5r]. This functional application is a step to$irrds Gothic vaulting, as is the ingenious inward corbelling of the walls undcr the high vault (mentioned below), which cleverl v i n c r e a s e d t h e r v a l l ' s r e s i s t a n c et o v a u l t i n g thrusts. Thus it was possible lbr the architect to \enture a nave vault with its crown liom roo to ncarly' r03 Roman feet above the pavement o\er a spanof thirtr -fir c; the proportion is ver.r closc to the pcrfect Gothic proportion ol the cathedral of Reims, with dimensions about one'l'he tunnel vault rvas inclecd a vensixth less. ture, at this great height, and above a many'-




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the two transepts' and in a noblc choir between e l e v e n bays in the great nave Ir541. o f nnge t o i u d g e b y t h e s c v e n t y - f i r ' ee x The capitals. still exist. were almosl all Corinw h i c h amples hardly any figure sculpture t h i a n e s q u e ,w i t h grotesques. Figure sculpture was rnd very few by programme, almost enconfined, obviously ensembles in the apse allegorical the to tirely and at the west Portals. Throughout the church the picrs weregrouped piers, reduced in the upper storey ofthe nave (through ingenious wall corbelling) to a single engaged shaft under the vaulting arch. The aisle bays had pointed arches, here used, it is believed, under oriental influence transmitted through Montecassino, and presenting the pointed arch for the first time in large numbers in a Western church design [r54, r55, 167]. The pointed arch facilitated vault construction in the aisles. Another indication of oriental influence was the decorative use of horseshoe lobes on the arches ofthe triforium Ir55]. The pilasters of the trifbrium and the arcade of the clerestory (resting on pretty paired colonnettes) aided in inching the wall outward to receive the thrusts ofthe vaults. The beautiful efi'ectofthis interior design led to its being reproduced with greater or less fidelity at Parar'-le-Nlonial Ir561 (a 'pocket edition' of Clunv, dated roughly about rrro), Autun Cathedral (rlzo and later) II6r], La Charit6-sur-Loire (about r rz5) [r66], and Beaune (about rr5o). All these inreriors are strictly Romanesquc in its classic phase, but they are alreadv of Gothic proportions, and aPProachthe Gothic aestheric.:" The conditions which caused Gothic archit e c t u r el o d c r c l o p w e r e a l r e a d y p r e s e n t a 1 t h c closeof Abbor HuEh's career. Rcstriction ol' local war, increasing competence in the aclministrative cadres of the great f'eudal oflicers, the remedying of precarious economic conclitlons' the improvement of communications, were beneficent to all, including the monas-


r 5 5 .C l u n 1 ,t h i r d a b b e l c h u r c h , i n l c r i u ro l ' ( \ l r n l s u u l ha r m u l g r c a tl r J n s c p t . a. ro(,)-5 r roo


teries. However, the gencral development of trade, with profitable f'airs, syndicates, and exchanges, togcthcr with the growth in urban population and civic consciousnesseverywhere, the granting o1' civic charters which I'avoured organizt:d urban progrcss, and the transf-er of eflictir,e intellectual activity to the urban centres to cathedral schools and incipient universities tended to leave the abbeys in a backwater wherethcy'could prosper quietly to be sure, but where henccfbrth thcv had only a minor or conservativc role to olav in the creation of the

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r-54. Clunl', third abbei'church,strictlv archaeological rcstorationol'navc interior, r. ro$tl i r3o






priorv church, r' r roo, lrom the south-west Paray-le-Monial, (upplsite).


study of the f'agade of the main nave,latcr masked, r. r r07 r 5. ... Cluny, third abbeychdrch,restoration ((.Ir06-08 ro)inspiredthegreatworksatVdzelay,Moissac,andAutun

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later medieval Europe. I'he Europc which dependcd on the monasteries, and had a monastic i d e a l , p a s s e da w a v w i t h i n a g c n c r a t i o n o f A b b o t Hugh.

b e l o n g t o t h e s p i r i t u a l l i n e o f O d o , \ l a r eu l , Odilo, and Hugh; he was forced out b)'relorm s e n t i m e n t i n t h e m o n a s t e r y .Y e t t h e c u m u l . t t i l e achievcment of the older men ga\.e (,lunl a g l i t t e r i n g m o m e n l b e l b r e t h e a h d i c : r t i o r .rr n J disgrace (rrzz), intrusive return to his litnct i o n s , d e f i a n c e ,a n d d c a t h ( l r o m R o m a n l c t c r . excommunicate and in prison, rrz6) of -\bltot Pons. H e c a r r i c d t h e m a g n i f i c e n tp o r l a l s a t ( l t r n r 'l'her st,rttit to completion about r r r3 [r57]. t h r e e i n l i n e . b u t t h c c e n t r a lo n e . l b r t r I c c l $ r ( l r and sixty-two fcet high, was much larger' more imposing than the o,h..r. Thou*h ,,llt sork comcsonll ten rearsalter the alltg,,rreitt capitals o1'the sanctuary, and though rrt lerst

one ofthe sculptors worked in both places, the carving was more mature in character much bolder in composition, with very slen<lerfigures nearly free-standing in relief. Thc portal, deeply embrasured, had nook shafts, and a Moorish alfizborder about the recessedarches. The ttetit matbre, a soft mortled limestone used in the eastern parts of the building, the flat, almost stucco-like calligraphic modelling of'the figural sculpture there, and the accompanying classical acanthus gave way, as the building advanced westward, to harder stone, stronger relief, and hore medieval leaf'aEe.:,, Th. G..r, Portal at Cluny is a capital loss, ^ tor its indicared date makes ir rhc firsr ot the allegorical porrals on a reallt grand scale.

Between them, the portals of V6zelay 1158, r631, Perrecy-les-Forges, and Bellenaves suggest what the great composition was like. In the thickness of the wall at the top of the Great Portal there was lodged a charming little chapel of St Michael, warder of doors, most cleverly constructed (like the main apse), and its tiny round sanctuary proiected like an oriel into the main nave Ir671. It was the reduction, almost to the dimensions of a delightful architectural tor, of the Chapel of thc Saviour at Saint-Riquier; indccd the deep embrasuring made the portal itself project outward from the f'aqadc like a flat oblong chapcl. Above the chapel were big windows which lighted the nave until the narthex was built, and beyond the lateral

A B B O TP O N S ,O R P O N T I U S ID E M L L G U E I L T h e s u c c c s s o ro f A b b o t H u g h i n r r o g w a s a flashing young Provengal, Pons de N,Iclgucil, a n e a r r c l a t i v e o f P o p e P a s c h a lI I w i t h o t h e r l i n e connexions, who had attractcd the abbot. and was required to pass only a single day in thc novitiate when hc cntered Cluny monastery. 'l'hough hc was a postulant at rhe old Cluniac house of' Saint-Pons-de-Thomidrcs. and was prior at Saint-I,Iartial, Linoges, he does not



portals wcre buttresses built in rat-tail so that the narthex walls might later be firmly joined. The flowering o1'sculpture was general within the Order ofCluny-under Abbot Pons. It brings us again to one ofthe most beloved and beautiful V6zelav, set on its hill above a wonderful panorama of opulent Burgundian countrvside. In design, the church I r 4 o , r 4 r , r 5 8 , r 6 2 , r 6 3 ] r e p r e s e n t sB u r g u n d i a n localism in the time of Abbot Hugh. As already' reported, the church received its nave largely after Pontius's abbacy, being carried forward after a fire of r rzo to completion and dedication in ri3z. The ponderous Romanesque groin r,aults over the new naye were not well built or well abutted, and gar.e much trouble. In conof the medieval sites

Cluny- to V6zelal- when the two major sculpr urnl e n s e m b l e sa t C l u n \ , h a d b e e n f i n i s h e d . A r t h i s time (rrr5 zo) the 'ordo' of Vdzelar.uls 1n c h a r g eo l ' P i e r r e d c \ l o n r b o i s s i c r ,x g r e a l l r r r q l of'the arts, latcr (rrzz) abbot ofClunv. The manv picturesque capitals in the nar c at V6zelal- have a popular appeal which is fitting in a church of pilgrimage. The west portals are more rheological. T'hey are to be dated a litrle befbre the fire of r rzo, and consequenth, cume near the end of Pontius's abbacy. Thrce door_ wavs give entrance lrom the narthex to thc nar e a n d a i s l e s .T h e c e n t r a l p o r t a l I r 5 8 ] i s a d o r n c d w i t h o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s tm a s t e r p i e c e so f m c d i eval relief' sculpture a singularly arresrins conception of the role of the Sar,iour in trans-

t r a s t w i t h C l u n v t h e c a p i t a l si n t h e n a v e o f ' t h e church are enriched br. ligure sculptures.'I'hese are in the stvle of Clunv, and it is consiclered certain that designers and carr,ers wcnt from

ttr mitting his redeeming grace and the er.ang;cl all the world. St John the Baptist on the mechin jamb and the Apostles set above the lrtcr;rl columns, though perf-ectly Romanesque, girc .t

I 5 8 , qa n d u . \'czelar, Sainte-\latlcleinc. main portal,,. r t tR



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jamb figureswill assume hint of the role which in Gothic times, beginning at Chartres and within half a gencration. Saint-Denis We have alreadv seen,in the P6rtico de la (rr68-88) Gloria of Santiagode Compostela this portal which was inderivtive of a frz4f, tended (as Cluny and V6zelay were not) to participatein the external articulation of the building. The change is adumbrated in the for La Charit6-sur-Loire designed about fagade rr3o-5 [166], and it comesin the still half: portals of Saint-Denis built lor Romanesque A b b o t S u g e r{ r o m a b o u t r r 3 5 t o r r 4 o [ r 5 9 ] . a wholeseries of the twelveApostles Meanwhile (an 'apostolado') had been created as pier lbr the chapter-house ofthe cathedsculptures (aboutr r r7). ralofSaint-Etienne at Toulouse More important still, the memorableportal at the priorv of MoissacIr6o] had beenbuilt. 16oMoissac, priorl'church, flank, wirhportal, ,. rrr5 30andlater

At first (about r rr5 zo?) the inrention was, perhaps, to place it at the front of the olcl nirve built b1' Abbot Hugh (ro63) - a Provensal affiir with three parallel tunnel vaults, now replaced. Almost immediatelv (about rrzo 3o) an interesting rib-\'aulted porch with an upper ch:rpel was built in front of the church an interpretation of the Saint-Riquier motif. At that time the great carvings were located on the flank of the porch with some lateral arcading and minor reliefs added. The work was completed during the abbacy of'Peter the \renerable of Clunr,, before the death of Abbot Roeer of Moissac.

A B B O TP E T E RT H E V E N E R A B L E Pierre de Nlontboissier, the gentle-spirited and beloved successor of the r.rnfortunate Pontius, ruled from rr22 to r156. and he was the last



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{,i:... t59 Saint-l)enis, abbel church,

.{F,,-ap*-a;:,,*ri4!d*e6ffie,**:r*lt:*i*',yryo{irlli**tiiili..," stud'offagade, with intended nortrr tower, r. r r1-5 .1q ((..1.(




\\ ith dilicultl he main,reat abbot of Cluny Order against intcrnal disaffcction. , t t . lrin.a competition' and the general shift of Cistercian diminished the rolc of monaswhich the times under him the Order vet served But ticism. sculPture well' architecture and great beaut.v wcrc carried out in his of Works France portals at time in middle and southern a bout Irz5 jo), at ( i n C o r r d z e , t h e Beaulieu and (liom cloister), also a (about r r 3o ; Qrennac the imabout rr4o onward), at the lagade of portant church of Saint-Gilles, thc imposing one of the triple portal hnished about rrTo has late Romanesque the which works noblest bequeathed to us [r87, r88]. Other notable works in the Ntidi are series of'capitals at La Daurade in Toulouse, Saint-Pons, and Mozac, and at Ganagobie where there are a portal and considerable conventual remains (r. rrro 5o).


ruin which fell in later times on Cluniac architecture may be secn equally at La Daurade, at Saint-Gilles, and at Ganagobie.rn Rich and beautiful work was done in Bur-

gundl' also. l'he cathedral of Autun3' [16I], c 0 n i u n . t Lo t f'Clunv, was rcbuilt bcginning about r r 20 on a simple plan, but with an interior elevation derived fiom Cluny III. The first dedic a t i o no c c u r r e di n I r 3 o . ' I ' h e b u i l d i n g h a ss c u l p tures of' quite exceptional importance and beautf in the capitals of the nave and the west portal. The latter is by Gislebertus,who can be traced from Clunl' r,ia V6zelav to Autun, and it dates lrom about r r35. The strange exaggerat i o n s a n d p o p u l a r a p p e a lo f t h i s w o r k , a s w e l l a s its dramatic placing above a flight of steps in an open narthex (of r I78 and later), make it a notable example of' Baroque tendencies in the R o m a n e s q u ep c r i o d .

of-St Xlichael(narthex),r. rr35(?) C,hapel Sainte-N{adclcine, fiz.Y6.zelay,

r6r. Autun Cathedral,with apsewindows redrawnin hi'pothetical original fbrm (detailssubjectto rc-studr,and rcvision),r. r r20 3o






Turning once more to the monasteries, we find that the main church at Vdzelav was f i n i s h e d ,a n d a n a r r h e x a d d e d r 6 z I rh c r e w a sa I ] dedication in rr3z.i2'Ihe narthex had an ex_ terior portal (replaced by a modern one) [r63],

and two towers were planned, so that, with its bay ofrib-r,aulting, it is an interesting Burgundian contemporary of Saint-Denis, on the verge ar-chirecture..\t the n.iorv nf Charlieu" also a narrhex was buih in fr,,nr ol Abbot Hugh's church f'aq:rde and adorned with a remarkable lateral portal dated about r r35 which is unsurpassed as an example of the Baroque spirit in Romanesque art Ir64, r65]. At Saint_ Lazare, Avallon,rl the portal of' about rr.5o (partly rebuilt) even afier much damage to the figure sculpture, still shows the same resrlcss spirit. The highly elaboratc tletail and involved composition here and in other late portals indi_ cate very clearlv that the Burgundian Roman_ csque arr had run througSh:r complete stl.listic cycle from primitive at Saint-B6nigne, Dilon, to of Cothic

t63 ( uhou,leli). \tzelay , Sainte-Nladeleinc, extcrlorportal (u.ith modern carvings) and intcrior portal (r. I r r8) of'narthex e a n d r 6 - 5(.l h a r l i e u , t 6 q ( a h t z ') Sainr-Forrunrr. outer portalof narthcr and narthcx from thc wesa, r. I r.l5

classicat Cluny, and then, b1. r r40 or r r50, ro a style which depended on exaggeration and movement for its effectiveness.The main architectural lines of the narthex at Charlieu show Baroque tendencies in their rathcr wilful asymmetries, and the search fbr piquant patterns of light, half light, and shadow, The great priory of La Charitd-sur-Loire, calledthe eldest daughter ol'Cluny', had a large f i l i a t i o no f p r i o r i e s o f " i r so w n , a n l i c i p a t i n g s o m e of the features of'the Cistcrcian filiations. The lmportance o t t h e p r i o r y l e t l r o a g r a n d i o s ep r o , e c to f r e b u i l d i n g begunabout r rz5.r. with rhe lntention of ttr* the oldcr church (an enriched version of Cluiv II. as has been rernarked) into a motliFed,,n of Clunv Itl lncorporating the monumental nc* fa,;,r,le

s c h c m eo f p a i r e d t o w e r s a n d r i c h e x t e r i o r s c u l p tured portirls. In consequence the older chevet of 6chelon-type was rebuilt with a handsome a m b u l a t o r y a n d f i v e r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s ;t h e n : r v e was lengthened,a fine big antcchurch was undertaken. rnd a great f'agadewas begun. If it had been completed it would have had two breathtaking towers, each with a spire, each with two sculptured portals, flanking a largcr portal on s c h e m ew i t h the axisof the church. This f'aqade Iive sculpturcd portals in line Ir66] beneath paired torvcrs was the fbrerunner of the huge Gothic f rontispiece of Bourges.r{' However, the Order ol'(,luny wasnorv liltcring. Onll' one of the f'agade t o r v e r sa t L a C h a r i t d was built; most of the irreaof the antechurch remained open, as a sort of atrium, and the




n o r t h a i s l eo f t h e a n t e c h u r c h , t h e o n l y o n c t, bu built, servcd as narthex and parish chtryci' Partial ruin in thc re ligious wars and long n"gie,ri have been the lot of this splendid Ur.,ifa;n,tir Vdzelay it was the same rhe west lront of the church was never finished. At Cluny ,rr,, lr.r, ofthc narthex were built, beginning abour r r 22b u t t h e r e s t d r a g g e d o n f o r a c e n t u r y ( t or 2 2 0 5), a n d a n o r h e r c e n t u r y p a s s e db e f o r e t o t h , , t ti,. western towers were completed (between r.i:l+ and r34z); even then one was rcbuilt anJ x painted wooden porch was placeclbetwccn tlrcq a c e n t u r y l a t e r s t i l l ( b e t w e e n r , 1 2 4a n d r 4 ; 7 ) . Abbot Peter the Venerable's work on the great church is interesting as carly premonitionsofthe Gothicsty.leIr49, r5r. rfr7]. After the f'all of a part of the navc vault in r ruj. massive picrced buttresses, like very hear r fli. i n g h u t t r e s s e sr.r e r e a d c l e d a t t h . . l . r c r t o r ,1 . , . 1 .

have occurred as early as r r3o. It is This may t o n o t e t h a t f l 1 i n g b u t t r e s s e sw e r e interesting q u i t eg e n e r a l l yu s e di n a s p e c i a lm a n n e r . o r w h e n in the vaulting. until about trouble developed the vault of Sens Cathedral was when rhe time I I 5 5 By that time the new o n . t . f r o m built, Gothic vaulting had shown that it needed butEessing even more than the older and heavier Romanesque vaults. Peter the Venerable, possibly as early as rIjz, built vaults orer two easternbays ofthe narthex, without flying butThe type ofthese vaults - rib vaults with tresses. high, ramping, scoop-shaped lateral penetrations - was much used in Early Gothic architecture. These ribs made it easier to build neat, well-shaped cells or individual vaulting arcas; they made it possible easily to build a thinner, lighter vault; and they warped the vaulting stressesdown to the wall and spur buttresses between the windows of successive bays. At Cluny the narthex was completed with such vaults about r22o; the thirteenth-century windows were larger and fly'ing buttresses were added, but the effect was still rather Romanesque. Details of the west fiont show rhar rhe

r6li. NIoissac, priorv church, scctionof wcsterntowcr, .. r t-lo

r66 ( lLli) . I-a (lhariri-sur-Loirc, projectctlfrar,.rcle fbr priorv nirrrhcx,c. r r-to-5 (Flilberrl.) t67 ( fulon) . Cllunv,third abbe1. church, re.storltion studv of longitudinalsectiono1 ucst cntl ol nave,and of narther, e l o c n t h a n dm . r l f t hc c n r u r i c s (K.J.(,.)




: r-qr::n


architect was aware of the gorgeous new High Gothic which was being createdin rhe ile_de_ France - at the cathedrais ol Chartres, Soissons. Reims, and Amiens but that he pref-erred the relatively early in date, the1.are not progressiye lessevolved local Burgundian version ofGothic. in conception.rT The expansion of Clunv inro the ile-deMoissac had possessions in Spain and was F r a n c e ,w h e r e t h e a d m i r a b l y o r g a n i ca n d a r t i c u well placed lbr conracts with I-ombardy; in the l a t e dG o t h i c s t y l e a r o s e .r r r a s rhe work ol Abbot porch we find a somcwhat Lombardic-looking nugh. but the interesting buildings datc trom rib vault carried out about r r2o 5 in iine Clut i m . o f P e t e rt h e \ e n e r a b l e . Whar role prcnrac stone masonryt whilc in the chapel above lft c t s e l yC l u n y played in the crcrrion ol the new there is a rather Moorish-looking radiate vault stYle is dimculr ro decide. built about rr25,3o with trvelve heavy ribs, Th. most famous Cluniac rrb-rauhed conc q u a l l v F ' r e n c hi n i t s f ! b r i c . T h e c r v p t o l ' S a i n t _srructions are in the south. Altcr rhc oddll Gilles-du-Gard (r r r6 7o) has a logical succescrypt of Sainr-Eurrope. Sainres sion o1'heavv groin vaults on substantial ribs 1,r^eyonitorv which mav be related to contemporarl' rib::":j 96) [r3el. rherc lbllow thc ro$er porch Ir6o, 168] and the crlpr ot saintvaulting in Lombarcl-v.The conclusion is inls ,r j ltlto r.d . .u . -G ets ard l r 8 g l . W n i t e a s r a u l r s r h c \ a r e e s c a p a b l et h a t t h e r i b s a t N { o i s s a c a n d S a i n t -


I N T E R - R E ( ; I O N A LA N D I N T E R N A T I O N A L A R C H I T E C T U R E



Gilles were Romanesque in conception - introduced fbr cxtra bulk and strcngth - not, like the convincingly Gothic vaults of the north at the time (r rzo 4o), to lacilitate a light, articulated constructlon. The vaults at the east end of the narthex at Cluny probablv owe something to a knowledge of Moslem ribbcd and lobed vaulting, but it is not certain that this was transmitted by Cluniac contacts. It is usual in the earlv Gothic works of the ile-dc-France. Among therc rhere are the churches of several Cluniac priories: Airaines (Somme), about r r zo 35 ; N { a r o l l e s - e n - B r i e ,r r z 5 o r a l i t t l e l a t e r ; S a i n t Martin-des-Champs, Paris, r r3z 4o (nave later) lr69J; No6l-Saint-\,Iartin (a prior.v attached to Saint-Martin-des-Champs), where there was a s e r i e so f c o n s t r u c t i o n s b e t w e e n r r o o a n d r r 5 o ; Saint-Leu-d'Esserent, dated about rr5o to r69. Paris,Saint-NIartin-des-Champs, interior, r. r r-124o numbered

r r 7 o . 3 8O n t h i s E a r l v G o t h i c s e r i e so f ( . l u n i a c buildings the Norman chevron ornamenr otien a clear sign of influence lront the reg;ion which prepared the rib vault lbr thc ile_ de-France. The test probably comes in Saint-N{artin_ des-Champs, Paris, given by Philip I of lir.ance to Cluny in ro7g. Its lovaltl'to shor.n in a curious wa1' b1-the architecture: thc church p l a n ( r r 3 z ) i s a n i n g e n i o u s r e d u c t i o n b a s c t lo n various elements of the church and chapcls at Clunv, which seems to show that the designer'5 heart was at the mother house, and not in the progressive buildings of hrs contemporarics in the Ile-de-France. The axial absidiole at Saint-N,lartin-desChamps is a trelbil, of which the lateral apscs sug !iesta minor transept. Its vault is a scriesof ramping scoop-shaped cells on ribs, rathcr like t h o s eo f t h e e a s t e r nb a y so f t h e n a r t h e x a t C . l u n r , An ambulatorl'' with radiating chapels leatls ro a projection resembling a second transept, in obr i o u s r e m i n i s c e n c eo l ' t h e m a i o r t r a n s ( t , t x t Clunv. In this part of the building therc arc peaked groin vaults without ribs, like thosc in the aislesat Cluny. Tne ribbed apsc vault at Saint-I,Iartin is normal for the region about thc middle of the centurl', but the nave is opcn, single, and wooden-roofed, like that of \bbot Hugh's Lad.v Chapel, Notre-Dame-tleI'Infirmerie, at Cluny (ro8-5) [r4z]. SrintMartin-des-Champs was under construction at the ver\ same time as Suger's new lvork at S a i n t - D e n i s ,w h i c h w a s c o n c e i r e da s a C u t i r i e and intended to have novcl lirrlts (about r r35 to r r44).3e O n t h e t h c eo f t h i s s h o n i n g ( t o s p e a kn , , u i n general terms) it would appear that the Clun i;rcs h a t l r e a l l r s o l v e dt h c i r o w n a r c h i t e c t u r a p l r',,1'lem b1' the earlv trvellth centur]''. This inr olr cd pushing their developed pattern 01' a q' cttt Romanesque church far towards the gcncrll form which the great Gothic churches \1cre to takc, and consequently' the structural crbuilding, appears

made Cothic possible u crc pedients whic.h in Cluniac architecture' ln their use ir.i.or. a t N l o i s s a c .S a i n t - G i l l e s ' a n d i n oflhe rib-tault t h e f o r m s c o n l e s st h e r e g i o n s ii. it.-d.-Ft"nce. i d c a c a m e i n t o t h c a r c h i t c c tu r e t h e * h i . h a n d a l s o . i n t oG o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e of ,h. Otd.t. monls did nor dcsireto hurc But the Cluniac Gothic form, and as fir as we novel of .hur.h.t did an1. Gothic vaulting ofnever they know 'f he-vnever built a building, crucial importance. which Saint-Leu-d'Esscrent, perhaps except lbr thc new cared thev that show really would for some idea. In Cluniac e]'es the Gothic was time merely a local and regional st1''lclike an1' other. If the architect of' Saint-\{artin-desChamps had been reall.r' inte rested in ribvaulting, his building instead o1' Saint-Denis might have been the hrst o1'all recognizablv Gothic churches. Burgundians, partl]' from temperament, had a rooted preference for their grand old monastic Romanesque.The'half'-Gothic' which we have seenin several ofthe Cluniac buildings was also usedelsewhere.It gained bv the aesthetic el{'ccts which were worked out in the ile-dc-Francc without giving up the substantial mural values

p l e a s i n gt o t h e B u r g u n d i a n s , a s t o t h e i r R h e n i s h cousins. The Burgundian half--Gothic attrlcted the attcntion of Bernard o1' Clairvaux (himsell' a Burgundian, born within sight of Diion) bec a u s eo f i t s a u s t e r e a n d p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r . H e made a sober version of it the standard archit e c t u r c l b r C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e sa l l o v e r E u rope. Citcaux lrTrl and Clairvaux themsclves, the lost major (,istercian churches in Burgundl' vast and noble constructionswhich began to take delinitir c lbrm near the end of'the period . ernard ol (.lairvaux (d. tt5r) dominated b1-B and Peter the Venerablc ol Clunl'(d. tr56) cry' aloud lbr such a studv as hirs bcen possiblc fbr the N{ediaeval Academv o1' America at Clunl'. It will be impossible to do iustice t<r Burgundian architecture until Citeaur and Clairvaux arc lullv known. Yet the lover o1' Burgund-v f'eels suddenly. warm and at home in places as I'ar fiom Burgundl. and from ttnc another as Beirut, Bellapais, AlcobaEa, Poblet, Fountains, Linkirping, Nlaulbronn, and liossan o v a , w h c r e t h e s u a v eB u r g u n d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e brought b1' the C-istercians stands, beautifulll' cxemplilied.



T H E C I S ' I ' E R C , I A N SA N D T H E I R A R C H I T E C T U R E

The years which sarv the growth of the Pilgrimage to Santiago and the development of the Order of Clun.v witnessed a general spiritual revival in the monastic world. Scvcral other orders of importance werc fbunded at the time Grandmont b.v Etienne de Muret in ro7.1; Molesme by its first abbot, Robert, in ro7-5I 'I'he Carthusiln both founders were canonized. bv in Io84, Fontefounded St Bruno Order was vrault by Robert d'-\rbrissel in ro96, and 'I'he Citeaux by Robert of- Molcsme in ro98. Premonstratensians followed in rrzo, founded by St Norbert, and linketl with the Cistercians. Molesme, though indepenclent, lbllowed the r u l e o f C l u n y . I t h a d m a n l , o u t s i d e c o n t a c t sa n d became the centre of a group of about sixtlpriories, and so lost the other-worldly atmospherewhich its founder abbot desired. Therefore, in rog8, at the age of sevent1., he fared forth with twenty-onc devoted companions. They established themselr es about filteen miles south of Dijon at Citeaux, a rvooded swamp! solitude given by' Renaud, r'iscounr of Beaune. In rogg Abbot Robert, though the papal legate had given him permission to leave Molesme, was requested, in terms which he could hardll refuse, to return to Ntolesme. Therc, after reforming the monastery, hc clie<l in r r r r. From rogg to r rog the'New Monasterv' was . led by Albdric, the first c i r n o n i c a la b b o t , w h o tormed its spiritual temper. Afier Albdric it was led for a quarrcr of a centurl. (r rog 34) b1 a saintly Englishman ot great spirirual poucr, Abbot Stephen Hardine.-Both men wcre in thc original group which uent ro Citeaux. Thc oeginnings were \ery tlitficulr, but rhe protectton of the Holy See (l roo) and generosityon

the part ofthe Burgundian ducal houseenrrbled the monks to continue. In r r rz or r r r3 Bernard, a ver-vreligiouslv inclined youth of twentv-two, offered himsell'and thirty companions, including several ol' his r e l a t i v e s .I n r r r 5 h e b e c a m ef b u n d e r a n d a b b o t o f C l a i r v a u x , a C i s t e r c i a nd a u g ; h t e r houseabout fiftl'-five miles northcrly from Dijon. Nlcanwhile other Cisterciirn houses had been tbunded a t L a F e r t 6 ( r r r r ) a n d P o n t i g n y -( r r r 4 ) ; N l o r i mond (rrr5) completed the original group of daughter houses. Pope Calixtus II confirmed the constitution ol' Chnrtu Caritatis Monustcrii s rn t t t 11. C i sterciensi Evcn while Abbot Stephen Harding ruled Citeaux. the fclrccful character ot Bernard of' Clairvaux projected thc latter into ecclesiastical and international politics, and greatly aided the growth of the Cistercian Order, which, while it 'against' was not founded Cluny, drew the rnore austerelydcvoted spirits, and thus accelerated the decline of the eltler Order. There were -lo Cistercian monasteriesat the death ol {.bbot Stephen (t t34), l+.1 at the death ot Bernard of Clairvaux (rr53), and 694 by the year r2ool including many monasteries which associated themselves by accepting utter submission in the n e w O r d e r . T h e t o t a l r e a c h e d7 4 2 a t o n e t i m e . l Undcr Bernard's influence the Cistercian Orcler became unilormitarian. with all details of cxistcncc rigidh prescribed in so far as was p o s s i b l e ; w i t h a t i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o na n d t r e q u e n t inspcctorial visits. Each Cistercian house was dependent on thc onc which founded it, and 'filiations'. This schcme of there wcre fbur chicf control proved superior to the Cluniac system of centring all rcsponsibilitv for the wholo Order'





in the one abbot o1' Clunl

itself'. The strong

confbrmism of the Cistercian houses made it easv to allow them considerable autonomy, with the Chapter Gcneral at Citeaux legislating for the entire Ordcr. Cistercian policl'(again in contrast to Cluniac) called for harmony. with the local episcopate, and much gootl camc of the cordial relations between the two. 'fhe C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e sw e r e s i t u a t e d i n rernote places. They sufl'ered theretbre less than t 7 o .l r o n r c n r r \ h b o . r r . i 9 . 1 7

out arbitrarilv, but according to the characrrr of'the terrain. I'hese overriding principles r\_ plain irregular orientation in the churches antl the lrequent occurrence of' cloistcrs in 111" 'I'he north. b a s i cp a t t e r n o f t h e p l a n w a s t h a r o f St Gall and Cluny, but certain details difierrd 'l'he Cistcrcian churchcs (afier r r.1-1 [ry, ryo]. uniformly dedicated to thc Virgin) had no crr ptr or towers, and were rather angular in plan, u rth t h e n i g h t s t a i r r o r h c t l o r n r i r o r vs r a r t i n gi n t l r (

to the church, rvhere thev occupied which led of the nave. No pror ision was made end the west in Cistercian church plans. The public the for and children were never adwomen thrt fact enclosures led to the monasterv the mitted to and accommodations fbr chapel a of orovision guests at thc gate. The other for and ,h.11 Cistercians did not relish intrusions in the carlv fbr.r o e r i o d ,t h o u g h v i s i t o r s o f ' m a r k l v e r c c l r e c l The Cistercian monastic groups were otien long under construction' At llrst the monks w o u l d l i r e i n s t r u c t u r e so f t e m p o r a r v c h i r a c t e r , p e r h a p si n t e n d e d l b r m e n i a l u s e l a t e r o n . O u t side builders were emploved, but the monks becameindependent (or nearll'so) of'the outside world at the earliest possible moment. NIuch of' t h e a c t u a l d e s i g n i n g a n d b u i l d i n g r v a sd o n e i n the communitics themselves. The aim rvas to h a v et h e c o m m u n i t ) ' a b l e b 1 ' c r a ft s m a n s h i p a n d husbandry to suppll' all its or.n nee<ls. Thc choir hours, much lengthencd since Charletime, $ere sltortcned or rc-schcduled magneJs for this purpose . Numerous lav brethren (up to 3oo in large monasteries) were rccruited for larm and shop work. Close contact with the soil madc the Cistercians cxcellent farmers; improved methods were widely'propagatcd through the Order, and thereby accrued to the advantag^e 'I'hey of all western E,uropc. devcloped an

d'Ainail Achardl Gdrard. brother of St Ber'l'hcir nard. orderll planning and their austere interpretation ol' the Burgundian half'-Gothic, unadorned, became, through Bernard's pref'erence. the architecture of the Order. In consequence thc stllc spread radiallv, with the lluence reached Order, in ererl clircction as f'ar as French into the British Isles, Scandinavia, Poland, ccntrill Europe, Ibcria' Ital1, a n c l P a l e s t i n e b u t i n a s o m e l v h a ti m m o b i l i z c d fbrm which pcrsistoduntil the High Gothic of' thc ile-dc-Irance was adopted in its stead. In manv regions the international Cistercian half-Gothic prepared the wa1' lbr Gothic architecture somewhat as the pervading Lombardic Irirst Romanesque had done in fbrmer times fbr the Second or Great Romanesque st1.le. -I'he e a r l y .p c r i o t l o f ' C i s t e r c i a n b u i l d i n g w a s i n d e e d s c v e r e .S c u l p t u r i r l e m b e l l i s h m e n t s w e r c lbrbidden in rIz-1, in rvhich l.ear also it was decided to omit illuminltions from the manus c r i p t s . I n d u m e n t i r r i a , s c u l p t u r e s ,a n d l i t u r g i c a l objects came under verv austere regulations' Bold or an-rbitiousproportions and architectural bravura o1'anv kind were not tolcratcd in the buildings. Stone towers rvere forbiddcn in r r 57 on the churchcs, $hich at most had small functional belfiy-pinnacles.In II8z it was directed t h a t a n ! ' e x i s t i n g u i n d o w s o 1 ' c o l o u r e dg l a s si n Cistcrcian churchcs should be removed within three y'cars.Ornanrental pavements were fiowne d o n , a n d i n m a n l c t s e sr e m o v e d b y o r d e r . B u t a l l t h e m o n a s t e r i e sl v e r e c r c e l l e n t l y b u i l t , a n d though the cll'ects are rather hea\']., quite gener a l l y t h e l ' h a v e a l i l y - l i k e a t m o s p h e r e o 1 's i m plicitl.which has verv grcat charms. The small original churches were perl-ectly forthright; the later ones(befbre thc High Gothic), even when they. lrcrc of great size, showed their derivation fiom the simple prototypes and did not use an1 dcvices conceivcd fbr picturesque or dramatic appeal. T h e e a r l i c s t c h t t r c l t c s\ \ c r e \ e r \ p l l i n . { t Citeaux a small wooden church was succeedcd

+ r* + .,,.*r




f * * fi+ * fi*'* fi *' +' f + *


*" t *""' "' *





a . r 1 r R . . ( , J , - \ r , r i ,j , . , ,

other monastic architecture from Revolutionarv demolitions, and it is still possible to grin a f i i r l v c o m p l e t c i d e a o f w h a t a C i s t e r c i a nm o n a s t c r \ ' $ a s l i k e . r T h e s t . r n d a r d i z e t la n d r e p c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e ro f e a r l y C i s t e r c i i r nl r c h i t e c t u r e i s immediately evident evervuhere. Almost all works datcd befbre rzoo may be understood liom trvo or thrce ofthc early French cxamples. Cistercian sitcs werc invariablv secluded, well watercd, and so set that the waters could bc impounded above the area chosen lbr the convcntual buildings. 1'hc church uas placed 'I'he on the highest ground. other srructures, though uniform in their workings, wcre not laid

adiacent transcpt.


g r o u n d s t o r e y ' so f t h c

conventual buildings wcrc reg;ularly vaultctl. P a v i l i o n - l i k c f b u n t a i n h o u s e sc o v e r e d t h c l a r r r b o s i n t h e c l o i s t e r s .a n d t h e r e f e c t o r i e sl r c r c \ r ' l w i t h t h e a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a rt o t h a t o f t h e c h r - r l c i r i n s t e a d o i ' p a r a l l e l . N o v i c e s w e r c r e g u l a tl r lodged at the end ol the east rangc ofthc cloistcr'. Professed monks were not allowed to entcr thcrt' quarters, which occupied the traditional pl'rc.' 'l'he of the camera. traditional public court ir(ljoining the west rangc of'the cloister buildirr3s was reduccd to a p.rssirge-wa1. (open to thc sk\ ) 'l'heir lbr the lal brcthren ('conversi'). buildtn9 had its traditional place lvcst of the passrtgc.

organized s].stem lbr the sale of f)rm produce and animals which aided in the commercial d e v e l o p m e n to 1 ' t h ea g e , b u t a l s o p f t re N { a m m o n his opportunitl., so that lr'hen the \lendicant Orders began to drirrv manl of'the most devotional vocations in the thirtccnth centur!, thc Cistercian monastcries came to be verl- much like all the rest. C o n f o r m i t y . w i t h t h e c s t a b l i s h e dn o r m s w a s required in the Cistercian buildings of'the great epoch. A monk f rom anywhere in the C,istercian world would f'eelhimself entirelv at homc within h a l l a n h o u r a t a C i s t e r c i a nh o t - t r . "n,*h.r. e l s e .T h e r e w e r e s e v e r a le x c e l l e n t r r c h i t e c t s i n the Order during its fbrmative pcriod Gcoflroi



T H E C I S T E R C I A N SA N D T H E I R A R C H I T E C ' I ' U R E 2 2 7

in rro6 by a rectangular tunnel-vaulted stone church lbout sixteen feet wide and fift1 f'eet 'fhis long. simple tvpe of plan rvassoon au!imenled b1' angular lateral chapels making a dwarf transept, or b\, a transcpt with such c h a p e l s .C l a i r v a u x , j u s t a f t e r r r r 5 , h a d a s q u a r e church with stone walls divided into nar,e and aisles br, wooden posts supporting a u'ooden roof. I-ater the churches rvere regularly r.aulted, and rvooden roofing lvas conlined to the conv e n t u a l s t r u c t u r e s . B o t h r h e a i s l c l e s sa n d r h e aisled plans persisted.The Ourscamp of'rr3,1 (aisleless)had transepts and a round apse. Angular chapels collected about both of'these lattcr elementsin later plans, with the necessarv am'l'here bulatories. are numerous cases rvlrcre r 7 r . ( , i t e a u r ,m o n a s t c r \ , l i o m a d r a u i n gm r d c b c f o r e d(struclion

local tradition has affected manv cletailsof'[q16 p l a n a n d e l c r . i r t i o nw i t h o u t d e s t r o y ' i n gt h e ( . i \ tercianair ol the buildings, because rhe masony, ( f i n c a s h i ; r r ) h : r s a n u n m i s t i t L a b l cC i s r t . r i' . t1n 'Ihc character. fact that the Cistercians Ibrb111 their masters to work outside the Ordcr tcntlg4 to accentuate this special character. At CiteauxIr7rl and Clairraux'the conrL,1ltual churchcs rverc :r barometer of rhe groltl-1 of the Ortle r. The great church irt Citeaux .nrr5x part of the gencral rebuilding rhere, carrie{ through betwecn rrz5 and rr5o. The church underwent a consecration of somc sort about r r48 and anorher in r rg3, by which time it ri rrs completed with I much enlargedslncruarr. Ir was crucilbrm with an aisle'carried all round.

corner of the transept except at the south-west west front and at th ! north end the at also .nd was replaced by 6fthe Eansept, where the aisle w a s a ngular. and ils s a n c t u a r y T h e porches. by angular a n g u l a ra m b u l a t o r y w a s s u r r o u n d e d at the church was destroyed The chapels. Revolution. At Clairvaux the original monasterv was entirely insufficient by Ir33,, and new buildings of immense extent were undertaken near by. The church plan provided a rather shallow angular sanctuary with three shallow rectangular c h a p e l sa t e a c h s i d e , a l l o p e n i n g i n t o a t r a n s e p t . Five more rectangular chapels and thc bay'devoted to the night stair occupied the other side ofthe transept, with a tunnel-r'aulted nave and r7z. FontenayAbbel-, foundedin r t rg, from the air

gave the church a clerestory, a Gothic ribbed high vault, and a range of flfing buttresses, as well as a polygonal apse and ambulatorv surrounded by angular radiating chapels inside a polygonal periphery wall. The sanctuary at Pontigny was rebuilt in somewhat similar form about rr85-rzro. Thus Pontigny has a special claim to be esteemed as the best existing representirtive of the great church at Clairvaux, destro)'ed at the Revolution.s FIowever, the'Bernardian' plan, which stands for St Bernard's own preference, is that which was built at Fontenay6 [r7o] in rr3g 47.1 The church at Fontenay, with the adjoining (and somervhatlater) cloister and monastic buildings, is thc oldest Cistercian ensemble in existence

l,!l I Jri f;

aisles axially placed. This plan, augmented bv chapels along the ends ofthe transept, rvasuscd a t P o n t i g n ) 1 r y 6 , t 7 7 l i n r r - 1 of f . , b u t t h e l a t t e r church was finished with a rib-r'aulted nave about rr7o. Rebuilding at Clairvaux bctwccn tt53 and the definitire consecration of tt71

Itlz 5]. The site is girdled b1'woodedhills in a l o r e l 1 's e t t i n g , a n d t h e v a r i o u s e d i l i c e sa r e r o o m ilr sct within an cnclosure wall. A bcautilulll proportioned I'agadepresents the church, with a s h l a r s t o n e a n d a n a u s t e r ep o r t a l ; e l s c w h e l c i n t h e c h u r c h a n d c o n v e n t u a l b u i l d i n g s a s h l a rs p u r



T H E C I S T E R C I A N SA N D T t T E I R A R C H I T I _ C T U R F . 2 2 o

r 7 j a n d l 7 + . I r o n r e n i l ,a b b e r . c h u r c h , r r c r r l r o r r rt h c n o r t h - r c : t r n t l i l t t c r i o r ,r r . i r 1- 1 7 r7S ( |pf asir e.).Fontcnal,Abbe1, r i o v l i o m t h c c h a p t c r - h o u si c n t o t h e c l o i s t t r ,r . r r 4 7

same way. The nal'e continues into the squarcended principal sanctuary. Acousticall.v the church is remarkable, like a Cluniac church, on accountofits tunnel vault, and in this connection we note that St Bernard lor,ed music. The stone night stair leads as usual from the south transept of the church to the adjoining monks' dormitory, now blocked up but originally open, under a fine open arched truss roof. The refectory was placed in the customarl Cistercian position opposite a fountain house on the south side of the cloister, with its axis perpendicular to that ofthe church. Other parts of' the monastic ensemble are arranged in traclitional ways; this is true of the forge building at Fontenay a handsome affair by the rivulet placed to the south-east of the cloister, as it mighr hare been in earlier times. In contrast to the dark and heavv church, the n o b l e r o u n d - a r c h e d , t u n n e l - r ' a u l t e dc l o i s t e r .t h e

chapter-house, and the camcra (a *'ork room beneath the dormitory) seem r,ery light and open, though the latter are substantially vaulted b1' squrre bays o{ rib-vaulting with columnar s u p p o r t s I r 7 5 ] . T h e r e p e a t i n g s q u a r e b a y ' so f this construction are as ty'pically Cistcrcian as the angularity o('the church plans.These ba1's, markcd by'unifbrm spur buttresses o n w a l l a ft e r wall throughout the scheme, have a curious look of being mass-produced. Repetitive bays had of course been used bcfore in architecture, but it was a new thing to u s er e p e a t e db a v so f r i b - r ' a u l t i n g w i t h t h e l o g i c a l Gothic i n s i s t e n c ew h i c h w a s l a t e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e design. But austere ideals and conserr,atism prevented the Cistercian architects from developing thc l-ull potentialitics of thc new n'pe of 'half-Gothic' vault. Their designs are called b e c a u s et h i s t v p e o f v a u l t c o u l d b e s o m u c h morc effectivelr applicd (as intlectl it was with

buttresses, with rougher srone wall_work be_ tween, are the rule. Bishop Everard of Norwich was the patron of'Irontenay. Thc chur-ch gains most ol'its lighr liom the faEade rvindows and the corresponding ones at thc crossing and in the sanctuary, since thcre is no clcrestor]'; but lbr-rhe windows at thc ends, thc nave would be like a carern. An admirable pointed tunnel vault with transvcrse arches covers it, irreproachably abuttecl bv pointed transversetunnel Iaults ()\.er the aislcs. .I.he transept is lower and narrower than the nave, and coversd by a pointed tunncl r,ault in the




bravura in the full Gothic ofthe ile_de_France) to highly evolved types of plan and elevation. Individual bays were 1reely made square, ob_ long, triangular, or trapezoiclal in shape, tall or short in elevation, as the most elaborate com_ positions required. For example, the Cister_ cians, requiring clear glass in their church windows, did not have reason to make them 'I'he large. Gothic stained_glasswin<lows, lrom Suger's time (lr4o) for more than a centurv. were so dark that er.enopenings of maximum srze !iavea barell'suflrcient light for the church interiors. f'hus the Gothic walls became sheets of glass stretching between and supported by slender picrs, just as rhe cells of'the vault be_ r76. Pontignv,abbey abbtv church, chrrrch lbunded lhrrn.t-j in ;- -. rr t4

came thin membranes, bowed up slightly lor ease in building and extra strength, bet*.ccn over-arching ri bs. Full rrptoitrtiurr :].."d..1 t,r light rib systems, the developmen, of .fr.lf_,f_,i" raulting cells of ashlar, and th. ...rtion ot I t 1 ' r n g b u t t r e s s e st o s u s t a i n r . a u l t s set high un slender piers, pur rhe builders of tn. ii._j.France ahead ol'the Cistercian builders br. r r 75, if not before. The. church of pontigny [176 gl is a good example of the Cistercian use of Gothic betorc, the overwhelming achievements of the Hieh Gothic made the Cistercian style seem ol,l_ tashioned and provincial. Begun about r r40 on a variant of the usual plan, the church rrrs

a dwarf transept and an angular east built with into a verl handsome nave, continucd and end, rn proportion, and lightcd by' generous sirnple, , clerestory ol er lower and narrolver aisles with concealedflying buttresses. Delicate and f'astidious proportioning, deft handling of the grouped piers and simple rib-r,aulting makc the church at once impressive, alive, and serene. The typically Cistercian nave is happilv combined with an austere chevct which rcplaced 'l'here the original one about r r85 rzro. is an with trapezoidal radiating chapels, ambulatorv sosimply laid out that onlv rhc moulding profiles betray its late date. At Pontigny the windows, though moclern. r77.Pontignv,abbcl' church, f'ar;ade. r. r r qo

exemplify' the Cisrercian taste. There are tvoical r n d b e a u t i l u l p a r r c r n si n r h e l e a d i n g .* i i h t h . usual plain glass that is, exccpr tbr a sprinkling of small jewels of colour, which was permissible. 'lhe whole ell-ectof the interior is of extraordin_ ary calm and religious serenity, virginal in sweet_ n e s sa n d p u r i t y . 8 I'he fagade, sparingly adorned with Gothic arcading, is pleasant to look upon. yet no one can fully understand Pontignv and the Cister_ cians without seeing the building liom the o p u l e n r s u r r o u n d i n g f i e l d s a h a n d s o m ew a r m _ h u e d b u l k w h i c h r e a l l y s e e m sr o b e l o n g t o t h e soil; no towered or cathedralshapecould har.e such union u'ith the earth [176, r j /-1.






t h o u g h o f ' r a r h e r m e d i o c r e d e s i g n . r ,p , oblet r111 S a n t a sC r c u s i n C a t a l o n i ah a r . ee r c c l l e n t ( , i s t g . c i a n q u a l i t i c s . . \ t P o b l e t ( f b u n c l e d r r . 5r ) , m r r c h t h e l a r g e r a n t l m o r c p r o s p c r o u s , t h e s eq u a l i t j c 5 continued to influence the gencral design of sur_ c e s s i v el v o r k s u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e \ l i d d l e { s c , 'I'he e a r l v a r c h i t e c t so 1 ' P o b l e th a d g i v e n t h e e r _ amplc fbr this in the main church, uhich urrs built about rr8o 96. 'I'here is a perfccrlr


Romrnesque l ) o i n t e dl u n n e l r : r u l t u i t h l r r r r r . _ v e r s ca r c h c so r e r t h e n a r . e ,d e s p i t c i t s b c i n g c o r r temporarr wirh the nare of' Notre_Damc in Paris.Nlanv parts of'the monastic huildings irrc i n a v e r v m u c h s i m p l i f i c d a n d s u n b u r n et l G o t h r c . b u t t h c R o m a n e s q u es p i r i t l i r e s o n i n a l n r o s rr t l l 'l'here thc work. is excellent r.aulting in rlrc c h a p t e r - h o u s c . t h e r e f ' e c t o r 1I,r 7 9 1 , t h e l i b n r r , and the ccllar; and rhe grsat dormitories riirh pointed diaphrag;m arches supporring lvooclcn roofing are cxtraordinarily' impressive Irgoi. T h e c s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s l o n g d e s o l a t ea l i e r t h c s o c i a lu p r i s i n g s o f ' r 8 z z j 5 . I t i s v e r l i m p r e s s i r c as now resrored and re-peopled. r'et it satisficd the requirement set lbrth in the epig.ram,name lr that it takcs a rcally' good building to make a fine ruin.rl Alcobagain Portugal has one ol'thc best. as rvell as one ol the most remote. Cisterciirn churches. T'hc building was bey,^r.rn on a grantl s c a l ei n r r 5 8 a n d f i n i s h e d i n r z : - i . I t s i n t e r i o r . s p a c i o u sa n d b e a u t i l u l l v p r o p o r t i o n e d , h a s a r e markable combination of classicserenitv, CisterRomanesque lbrthrightncss. a n d b u d d i n g G o t h i c r . e r v e .C o m p a r e d r v i t h t h t contemporarl rrork in Paris fbr it is roughlr c o n t e m p o r a r l w i t h N o t r e - D a m e A l c o b a g ar c presents an archaic scheme, the ,threc-narctl' church, ofien called the hall church.I This church type results fiom the use of'the repetitivc rib-\'aulted bay, in sucha \\,a].rhat hc n a v e r . a u l t i s a b u t t e d b l a i s l ev a u l t s o n l v l l i t r l c n a r r o w e r a n c l l o w e r t h a n i t s e l f. T h e a i s l e v a u l t t in thcir turn lre abutted bv spur buttresses. 'l l.rc engineeringproblems arc simple, and the n pe cian simplicit\', r79 and r8o. Poblet,monasterr., ref'cctorr anddormitorv,thirtecnth ccnturr' i s s t a b l c .L a r g e w i n d o w s p l a c e dh i g h i n t h e w a l l s 'I'he piels are grouped, and light these churches. with the ribs branching out :rbovethem, look gir esgreat l i k e l i n e s u l l r e e s .T h i s a r r a n g e m c n t prominence to the windolvs in thc apse,lvhich a r e t h e o n h w i n d o w s v i s i b l c i n : r n e a s t w a r dy i e r v . S a n ( i a l g a n o , r i n e a r S i e n a ,m a 1 , b ec i t e d . T h e church there is the ruin ofa constructionbegun in rzrS s t i l l i n t h e B u r g r . r n d i a nh a l f - G o t h i c stvle at a time when the cathedral design ol' Amiens (the boldestHigh Gothic church which p r o v e d t o b e s t a b l ea s o r i g i n a l l l b u i l t ) w a s o n h two vcars in the future. Fosslnova, another of the Cistercian sitesin Itall'(it is prettill' set near Romc), also suft'ered l r o m a b a n c l o n m e n t( I 8 r 2 ) , b u t i t r v a sr e p o s s c s ilgrin sedbl monks in rgr5, and is norv happilf in usc a s a n a b b e r . I l i i \ c f \ B u l g t t n t l i : r ni n I e e l i n ga n d d e t a i l . A t t h c c r o s s i n gt h c r e i s a n o c l t l

l -.1

r 7 l l . P o n t i g n r ,a b h e t . c h u r c hi , nterior, r. r r10 r2ro

For all its unitt, Cistercian architecture is subtlv difl'erentiatcd region br, region. In rhc south, the heritage ol' Roman largeness com_ bines beautilullv with the Cistercian theme ol simplicitl, fbrthrightncss, and good constructlon. A t S i l v a c a n e , "f b u n d e d i n t t 4 7 , w e I ' c e l t h e s o u t h o f ' F r a n c e . T h e a b b e y b u i l d i n g s s u r v i r . ea s a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l l . c o m p l e t e a n d i m p r e s s i re g r o u p . T h e s o u t h - F r e n c h l o r c f o r c o u r s e db l o c k masonrl is manifest here, lvherc, in a designof quite Roman amplitude, the ashlaris unusualll. f i n e t h r o u g h o u t . a n d g i r e s c h a r a c f e rt o c r e r r . rista ot the interior.Thc church, begun abour r r 7 o , h a s r h e v e r ) . s a m ed i g n i t y w h i c h o n e f i e l s in the Pont du Gard. It is extraorclinarily fine in a c o u s t i c s ,a s i s u s u a l w h e r e t h e n a v e i s t u n n e l _ vaulted. Las Huelgas, near Burgos in Castile, is an_ othcr good examplc of Cistercian stonework.

staged towcr, partl]' of Renaissancc datc, rvhicl.r



N{ilancsc, abbeychurch, dedicatcd r8r. Chiaravallc in r r g b

r8z and rll3. Jerichow,abbel church, .. r r50, restorcd

would seem to represent, in morc permanent fbrm, the lost wooden belfiy turrets which C i s t e r c i a n c h u r c h e s u s u a l l l . p o s s e s s e d .T h e church at Fossanoya dates fiom the vears r r79 t o r z o 8 . rJ In Lombardr,, where brick has been a basic matsrial sincc Anriquitl., thc Cistcrcians o1' Chiaravalle Milanese used brick, like thcir neighbours. Shortly after thc fbundation of' r r q(r a church was started, ofwhich the transepts remain, though in altered fbrm. Ultimatelv a huge and unattractivc octagonal lantern and belliy w a s r a i s e da t t h e c r o s s i n g ,p e r h a p se v e n a f t e r t h e

d e d i c a t i o n w h i c h w a s c c l e b r a t e di n r r 9 6 [ r 8 r I . In the nar,ebig domed-up rib-r.aults of Lonrb a r d t y p e w e r e b u i l t , b e g i n n i n g p e r h a p sa s c a r l l as r r6o. Bv this timc Lombard brick architecturc ha(1 reachednorthern Gcrmanv,l +in Prcmonstratensian work (Jerichow, dated perhaps after r r-5o. being thc carliestexample) [r82, r83], perhaps under Cistercian influcncc. The rcgion lacks stone, but the clays burn to cxcellent brick of r d e c p r e d o r w i n e c o l o u r . T h e s e r . e r i t yo f l i n c a n d the exccllent workmanship continued as rhc brick style spread (B ack steingoli&), and acquired

'l'he more and more affrrmative local f'eeling. abbey church ofChorin (about rzoo) is a Cistercian example. The church buildings of the earliest Cistcrcian monasterics in German1.15 almost all of them of the filiation of Morimond were often local in, although the first (Kamp, ncar Kref'eld, rrzj) appears to hare had the earlv simpleplan used b1'the Order, but N'Iarienthal ( r r 3 8 - a 6 ) h a s a c o l u m n a r b a s i l i c a .H e i l s b r o n n , foundedin r r32, Cistercianin r r4r,hasachurch belonging to the School of Hirsau; Georgenthal, dated about rr5o, has an apse 6chelon;

Walderbach ( r r 43 7o and later) has a hall c h u r c h ; a n d a l l t h e s e s c h e m e sa r e r e p r e s e n t e d b 1 ' s c r r : r a lo t h c r e x a m p l a s . T ' h e i m p o r t a n t a b b e y 'o f N l a u l b r o n n l ' ' I I 8 . 1 1 markcd a new dcparture in the buildings crccted betwecn r146 and I178, and carried fbrward 'l'he whole group is rerv wcll constructcd in stone, and has giYen a good account later on. of itself . With the I'ears and progressive rccons t r u c t i o n st h e m o n a s t i c b u i l d i n g s h a r c a c q u i r e d Ccrman looL, but the oltlcst lrorl a pt-rndcrous ( r r 4 6 7 8 ) i s s t r o n g l y B u r g u n d i a n i n f ' e c l i n g .A G o t h i c e a s tw i n d o w a n d G o t h i c v a u l t i n g s o m e -



T H E C I S T E R C I A N S A N D T } I F , I RA R C I T I T } - C T U R E


t84. \Iaulbronn -{bbc1,lbrecourt,r r46 78 rnd later w h a t d i l u t e t h e R o m a n e s q u eo f ' t h e c h u r c h , b u t it retainsits old plan with an altar-ofthe Cross in the nar, arched stone choir enclosure, s t a l l s ,a n d a n a n g u l a r s a n c u a r r . T h e f a q a d eh a s a m a r k e d B u r g u n d i a n l l a r o u r , a n d l r a sp r e s e r v e d a l o w e x t e r i o r p o r c h a c r o s st h e f i o n t , t h i s e l e ment being fairlv common in Cistercianbuildings.17 There aretwo typical belfrv pinnacles. Cistcrcian lbrms with a German weightiness in mass and detail are we ll represented bv manv e x a m p l e s .A m o n g t h e m E b e r b a c h ( b v e x c e p t i o n fountled liom (iiteaux) is particularlr.well preservedand imposing. It is dated r. rr.5o 8o. In lear,ing German Cistercian work, it is w o r t h w h i l e t o r e p e a tw h a t h a s b c e n s a i d r e g a r d ing the imprint which the Burgundian half_ Gothic left in the minds of local architects. f'he brarura of'French designers,with wonderfll

r85. FountainsAbber',church,r. r r35 50 irncllatcr fully in it, and transmitted some of-its artracti\,e q u a l i t i e st o t h e s u c c e e d i n gE a r l v E n g l i s h G o t h i c style. Details about it belong to another volume in this series.le It must sufficc here to mention Waverley Abbev, fbunded in rrz8, irs an cxampleof the simplest form of Cistercianplan an aislelessnave and square-ended sanctuary) a short transept, and a simple square-ended chapel opening upon the rransept to eithcr side of the sanctuarv Tintern, (bunded in r r j r, as ; an example of the same plan with trvo chapels to e i t h e r s i d e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l va l o n g e r r r a n s e p ri a n d F o u n t a i n s a st h e r u i n o f a l a r s c a b b e v o a r t l r ' Norman and partly Burgundianiaff-Cu*lc ln style. -I-he church was built about r r ii ,5o. Its original sanctuarv was replaced bl the lbmous Chapel of the Nine Altars, rzo.1 47, a pnme example of the Early English Gothic style. 'l'herc a r c v e r l e x t e n s i v er e m a i n s , a d j o i n i n g t h e church, of the nronks' quarters, bcautilullr' m a i n t r i n e d I r 8 . sl . F i n a l l l r $ o r d m u s t b e s a i d about Bucklast Abbe v asrebuilt in tgoT zz, t'or this rebuilding has l.ielded much infbrmation r c g a r d i n g m e d i ev a l c o n d i t i o n s . : \ t B u c k t i r s to n e o r l s o m e n u i t h s i m p l et r a i n i n gi n c o n s l r u c l i o n lbrmed a cre w and ultimatcll'erected an elaborate church on the surliring n)edic\alfbundations. In like manncr a group of mcdier al monks i n t e n d i n g t o b L r i l da n a b b c l - m i g h t b r i n g t o t h e s i t e a p l a n l b r t h e r v h o l c f u t u r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ;a lew monks *'ith experiencc could trlin a crerv of monks and brethren during the ercction of t h c s i m p l e b u i l d i n g s r e q u i r e d i n t h e b e- c i n n i n g , and then proceed to the more diflicult works, with occasional help fiom sistcr nonasterrcs and trar ellins artisans.

flair, exploited the Gothic svstem to the ultimate, but fbr a long time few German designcrs or clients really cared fbr the novel effects. 'l hc G c r m a n s , i n t h e i r l o r , e o f s u b s t a n t i a lm a s o n r r , w h i c h w a r m s t h e m a s s i v el v a l l so l ' s p e y e r C a t h e dral and the rosy clilt's of the Backstein1ottl, clung to the tradition of the half-Gothic. 'lraccs of this lceling are easv to find in their inrc:pretation of the more mature French Gothie. which comcs first at the new cathedral ,rr' - N l a g d e b u r gi n r z o g . E n g l i s h c o n n e x i o n sw i t h t h e C i s t e r c i a nO r d e r go back to the beginning.l8 Abbot Stephen Harding of Citeaux and Bishop Everard ol N o r r v i c h , w h o b u i l t F o n t e n a y , h a r ' eb e e n m c n tioned. The Cistercian style appealed to the English, as it did to the Germans; rhe Engli:h h a d a f i n e r f l a i r l b r t h i s a r c h i t e c lu r e . b u i l l b e a u tj -





T h e R o m a n e s q u e i s a s n l e o f l . a s c i n a t i n gb t 'I'his w a y sa n d l o c a l s c h o o l s . has bccn its charm for many lor,ers o1'the arts, and, in conscquence, the historians havc generalh anallsed it as a series of' quasi-independcnt rcgional phcnomena. Yet thc great mo\,emcnts and the chief institutions o1' Romanesque timcs with their architecture nere intcr-rcgional, as u,e have s e e n ;o u r e x p o s i t i o n h a s i n d c c d b c e n p l a n n e c lt o emphasize this fhct. In monuments of' morc t h a n r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c ew e h a l e a l r c a d l ' e n countered all, or ncarll all, rhe alchitecturll motifs which we shall find, Iarioush combinctl, in the architectural b1'-wa1's which we now u n d e r t a k et o e x p l o r c . '.fhe larious local 'schools'tliRer liom onc a n o t h e r i n t h e b a s i c b u i l d i n g r n a t e r i a l s ,i n t h c choices which the practical men and decorators m a d e i n h a n d l i n g t h o s c m a t e r i r r l s .a n d i n t h e e m p h a s i sg i r c n t o r h c r a r i o u s a s p e c t so f ' t h c t l e 'I'hese sign. variablcs introduce more difl'erenccs than might, ar hrsr sight, be supposed. For examnle. Roman elements occur in all the regional schc,ol, but thc Roman elements may be structlrral, tunctional, compositionll, decorative. C)riental elements, Bvzantine ele-

mcnts, Northern elements almost inrariirblv appear, in the same i aried tva\.s,and with diliering emphasis. I t i s r r s u r lt o f i n r l i r r c a t h r t g i o n s o m c p r i n c i p a l m o n u m c n t r . h i c h h a sb e e ni m i t a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h c a r c a ,t h u s c r e a t i n ga s o r t o l a r c h i t e c t u r a l lamih and a certrirr regional unitt. Horverer. ccrtlin areas hl\.e more thrrn one such source monunlcnt) and the result is a compound locrl school. A s \ s t e m o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o nf b r t h e s c h o o l s o f m a t u r e R o n r a n e s q u ea l c h i f e c t u r c n t u s t r e s t o D unitics of rarious sorts. It is genelally true that in thc northern rcgion, where thc population lvas prcrlominantlr Germanic, the buildings c h u r c h e s a n d a l l c o n t i n u c c lr o b e e r e c f e d u i t h r el a t i r c l r s i m p l e p l l n s a n d d c c o r a t i o n ,u i t h b o l d massing ancl articulation of rclatirclr simple s h a p e s ;i r c t i \ e s i l h o u c t t e b r o k c n b \ t o \ \ e l ' i l n ( l pinnacle lirms; steep loofing (natural tr> rhe North), hcar'\ stclnc rvall-uork, and, lvhcrc it occurs, hcavv vaulting. In thc Romance area the prefi'rencc rvaslbr more sophisticated buildings,rvitha u,iderbackg'round in artistichistorr . In thc Scruth therc rvere manl derelopments alongfunctional lincs rvhichareintcrcstil.lgr , nd


T I I [ , R E ( ; I O N A L S C H O O I , S :G E N E R A L C O N S I D E R A T I O N S


t h c r e r v a sI m a r k e d r c l d i n c s s t o a b s o r b \ l o s l c n r o r B v z i r n t i n ee l e n r c n t s T . his is nrarkedll true in t h e l , ' r e n c l ra n d N o r m a n d o m i n i o n s . 'fhere is llso a ralid dir.ision berween con_ senatir c (or passir e ) , a n d a c t i \ . cs c h o o l s :R o m e and Provence, still Latin in the Romanesque pcriod, acccptecl ittle that was nc\r.tiom out_ side, but built handsomclr in a conscr\arive m a n n e r , u h i l c B u r q u n d v c r c i r t e da n d c x p o r t c d seVeral inrcr.csring t\'pes; thc neighbourine

hc lirregoing gct,logit.;rl cla\\ifi(.ilti,,r) : ') lor'th bcaringin mind: lbr rhe, ,.. e n g i n c e r sa n d r r t h i t e c t , o l " r . . , a t . ,t..;,,*u urrh a propar regard lbr th"ir.mareri,rl, i*'' h o l d c r d l f l i ' r e n c e \c a l l c d l o r t h b v t r r ; . r l f , ,fi,l lering nuterials, and the nuanccs rvhich .,r,1f w h e r e r h c m a t e r i a l sa r c m o r c s i m i l a r . a c l As r . , , r i , to the intcrcst ol' thc Rornirn"rqu" ,,1 i. .,. 0 u hole.


Gcorraphical, political, dnd chronolorljr.ll classifications are gcncralll,easicr to g..rf, fn thc historl ol Romanesqu. ...hit..tur.: ,,nl in fact, thc ccntreof'France has bcen callcd ma] sa,\'that Italr- lr,asimportirnt first, a bec,ruse 'dumping ground' becauseso much was rc_ the basilicirand thc First Romlnc.qu" ,,,1. ccired, withour sinrhesis, from irdjoinine spr(.Jd li{nn rherc. 'l ht. old \cusrr.i.r .,,rrl reE;ion s. -{ustr-asia r v e r ei m p o r t a n t n c r t N c u s t r i a l o r . i t s 'fhe mater-ials lbr building also point out a orig;inalitr' ('Iours, Germignr,_des_pr6s, Grrrnil_ signilicant classificarion.J'he Nctherlancls and lieu, Saint-Riquicr, Ciorbic, lleims, antl .Srns thc northern parts of'Germanr,, France, Itirl1,, a r c a l l t h c r c ) a n d A u s t r a s i af b r i t s c r c a t i o n ot rhc a n d S p a i n a l l h a i e a x c e l l e n tb r i c k _ c l a r . s of which Rhenish stvle (Aachcn and \{ainz, Fulcla rrd the cngineers antl .rrchitects took irclvantagc. Lorsch lrc there; a concurrcnt stlle existccl s Onll Itall ancl Prorence hacl easilr arailable tar east .rs Hung-arv in later tinres). n r a r b l e a s a I u x u r t n r a t e r i a l .E v e n i n t h c b r i c k _ F o l l o r v i n g t h e a c h i e v c n t e n t so l t h e Carolin_ building recions stonc is obtainablc, though s r a n c c n t u r i e s ,B u r g u n d v c a n c f o l i r s t i n r p o r r _ o t t e n w i t h d i f i l c u l f i ' l n c l c x p e n s e ,a n d u s u a l l v i t ancc in architecture. 'l'he rcasonswerc, rs \\c is limcstone . Siln(lsl(,nc l t.. s s l l t r r c l i r u e n . l. l u r _ hare seen,thc dr.namic spread, fiom BurgLrn_ able, less rewlrding to rhe sculptor and the dian centres, of f'ederativc monasticism (chicfl\ a r c h i t c c t ,a b o u n c l s in England (alongu ith flints, in thc clercnth and twellth centurics) and rirc chalkl' limestone, and brick-clavs which rvcre Burgundian designersg ' r e a t a b i l i t t .t o s v n t h e s i z c crploitecllatcr). Southcr.n Germrnr. and Rhine_ a r c h i t e c t u r a l i c l e a s .T ' h e s e i d c a s c a m e irom thc land lirance hale lairlv good sendstonc. 1.he n e i g h b o u r i n g r e g J i o n so f ' N e u s t r i a , , { u s t r a s i , r . Aulergne antl rhe I-imousin (excc;rtionalll Aquitania, Pror-ence,and Itall-, and ) certdil have granite arrd volcanicstone. Elsewherc in o r i e n t a l i n f l u e n c e sw e r e w c l c o m e d t o o . Vaulting. France there is exccllcnt limestonc (c.g. the madt'proqress: so alsoin Llnguedoc,uhi,l. Caen stone o1'Normandl' lvhich rvasexportecl tcr f l o r v e r c d a f t er t h c m i d d l e o f t h e e l c r . e n t h ccnE n g l a n d e r e n i n R o m a n c s q u et i m e s ) . b e : r u t i _ tun, and is rcsponsiblc fbr irn i r n p r e s sir e t i r l l v t e x t u r c d : r n ca l c l e l i g h t o t h e c a rr c r . s c h i s e l : d a u g h t c r -s c h o o l i n S p a i n . I t a l r m c a n w h i l e be_ crisp mor.ridings a n c lr i c c o r a t i r eu o r k h a r e b e e n .I.s camean architccturallialeidoscope. In the o t h e r c s u l t . ' f h c s c F r e n c h l i m e s t o n e s\ \ . c i t h e r to Sicilies an eclectic school sholved how r . a r i e ri finc bul}, pale brown, and grer. tints. Similar R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r ec o u l d b e u n d c r strons s t o n e si n l t a l r ' ( n o r t h a n d s o u r h ) t e n d to rvcarher B r z a n t i n e r r n t l V o s l e m i n f l u e n c e ; in fuscan, to decper brouns_'I'his is truc also of.the east_ a n d \ e n e r i : r h o u r i c h ir could he; ccrtain{q_ { d r i a t i c a n d S p a n i s hl i m es t o n e s . North_ rr.esrcrn velopments of vaulting i n L o m b a r c l _ rn . e r c , i r r S p a i n a n d P o r t u g : r l h a rc 6;ranrre. c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h er e l c m e n t s . i n s t r u m e n t a l B e r r r , a l t h o u g h i t c o n t a i n e c lB o u r g e s , t h e c c _ clcsiastical c a p i t a l o f A q u i t a i n e , p r o c l u c e dl i t t l e

t h c { n e l o - \ o r m a n s c h o o l o n l ) r u fo i ' in os r itia . rting tht end ol the a.t.tonnrcnts belbre centurr' 'eleventh -In,h. . , firsrthird ol thc tuellih ccntur\' men ucre draun liom all qtlarlers -.csJtcrnd ideas antl Btrrgundr to thc Ilc-de. i r i t 1 ,N o t r n t n a l brirrq ahout thc creetion ol t o , h . . a i-rana., w h e r e t h c R o l n a t r e s q u ch a d bothic in a rcgion uninspired and unintercstb e e n t i m e for a long more accomplishetl local with regions Other inq. emplov them cll'ectivell. stfles continued to until the Gothic from the Ile-dc-Ifrance ap' oeared in the twelfih or thirteenth centur\ From that time onu'ard. it bccame the firncto influcnce t i o n o f t h e R o m a n e s q u el o c a l s t 1 ' l e s i n c o m i n g G o t h ic to dot h e m o d u l a t e t o and mesticate it, so to speak, in respect of' mason work, lighting, rooling, and decoration. Whilc the Burgundian half -Gothic of the (-istercians was, like ancient Roman building, applicable everywhere with little change, the fullr chtrGothic of thc Ile-de-Flance achicvcd acterized better results abrold when it acccpted something from the heritage of the local st-vlcs. D i v i d i n g R o m a n c s q u ea r c h i t c c t u r e s u m m a r ily on national lines ficlds the lbllorving classification: The Italian stllcs, in spite of'certain norel developments, are backuard-looking: in Lombardy, to the First Romirnesquc stvlel in the Veneto to the B]'zirntine ; in central Itall to Earlv Christendom: and in the Two Sicilies cclectic - to the Earll' Christian, \'Ioslem, Bvzantinc, Lombard, and Germrn st,ylcs.

T h e G e r n r a n a n d r e l a t e dm l t r . r l eR o m a n e s q u e s t v l e sa r e c o n s e r v a t i v e ,a n d a l l b c a r t h c o b l i o u s imprint of thc great earlier developments (alr e a d v c o n s i d e r e d )i n t h e R h i n e l a n d . Though not indcpcndent, thc SpanishPortuguese ancl thc English stvles are sufTicienth clch in ils orln wa\. 1o nlerit charactcrizcd, national standing. But in the actual development of' Romanesque,France is most f-ecund.B-vlieDeralconscnt thsrc were seven individual regional schools in medieval lirance. The Iirance of the eleventh centurl did not p r o p e r l r i n c l r r d eB l i t t a n r o r a n l i m p o l t i r r t rt e r r i torics be1'ond the Sommc, the \leuse, the S a o n e , ; r n t lt h e R h o n c . ' l ' h e s t r i r c r s \ \ ' e r c a p proximatelv irt the boundaries ol'the Empirc. Carolingian .'\ustrasia remaincd Imperial, and of later lrrench culw h a t i s s o m e t i m e s( b e c a u s e t u r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l e x p a n s i o n ) c a l l e c lt h e e i g h t h French school that ofthe Rhineland, or of'thc East dcvclopedtherc in a German ambicnt. Iior our purposes it will be most convenient to undertake first the studl- of middle and southern l'rirnce. with its schools of- (e) Burgundy; (u) Provence; (c) the Loire region and western Francc, under the headings: (r) the Loire Rircr area; (z) Poitou, with Anjou, Saintongc, and thc South-West: (r) Pdrigorcl and t h e d o n r e t lc h u r c h e so f A q u i t a i n c ; ( l ) A u r e r g n c ; 'I'he s c h o o lo f t h c E a s t ( n ) w i l l b e (n)Languedoc. taken up with thc architecture ol-the Empire, Normandl' (c;)and thc school o1'Prris and the North (n), when we approachthe Gothic st1-le.




In the area ofthe old Carolingian Provencr: and Burgundy, technicallv only ducal Burgrndr' was French; the remainder had becorne a loosely-held part of the medier,al Empire bv the 'I'he historical accident of bequest in ro3z.1 Kingdom had an underlving Latinity. I'raditional and easv communications ofl'ered bv the great valleys of the Rhirne and the Sadne p'ile a u n i t y t o t h i s a r e a l s h i c h s h o w si n m a n l ' w a r s i n its architecture. The renaissance of Roman forms was particularlv appropriate and lelicitous here. However, there is a strong tincture of Carolingian and Rhenish influence in the north: hence the area produced two great schools of Romanesquearchitecture: (r) in ducal Burgund)', where the fusion ofnorthern and srruthe r n e l e m e n t si s r e m a r k a b l e ,a n d ( z ) i n P r o l e n c e . where the Roman tradition is especialll' strong.

France and the Empire, but belonged archit e c t u r a l l y t o d u c a l B u r g u n d , v .T h i s w a s t r u e a l s o ofthe archbishopricof Vienne, which wasin the Empire but bordered on the Rh6ne. The eastern parts of'this archbishopric bordered on Italv a n d s e r v e da s a n a t u r a l a v e n u eo f L o m b a r d i c i n fluence,with \,{ilan onlv a hrrndred-odd miles a w a l . B e s a n g o n .t h e n o r t h c r n a r c h b i s h o p r i c o f the Kingdom of ,{rles, wasopen to Burgunclian influence, especiallf in thc Franche-Comt6, but the eastern parts, actualll- bordeling on the Rhine, were understandablv German in their architecture. Since the building t1'pes in Burgundv are so various, and their components so widelv used i n R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u l e ,i t i s r v o r t h w h i l e t o u n d e r t a k e a n a n a h ' s i so f t h e e l e m e n t s .B u r g u n dian practice is well up to thc best general lcr.el in the Romanesque period, and manv o1' the observations which will be made hcrc on structural matters arc applicableclsewhere.

D U C A LB U R G U N D Y In an earlier chapter rue have obsen'ed Burgundy as a crossroads unusually open to ourside i n f l u e n c e s ,a n d u n u s u a l l l g i f t e d w i t h i m a g i n ation for profiting bl them and sy-nthesizing them. Immense resources were available in men and money from outside the region fbr building in Romanesque timcs, and the impcrtant churches represent not one, but ser.eral, great types. Roman influence cane r.rnthe Rh6ne laller. f r o m P r o r e n c c a n dS e p t i m r n i r . O n c I c e l sl l o m e subtly still as far north as Micon, which rvrtstbr a long time just south of the boundarv of ducal Burgundl but within the bortlers ot Rom,rnesque France. Ducal Burgundl' fbrmed a part ot the historic metropolitan archbishopric of' L y o n , w h i c h w a s d i v i d e c lb e t w e e nR o m a n e s q u e

7 ' y p t so f P l u n 'l'he hasilicanltlun a.nd general arrangemcnr fbr churches har-econtinued in use in Burguntlr' ever since Earlv Christian times without interruption, although stronglr modified b1'medie p l a n f e a t u r e sa n d r , a u l t i n g . 'l'he primitive medieral nave-and-chancel or 'barn' trpe of'church, rescmbling St Benedict's C h a p e l a t S a i n t - R i q u i e r [ 5 ] , i s r e p r e s e n t e db - va number ol sm:rller churchcs in Burgunclr. 'I'ournus Saint-Laurent, (built belbre thc lerrr rooo), being the most intercsting preservecl example. The rotunda is not unusual in Burgundl.. Its (at Auxerre, Sens,Charmajor representatives

A N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C t . 214 . MTDDLF.




lieu, and especialll' Dijon Iro7 9l) har.ealreadl. bcen anall.sed; thcv are regularlv connccted with cr1-pts a n d a m b u l a t o r i e s ,a n d t h u s a r e s a t e l l i t e r a t h c r t h a n i n d c p e n d c n t c o n s t r u c t i o n .B u r g u n d i a n R o m a n e s q u ea n d G o t h i c c h u r c h e st e n d to hare a specialaccent on the axial absidiole, which probabh. reprcsentsa reduction o1'the rotunda. plun and its approximations The Greek crzss are rare in Burgundy'. The cemetery chapel at Cluny'(ro6.1; destroy'ed)provided a rather solitarv example of its indcpendenr use.Cluny'III 'lhe was an exceptional building. chevet, including the minor transept, was, in efi'ect,a church of the central t)'pe, so disposed as to gi'r'e extra c a p a c i t v l b r l a r g e a s s e m b l a g c sE . ach arm of'the grcat transept was like the 'tower nave' of a 'I'he 'double Saxon church. transept' at Clur,l. is beliered to have been the lirst; the scheme lvas communicated to England through Lewcs Priorv, and thencero English Gothic. 'I-he'douhle-endar' plan, which was used bv the Earh-Christians of North Aliica, and afierlvards in Germany, is re presented in the cathcdral of Ner,ers on thc Burgundian border. 'l'hc eastern apse has becn replaced in the Gothic stvlc, but the westcrn onc, togerhcr with handsome arcadcd transeptal screens, has been pres e r v e d .T h e d a t e o f r o z g i s g i l e n f b r t h i s w o r k . Saint-Vorles at Chitillon-sur-Scine (dated about gtio rooo, with a later vault) is triapsidal,

Apses are regularly semicircular, lighted bi three windolvs, and covered bv semi-domes, round-arched or pointed. Thev are as a rulc it little lower than rhe adfoining, typical, r'aultcrl sanctuary bavs. Ordinarilv the churchcs arr transcpt. triapsidal, with lateral apses attached to thc 'I'his simple arrangement was suffi-

cient even for so notable a building as the twelfth-centur]. cathedral of' Autun Ir6r], because, like other early twelfth-centurv cathcdrals, it had not yet become the fbcus of guiltl acti\,ities and various popular religious deiotions. Gothic lateral chapels were added here. as at Notre-Dame in Paris, fbr such purposes. Cr.1,1tts are important, as we have seen, in thc E a r l y R o m a n e s q u eo f B u r g u n d y ( D i j o n I r o 7 ] : 'I'ournus Iroz]; Saint-Savinen, Sens; SaintGermain, Auxerre z6nl). Mention should br made of the handsome and well-built cry'pt of thc cathedralo1'Auxerre (r. roz5-3o) [rrzl which is precocious in its architectural forms. perhaps because of influence from the Loire. The crvpt has beautifullv composed groupccl piers and fine r,aulting, with moulded ashlar ribs. Ner,ers Cathcdral has a similar crypt dated a b o u t r o z g . B u r i a l c r J . p t sa r e u n u s u a l i n B u r gundr', which did not have manv Earlv Christian saints besides Germanus (Auxerre), Benignus (Diion), Valerianus (Tournus), Fortunarus (Charlieu), and Savinianus (Sens). The much q u o t e d ' c r y p t a e ' o f C l u n y I I w e r e s e c r e t a r i ao r lateral sacristy chambers, not subterraneani 'crypta' may mean a vaulted chamber abor,c ground.2 The ambulator.y with radiating chapels came early to Burgundy, and was long confined to thc most notable monastic buildings with crypts. It was, however, not much used in Burgundy, evcn in Gothic times, outside the monasteries. One exccptional church, Bois-Sainte-Marie, perhaps under the influence of early Charlieu, has an ambulatory without radiating chapels. The apse dchelon occrrs in Burgundy, and C l u n y I I , w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t!c h e l o ni n t h e r e s i o n ,

in its widespread use. was doubtless influential has an excellent example, still pre,{nzy-le-Duc reminiscent of a served, with a small apse, central absidiole. from the opening rotunda, Sanctuary bays wete placed singly in lront of prethe apses of Burgundian churches of anv all. at tension Stalls were regularly placed at the head of'thc naves, in monastic churches, within a lowwalled enclosure. Ordinarily two or three ba-YS sumced for this choir. Transepts are usual in Burgundian church 'dwarf' transepts plans. Sometimes they are (not as high as the nave), and they are often 'included' (not extended beyond the flank lines of the plan), in which case they may have pitch roofs like the aisles, as at Chapaize Ir34]. However, the transepts also often proiect and have striking fagades (Paray-le-Monial Ir 561; Autun Cathedral). The longer transepts were built to provide additional absidioles.r plan' (with two tranThe' archiepiscopalcross septs east of the nave) apparently originated at Cluny Ir4z], to permit large assembliesin choir. It spread to England (Lewes Prior.v, Canterbury, York, and Salisbury Cathedrals). 'fhe crossinginBurgundy, often oblong rather than square, regularly has an octagonal domical (or'cloister') vault on squinches, and the vault is sometimes pierced with small windows. Naoes are aisleless in modest churches. Though sometimes roofed in wood, they are typically vaulted in Burgundy - the result of Roman heritage and probably also for reasonsof acoustics. Small tunnel-vaulted churches of Romanesque proportions respond amazingly to the liturgical chant; even a few voices will hll such a building with rich resonances which are hardly obtainable in a wooden-roofed room. It is obvious that certain of the Burgundian naves were built cheaply for capacity. SaintMarcel and the later Infirmary Chapel at Cluny (like the near-by church of Beaujeu and many others belonging to the school of the Loire and

the region of'Bourges, where thc scheme was an established type) have triapsidal chevets and transcpts with towers, to which wide woodentrussed naves were added naves twice as wide, more or less, as the chancel. The efI'ect,though spacious, is rather barn-like. 'fhe proportioning of Burgundian naves

varies greatly. There is a continuous tradition for Roman sturdiness and amplitude, which runs from the basilicas through Saint-B6nigne and V6zelay to the Cistercians, with a placid rhythm in the division ofbroadly proportioned, individual bays. 1'here is a tendency, noted especially' in the parish churches, but also at Ylzelay, and in Cistercian work, to use a twostorey interior elevation. The Cluniac group of Burgundian churches often has emphasis on the verticals. At Cluny III the height ofthe transverse arches was three times their width and the individual bays were about four times as high as they were wide. In the Burgundian nar,es, lighting bv clerestory windows is usual, but in many instanccs of vaulted churches they have been omitted or blocked up for safety's sake. In such buildings, if they are short, the west windows of the nave give a sufficient light. The naves of ordinary parish churches tend, in f'act,to be short, but in monastic buildings the processional liturgies (much developed in Burgundy) caused the construction of very long naves which influenced those of other regions. Aisles arethe rule in buildings of any importance, unless the naves have uncommon width. Exceptionally Saint-Bdnigne at Dijon, Cluny I I I , a n d S o u v i g n y h a d t w o a i s l e sa t e a c h s i d e o f the nave. Aisles are almost inr,ariably covered b1' bays ofgroin vaulting (occasionalll' quadrant vaults) separated by transverse arches which pilaster strips or spur butare buttressed b1-trcsses.Ordinarily each aisle bay has a window. Torpersand pinnacles are normal on Burgundian churches, and are invariably an attractrve feature of the design. The number of towers

t r a n s e p t e d , p r o v i d e d w i t h n a v e a n d a i s l e s ,a n d has the wreck of a sort o1'westwork which recalls 'fhe Carolingian and German work. impact of the Empire on Burgundian rvork secms in fict surprisinglv small, but it mar. perhaps be f-elt i n t h e d o u b l e t r a n s e p t a n d t h e o c t a g o n a lr o r v e r s o1'St Hugh's Clun1..

I'aotures in Plun All Romanesque features of church planning occur in some fbrm in Burgundian cdifices, typically as enrichments of'the basilican scheme.


M T D D L E A N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C F -



varies !ireatly,and with it the silhouette (always interesting)ofthe buildings. The tower shapes are sober and dignified, and the openings, usually with attractive ornament, are always well disposed. Authentic Romanesque tower roofs had pvramids of low pitch (as a rule less than forty-five degrees, except on pinnacles), until the twelfth century was well advanced. Towers in the tradition of the heavy Roman turris,bnllt up from the ground, are square in plan. Pignacula, olten somewhat too large to be 'pinnacles' called in the modern sense, may start from the roof level, and are frequently octagonal. 'l'all and graceful crossing towers, quadrangular or octagonal in plan, are a constant feature ofthe churches. A belfry in several stages is often set over a lantern with tiny windows at the crossing. Bell cages, where they occur, rest on the crossing vault. The belfry stages were always roofed in wood, sometimes covered in the Middle Ages rvith tile, sometimes with 'laves' (laminae of stone). In Burgundy, paired western towers occur much less liequent[1'than crossingtowers; we mav sa!' that generally paired rvestern towers were associatedwith galilee porches of monastic inspiration. Single western towers are unusual. Stair turrets of varving size enliven the silhouettes of manl.' churches ; thev ma!' be square or round. Saint-B6nigne at Diion was exceptional in having three pairs ofstair turrets, svmmetrically placed. Cluny III had two great square bel(iy towers at the fagade, two square stair turrets, of which one was carried onlv to the clerestory level, together with four pignacula ofgreat size one oblong, and three ofoctagonal shape. Porchas and nart heces are features of the more ambitious churches, as a rule; more modest buildings rarelv possessthem. Prrtuls ol'embrasured lbrm, in one. t\.\o.or several orders, with nook shafis, are a common and attractive f'eature even ofmodest churches.

Thel-' have characteristic carved lintels, tympana, and moulded enclosing arches. Onll modest examples, or those under Cistercian influence, were left plain. The proportions are in almost all casesexcellent.

De t a i ls of S uperstr uct ur e The pall-porh of early Romanesque Burgundr'. to be understood, requires a knowledge ot mason work in the Loire region. At first, thc execution, both of walls and of vaulting, was rather rough. Ashlar stone was used, rather exceptionally, in the crypt of Saint-Philibcrt. Tournus, before q79, and ashlar spur buttresses occur in the same work. The rough vault, ne.r'er stuccoed, still shows the marks of the small boards used as centering. Division of vaulting bays by arches of ashlar stone may have lirst come in systematically with the Lombards, about g8o rooo. Ashlar was used more and more from that time onward. Late in the twelfih century' walls and vaults both were increasinglv laced with ashlar, which in Gothic work was indispensable. Where ashlar was used, the slrrra which regularlv surl'aced the rougher old construction would not adhere properly, and was omitted. The walls, even early walls, in Burgundr show a high level of craitsmanship. The region is blessed with an abundance of excellent limestone ranging from white to pale buffin colour. which weathers to beautiful toasted browns ancl soft greys. An exception is the pink stone ol Pr6tr', used at Saint-Philibert, Tournus.l At Cluny III the typical ashlar blocks arc about three feet high, with verl'narrow mortar ioints ( * of an inch). However, these dimensions are exceptional; the ordinary joints are thicker and the ordinary coursing is narrouer. Common walls are faced with moellon,relativell small stones trimmed roughly to shape. A l'elr earll' walls show the use of rough stones with occasional herringbone work; a few show hori-

of ashlar work, introduced for zontal bands credit is given to the skill Insufficient ,tr.ngth. masons in linding the proper Burgundian the of exceptionally good mortar' materialsand making plan occur early in the Buroblong of Piers crucifbrm piers. which do as churches' sundian hare three-quarler coln u c l e i S q u a r e iersist. u m n s a d o s s e dt o t h c m i n m a t u r c w o r k . C r u c i and/or form nuclei have three-quarter columns III in Cluny to them flttached pilasters fluted and related buildings. Ashlar is early used' Cylindrical piers of moellln occur early (SaintPhilibert at Tournus, ChaPaize). Colunnar sfia/is were used lrom earlv times for support; examples occur at Saint-B6nig;ne, Diion, and in the Charlieu chapter-house, as well as in Cluny III and buildings related to it' Monolithic limestone shatis trp to twentv lcet in length are easily quarried in Burgundy', but difficulties of transport prevented their wide use: the columns. as in classic times, were ordinaril-v built up ol drums' 1'he capitals are sometimes surprisingll' close to the antique Corinthian, but simplified, and Corinthianesqueforms are more usual. Structural columns are not fluted, but decoratir-e columns irnd pilasters often are in the twelfih century rvith quite unconventional detail in the fom ofbevels, zigztgs, cher,rons, reeding, cymas, and beading. Such details show the influence of imaginative manuscript painters and metal workers. The mouldings in ordinary buildings are simple and far lrom subtle, but the best work has classicizing mouldings of great beaut-r.sThe string courses show beak mouldings derived from the classic cyma; column bases are sometimes close to the Roman fbrm of the Attic base. The graduai transition to the Gothic derivatives of these profiles can easily be traced in Burgundy. The Burgundians had a great ragt: for decora;tive arcadinS which was unquestionablv of classicalorigin. Simple at lirst, the arcading became very elaborate and multiplied with the

passage o f t i m e . I n t h e s e c o n dh a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h centur-y it was verv luxuriant indeed, being carried out with decorative pilastcrs and complicated mouldings. Moslem influence, coming perhaps by way of the Auvergne, brought in cusping. Verv spic-v decorativc effects rvcre achieved by' its use. The Lombard corbcl table survived throughout the various phases of Burgundian Romanesque, and was used effectivell. in the almost Baroque designs of the middle of the twelfth century. 'Ihe sculptural decttration of Burgundian Romanesque buildings was not rich in the early period. The Lombardic work employs simple capitals trimmed down in concave f'ashionat the angles, so that triangles result on the facesofthe capitals instead of semicircles as so much more f r e q u e n t l f i n L o m b a r d y . I n u n p r e t e n t i o u sw o r k these capitals are built up ol'courses. Few grot e s q u e so c c u r . t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g examples; leaf'agepredominates so generally that one and rather unskilful leafage in fact must suppose the importation of highly trained carvers (almost certainly from the marblecutting regions of France, and most probably of Italv), when the sophisticated Clutiac atelier was created. Some of the capitals show the influence of medieval manuscript decoration. The fine earlier acanthus leafage at Cluny III (so l i k e a n c i e n t a c o n t h u s m o l l i s \ ,a s w e l l a s t h e e x ceptional delicacy and classical character of the earlier moulding profiles at Cluny III, would be accounted fbr, if we might suppose that fine craftsmen came from Montecassino, Pisa, Venice, or possibly Moslem Spain, which has yielded beautiful carvings in an almost Romanesque style. These men surelJ' worked under French direction,however; fbr the sarour ofthe d e s i g n si s u n m i s t a k a b l y F r e n c h . Cistercian architectural asceticism made itself l e l t i n s t r r n t l yi n B u r g u n d y . S i m p l e c o l u m n c a p i tals and austere portals with blank t-Ympana appear on many churches not belonging to the Orcler. Their reserved charicter accords well

2 . + u M I D D L E A N D S O t r lt l E R N F R A N C E

. ND tsURGUND) T T I L ,K I N ( ; D O M O F A R I , F , S A


with the sober outlincs which the Burgundian Romanesquechurches generally cxhibit. I/uulting in Burgundl fbllowed Roman models until well into the Gorhic period,though 'hall--Gothic' rib-vaults began to appear sporadically in Burgundy as soon,or almosr as soon! as in the ile-d.-It.un..The Romanesque vaults are in laminated stone.rough, with thick joints, thick cclls. and stuccoecl solits.

The groin vaults have on the whole stood trn bettcr than the runncl raults.Srlong mur.r.11 kcpt both tvpes secure fbr somc time, but thr tunnel \ault was the morc diffrcult to abrir successfulll, and with time almosr all thc rramples have bccomedeformcd or hare actualli l h i l c d . \ u x i l i a r l b u r r r e s s c sn ,ot oricinall.v plirrrn e d , h a v e h e l p e c lt o k c e p s e v e r a lo f t h e i m p o r t a n r raults in place. T h e t u n n e l l a u l t s o f i e n h a v e t h c r o o l i n p ;o l l u t c s l a i r Jd i l e c t l v o n t h e v a u l t c c l l s , l o a d i n g t h c h a u n c h e s .H o r v c r , e r ,r o o f i n g o f ' l a v e s o r t i l e o n timber supports o\.er an air-spacc often covcrs tunnel vaulting, as it invariabh'does vaults ol groined or domical fbrm. 'I'he high vaults ol Romanesque Burgundr l b r m a n i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d v i n t h e m s e l r e s .l \ I c n t i o n h a s a l r e a d r . b c e nm a d e o f C l u n y ' I I ( r ' a u l t c d about rooo) rrnd Saint-B6nigne (roor r71. 'I'he sober and powerlul r.aults of thc narthcr trr Tournus (about q6o) precede thcm hoth. 'I'hc u p p e r s t a g eo ( t h e n a r t h e x , d a t e c lp c r h a p s a b o u r rorg, has quadrant-r'aulted aislcs with dilphragms between the bavs, and a tunnel vaulr with transr,crsearchesover a clercstory between. Pilaster strips stiflin the wall on thc cxterior. in thc Lombard manner.(, W i t h C l u n l l I I t h c p o i n t e d a r c h r v a sb r o u g h r i n . T h i s p e r m i t t e d a c l e r . e r e ra n d t h i n n e r g r o i n r,ault, more easily built, and it sare a morr 'l'he scicntific profile to the high vault. optimunr profile is a catenar]-, which avoids all deforma t i o n s t r e s si n t h e v a u l t c e l l s . TB u t r v h c r c ,a s a t Clunv, the clcrestorv rvallswere wronglv locatetl over the piers, the vault had to bc propped up with flying buttrcsses. 'I'his is perhaps the placc to introducc a brief consideration of cidl arckitetzzra,s slight as the remains are. In Burgundy thc Roman citics s h r a n k w i t h i n t h e i r w a l l sa n d d e c r c a s e c il n populltion, so that lbr I long time nt'u consrruction lor secular purposcs was not on a high level. Stone was doubtless much more r.rsed in Burgundy than f-arther north, where, as in earlJ

E n g l a n d .r h e r i l l a g c c h u r c h m i g h t b c medieral ol bricL or stonc in 't scttlc,h. only builtling of the communitr lunctions ol N l a n v ment. takcn over b) ecclesiastical or to-day had been and most ol'the towns m a n o r i a le s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the twelfth centur].' that until were so small, require highlf indivinot did functions their dualized buildings. With the twclfth-centur1. r e v i v a lt h i s w a s c h a n g e d . Cluny, which was carlv chartered (about s charming old building ofthe r r o o ) , p o s s e s s ea late Romanesque period which is said mistakenly to havc served a civic purpose as the abbey mint. It has a big-arched grottnd floor, where there wxs 2t fbrlic of some sortl simple apartments occupiod an intermediatc floor; a loft above them provided storapie A serious conflagration in rI-59 destroyed many houses at Cluny. Surviving still arc several of the more or lcss standardized dwellings which were built to replace them [186]' The lots are relatively narrow, and the houses, built with party rvalls, werc placed at the sidewalk line. Cellars were provided with interior access. Space was allotted fbr a garden plot at the rear. The characteristic stone lbqadesare handsomel-v proportioned and rvell built, but the intcrior construction wls of rvood, At the ground lloor a generous pointcd arch opens upon a shop, a work room, or a stable, and beside it a narrow square-headed openinpl gives upon the stairwal' which lcads to the apartments on the floor abor,e. The shop occupies about half the ground-floor arc:r, ertending beyond the stairway to give accessto a corridor l e a d i n gt o t h e k i t c h e n ( a t t h e b a c k o l t h e h o u s e , 'I'he with a big open lireplace at one end). intervening space betwcen the shop, the corridor, and the kitchen is an open court with a w e l l i n i t e s s e n t i a l l ! . a no u t d n o r r o o m . In these houscs at Clunl' a charming range of two-light winclows divided bv columns and set offby small piers givcs light across the whole tront ofthe upper storey. This storef is divided
r 86. Clunv. charactcristic house, after r I 59

Centering was used in building the Burgun'lhis dian vaults. was supported on hear.ier in Gotland [S5o,:Sr], where a fburteenth-century vault of Romancsque ty-pe in the church towcr still retains its centering rz .sr/ll. Wooden tie-pieces set irt thc springing, bar. bv bal, were a common means of maintaining the vault saf'ely in position, while the masonry solidified. l'hey were intended to bc remor,ed. The tie-pieces wcre doubtless uselul in supporting a workmen's platfbrm durinp; construction. 'I'imbers lvere apparenrll' embcclded in certain w a l l s t o g i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r e n B t ha t h i g h l r : \ e l s . This occurs in the dormitorr, of the Cluniac priorv ol'Lewes in England. It is not good practice, lbr the buried timbers suffer from dry rot and lose their strength; then rhe wall is weakcr t h a n i t r v o u l c lb e i f i t u e r e c o n s r r u c t e d e n t i r e h . ol stone. T h c t u n n e l v a u l t a n d i t s d e r i v a t i r . e sw e r e a l most exclusively used in Burgundl-, except lbr the apses,which of course ha.r,e round or pointed semi-domes. Since both round and pointed arches arc used in the arcading, wc find roundarchedand pointed tunnel vaulring (commonll used in the naves and transcpts) together with round and pointed groin vaulting (regularlv in the aisles, occasionallv in the naves). The trump e t s q u i n c h e s a n d t h e o c t a g o n a ld o m i c a l v a u l t s w h i c h o c c u r n o r m a l l y a t t h c c r o s s i n g sa r e , l i k e groin vaulting, derired fiom the tunnel r.ault. Exceptional are the niche-head squinchesand 'l'ournus, dome ol'Saint Philibert, built somewhat belbre r rzo. timbcring, as mav be seen at Lirbro

br the court into tuo or thrce rooms; it woulcl be provided with onc or two hooded fir'eplaces, and would har,e a storagc loft abovc, under a roof'with a dormer opening and broadly overhanging eaves. It is a very attractivc medieval housc tvpe, and alwals appears in gencral acc o u r . t t so f ' F r e n c h m c d i e r a l c l o m e s t i ca r c h i t e c tr.ll'c. (,lun1-', built on two sides of the abbev enclosure, had a very simple street system. Ultimately an outer wall, with three gates, was each gate leading to a small plaza. As far as rve know, the old Romanesquc towns wcre, similarly, quite simple. Sometimcs they s e r e l a i d o u l i n r i n g s .l r o u n d a c h u r c h o r c a s t l e ' built but on flat ground they were often rectilincar, and the'bastides' later inherited this mode'




O F A R L E , S .A N D B U R C L I N D Y


When a more official architecture developed, it was naturally dependent on monastic architecture to a considerable extent. The abbel's had been building walls, gates, gatehouses, halls of various sorts, garners, and mills. We must infer that municipal constructions of the sort were simple at first, like those of the monks, and that when they came to be embellished, the ornament was what we have seen on the churches. This observation is borne out by the 'Man6canterie' at Lyon, a twelfth-century work which served as a choir-school annexe to the cathedral, but it rnight equally have been built as a municipal hall of some sort. The countryside architecture of Romanesque Burgundy must be divined from later

esque. The medieval revivals of the nineteenth century produced little of interest in Burgunilr., but the country chr,rrcheswerc often carried out in a sort ol'Romanesque or half'-Gothic stvle which blends well, in the smiling opulent lanclscape, with the churches which remain to us liom the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries.

PROVENC}'Ihe essentialLatinity ofProvence is well shorrn in its Romanesque architecture. The region lvas temporarilv

a possession of the Visigoths (a8o tr), Ostrogoths (5ro ff.), Franks (-537and later), Arabs (before 739), and the Empire, with interludes of local independence; it was evcn under Spanish rule, without losing its basicallr Roman character. Arles was a natural choice as capital of the medieval kingdom; for it was thc capital of Roman Gaul in the fifth centurv, and its bishopric was then the primatial see. Important examples of 61th-centurv ecclesiastical architecture still exist in the region; lirr instance, the church ofSaint-Pierre, at Vienne, now a museum, was in f'act a vastly spacior"rs fifth- or sixth-centurv wooden-roofed church. the oidest extant in France. It is erroneoush supposed to have had tlibunes. Interior roof supports had to be built in gz4 6, providing^ two lines of tall, slender arches on plain oblong piers, with a Carolingian pierced screen wrll above, providing support for a pitch roof of' 'I'he church was, as we belier,e, an example with the unobstructed interior spacc ordinary form. which was usual in the Roman Imperial thronc halls, like the'Basilica'('royal house')in Trier T h e s e v e r l ' s p a c i o u s n a v e sa p p e a r a s a R o m a n esque church type. Since the reconstruction of' gz4 6 (probably caused bv weakened trusses), Saint-Pierre has had aisles nearly as high as the nave, which has no clerestory. It is thus rt primitive sort of 'hall church'. Saint-Laurent, Grenoble, has a well-preserved crypt dating lrom thc eighth centur)

buildings which have obviously kept something of their earlier lbrm. The village of Blanot, near Mricon, looking down on its enchanting little valley, must be more than a little like a Romanesque village. The manors and granges of the region are not Romanesque, but their orientation, their simple arrangement about courtyards oflow barn-like structures is clearly traditional. At Berz !-la-Ville the grange of the Cluniac monks has been rebuilt, but the old court has its original location and the remarkable chapel built in the days of St Hugh still dominates it. At Berzd-le-Chitel near by, the castle has been rebuilt, but gives a hint of older fbrms, as does the Chiteau des Moines at Lourdon, in spite of partial rebuilding and advancing ruin. Rural Burgundy is still largely Romanesque in its visual eff'ect.

most interestingof its type, which is one of the It wasbuilt intoa lateanlique plan. in ouatrefoil and a church was concomplex. cemeterial rorz' about it over structed ofVaisonhasthreeapses Again,the cathedral to the Merovingian plan, ascribed of horseshoe period;but betweenlolo and to3o, and once morein the thirteenthcentury.the churchwas rebuilt, so that it has the generalcharacterof buildings'e laterRomanesque The early abbeys are unexpectedlydisappointing. At Saint-Victor at Marseille, which hasan augusthistory going back to its founder (4r4), there is now a stour' wellJohn Cassian exterior a good crenellated built,two-towered, restoredin moof tardy Romanesque, example is of the thirchurch The upper times. dern teenthcentury, incorporatingparts of an older it thereare in ro4o. Beneath building dedicated fifth-century remains of unarchitecturalcharacter,but one can trace a stubby three-aisled basilicawith a largesquareatrium in front of it the churchof SantaMaria a layoutwhich recalls Antiqua in Rome. L6rins, near Antibes and Cannes, though charming,is alsodisappointing;for nothing remainsof the Early Christian period, when the monasterywas one of the most important in r87.Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, priorychurch, planof thechurchbefore destructton

western Europe. On

the Ile-Saint-Honorat

there is a trefoil chapel dedicated to the Trinity, an eleventh-centur,v work, and there arc eleventh- or twelfih-century sections in tlre picturesque but much rebuilt lbrtihcations 01' the island. Records have come down to us regarding tenth- and eleventh-century building at other abbeys and cathedrals, but the remains are slight. -I'he really flourishing period for Provengal architecture came in the twelfth century, when the cities were acquiring local independence Many older buildings of importance were replaced with maturer works in consequence' The classicizing tendency is unmistakable, increasing rather than diminishing as the twelfth century advanced; it was full and strong at the beginning of the thirteenth century, but lost strength during the ensuing disasters, and because of the general expansion of Gothic art. Some traces of influence fiom neighbouring Burgundy are to be observed, it is believed, in the cathedral of Valence. near \'tienne, where Urban II performed a dedication in rog5.10The cathedral of Saint-Paul-Trois-Chiteaux,ir a mid twellth-centur)' work, has a certain relationship to Paray-le-Monial and Clunl fbrmer

The Romanesque style which we have thus described was cherished by the Burgundians. N'Iuch of its character was bequeathed to the 'hall--Gothic', as one may see at a glance when visiting the maiestic thirteenth-century interior of the cathedral o[ Langres, so splendid and so strong. Even the bener examples ofBurgundian Renaissance and Baroque church architecture have about them a certain warmth and simple, recollected quality which is akin to the Roman-


K I N G D O M O F A R L F , S ,A N D B U R G U N D Y


the aisles are co\rered with quadIII, though and the apse has pretty radiating rant vaults, decorative ribs in the ProvenEal manncr. The plan of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard,1r a grcat f,luniac priorl'' and pilgrimage centrc, had aisles, a transept, and an apse with radiating chapels all features which are exceptional in Provence is conjectured that the vast crypt, at [fi]-S].It the cloister level, and exceptionally placed under the nave, may represent a Cluniac church begun {ter rc77 . In this Urban I I consecrated an altar in ro96. A new start was made c. rr16. Before rr42, ^pp{ently, it was decided to transfbrm the western part ofthis church (then cithcr unfinished, or in ruins) into the existing cr1,'pt, and build an ambitious church at the higher level; an arrangement which occurs at the great pilgrimage churches of Le Puv and Santiago de Compostela. The east end of Saint-Gilles, now ruinous, was probably well along by rrj5, and the west front with its splendid threc west portals, under way by- rr42, was completed a
r88. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard, priorl'church, fhgade, r. r r7o; gablc much later

generation or more later, perhaps as latc as rtg5. The rib r,aults of the crypt har-c alreadybeen mentioned; they now sustain the pavement ofa rather piteous church a seventeenthcenturJ reconstruction corcring onlr a part of t h e a r e ao f t h e C l u n i a c c h u r c h . In passing we should note the f'aqade of a spaciousthree-storey house ofthe twelfth century, not far from the abbey'at Saint-Gillcsrr Ir9o]. It is well built ofashlar,and picturesquely' sheltered by a broad overhanging roof. It resembles,on a grander scale,those houses which we have obserr.ed at Cluny, and it is hardly more elaborate in its arrangements. There are three large square-headed openings on the Eround floor. The lintels, and two lines ofpaircd window openings above, are composed within strong horizontal mouldings, like great fiiezes ing across the design. Plain segmental reving archcs take the load offthe lintels ofthe Etound storevi decorative arches arc cut into lintcls of the paired windows above, and
rgo. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard, tlvellih centurt' f'aqadeof housc,

priorl' church, r. r r r6 7o, crvpt r 89. Saint-Gillcs-du-Gard,



enrich the composition. This fagade effectively finest of its kind' is one of the of Because similarity in the sculptures' mencalls to mind the tion of Saint-Gilles inevitably at Arlesra Saint-Trophime of cathedral former m o n a s t e r l e s ,o n e o l d t h e i n frSr-31. Here, as ecclesithe earl-v of lbr evidence vain n Lorc Tenth-centur.v site. the of importance astical constructions (c. 95o 7z) at the head o1'the nave were largelv replaced b-Ya new sanctuary in the fifteenth centur]', the old nave having meanrthile been rebuilt, and embellished (about r r7o-8o) by the remarkable wcst portal. This is set against a plain basilican fagade. The portal seemshalf Roman becauseof its gablc, its classic columnar forms, and the rather stumpy classiclooking statuary. It contrasts strangcly with the tall, austere interior of the church, though the latter is carried out in the excellent ashlar of

Provence. Its division into nave and aisles is not typical of the region, nor are the very tall proportions and rather obstructive piers. The transept (partl-v of the tenth centurv) is of simple design and relatively slight projection. J'he arches at the crossing are relatively low, as is usual, and the old apses were no higher. Over the crossing at Arles rises one of the frnest of the Provenqal Romanesque towers Irgz]. Formerly the main apse of the church 'fhe stood below it, immediately to the east. tower has three principal stages,almost cubical in shape, and has strong set-backs which give it a r i g o r o u s p r o f i l e . l t s d e c o r a t i o ni s u n a s s u m i n g pilaster strips and arched corbel tables on the two lower stages, Corinthian pilasters above, with an ingenious pierced frieze and a corbelled cornice. Good proportion gives it a grace which is surprising in such a heavy design'

ryt(leJi)andrgz.-{.rles,Saint-Trophime,fagadc,r. rrTo llo,andcloistcrgarthandtowcr,largcll'twelfthcenturl




T H E K I N G D O ] \ TO F A R L F . S ,A N D B U R G U N D Y

Beside the church there is one of the finest cloisters in France, though of late date (about rr83, finished, perhaps, about r38g, in the Gothic style) [r93]. The piers ancl spur buttresses ale very heavv, for the cloister walks are covered by substantial stone-ribbed quadrant vaulting. The designer beautifully lightened the effect by giving the Romanesque spur buttresses the form of fluted Corinthian souare r9.y.Arles,.Saint-Trophimc, Romanesque cloisterwalk, r. r l8j

with bold, lively, and varied Corinthianes(lue citpitals of great beauty. Among other 6ne churches which descr,.,, mention is rhe monastery church of I\1,,111_ maiour.l5 Its affiliationwith Cluny and irs lolrr tion on a Pilgrimage route account for rhe spacious crypt with a central rotunda, an 11,_ bulatory, and radiating chapels. Above the crr p1 level ir is an imposing and beautilull_v brrilr

built ;rbout I'zoo lSainte-Croix). appearance, gains much fiom its lorelv and g r o u p ths remote situatlon' Much better known is the cathedral o1'Avignon,16also aislelessItq+' tg5l It stands on an lminenc" beside the heavy irregular mass of the |ruge fourteenth-century Papal Palace. A handsome Renaissance stairway contributes to the

dignity of the church, which is, however. in_ fringed by an unlbrtunate nineteenth-century votive statue set like a pinnacle on the tower.17 The entrance porch of the cathedral is of surprisingly Roman form and surprisingly late date (about r2oo). The tower behind it is in part rebuilt, but wirhout iniury to its essentially Roman dignity. A date of r069 is given for the

r94. Avignon Cathedral, t. rr4o 6o and later (porch c. rzoo). The pedestal and the statue on thc tower are a distressing modcrn addition

columns,by adorningthe pierswith bold figures on the interior corners,and by placing relief panelson the adiacentwall surfaces. The Romanesquebays of the cloister open upon the garth through deep and richly moulded round arches.The supporting columns are in pairs, set on a plinth and carrying an elegantimpost. Someof the shaftsare round, othersoctagonal.

aislelesschurch of very pure and austere 1brm. gracious, ample, and satisfyinglv classical. Apparently the construction of this great church was started as early as rl17, but consecration did not take placeuntil r r53. A very simple but substantial and well-proportioned cloister ad, ioins the church, and at a little distance there is a f:rmous crucifbrm charrel of almost classicrl


I H E K I h - C D O N IO F . 4 R L E S . A N D B U R G T J N D Y


O lO


(iathedral, rg.5.Ar ig;non r. r r4o 6o andlater 'Ihus

church proper, but universally set aside because of the mature character of the masonrl' and sculpture. The nave is of ample proportions' and handsomely covered by a pointed tunnel vault rvith transverse arches. The lateral mouldings, arcading, and nook shafts which support this vault and the ribs are particularly rich and beautiful, being consonant with a date from about rr4o to r16o. Lovely marble capitals, carved with rare delicacy and beauty, still survive from a cloister of this period' An odd feature of the building is an octagonal lantern s u s t a i n e d o n l o n p J i t u d i n a l ' e n c o r b e l l e da r c h e s ' sprung between the vault arches at the head of

the nave.

this cathedral is a tardv example of the type with tlvo axial towcrs which wc fbund in the filth century at the church of St Martin ol"fours.

In passing, ref'erence should be made to thc famous bridge, now broken, of Saint-Bcn6zct Irq6]. This is the'dancing'bridge named in the delightful old song, and it has a picturesque chapel which is largely contcmporary. The arches ancl piers ofthe bridge are fine examplcs of heavy block masonry construction' The date is r r77 85 and later. Orange Cathedralr8 is another o{'the cavernous, rather dark aisleless Provengal churches

rt'7i 85 and latcr Pont-Saint-B6n6zet, rty6.Asignor.t, I97. Saint-Pons-de-'lhomiires, priorl' church, interior. r r6a and later Here, too, we find a pointed vault. Saint-Gabriel has a smaller church which is similar. Aix,le an ancient city also, has lost its old cathedral of roTo-rro3 (except an aisle, the baptistery, and a cloister), in favour of a florid Gothic edifice. The cloister is of the twelfth century, and more ordinary in form than that of Arles - being small, un,r'aulted,and provided with piers only at the four corners; but it is gav with paired columns, and richly carved. Largely because of the sculptural relationships, Septimania or Gothia (the ancient Gallia Narbonensis) is assigned to the Romanesque school ofLanguedoc. However, part ofit, Roussillon, is actually French Catalonia, which has a character ofits own, though Provengai influence extends into this region. Alet Cathedral, lor example, has an apse which is polygonal exteriorly, and decorated with Corinthianesque corner columns in Provengal style. Saint-Pons-de--lhomibres,r" important in the history of sculpturc, has a fine church with a typical Provengal interior of rr64 and later aisleless, ample in proportion, and covered by a monumental pointed tunnel vault with transv e r s ea r c h e sI r 9 7 ] . F o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f G o t h i c d a t e b u t R o m a n e s q u e c h a r a c t e rh a v e l e l i t h e c h u r c h with an interesting interior gallerv, and a machi-




O T A R I , F , S ,A N D B U R G U N D Y


colated exterior gallery carried on a handsome applied arcade. f'he building was probably crenellated also. The precipitous austerity ofthe cathedral of Agde and the huge solidity of that of Maguelone:1 - both carried out in monumental ashlar seem to have something Provengal about them. Agde, a construction of the middle of the twelfth century, was fortified in consequence of royal permission granted in r r73. twelfth Saint-Guilhem-le-D6sert22 (eleventh and centuries) is picturesquely set in a

but these are unusual. Trefoil plans occur, bur arc also unusuali the aislelesschurch with onc apse at the head of it is preponderant. Apsc exteriors are regularly polygonal, with columns or pilasters decorating the angles; they are semicircular and arcaded on the interior. Nave walls are strongly articulated by interior arcading and exterior spur buttresses of substantial construction. There is sometimes a transept, with a towcr over the crossing or, failing a transept, over the bay immediately preceding the apse. This bay and the apse are often lower than the rest 01 the nave. Porches are rare. but do occur (as in the cathedral of Avignon, and the Lombardic 'I'he lateral portal of the cathedral of Embrun). portals sometimes take classical forrn (Carpentras, Saint-Gabriel, Saint-Quinin at Vaison. Saint-Restitutr3), but important examples are embrasured and enriched by tympanum sculpture and other reliefs, as well as by columns and statuar),' set on plinths which project in front of the faqades (Arles, Saint-Gilles; architectural embellishment onlv). SainteMarthe at Tarascon has a similar portal with

provincial works, though the comrecall Roman medie\al. Thc carting can be a r e oositions d u l l . but in the finest cxamples the r n d h.ruy admirable' design is lively and the chiselling 'fhe naaesof Provengal churches are covered vaults by substantial, usually pointed, tunnel with ffansverse arches. The aisles are divided by arches and covered with quadrant vaulting (asat Arles) or ramping parallel tunnel vaulting (as at the cathedral of Vaison). The aisles were kept narrow, and the nave vaulting relatively low, supported on interior arcading and provided with stout spur buttresses. Since large could be windows were not needed' clerestories lbrtilied church, r98.Les Saintes-\'Iaries-de-la-Iler, twelfth centur.v

built under the nave r,aulting without danger. Because of the mild climate of the rcgion, it is possible to pave the extrados of masonry vaulting, forming a roofterrace, and thus to dispense with an exterior roof. But ordinarily thcre is a sheltering roof covered with round tile in the Roman manner. Bells are very often hung not in towers, but in gabled walls pierced with arches (wall belfries, belfry walls, or bell-cotes). C//11.f occur in churches which attractcd a pilgrimage. At Les-Saintes-Maries-de-la-Merr+ [Ig8l there is a two-store-v church of pilgrimage, provided with a cr].pt, which makes a third level.

mountain valley above Aniane. The church, well known, is Lombardic, rather than ProvenEal or Languedocian. It is stoutly built and completely r,aulted over a satisf'actory clerestorl'. The sanctuary wider, later, and more finished than the nar,e represents an intended reconstruction which was planned to sweep awa]' the earlier work completelv. Saint-Guilhem had a verv fine cloister, with carvings of 'l'his ProvenEal character. cloister has been partly re-erected at The Cloisters in New York, where multitudes har,e learned lrom it the charms of thesc old monastrc courts. We mav now proceed to examine the charactcristics of typical Provenqal churches, noting first ol-all the scarcir_r ol inreresting monasric churches, and the abundancc of interesting cathedral buildings - thc result of historical processesin the region. The towns were achieving strong civic consciousncssand were making important progress in self-government during the twclfih centurv) when most of the mature Provengal Romanesque buildings were built.

D et ai ls of S uper strucI ur e If one remembers that the buildings which we have been considcring are contemporar.v with the Earlv Gothic constructions at Chartres Cathedral (rr35-8o) and Paris Cathedral (the sanctuary arm in its original form, 1163 77) t h e ] - a p p e a r c o n s e r v a t i v e .B u t t h e y s h o w h i g h competence on the part of the architects, builders, and decorators, whose designs, strongh impregnated with the provincial Roman traditions of the region, have a convincing soliditt', generous proportions, and (as a rule) a finc s e n s eo f ' a m p l e i n t e r i o r s p a c e . Fine block masonrv in limestone, resembling Roman work, was used in the better constructions, and it gives them great dignitv. N{arblc was used lbr manl- decorative carvings. Sculptured figures and accessory elements strongll'

T1,les oJ'Plan The southern French cathcdral of the twellth century was not a highly evolvcd building, partly becausc the southern diocesesare small. Consequentl.v thc church plans are simple; ccrtain ambitious buildings, such as the cathedral at Arles, are aisled and triapsidal, likc the basilicas,



A fourth was created by paving the upper vault; surrounded by battlements, this terrace made the building a citadel and fortress, which is not really unusual in Provence. The turret over the sanctuary is surmounted by a bellry wall ofbold outline. More unusual are the Italianate tlvers of Puissalicon (lree-standing), Uzis (round, and pierced by openings with paired arches under an enclosing arch) and Cruas2s(about ro98; an amusing round lantern on a rounded crossing tower). Returning to the interiors, we find that crucior wall form piers are the usual supports arcading in aisleless buildings. Deep interior reresse.s with transverse vaults occur in the aislelesschurches (Cavaillon); pier forms (Le Thor), and columnar shafts are also used in this situation. The piers usually have dosserets' and

o f t e n a s m a l l c o l u m n r e p l a c e sr h e a n g u l a r do.seret ar the top of the pier (Digne. Arignonr,.. Some examples are very eleganr indecd, xl,1 s o p h i s t i c a t e d ,t h e w a r m c l a s s i c a lt e e l i n g h e i n " made piquant bv a touch of medieial inrrginr"_ tion. The same is true of the mouldings. A Roman architect visiting Provence in Ro_ manesque times would have seen much which would have pleased his lancy by its rngagine novelty in exploiting Late Classic lbrmsl he would have seenlittle or nothing which he could not have understood or admired. Even the towers have a Roman matter-of-f'actness about them; the roofs maintain the flat slope of'inliquity and are covered with tile; lorcll i.ine-vards,orchards, and pines embowcr thc mrrnuments, and enchanting atmospheric cflects c a r e s st h e m a s i n a n c i e n t t i m e s .

p T E Rr 4




interpenetrate one another' with the result that the grouping of their monuments inlo convenient regional schools has caused art histori:rns much Puzzlement. -I'he clearest of the suggested classifications Languedoc, the Limousin, and Velay oll sets as one architectural school, Auvcrg;ne as another, and subdivides into'groups' the architeclure ol the rasl and varied district remaining in the West of France, stretching from the south-west to southern Brittany'r 'groups' are recognized Three architectural folin the school ot'the West of France, in the lowing regions: (r) The Loire area, to which the river itselfgives a certain unity; it consists o f s o u t h B r i t t a n y . T o u r a i n e . S o l o g n e 'O r l 6 a n a i s ' with Berry, and Bourbonnais; (z) Poitou, which a Anjou. Saintonge' and the south-west {brms (3) P6rigord group; more compact architectural for conand the -\ngoumois Thc argumenr school sidering the three groups as onc !lreater is a there that fact is interesting. It rests on the quite unusually high proportion of aisleless mo.hur"he, - large and small, important and 65o to desr, earlr ancl late in the area: some r oo with aisles; moreover' 7oo aislelessto about a special t1'pc of rvide have olten aisled churches nave, and the others can most often, though not alwa1.s,be ascribecl to outside influcnce'' In the inclusive greater school of the Loire fbr and the \\'est of France (here was a search monumental and fireproof solutions through as rethe development of this aisleless type' durtng increased both sourcesand requirements coursc ol the later cleventh century rnd in the the trvellth.

who could not hold it with Spain' thcVisigoths, lcft it open to Frankish conquest While the Frrnkswereable to drive out the Moors, they unable to protect the areafrom the Vikings, were whoinflictedterrible damage Assimilatedto to the English Frrnce, its westernpart passed a marriage,and of by the historicalaccident derelophrd to be reconqueredl a promising oent of independenccin thc south was suffocated by French conquestin the Albigensian


to The great rivers have kept it accessible iders, and to trade. even from the Orient. The Pyrenees have not preventedcontinuing contrctswith Spain.There harc bccn ccntresof mtcllectual, spiritual, and artisticlile ar Tours, Poitiers,Fleurv (or Sainr-Benoit-sur-Loire), Limoges, Clermont, and Toulouse,but there never vtas centrelor all Aquionecommanding tania. The relatedterritory is madeup of areas which arerichly variediniopographl,climate, ouilding *",.ri.Ir. and ethnic rlpes - all ol' th;m full On account of characrer and' ot easy communication. areas the archirectural


These works may fairly be considered as 'variations on an architectural theme'. The origin ofthe theme is perhaps to be sought in large Roman wooden-roofed open halls like the in Temple of Augustus in Rome and the Basilica -I'rier, which had r,ery impressir,e unob-

structed interior space. The theme of the region is thus to be recognized in those edifices which have a very wide wooden-roofed barn-like nave without aisles, as often in Berry; or with aisles, as at SaintHilaire, Poitiers, St Fulbert's Chartres, and the old cathedral of Bourges. It is to be recognized in those churches which have a wide tunnelvaulted nave, plain or with transverse arches; and in those which by the use of parallel tunnel vaults cover an ample nave with only slender and unobstructive supports, as in Poitou. The theme is equally ro be recognized in the buildings which cover an open nave with a succession of domes, in P6rigord and near bv, and those with domed-up rib vaults, which were introduced about rr45 in Aniou to replace domed construction. In order to make the development clear, we refer here to certain works in the region which underlie the mature Romanesque of the area.

The Loire area, carrying on old Neustrjnl traditions, was active in architecture; it .ontinued to be a sourceofarchitcctural id",r, rna good mason nork; ir transmittcdmanr 1n111,1 encesto the Norman region. and it borr.r,$e.r e s p e c i a l l li n t h e w e s t . L a c k i n g u n ; t ' , , i. r ; . , , , i _ sidered a weak school dtringthe mature Rorlan_ esque period buildings, though paradoxically; becausethc y,^reat heterogeneous, e\cmplifv

such important architectural elements. Odo of'Clunv seems to rei'er to the rvitie_nare 'theme church' of the region in a dilicult tcrt. a sermon deliveredabout go8 in the church of'g1 Martin at 1'ours, referring to the building as it was befbre go3 (and, probably, befbre ,!;r): 'The previous builders wished it to be arranged with arcaded passages, because the strucrure. though very wide, with the crowds pressing is h a b i t u a l l v s o c o n s t r i c t e dt h a t t h e v o \ . c r t u r n t h e choir benches and the little gates, in spitc of' themselves.'3 This text, sometimes quotctl as proof of an earlv ambulatorJ. at St \larrin, merely indicates that aisles were requirccl ro augment this wide-naved church becausc of exceptional crowds.a 'Ihe beautiful stone-work ofthe earlv pcriod of building in the Loire country conrinued t0 be used and improved. Walls are ordinarilr of fine white or buff limestone, with ashlar blocks neatlv cut to a rather stubbv shape and rvcll l;rid up with excellent mortar; thel-' are articuleted b v s h a l l o w b u t t r e s s e s ,a n d o c c a s i o n a l h ' s h o r v p a n e l so f ' r o u g h e r s t o n e s( l i k e t h o s e o f t h c 6 l l i n F or hearting of the wall) which, with rheir uneven contours and wide joints, enliven thc surf'ace.Also, wall areasofcarefullv shaped ficingstones in a pattern, and clecorativepanel mouldings occur frequently.5 'lhe important little thurch ol saint-(rerrtroux, probably built afier g-5o lr(lql, sh()\1s excellent though restored examples ofplain rntr p a t t e r n e dw a l l - w o r k . I t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t .h {r $ e r e r , f b r i t s p l a n .o r i g i n a l l ya n o r a b l ce r a m p l . " r the wide-naved theme (subsequenth' dirided
2oo. Autrdche, church. tenth centurt.

t99.Saint-G6n6roux, church,r. 95o

T T I EW E S ' I ' O F FRANCE The Loire Group This area was really'the heir ofthe active architectural school of Carolingian Neustria. f'he Norman raids, however, devastated northern Neustria. During the period of recovery after the Norman settlement (grr), Burgundian and Lombard ecclesiastics greatly influenced Norman churchmanship and architecture. This, and the conquest ofEngland, gave a strong and distinct orientation to the Norman school of Romanesque architecture, which might otherwise have been more like that of the southern part of Carolingian Neustrra.




I } O R D E R I N GA R F , A S 2 6 i

into three). A Carolingian fl-v-ingscreen still divides the nave from the transept, which formerly had dwarf arms extendinp; beyond the nave wall line. The sanctuaries are in 6chelon. The small parish church at Autreche [2oo] is a good example ofthe wooden-ro<lfed nave-andchancel type of structure which must have been verl- widely built on a modest scale in the tenth century'. The wall is stayed on the exterior by semi-cylindrical buttresses ofa type which later becomes lamiliar on the tall Norman interiors. At Crrvant the church (perhaps dating fiom the tenth century) has unusuallv good patterned wall-work. Almost as imposing as St X'Iartin of Tours, t h e c a t h e d r a l( r o r z f f . ) a n d t h e c h u r c h o f S a i n t A i g n a n ( r . r o r 8 f 1 . ) a t O r l 6 a n s r e p r e s e n t e dt h e grandeur of the early school on the rniddle course of the river. Both buildings were large in scale, basilican in arrangement, and provided with apse, ambulatory, and radiating chapels. zor. Saint-Bcnoit-sur-Loire, ahbevchurch, r. r o.3otwclfth ccntury. N o t c f l v i n g b u t t r e s s eo sf a p s e( p . 4 9 r . N o t c 4 7 )

The clypt of Saint-Aignan, with this layout, is still in existence. According to an eleventhmont-Ferrand maturc. sur-Loire The old abbey of Fleury, or Saint-Benoir(also on the middle course of the centurl' text6 it was copied from that o[ Clcr(9,16), but its fbrms are more

.eart1 Io

f /l cdnf urli



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,. , r ': .,'tl.

LIo der n

river, near Germigny-des-Pres), erected a remarkable church of the mature style in the c o u r s eo f a c e n t u r y f o l l o w i n g t h e r o 6 o s [ z o r - 4 ] . It exemplifies the ideas ofthe school better than any other building, and embodies an augusr h i s t o r v . I n 6 7 3 , d u r i n g t h e d e s o l a t i o no f M o n t c ( 5 8 r 7 r 4 ) , t h e b o n e s o f ' S tB e n e d i c t w e l t cassino brouglrt to Fleury, where the1,are still venerated. (It seems that in 749, at the request of Popc Zachar.v and Pepin the Short on behalf ot Montecassino, a small parcel was returned.) \ pilgrimage to'Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire' dereloped. Gaucelin (illegitimate son of Hugh Capet) became abbot in roo4. He and :r notrble abber school gave lustre to the house; its influencr e x t e n d e d t o E , n g l a n da n d S p a i n . T h e m c d i o a l abbel' buildings have long since becn replacecl. but, except for the mutilation of its westcrn tower, thc church still exists in a very perfcct state. Its composition begins with the mutilated tower-porch iust mentioncd, n'hich lost its upper stage as punishment to the monks for rcsisting their first commendatorv abbot ( r 525 7 ). T h e n r i d d l e s t a g es u r v i v e s a s a d i s u s e d C h a p e l o f S t N I i c h a e l ,a n d t h e o p e n g r t ) u n d s t a g es e r v c s , as it always has, to sheltcr the main entrancc door ofthe church. This, ofcourse, is a development of the fortificd entrance-$av-and-chapel tower which we have followcd all the way lrorrr the church of'St Martin at Tours, built nearthc s a m c r i r e r i n $ 6 - 1 2 .T h e e x a m p l e a t S a i n t B e n o i t - s u r - L o i r e i s a d m i r a b l v s u b s t a n t i a l ,v a u l ted in nine compartments over lbur interior supports on each level, with elaborate sculpturecl capitals. The nave beyond is of Romanesque cons t r u c t i o n w i t h a p a i r o f g r o i n - v a u l t e d a i s l e s .I t


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) . Sint-Benoit-sur-Loire' zoz and zo3 ( below centurv church,c Io8o-trvelfth abbey choir platftrrm,nou remored Renaissance Planshows by a pair of aisles, all tunnel-vaulted above two files of columns. Then. with its chord on the east line ofa dwarftransept marked by two engaging dwarf towers, comes a spacious apse with amb u l a t o r y a n d t w o r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s( t h c n u m b e r being even, as it $'ould be in Auvcrgne). The

wasperhaps wooden-roofed before being covered by the existing Gothic vault. Following the nave is a Romanesque transept with a tall crossing tower (which makes it, like St Martin, a church with two axial towers); following this there is a handsome long sanctuary ba1' flanked



w 1A

apse pavement is raised above a spacirlus crvpt which has three rvindows (reopened) looking 91 the sanctuarv bar'. The building has a clerestory throughout. Deformations show that this has put a strain on the walls of the apse end. The tower-porch mav represent the tamous tower which Abbot G a u c e l i nb e g a n t o e r e c t a b o u t r o z o . I l ' s o , i t h a s s u r e l y b e e n r e b u i l t ; t h e r i c h c r c a r v i n p l so f - t h c ground storel'seem to belong to a ltter date the late eleventh centurv, perhaps. Figured capitals in the upper stage indicate a date of' about roTo 8o. Doubtless the tower resembled fine examples at Ebreuil [zo5], Germignl'I'Exempt, and in the Poitevin arca Lesterps, before it was mutilated.; The sanctuan' (its pavement now lowered to thc old lerel) rczo5.Ebreuil, church, tower and porch, twelfth centurr'

sembles the chevet of'the church of SaintGenou, rvhich is also long, tunnel-like, well lighted, and columnar. Both hare engaging blind arcading, with balustcr columns, as a dccorative frieze abovc thc main arcadc.t Saint-Bcnoit-sur-Loire as we know it bcgan t o c o m c i n t o b e i n g a b o u t r o 7 r . I t s u f f e r e dl r o m fire in rogi. but there was a dedication in r ro8 r v h i c i r m u s t h a v e s e e n r h c c s s c n t i a lp a r t s o f t h e building complete, though construction continucd until about rr1o. clear Burgundian sculptured On the borders of Burgundv, and showing influencc in thc beautiful portal, Saint-Benoit's priorl. ol'

Pcrrecr'-les-Forgcs has a fine tlvelfih-centurv t o w e r - p o r c h i n t h e s t 1 ' l eo f t h e L o i r c r c g i o n . giving cntrance to a ty'pical church of'archaic form, clated in the eleventh.century. This church is as good an example ofthe interpenetration ofLigerine and Cluniac influences as the more famous examples, La (,haritd-sur-I-oire a n d S a i n t - E t i c n n e ,N e t e r s . T h e c r r r e d p o r t a l is a berrutiful example, cl:rtedabout r r o-5. Among the (,luniac priories, the church of Bourbon-Lancv p;ivesa good idea of Cluny II

o. ,'v






a s i n t e r p r e t e di n t h c L o i r c r e g i o n . At La (-harit6-sur-Loire'' thc original buildcchclon. ing, begr.rn in ro5g or shortl! alier, had an apse 'l'he chevet rvls enlarplcdwhen the b u i l d i n g w a s r e c o n s t r u c t e d( f b l l o w i n g t h c d c d i The


w '::t,:.

cation of rroT) to rcsemble Clunl'' III.


t 7'" ,?::,:',,1;

sanctuary is dcep, with several ba-vs, bcyoncl which it has a fine apsc and an ambulatorv with f i v c r a d i a t i n g c h a p e l s ,s o m e w h i r tm o r e l o g i c a l l y planned thirn thosc at (.lunv. There is much g r c a t e r e m p h a s i st h a n r r t C , l u n vo n t h e c o l u m n s (rathcr stout) which sustainthc apse wall, and t h e a p s ei t s e l f r e a c h e s the hcight ofthe sanctuarl v a u l t . I n t h e s ed c v i a t i o n sl r o m C l u n v , t h e a r c h i tect of La Charit6, doubtless traincd in the L o i r e r e g i o n , f b l l o w e d l o c a lc u s t o m . 'I'hc great north-$'est ton'cr at La (,harir[ I r 6 6 1u a s p e r h a p sb c g u n a b o u t r r j o a n d f i n i s h c d late in thc centurv. Whilc the design does not





zo4. Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, abbeychurch, r. rol.iotwclfth centurr




<lepart greatlv from Burgundian models, it has a type of arcading which was used with great effectivencss in the Loire country' and never with nobler, richer, or more imposing effect than here. The tower is seen from great distances in sweeping views over thc river, lvhich makes a wondcrful big bow ncar La Charit6. Chitcaumeillantr" has a Bencdictine church with r arious f-eatureswhich parallel those of La Charit !. It is a fine example on a smaller scale, and has not undergone the disasters which have injured the greatcr building. We easily recognizc the same activity and energetic character in the designs for SaintEticnne, Neversll (ro68 97) [r45, I46]. As noted, this was an important Cluniac priory; its architectural influence spread to smaller houses which it possessed in the region. The architect drew upon Burgundian and Pilgrimage themes, and in his nave. where he introduced a clerestory under the tunnel vault' he surpassed his models. The smaller churches which abound in the region, Cluniac or not, have the same crisp air. Here the aislelesschurches *'ith projecting transepts and f'airlv tall crossing toivcrs often make similar Burgundian buildings seem rather placid by' 'I'he open-naved, rvooden-roofed'theme church' of western France, earlv suggesteclat Irgq], was magnificentl]' re' presented on a g;rand scale about Ioo5 .1o in the important church of Beaulieu-les-Loches (near the Loire Rivcr; later remade as a Vaulted Saint-G6n6rour hall church, now partly rebuilt, partlv ruined). A later and t-vpical example, extant near Bourges, is the church of Les Aix d'Angillonlr (tweltih century'). A contemporarv example betwecn Clunv ancl Lyon, almost at the southeastern extrcmity' of the school of'the Loire, is t h e c h u r c h o f B e a u j e u .I I A noteworthv aislelcss church is Slint-Ours a t L o c h e s l s [ 2 0 6 ] , i n t e r e s t i n gf b r i t s t w o R o m a n esque axial towers, but er,en more so lbr the two hollow octagonal spires in ashlar masonry,

zo6 ( hLlon ). Lochcs,Saint-Ours,before t I6ll church 2o7( ot'posit( ). Ncuvl-Saint-S6pulcre, lbundcd ro4z

dated before r I68, which cover its nave. There is an obvious connexion here with the wide nar cs of Pdrigord and near by, unobstructed, aud covered with domes, which we shall consiclcr presently. Meanwhile we take up other erccptional buildings. h { r ' c r r e l e g a n ta i s l e d r w c l t i h - c e n l u r } c h t r r ' ( with the aislespracticalll'as high as the nate e x i s t sa t S a i n t - R d re r i e n . r "T h i s w a s a C l u n i r r c priorr'. and the church has pointed arch :lrJ v a u l l c o n s t r u c t i o n r . r h i c hl o o k s C l u n i a c , b u t t l r c b a s i c i n s p i r a t i o n c o m e s l i o m t h e 5 q h s 6 l r' 1 ' Poitou, where tunnel-r'aulted hall churcht' a b o u n d . S a i n t - R d v 6 r i e nh a s s o m eg r o i n t a u l t i r r ' : in thc ambul'ta r t h e e a s te n d ( a n d n e c e s s a r i l y tory) along with semi-domes oYer the apse lntl radiating chapelsas is usual everywhere. 1'hc church is beautifully lighted and elegantly opcn 1 ' h e g r a c e t u lc o l u m n s o l ' t h e a p s ea r e e c h o e Ji "

in the nave, the median columns of a double ba-v'' which otherwise has slender piers as supports of pointed tunnel vaulting lvith transversc arches. The rotunda derelops in the Loirc region with Carolingian precedent; for example, at Ferridres-en-Gitinais there are in the parish church traces ol an octagon (inspired fiom that of Aachen) which was built fbr Alcuin's old monastery. Saint-B6nigne at Diion [ro8, roql and the Dome of the Rock in -lerusalem inspired thc boldest of the rotundas in the Loirc region that built in the early-twelfth centurv fol the P o w e r l u la b b e r o l ( . h a r r o u r . r a n d n o u a r u i n The central *.ll of,h. rotunda survives as an openwork tower. uith a cr\pt at its base'lbrm'femplars' ing a platform on which, as in a Church, the principal altar wrrs set. In addition

there was an aisled sanctuar]' with ambulatory long and radiating chapels; there was also a navc nith I Gothic faqade' and rccent excavations have uncovered remains of a transept' 'l'he lbur arms of thr; church were pushed out' t o speak, lrom the central well bv the two so 'l'his ensemble must have proannular aislcs. t i u c e c la n i n t e l c s t i n g b t r t r a t h e r r i o t o u s a r c h i tectur'rl ellect. 3 f'he church of Neuvv-Saint-Sipulcrel [zo7] t o bc arl p o s s e s s ea s simpler rotunda, intcnded instur in the likencss of'thc Holv Scpulchre' \cur1-Saint-Sdpulcrc originated in a fbundtn ation of ro.1z. ruhen the Holv Sepulchre was ruins. Houcrcr, thc building was known through manuscripts and pilgrims' Construct i o n w a s b e g u n i n I o 4 5 o r r 0 : + 6w h e n C o n s t a n tinc Nlonomachos was rebuilding the originat 'fhe cxisting navo at \eu\'y' rotuncla (1o45-8).









i s o f t h e e l e v e n t hc e n t u r y , a n d t h e r o t u n d a m a y be in large part. It was fbrmerll encircled b-v residences, stout lbrtifications, and a moaf.r" Nlention ofthesc rotundas offers the occrrsion lbr rn excursion to Brittanv; for the only notable Romanesque building in that region is SainteCroir at Quimperld,r" dated rt87 but restored after a collapsc in 1862. It is related to both Charroux and Neurv-Saint-56pulcre. Thc nucleus of the building is a r aultcd squarebay oi' heavv construction. surrounded bv a ponderous r o u n d a i s l e ,a n d m a d e c r u c i ( b r m b 1 ' f b u r v a u l t e d extensions. It is rather rough and provincial in exccution. That Brcton Romanesque churches should have connexions with the p;roup of the Loire is understanclable when wc remembcr that Tours was the Breton ccclesiastical mefropolis, and t h a t c o m m c r c ea n d o t h c r c o m m u n i c r t i o n su e r e e a s i e rb v t h e w a t e r s s o u t h o f t h c p e n i n s u l a t h a n lrom NormandJ'or overland. Onh'Rennes and its rcgion had closc connexions with Normand-v. Limestone was actuallv imported lrom the lblloued the same route. C h a r e n t e f b r b u i l d i n g ; c n g i n e e r sa n c la r c h i t e c t s -I'he church ol'Saint-

donjon at Langeais (r. r ooo) inaugurates a grear series in stone irnd a long period ofhieh achier tment by the French engineers. Chinon onrheVienneharastrongsituatiorr, and it was important even in Celtic times. Largelv becauseofits strength as a fortress, thc historv of Chinon is studded with grert namcs Clor,is; Geoffroy' \{artcl of Aniou; Henrl ll Plantagenct and Richard Caur de Lion of'E,ngland; Charles VII of'France and Joan of Alc; 'Chiteau R a b e l a i s ;R i c h e l i e u . I n t h e du MilicLr' is the site of the Roman castrum and the wartl cval fortress. (unusually long for its width) of the early medi'l'he tweltth-century Grand Logis or ro1,ll dwelling where Henry' II Plantagenet died in rr89 irnd wherc in r4z9 Charles VII reccived Joan of Arc, is rebuilt, and a ruin. Other old towcrs and walls have also been much r e b u i l t a n d a u g m e n t c d ; w i t h h t c r a d d i t i o n st h c chiteau is a most imposing arral' of militalr works. A much better idea of militarv architecturr in the Romanesque period is given by the splendid torver at Beaugency, and the two to\lcr\ in the donjon at Lochcsrr fzo8l. Beaugencr r. roughlv square; the larger tower at Lochcs measures about eightv by forty-{ivc feet, tuie. the dimensionsof the smaller. When first built a l l o f ' t h e m m e i r s u r e da b o u t r 3 o l c e t i n h e i g h r . 'l'heir sheer prccipitous walls are in excellcnt a s h l a r w i t h s l i g h r l r p r o i e c t i n gb u t t r e s s e s n i l ' a s t e r s t r i p s a t B e a u g e n c - \ ,a n d s e m i - c v l i n t l e t ' t h e c x t e r i o r sa r c s t r i c t l \ at Loches. In both cases r v i t h n o s c r r c h t b l t h e g r : r c er l h i . l r busincss-liLe, one usually' perceivcs in a nronument of' the Loire region. -I'he plan of the towcrs tt ,tt. utu,,t .,na ,,"' the ags: it merely called lbr simple open roonl one above another, with floors of timbcr, sntrtll w i n d o r v s , a n d f i r e p l a c e s .T h e e x a m p l e a t B er r L r gencr. datcd in the clercnth cenlun, i' tlt' m o s t a d m i r c r lo l i t s t r p c i n l i r a n c c . . l t I . o e l r e ' t h e R o m a n c s q u cc o n s l r u e t i o no f t h e e l c r e t l t l r a n d t u e l t t h c e n t t t r i e si s n o u e i r d l ( ' d b r r r t l r 't zo8.Loches,donjon, r. rroo their works which, though verl' simple, conf-ess late date by significant dctails such as the almond-shlped plirn of thc proiecting towers. The severer character of earlier medieval work is clearly shown b1' comparing the rounded towers of Loches with the lrowning semicircular towers of the chiteau at Angers, built after r r8o, and indecd largcly in the thirteenth century by Philippe-Auguste and Louis IX. The upper parts of the torvers ancl certain outlying works har,e been destroyed, so that the effect is rather ofa Rornancsque than a Gothic chiteau. It should be noted, holrever, that there is no such thing as a school of the Loire in military architecture; that was inter-regional like the wars which brought it into being, and It was lor the most part the work of engineers. From the rcport wc havc made, it is obvious that the architcctural group of the I-oire is not easily summarized. 'l'here was no grcat unl-

fying institution, such as the Burgundian school had, to bring it to a focus. Instead, old motit's flowed up and down the river, and outside motifs flowed into the valley from the watershed. Another simile might be that of a tree with grafted branches of various sorts. One sap makes them all live ; the sap, in the group of the Loire, is the lively inheritance of Carolingian ideas and Neustrian tradition.

The Arc hitectur nl Grou p oJ'Poit ou, nith ,4njou, Saintonga, and the South-West The greatest historical, spiritual, and intellectual centre of this region the western part ol' was Poitiers. It was an Carolingian Aquitania important citv under the Romans. Resounding military victories were won near by in early medieval times, none more important than that of Charles Nlartel over the Saracens in 732. 'I'here was a brilliant court at Poitiers in the Romanesque period. The eminence of the church of Poitiers goes back to its Early Christian bishop, Hilary, whose shrine has been a place ol'pilgrimage throughout succeeding centuries. The baptistery of Poitiers is one of the oldest buildings o{'its kind. O n e o f t h e m a i n r o u t e so f t h e W a y o l ' S t J a m e s (Paris Orl6ans Bordeaux) passed through Poitiers, and unquestionably contributed to the spread of Poitevin architectural motif's to the south-west of France and to northern Spain. Onlv at Santiago de Compostela were the Spaniards able to build in the grandest French Romanesque st.vle; elsewhere they olten built in simpler forms which can be traced back to Poitou and its region. Excellent limestonc is available in the area ofthc Poitevin school; it is white, weathering pleasantly to bufI.s and warm greys. The stonecutting and mason-work are excellent, but the dcsigners kept to earlv solutions of vaulting and compositional problems in the twelfth century' Poitevin dcsigners werc seeking and xchisvrng

S a u v e u r a t D i n a n h a s P o i t e v i n c h a r a c t e r ,a n d usuallv a witness to wc 6nd the ambulltorv '-l'ouraine at Loctudl , at inflr.rencc fiom Lantl6renncc, and at Saint-Gildrrs-dc-Rhuis, where Pierre Abelard was abbot, and had an thc monks on his hands in insurrection among,^. r r.38. 'l h e o l d c a th e d r a l si n t h e g r c a t c r c i t i e su e r e Romrnesquc, but thev have been in many cases r e p l a c e d ; n o f i r s t - r a t c R o m a n e s q u cm o n u m e n t s r e m : r i ni n t h e r e g i o n .

Beforelearing thc group of thc Loire Ibr Poitou, it \\'ill be wcll to look at sc\ eral fine monuments of militarv architccture which have conncxions with both regions.'I'hc nerv-built fortifications ofthe earlv medicval period in western Europe were tvpicallv in rvood. F-ulk Ncrra's masonrv

2 ' 1 1' M T D D L t





magnificent Romanesque decorative effects at thc time when thc practical ground-work of Gothic architecture was being laid in Burgundy and the i1.-d.-F.attc". Poitou was early concerned rvith effects o1' clear interior space, as the old nar,e of SaintHilaire in Poitiers indicates.By the middle of the eleventh centurv forward-looking designers began to take an interest in vaulting problems. The lbrmer abbey' church of Lesterps2r presents an early example of the solution of the problem ofthe vaulted church of basilican plan which rvas widelv adoptcd in Poitou. If the and it mav be in this clerestorv be given up region the nave supports miry be more slender, and consequentll' less obstructive. With the aisles approaching the nare in height, the general efl'ect of such a building is that of an ample hall with generous sp:rce in it, fustity'ing the usualname'hall church'. Such interiors are less dramatic and less brilliantly lighted than the typical basilica, but have a space-beauty oftheir own. At Lesterps [zo9] the present nave just east of the tower porch already mentioned repr e s e n t sa c h u r c h o f ' r o 3 z w h i c h w : r sd a m a g e db - v fire about r o4o and continued very handsomely, in line austere forms with noble and simple geometry, as a hall church, covered by semicircular tunnel vaulting with transverse archcs. 'l'his work was dedicatedin Io7o. 'I'he wide wooden-roofed nave of Ileaulieules-Loches was divided by' two files ol'piers and corered by three parallel tunnel vaults about ro8o, and the church thus becamc a hall church.l Thus before the twelfih century began, there was a satistactorl' t1''peof Poitevin church with the western arm covered b-vthree parallel tunnel vaults. Of these the middle one is regularly somewhat higher and wider than the others. 'I'his nave is (except for end windows) dependent on openings placed high in the aisles for its light. The scheme is an old one which rvas used by the Romans; it was earll' adopted for zorl.Lcstcrps,abbel church,dcdicatedIoTo

the hall church arrangement' Slend(r olified by piers with applitJ Ivfindrical piers' or grouped 'crushin-' can carrs the s t i l t s l i k e .otu1nnt. vault, since the lateral laul:s weight ofthe high placed to absorb thrust' InlvarJ perfectly are vaults partly neutraliz's thrust from the aisle Transverse arch(s vaults' high ofthe the thrust t h e m ; responds in tlc s t r e n g t h e n v a u l t s t h e in easily car:r buttresses aisle walls and stout spur there:s Sometimes ground. to the the thrusts on tre buttresses open the between arcading makes for 't flanks of a building. Such arcading stiffer wall over the window openings, and sul'Dortsthe crenellations ifthe building is fortifieJ' The roofing is carried over nave and aisles t'gether in a vast two-sloped turtle-back a sinmairin trouble much obviates ple form which tenance. This type of church spread lar and rvide cn its own merits. A much admired example of the Poitei:n style stands handsomelv at Saint-Savin-su:Gartempe [zrol. The church, though norv par'c h i a l ,w a s b u i l t b y a p o w e r f u l a b b e v ; i t i s v i s i t ' e a r erl slc:because f r o m c o n s i d e r a be l distances der and beautiful Gothic spire carries the we't fronttoa greatheight 3rzfeet.Thelorlerpa:t o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a R o m a n c s q u ea x i a l e r trance tower which goes back, at least, to rob:. Beyond are the nate. lransept with crossirS tower, apse, ambulatory, and radiating chapeir. According to the most recent studies. tie o l d e s t p a r r s o f t h e c h u r c h p r o p e r ( a p s e ,a m b - latory, radiating chapels and transept, at tle east) are to be dated about ro6o 75. Perhals there was originalll- an open wooden-roolid n a v e ,e x t e n d e d a b o u t I o 7 5 8 5 b y t h e c o n s t r u . tion ofthe western bays ofthe existing nave, brt demolished about ro95 to make wal'' fbr the s:r existing eastern bays' rvhich were hnished fr rIr5. This nave, more generousin dimensicn than the chevet, has wide, high, groin-raultrJ aisles; the central nave is tunnel-raulted' wi:ir the three western bays, only, carried by group.J

abbel church' 216.S1in1-Slvin-sur-Gartempe, ( . 1 0 6 0I I t 5 ' n a \ c 'l'hc piers ancl separated bv transversc arches' supported on reall'l splenrit ofri", latcr ba.vs, colrtmns' wcre btrilr conc y l i n d r i c a l tlid'ercar with Clunl lll and Durham i..iorrntoutlv part of the nave ls qurte comCathedral. This artistic qualitl' to Clun-v III and in n"Jt it was most beautifulll'' dcsigned fbr ;;;;"-: b1' the ever-memorable series of .1".-n-r", is c a l l ed thc Bible of'St Savin, which i;r.;.. palntrngis, Thc works of its kind. one ol'thc linest in tonality, are suptawnr.and reddish-brown bv others in the crypt and the J.-"n,.a piers' and bv a striking'ma'bling' ofthe ;r;;;.r, still is which :i[.r, ,11an. up an ensemble perfect':" and sineularl)' complete "' earll cxample ut the h'rll F;;;.;:' hn' io't an t h r o u g h l h e r e w o r k t n go r or three-na\e church (ro75) [z5rl, but rt retatns th. Nlonti...teuf'"

crr,pts, and appears abore ground in Catalan churches befbre the ]'ear rooo. In Poitou supcrstructures ol'this tvpe achieved a quite ner sense of ample scale and openness,rvith rich dccoration on the faqades, but their plans rcmained relativell' simple in most cases. .\s thc t\4elfth centur\ adranccd, pointetl archcs and 't':rultstook the placc of scmicircular ones,uith goo.l cllect. it\ \ e mx\ ree in the t.rll tunnel vault with transverse arches at Chauvignv (begun afier rtoo).:5 To be sure the pointed nave has its most dramatic and brerrthtaking expression when the vault is seen floating abore a pool ol light from a clercston,but it i' true that a shadorvednave Vault, such as uc see in this Poitevin type of church, imparls ttt a r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g a s e n s eo f g e n t l e s h e l t e r i n g mvsterv. Statical problems are ver\r much sim-





(though in a disappointing setting which emphasizes unfortunate additions, and with distasteful restored interior polvchromy) the fine church of Notre-Dame-la-Grande28 [z r r, z r z], datable perhaps to r r30 45, or at anv rate to the first half of the twellth century. Notre-Dame-la-Grande, in spite of its name, i s n o t a v e r l . l a r g e c h u r c h . I t h a s a n a p s ec a r r i e d

columns on each side) and the arches abo... show a lavish use of decorated roussoir, 1.signed individually with radiating motifs. l.n1_ eral decorative arcading of similar charaqcr but pointed, encloses paired arches with bl,rnk tympana, and above all three enclosing arches runs a system of spandrels embellished \\ith figure sculpture and crowned by an claborate

zr r. Poitiers, Notre-Dame-la-Grande,

,. r rlo


zIz. Poitiers, Notre-Dame-la-Grande,

r. r r jo .15

on cvlindrical columns and an ambulatorl. of polvgonal erterior plan, with three radiating 'l'his chapels. construction is attachcd to an intermediatc bav with a crossing tower, and a 'I'he tvpical round-archcd dark nave. aisles arc covercd with groin vaulting throughout. Spur buttresses and applied arcading gir.e a tl.pical Poitevin lateral elevation, and the old part of' t h c b u i l d i n g i s c o r . c r e dw i t h t h e u s u a l s l a b - s i d e d roof in two slopes. Thc f'agadcis r.crv rr,pical o1'the latcr Poitevin fiqades; it is generalll accepted as a sort of paradigm, though it is perhaps the richest and 'I'he finest of'them all. profile, basilican, does not correspond to thc rool'behind it, but gives cmphasisto the three axial motives of the com'I'hc position. d o o r w a v i s t 1 , ' p i c ao l f the region; i t h a s n o l i n t e l o r t ) . m p a n u m , a n d i s e n c l o s e di n lbur orders of'stumpv columns (two bundles of'

arched corbel table. The axial motivc of' thc middle register is a vast window, with two zoncs of'arcading to eachside. The arcadingherc encloses statuary, and is richlv bordered. Once morc an elaborate corbel table marks a stagc in the composition, but it is broken by the richll bordered window arch, and thus prepares tl.rc ey-efor the pcdimental string course, which cng a g e sa h u g e , r i c h l r c a r v e d a n d b o r d e r e d r . t r e , t o n t h e a x i s o f t h e u p p e r s t a g eo r p e d i m e n t . l h c e n t i r ep e d i m e n t a s l t a g ei s l ' a c e d with inlert.tin{ p:rtterncd masonr\ and capped by a ponrnr.l' 'l h i s w h o l e c o m p o s i t i o nh a s a n o r i e n t l l r i t h n e s sa b o u t i t - p e r h a p s t h e r i c h n e s so f ' a B r z a n t i n e i r o r l c a s k e tr a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f \ l r r . l t r n architecture, but the oriental suggcstion is Ltnmistakable. The taste fbr it probabll'owes sonte' t h i n g t o a c t u a l o r i e n t a l t r a d e , t h e C r u s a d c s .l t r o the rcfler from the Pilgrimage to Santiago.

On Notre-Dame-la-Grande the corner turrets are of typical form also. Bundles of three engagedcolumns set iust back from the corners support a stubby drum engaged with the f'agade on each side, and with the flanks ofthe building at the eaveslevel. Above each drum there is an open cylindrical arcaded stage capped with a conoidal roof and pommel. The roofs are as usual built of radiating srones with slanting tronts. Each slanting lront has an integral imbrication or scallop proiecting from it. The faces ofthe imbrications are vertical, so that a iolly l n v e r t e d f i s h - s c a l ep a t r e r n results. Such roofs < l r a i ne a s i l y b e t w e e n the imbricarions, but the vertical ioints in the troughs often give trouble. The crossine tower of Nltre_Dame_la_Grande has a simila-r roof above a cvlindrical arcaded alrd columnar upper stage. *hiah .a.,. on ,n arcaded square intermediate belfry stage, in

turn supported by an arcaded square stage which houses the crossing vault. Tower, turrets, and imbrications are repeated, with variations, elsewhere and are, in fact, characteristic ofthe Poitevin architectural group. The-v spread to the medieval domed churchcs of P6rigord, and thence in modern times to the Sacr6-Coeur in Paris. 'I'he bundle of shafts with a pinnacle which

we have seen as the motif of the corner turrcts of Notre-Damc-la-Grande has an interesting history. Used independently, it is the theme of the charming'Lantern of the Dead'in Fenioux. It appears, restored (with variations), in the Abbey kitchen at Fontevrault [zz4]. More important, it comes in prettily as a corner ornament in the church towers and lantcrns r'rith d i m i n i s h i n g s t a g e sw h i c h b e g r n t o a p p c a r a b o u t I roo in Poitou and elsewhere"Ihere is a ruined


i . { T D D L EA N D S O U T H E R NF R A N C E


WI l'il




example at the Montierneuf, Poitiers, which is believed to be one of the earliest [z5r]. Four bundles, each with its pinnacle, stood gracefully above the corners ofa square tower stage, and beside the diagonal sides ofan octagonal stage, making a felicitous transition to the pyramidal roof of the latter. This pattern was used, on a larger scale,in Spain at the crossing ,cimborio, [z5o] and derivative monuments ; at the Martorana in Palermo Iz7z], and derivative monuments also in Norman Sicily. Some of the derivatives are as late in date as the thirteenth century. At this point we should consider briefly how the architectural group of Poitou interpenetrates with that of Anjou and that of Pdrigord, all within the greater school of the West of France. An example is Sainte-Radegonde, poitiers, a church of pilgrimage built from about rogo onward.2e Its plan includes apse, ambu_ latory, radiating chapels, and a very characteristic tower-porch which is accepted as a model of thc Poitevin version of that historic element. At Sainte-Radegonde the nave is spaofthe cathedralofZamora

cious, of considerable width - a Gothic reconstruction covered with octopartite domed-un r i b b e d v a u l r s o f r h e t y p e t h a r w a s d e v e l o p e di n Anjou. As if in compensation for this, we fincl Cunault, near Angers, built in the poitevin style, and we shall find that the domed-up Angevin octopartite ribbed vaults are related to the Aquitanian domed churches. It is because of such interpenetration of these western architectural groups that French critics prefer to consider the school ofthe west of France as an inclusive unit. Pursuing this matter in Anjou brings us to its capital, Angers, the seat ofa dynasty important in French, English, and Levantine history. For Saint-Martin at Angers, an old foundation, a remarkable church (now lacking its nave) was created by reconstruction shortly after r o r z . 3 0T h e b u i l d i n g w a s l a i d o u t , a s w e r e m a n v in the west country, on a very simple plan: four aisleless arms of a great cross. The northern, southern, and eastern arms of the church terminated in apses.Over the crossing a somewhat warped pendentive dome was built, by ro7.5,

this structure, still in place, if not earlier; and to be the oldest large French considered is It is reftomanesque dome in existence [zl3]. 'pottery'. which r u b b l c a n d b e i n porred 10 * o u l d s u g g e s ra L a l c R o m a n d e r i v a t i o n . T h i s dome still serves as the support ofa rather heavy block of masonrv doubtless intended to carry s,belfty or turritus dpe'r. The ability to construct such a dome, almost free-standing at a considerable height (where it has given a good account ofitselffor nearly 9oo years), makes the achievement of the splendid twelfth-century domes ofthe abbcy church ofFontevrault, near Angers, and thc P6rigordinc domes, seem less s t r a n g e ;a n d i t h e l p s a l s o t o e x p l a i n t h e A n g e v i n domed-up rib vaults to which a preliminarl. reference has been made. Best known of all the buildings which exemplify the great aislcless cross in plan, and at the same timc the Angevin rib vault, is the c a t h e d r a lo f A n g e r s i t s e l f 3 r [ 2 r 4 , 2 r 5 ] . I t s s c a l e is much larger than that of Saint-Martin in the same citl'', but the plan is even simpler. Thc original cathedral was begun shortlv aftcr IoIo

and dedicatedin roz5, when the dramatic campaign of expansion of the County of Aniou was beginning. The church had a wooden-roof-ed w i d e n a v e ,t r a n s e p t , a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r v , a n d s h a l low oblong radiating chapels. In the tweltih centur!' it was progressively rebuilt, prcserving some of the old nave walls. The new work was started about Ir50, continued by the Plantag e n e t s( w h o h e l d A n j o u l r o m r r 5 4 t o r z o o ) , a n d finished, except for details, under the Irrench about r 2,1o. The twelfih-centurr na\,e, which exists almost unchanged, consists of three tremendous domed-up square groined bays with the usual diagonal ribs of the Early Gothic style. The-v are in ashlar with relativell'thin cells and span about 52 feet, the hrst in lirance to have so generousa dimension. Their historical importance as evidence ofPoitcr,in and Angevin engineering ingenuitl. is verl' considerable. The laults combined the advantagesof the rib-r'ault ofthc ile-de-France with thc advantagcs ofthin ashlar domed construction. This type of vault was much built in thc Angevin region and in

zt4. Anglers (lathcdral, e l e v e n t h t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ,l a \ e r 0 2 5 ! vaulted r. r r 5o, cxtcndcd later

A Q U I T A N I A , W I T H B O R D E R T N CA ; nl_,tS


Spain. Later Gothic developments includc tcchnically interesting rib systems. The transcpt of Angers Cathedral (including the crossing) consists of three ba.vs with an aggreg te interior length of about r48 feet; similrrly r,aulted the technique, however, is maturer, and the vaults havc the characteristic Angevin octopartite division, with ridge ribs. (The octopartitc division looks, in plan, like the U n i o n J a c k . ) A s i m i l a r s q u a r eb a y a n d t h c s e m i circular apse, with eight triangular cells, bring the interior length of the church on the main 'I'he height to the soflit of axis close to zg5 feet. the transverse arches is about 6q fect. which is equal to that of the Romanesque nave of Santiago, where, however, thc width is only about zg feet. The crowns of the cells at Angers reach a height of about 86 f'eet. Thc stout spur buttresses havc alwal's maintained these magnificent vaults saf'ely in position. The great interior space ofAngers Cathedral has a simplicitl'which is almost Roman, though the dimensions fall short of the greatest Roman works (the nar,e of the Basilica Nova of N{axentius and Constantine measured 83 feet in the clear, rzo feet in height, z4o feet in length; the lateral tunnel r,aults are 63 f'eet high). In spite of the Gothic tincture given b.v thc pointcd arches, the linear qualitl'' of the details, and the odd feeling that thc church is like a small building magnified, here is a monument which an Imperial architect would have understood and enioyed. Not so the laqade ofAngers Cathedral, which makesa definitc compromise with Gothic forms. The blocky' front has a central portal in the stylc of Chartres, above which is a triplet with a fine big Early Gothic window in the ccntre. At each side, a tower with stage upon stage ofdecorative arcading rises to a tall Gothic fldche, as ifAngers were a pinched and narrow cathedral of basilican plan in the ile-de-France. The space between the towers and above thc sreat window is occuoied br Rcnaissance motifs arranged to

p r o d u c e a m e d i e v a l s i l h o u c t t e .1 ' h c a x i a l s q u a r e tower gives an ellect somcwhat like a screcn, such as was planned lbr Novon Cathcdral in the unexecuted arcade between the belfiies o1'thc 'I'he whole mass of thc three western towers. western towers at Angers resembles a westwork appropriatclv cnough in a cathcdral whcre the plan is almost simple enough to be Carolingian. Returning lrom Angers and the north to Poitou, we lind a radiation ofthe Poitevin tvpes to thc wcst, the east, the south-east, ancl the south-west also. The buildings were almost all built in the twelfth centurv, when the countrv -I'he various was well organized and prospcrous. fcatures of the Poiteyin stvle as we have found them in the capital occur, engagingly counterchanged, in a multitude of smaller buildings which have a r,erv direct appeal.12 It is olten possible to savour these churches in an undisturbed old sctting. One comes to accept a certain awkwardncss which often results from the simple naive plans, and to enjoy', er,en in rustic examples, the luxuriant carving, the rather riotous arcading, and the hierarchies of plump columns which catch a soft ripple of light fbr the fagades. Round and pointed arches were often used together, but there was a constant relative increase in the latter as the twcllth centurv advanced. Where tunnel vaulting has been used, the naves have often become deformed or have lost their r,aults, due to inexpert workmanship or faulty'mortar. This is truc e\,en fbr spans of the order of twenty feet; the domes, which we shall considcr prcscntly, have held up much better, e\,en ovcr spans of double the width. Close to Poitiers there arc scvcral wcll-known examples. At Cir,ra.v, the imposing lagade has among its sculptures part of a horseman, supposed to represent Constantine, and accepted into the iconography of the region ; Gengal' and 'fo the Montmorillon also deserve mention. north-wcst of Poitiers thcre are interesling cxamples at Parthenav, Saint-Jouin-de-N{arnes,

zI-5. Angers cathedral, eleventh thirteenth centuries, na\:e r025, r'rultcd r. r r-5o, extended larcr






A Q t it r A N l A ' W I T I I B O R D E n t N c l n r a s


Poiand Airvault. Melle, to the south-west of tiers, has two YerY charming and typical Saint-Hilaire, and Saint-Pierre, churches which is one of'the most elegantly composed of all. It has a fine apse and crossing tower. Chiteauneu[-sur-Charente, south of Melle and Poitiers, has a good church with a fine fagade. Like Civray, it has a Constantine. Not lrar distant is Saint-Michel-'d'Entraigues', an octofoil chapel (rr37) with a famous reliefofthe Archangel conquering his antagonist. We are here on the borders of the Saintonge. The church of Aulnay-de-Saintonp;e is well known also; it is oflate date and well preserved. The amusingly carved voussoirs of the arches have the motifs radiating, as is usual in the style, rather than in sequence up the arch, which is typical ol'Gothic. The church at Aulnav [2r6,
zr(r. Aulnar', church, twellth ccnturl

zrTl has a handsomepointed tunnel vault orgl l h c n a \ e . a h a n d s o m e c r o s s i n g l o w c r . c r r r lx dignified apse. At Saintes (from which the Saintonge trrkc5 its name) there exists, in a very puch reducg6 state, the Clunirc priory church of Saint'l'he Eutrope, beg;un about ro8r Ir38, r391. crypt, a goal ofpilgrimage, is in its original claborate (brm, substantially constructed, with aisles, 'l'hc apse, ambulatory, and radiating chapels. raised choir (1br monrstic liturgies) communicated rvith aisles. and thus with the remlll:rble nave, stepped all round and opened on the crypt Irz.5e], so that pilgrim throngs could sr:c and hear serliccs performed at the shrine.j' The fbrmer convent church of Sainte-Nlalicdes-Dames at Saintes is, appropriatelv, morc local in f-eeling.'l'he fagade is rich with arcading

desolate' manner'and rhe main door has been more lonely, and in places almost in the Poitevin 'jl,tr. and ordcrs Rellex influence from Spain shows itself more capitals carved -r.u.ttously Thc naveis corercdb1'a strongl-v here, irs fbr example in the vaults lirraitrits voussoirs stvlq, at I-'H6pital-Saint-Blaise, domes The crossingtower' charac- of Mozarabic l"ri.r "f y Poiterin and closely that Saint-P6-de-Bigorle, and Sainte-Croix at Oioresembling ,..iui".ff tI at Poitiers'has an ron-Sainte-\tlarie. oiNo,t"-Ot-e-la-Grande


poitiers, wennda rrom

longitudinal buildings near seriesof interesting which the naves are corcred i n Angoul6m.. (Montmoreau, Mouthiers' *iti tunnel vaulting PuyP6roux, Montbron)' also be ih. t,t""a of influence can of course (Sainte-Croix); Bordeaux to Poitou from traced with a charming to Petit-Palais, near Bordeaux, Oloron, near fagade; to Moirax, near Agen' to are 1'he monuments Spain' into on Pau, and so always has which south-west, the in sparser

Pirigord: the Aquitttnian GrouP oJ'Doned Churches We present the domed churches of Aquitania as rhe rhird subgroup in the school ol'thc west ol France. The question ofboth the origin and the classification of the domed churches of P6rigord 'It is dilhcult and near by has long been vexed' to understand whv so essential a feature as the roofing of a whole church lvith domes should not in itself warrant the placing of the domed-




i ;,





church type in a separate school,' wrote Sir Alfred Clapham (who was bv training an architect),'but it is argued that the adoption of'domes was more or less accidental, and is an episode merely in the architectural history of a school which began without them and only adopted them in a comparatively small number of churches even in P6rigord. Furthermore it is argued that the general ordinance of these domed churchcs, apart lrom their roof system, is indistinguishable from other churches of the school.'rs It should be mentioned that the group extends far outside P6rigord, and that seventyseven examples are known to have been built, of which sixty still exist (thirty in P6rigord and the rest scattered all the way lrom Fontevrault in the Loirc country to Agen on the Garonne). Otherwise this is a very lair statement, and it justifies the classification ofthe domcd churchcs as a subgroup within the school of the West of France.r6 Although we have the eleventh-century crossing dome at Saint-Martin in Angers [zr3l, unlbrtunately there is no text which indicates the beginnings of the Aquitanian church type with domes arranged in series over the naves and transepts. There is now good reason for believing that Saint-Front at P6rigueux had an early dome, built over and around the constricted sanctuary of an old 'Latin' basilica really a church dated about g84 to ro47. The spectacular church with Iive domes lzz5-7l,by I'ar the most conspicuous example of the P6rigordine group, was a special development. Pressure from pilgrim throngs probably induced the construction, by ro6o 7o, ofthe original dome, which had round great arches and other archaic f'eatures. The other fbur domes seem to have been envisioned at this time. Inexpert masonry in their lower portions gare way to better work in domes on pointed great arches which were built after the Latin basilica was burnt out in r rzo.J;

Angouldme Cathedral lzzr, zzz], the othcr famous example, was begun about rro5. Ir rs only partly covered by domes, but the schernr is clearly not archaic, though the domes in thc nave, covered by a conventional two-slope roof. look like a utilitarian solution, adopted to avoid the use of a long tunnel vault (difficult ro abur). Whether by direct suggestion or not, the solution in the nave of Angoul !me Cathedral is the old oriental solution of reduplicated domcs. commonly used for centuries previously in ordinary structures such as cisterns, store-rooms. bazaars, baths, and the like. Camille Enlart rvas persuaded that the inspiration was Cypriote, for. there were churches of similar character in Cyprus at the time, accessiblethrough pilgrimage movements.38 'l'he oldest of the Aquitanian domes arc Several of the oldest churches in the Aquitanian group consist simply of a file of' domes, plus an apse and absidioles.a0A mere straight row offour domed units on unpierced interior piers formed the cathedral of Saint-EtiennedeJa-Cit6 in P6rigueux Izr8]. The two original domes, probably built somewhat befbre Iroo, have been demolished; two more claborate ones, dated before and after rr5o, are still in position. They show low vertical drums externally. Another simple earl]'example is the cathedral ofCahors [zr9], which also appearsto hale been begun shortll' before r roo; there was a dedication in r r rq. but the construction was probabll' incomplete at that time. The schemo at Cahors consists of no more than two enormous and awkwardly proportioned rubble domes within low ashlar-f'aceddrums, carried on pendentivcs, pointed arches, and unpierced wall piers ofashlar, with the vast interior spacethus created continuing into a capacious open apse with three radiating chapels. The west lront, which is rather like a Saxon westwork, and the lateral portal, which is Burgundian in style, hardly'prcpare the visitor for an interior with a clear span of sixty-five feet. It is eas-vto see how the southerners, accustomed to the warmth and openness of such interiors, were in no haste tbr Gothic, though at Cahors the east end of the cathedralwas rebuilt in that style. Cahors uas an important ccntrc, xnd it\ cathedral served as a model fbr a famill'o1'somewhat similar buildings in the region. Among
zrli. Pdrigueur, Saint-Etiennc-dela-C,it6, a.lroo! rr50 zr9. Cahors Ciathedral, dedicatcd incomplete in r r rg, llank and portal

simple and rather uninspired in design. Thcrc is practical iustification for them in the fact that only about a third of the tunnel vaults of the Poitevin type - even those of moderate span have held, whereas sixty out of the sevenfiseven domed churches, including several ofrhc largest examples, still have their twelfth-centur\ cupolas. The builders'instinct, the character of' the stone, and the quality of the mortar - urilitarian elements all - would thus account for the use of'domes in this region, rather than an aesthetic pref'erence.Perhaps the acoustical efects were admired.3e The excellent architects who chose domecl conslruction built it in their own wa1, usingpointed arches ofashlar on the four sides ofeach bay to support pendentives of peculiar form. also in ashlar. Unquestionably the pendentivcs were suggested ultimately by Byzantine work. but the reverse curvature in the profile of the pendentive, resulting from geometrical relations with the pointed arch, is special to the Aquitanian domes. The actual shells of the oldcr cupolas are in rubble stuccoed over on the interior, like ordinary Romanesque vaults of thc period.






radiating chapels, and which also has an axial window. Each arm of the transept :rt Angoul0mc is covered by a bay o1'tunnel vaulting. L,ach has an easternabsidiole and a crr.rcifbrm domecl chapel beyond. The upper stages of these chapels are lanterns, each one much resembling a bav of the nal,eat I-e Puy Cathedral, or thq crossing at S a i n t - P h i l i b e r t ,T o u r n u s . ' I ' h c n o r t h c r l v c h a p e l hasa tall and characteristic arcaded stagcd tower over it - suggested, perhaps, bl the arcrded bclfries which were being built at the time in Rome, as we shall sce later. Its matc to the south was destroyed, else the cathcdral rvould still be in the rather restricted class of churches with towers at the transept entls (Cuxa ond St .l\{artin of Tours in their later period; Old Sarum and Exeter Catheclrals, where thc torvers form the entire transepfal projections; the Gothic example at Barcelona Cathedral). So composed, the whole design of Angoul0me Cathedral obviously came to a handsome climax at the east. w h e r e t h e f b u r r a d i a t i n g a n d t u . o t r a n s c p t a la b sidioles, the generous arcaded principal apsc, the dome at the crossing, and the two terminal towers ofthe rransept produced a very striking
zzo. Souillac, church, irpse and transepf, .. r 1-lo

zzt antl zzz. {ngoul6me (lathcdral, r ro; :8 and larcr

symmetrical group.

these is Souillac [zzo], which also has two domed bavs and a capacious apse with three radiating chapels opening directly upon it. Souillac is bettcr proporrioned than Cahors, and it is provided with a transepr; rhe dare is 'fhe about rr3o. building is generally known fbr the man'ellous carvings set into the west wall of the navc and obviouslv made for a portal which was nevcr brought to completion. Angouldme Cathedral,a' previously men_ tioned fzzr, zzz], is anorher type-church, in t h i s c a s ei n f l u e n c e d l r o m P o i t o u . T h e l a q a d ei s a rich examplc of the Poitevin stvle, with much arcading and intercsting Iigural carvings, the wholc liont being composed as a lision of the

Second Coming of Christ. Abadie the resrorcr contaminated the design with regrettable additions tympanum sculptures over the main doorwar,, an awkward arcade at the top of rhe lrontispiece; two unlbrtunare western towcrs, and the lantern, all with imbricated roofs. 'l he interior was also restored,at rhe cost of its old patina and much of its medieval savour: and this is likewisetrue ofthe eastend. The range of four domes on the main axis is very impressive. They are supported in the usual wav on solid wall piers, pointed arches. a n d p e n d e n t i v e s .T h e f o u r t h d o m e i s t h e l a n tern. Bevond it a tunnel-vaulted bay extends to the open main apse, lvhich is augmented tly lbur

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zz3. Fontevrault, abbei,' church, dcdicated r r rg

ol Poitouand \niou. and its eclectic churches o t ' t h e g o o d r e a s o n sl b r c o n s i d e r i n g ierign it on. group ol domes as helonging' ,h. Aquituniun \niou and Poitou' u i t h a l l . after menBefore leaving Fontelrault we should the onll.important kitchcn [zz4], tion the abbev to survive' It is oart ofthe conventual buildings torver, with a (reoctagonal an of form the in roof, man-v stored) hollow stone spire serving as top which the pinnacle at a and chimneys, The holninetl'f-cet. to about height the brings low stone spire makcs one think of Saint-Ours at Loches [zo6l; the bundle of columns at the pinnacle recalls P6rigord, and these two items of thc styles in variety confirm the unitf which we have bcen studYing. After this account of the Aquitanian domed style, Saint-Front at P6rigucux+r [zz5 7i seems like an outsider, which in lbct it now is; lbr the Greek cross plan, with its pierced wall piers' was obviouslf inspired from St Mark's in Venice (ro63 94), the latter church being at that time still unshcathed with marblc and mosaic, and, though built in brick, much morc like the Aquitanian churches with their bare stone-work than is the case at present. The new arrangements were so unusual, and they are so little understood, due to later rebuilding at Saint-Front, that it is worth while to describe them. One entered fiom the west through the porch of the basilica, but its nave, afier the fire, was roofless.and it became a lbrecourt, recalling thc atria which we havc seen at Clunv II and at SS. Peter and Paul. Hirsau. As at Hirsau, there was a plan to make thc atrium into a covered narthex. Piers uere built in the tbur curnersol' the atrium space at P6rigueux, but a dome was never built over them. Instead the-v were madc into pylons, two of which flank the entrance to the atrium, while the others flank the entrance to the church, bcneath the grcat torver. This great tower, of classic fbrm, is perhaps the most imposing of all the towcr porches. It

replaces an

'l'he eleventh-century lantern. ground store.v passage-wa]' to the nave, between flanking aisles, has two elaborate dornical vaults like those which we have found singly at the transept ends ofAngoulOme Cathedral' and also, in sequence, over the nave ofthe cathedral of Le Puy'. The tower porch with its pylons and aisles is massed rather like a westwork' but the great shaft is very classical in feeling' built up in stages with set-backs, and ornamented with pilaster and pedimental motifs. The tower terminates in a tremendous drum of columns covered b1' an imbricated conoidal rool-. It was fairl-v well rcstored bv Boeswillwald. Once past this extraordinary tower porch, the pilgrim lbund himself under the spacrous wcsternmost dome of the main church and near the high altar. There over the tomb of St Front stood the remarkable shrine (by Guinamundus, a monk of La Chaise-Dieu, ro77) intended for

Angouldme also had its family of related churches; in certain aspects Souillac [zzo] and Solignac (about r r3o) arc in its ambient. Their transepts and apses resemble Angoul6me, though their naves are shorter. Gensac has its file of fbur domes in reduced dimension. Bordeaux Cathedral was prepared fbr largc domes o\.er the nave, but Gothic vaults were built instead. Angouldme was begun about rro5, and the nave was at leastpartlv vaulted in r rz8, which suggests that the smaller eramplcs f'all near the middlc of'the century. By this time the technique had quite definitell- improved proportions were better, ornament was better disposed, and some of the domes were carried out in ashlar (this is the case lbr all the domes at Angouldme Cathedral exccpt one). One of the grandest of the domed churchcs was built lbr the abbey 01'Fontevrault Plantagenct roval panthcon, with the tombs of Hcnry II, Elcanor, Richard I, Isabclla [zz3]. Iiounded bv Robert of Arbrissel about r r oo as a doublc abbcy, with an abbess ruling rhe communitl', it becamc the centre of a small but not unimportant Order (fifiy-ser,cn houses in all, Sooo nuns b1' rrr7, when Robcrt of Arbrissel

died). Fontevrault is locatcd near Angers in thc Loire country, and, appealing ro rhe highesr nobilitv, it prospered. +2It is easy to see wh1' thc abbey church is a noble and I'astidiouslv designed building. In rrrg it was dedicated br Pope Calixtus II. At that time surely thc beautiful cher,et was complete. The splendid church is about z7 5 feet in length. Its spacious nave of f b u r b a v s , b e g u n a b o u t r r z 5 , i s a i s l e l c s s ,a n d widcr than the crossing, as is so olien the casein the Loire rcgion. Four domes of modern cons t r u c t i o n , b u i l t a b o u t r g r o t o r e p l a c et h o s c d e stroyed while the building was serr-ing militarr uses, rest upon the old pendentives. A change in proportions between cheYet and nave has sugg e s t e dt h a t d o m c s w e r e n o t o r i g i n a l l l ' p l a n n e d : it is quite possible that the original project callccl 'I'he fbr a hall arrangcmcnt. supports lbr thc domes are verv stout wall piers with attachecl columns in pairs. The capitals are excellenl cramples of carving in thc Poitevin-Angu'in 'l'hc stylc. transept, with a crossing tower, has two absidioles.It is covered by tunnel r,ault: lvith transr,erse arches, as is the well-proport i o n e d a m b u l a t o r y 'w i t h t h r e c r a d i a t i n g c h a p el s . T h e h i g h v a u l t o f t h e s a n c t u a r vi s s c m i c i r c u l a r . F o n t e v r a u l t i s d c c o r a t e da l t e r t h e m a n n e r o f t h e

224.FontevraultAbbe1, kitchen, twelfth centurv (rcstored)



225to 227- P6riglueux Cathcdral,largelvafter r r zo, liew from the south-wcst, r'icw across transept, twellth century,rebuilt ninetcenthcenturv,dnd plan the relics of the saint, and there Aymery Picaud, who wrote the Pilgrim's Guide to Sanlow turret tiago, saw and admired it. The shrine was a holwith a dome and gables, richly to this part of the building, and there are no\\ practically no traces of the old sanctuarv at the west. In tact Abadie's restoration spoiled the 'I'hus we leave the style of the West of Francc. It is interesting to speculate on the question rs to whether a synthcsis of its varied elemcnts lvould ever have been achieved ifGothic art hrd not been invented, or ifthe region had achieved true national status with one great capital ol'ils own. As it is, the erportation of the style trt Spain, the interesting development of Gothic ribbed dome structure, and the experimcnts with wide-nave construction, the dccisively important hrrll-church scheme, and the architectural use ofsculpture deserve to be better known and more widely appreciated than they arc.

% ' %

C h L L r t l tt i r h et L P " l a s
I L S P ' P t l' n l'

WA ut4tut-rnedcuPolo

decorated with hgure and animal sculpture, and e n a m e l s . ' aF r a g m e n t a r y r e m a i n s e r i s t . In to77, v'ith a sanctuarJ'dome, an imprcssivc a n d r v o r k a b l ep i l g r i m a g e c h u r c h e x i s t c d . T h e n three new domes were added transr,ersely, and beyond the crossing a fifth and easternmost dome was built really at the loot of the nave, for the church now had reverse orientation. The traditional orientation, reinstated fbr a time, was later given up, however, and a chapel extended eastward on the axis until modern times, when it was replaced by a pseudo-Romanesque apse. The hiEh altar has been transferred once more

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5 --L


i,ttt sollr




limits of CarolingianAquiWithin the eastern and the upper courseof Burgundy onir,n"^t land of Auvergne, beautiful the lies ,h. Loit", by the Limousin, and on side one on border"d greatcontrastto the west theotherby Velay. In district, and it has a a compact it is of France, of church buildings series characterized highly of rr,u." design which the French historians callthe Schoolof Auvergne'' The type church is Notre-Dame-du-Portat Clermont-Ferrand[zz8-3ol; it is not an earll' but ratherofthe work,aswasformerly believed, althoughthere century, twelfth the of first half about r r 85' is a recordof somereconslruction In exterioraspectthe church is bold, and its are well articulated'It has apse,amelements bulatory,and radiating chapelsset againstthe precipitouseast wall of a characteristicAuvergnat'lantern transept',made by raisingthe bays which flank the crossingvault so that a rangeof windows may be carried around the three outer sides above the ridge level of the transept armsIz3o].Pent roolsslopeupwardon the flanking bays,and betweenthem, over the crossingvault, rises an octagonalbelfry' The crossing vault is supportedon the east by the window wall abovethe apse,but on the other three sides by Carolingian interior flying screens. West of the transeptliesthe nave,with beyondthe aisles but no clerestory; andgalleries naveis a sort ofwestwork with narthexand tribuneunder a modernaxialtower ofappropriate design. Entering the church' we find before us an austerenave of four bays with a plain tunnel vault.The navewall is ditided in two on cach sideby an applied column rising liom a cruciform pier; thesecolumnsserveas interior but226

tresses, but there is no transverse arch above them. The other piers of the nave proper have two shafts each for the aisle arcade, and one fbr the 11nn5vs15sarch which separates the aisle bays ofgroin vaulting. A quadrant vault covers the gallery cut into bavs bv diaphragm arches and spsling into the nave through triple arcades bay by bay. These are cusped, and suggest somc sort of oriental influence, and thel' repeat the fbrm ofthe Carolingian flying screens uncler the crossing tower (where also the piers har'e, logically, four applied shafis). The apse has ths same height as the crossing arches, and so have the projecting ba1's(each with a chapel) of the transept, but the lantern-transept is, of course, much higher. '['here is a much-restored crypt under NotreDame-du-Port - a somewhat unusual feature for the region. I'he crypt repeats the main lines of the apse, ambulatory, and radiating chapels above, but the chamber under the sanctuary is groin-vaulted in small bays carried on stout colurn15. l'hese are set so as to fbrm a sort of inner ambulatory; four of the columns are placed under the altar. The whole arrangement recalls Al6aume's Clermont Cathedral of 946. In the church above, the apse and the sanctuary bav are not separated by a transverse arch, nor are the groin-vaulted bays of the ambulatory. Eight columns support the apse and ambulatory. The exterior wall of the ambulatory is logically divided into nine bays, of which four arc occupied by round radiating chapels, and the other live in the usual way by windows, including the axial one. This is common in Auvergne, and it is remarked that the arrangement occurs in churches dedicated to the Virgin, whcther the absidioles number two ot four,

Cllermont-Fcrrand, Notrc-Damc-du-port, trlelfih ccnturv



w i t h o t h e r d e d i c a t i o n sa n a r i a l r a t l i a t whereas c h a p . l ( s o m e t i n r e so b l o n g ) i s i n t r o t l r r c e d . fg an.lmusing rarietl in rhe buttresses bnr finat c h a pels some being plain spur butof the o t h ers columnar. T'hc transepts harc uesses. the navc has an arcadc above spur buttresses; 5pur buttresses' There is patterneduall-work of a simplc sort in the interior ot' Notre-Damc-du-Port, and cmbellishment of this much more el:rborate 'I'he local building material exterior. the on kind is an arkose or granitc, which allows of very preffy accents in red, brown, grev. or black, arrangedin panels. Star forms occur, along with a n d s t r i p e s .R o u n d a n d m i t r e d a l c a c l i n g diapers i s u s e d ,a n d a l s o s h a l l o w s u n k p a n c l s e n l i v e n e d by toy-like decorative columns ancl chisel-curl which bring a littlc oriental spice eaves-brackets to the design. In general the picturesque old structure in the refiactorl'local building material seems indeed morc to belong in the rock1. countrl.'side ol Aur ergne than in ths trrez3o.Clermont-F<:rrrnd, Notre-l )ane-clu-Port, twellthcenturt

making metropolis of Francc which ClermontIierrand norv is. Notre-Dame-du-Port is a \crv satisfnctorv paradigm for a cluster of churches within a radius of about twent]. milcs of the cit-v. Ennezat, the oldest o1'the group, will be mcntioncd again. It is difl'erentiated liom the re$ b-van indefinable flavour of'the I-oire countr.v. SaintNectaire perhapscomes next, about ro8o, then others Saint-Saturnin (without radiating chapels), Orcir,al (built about rroo, with rebuilding about rr68), Issoire (r. rr3o 5o), Saint-Amable at Riom, NIozac (a Cluniac priorv), and last of all Brior.rtle. 'l'he background of' the Auvergnat t]-pec h u r c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g ,b r . r t n o t c n t i r e l J ' c l e a r .T h e ambulatorl is old in the region, brought in from the Loire, and this may be true of the lanterntransept also, lbr something of the sort mav har'e existecl at Beaulieu-les-Loches ( r oo5 ; much rebuilt). Structuralll' the lantcrn-transept recalls Gernrignr'-des-Pr6s (about 8o6) rvith its flving screens; in silhoustte it recalls Saint-Riquicr (US: 8oS), plus transcpt arms and minus the flanking round stair tolvcrs. The westworks are ultimatelr connected with Saint-Riquier also. Thcre is a tcnth-centur-n-example in Auvergnc, 'l'he general formula of the at Chamalidres. hare becn settled bl l u v c r g n a t c h u r c h , u i t h i t s v a u l t i n g , a p p e n r st o the time the archaic-

looking little church at Ennezat was built, probably'not long afier its foundation as a collegiatc church betlvcen ro6r and 1o78. One suspects that the eleventh-centurv cathedral of Cler'monl (which succccded Alclaume'sbuilding), an ambulatorl' uas thc critical design. It is known to have had rvith {bur radiating chrrpels.

Whercver it was, the kcv designmust havc had this motif and transept arms of cqual height

zz9. Cilermont-Ferrand, Notrc_Dame_du_port, twclfth


c o m p o s e d a g a i n s tt h e p r e c i p i t o u s b u l k o f a l a n its pinnacle. tern-transcpt with a loftl bellr.'--as -I'here is a strong tradition lbr carll architectural and sculptural rvork connected with the abbev of L-a Chaise-Dicr.r, where therc is nou a


T { I D D L EA N D S T ] T I H E RF N R..lNCE

beautiful Gothic church. The abbey was lbunded in ro43 by Robert de Turlande, a canonof'Saint-Julien a rB r i o u d ea , nd confirmed by diplomas of ro5z. lt is reported that the abbel' wa"- responsiblc lbr the consrruction of roo churches in the ricinitv: elentuallv the n u m b e r o l ' m o n a s r e r i c s u b m i r r e d, o o , , l l i . d rvirh La Chaise-Ilieu reachecl 4oo. The abbev is remembered lbr lrorl 0n lhe roads, anrl for der,elopments in husbandryprefiguring those of the Cistercians. There areno identifiable re_ m a i n s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a lo r s c u l p t u r a l w o r k . but t h e r c i s n o l i c c l h a t T h i o d a r d ,a m a s t e r mason. i r n d t w o s c u l p r o r sw e r e5 r n lt o S a i n t - C e m m e in to7g, and that Guinamundus, g;oldsmith a ancl enameller of La Chaise-Dieu,made the tomb s t r u c t u r e f b r t h e r e l i c so f s t F r o n t a t p d r i s u e u x in ro77, as alrt.adr remlrl,ed.-

Apart lrom the group of churches iust considered, therc arc some I'ew interesting cq_ amples in Aurerplne Volvic and others wit\_ out galleries. Rovat is aisleless,and fbrtificcl r bold, rather arvkwardbuilding lull ofcharactcr.. -Ihese minor churches talten with the grorrp about Clermont have undoubtcd interest bLrt they are not sufficient to make a grand school such as those rve hat.e studied previoush.. 'I.he A u v e r g n a t s c h o o le a r l v e n t e r c d i n t o t h e n o m e n _ clature of'schools. Representing (after a lashion t the Pilgrimage type of which so manv grcrlr examples, proportionately, hare been lost. ir will probably' remain in the conr,entional list. Except lbr its rather shadowv but indubitablc early importance,the Auvergne manner slroulcl be noted merelv as a subgroup under the Schor,l of Languedoc.


The remaining area of Carolingian Aquitania is Languedoc plus the Limousin, to rvhich (bci t b e c a m ep a r t o f t h e C o u n t v o f T o u l o u s e ) cause S e p t i m a n i ao r G o t h i a i s t o b e a d d e d . H e r e t h e most glorious of thc South Frcnch schools of' Romanesque architccturc and sculpture u'as created. Rightlv so, for it was one of the glowing 'Bient6t la areas of early medieval civilization. rafale venue du nord tua cette floraison,'savs Enlart of the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition (rzog 45) rvhich pcrmanentl-v injurcd the countrl. and lef t a mark on the Church. A defect of the plan ol'our exposition of Romanesque architecture is that it takes the greatest monuments created bv Languedoc from the local school, and puts them in the generalhistory ofarchitecture with other works of equal importance. We have already given irn accolrnt ot- the crcation of rhc Pilgrinagc t].pc of church, which was matured in I-anguedoc (Saint-Martial at Limoges Irr3], Sainte-Foi at Conques Irr3, rr{r r8], and Saint-Scrnin at Toulouse Irrj, rrg zrl, with Santiago(,athedral Ir r3, rr4) r22 5] (ro78 rzr r) as an extraterritorial membcr of'the school. Reference has also been matle to the Cistercians. who built magnifi cently' in Languedoc. However, even rvithout the principal monuments which have bcen analysed elses,hcre, Languedoc has a considcrable number of notable examples to show. They represent a f:ascinating interrvcaring of influences from the acknowledged masterpieces, and from thc various regions bordering on Languedoc. Toulouse. which was to be the centre of Languedoc, had a chequerecl early histor-v. It was a capital citv fbr the Visigoths (4rg), Merovingians (628), and Carolingians (78r). 'Ihe

Normans capturcd it during a fbray'of 848, and the fbmous marriage of Henry of Anjou to E l e a n o r o f A q u i t a i n e t e c h n i c a l l y b r o u g ; h ti t u n der English dominion. Its truc history was written undcr the (,ounts ofToulouse between 852 a n d r z o g . L i m o g e s i n t h e R o m a n e s q u ea g e w a s ruled (9r 8 to n64) by thc Dukes of Aquitainc. Oriental influences came there, as to Le Puy. Because of'the earl'r' date of Saint-Martial at Limoges (about rooo 95 and later) [rrj] it is perhaps well to begin with churches in the Lirnousin which are relared to the Pilgrimagc g r o u p . A m o n g t h e s et h e a b b e v c h u r c h o f B e a u Iieu in the Corrdzel is surely the most interesting. It is much like a Pilgrimage church with t h c t r i f b r i u m o f t h e n a y e r e d u c e d t o t h e s c a l eo f the usual apsidal trifbrium, thus omitting thc charming enclosing arches abor,e the paired a r c h e sw h i c h a r e s o h a r m o n i o u s a f ' e a t u r e of the P i l g r i m a g ei n t e r i o r s . B c a u l i e u h a s a r e m a r k a b l e lateral portal o{'about r r18, rrther like that o1' N'Ioissac,and hoodecl, likc Moissac. f'he aislc, a m b u l a t o r y , a n d l a u l t i n g a r c h e sa t B e a u l i e u a r e pointed, and the portal has an elegant frame in three orders of pointed arches, but thc round a r c h n c r e r t h e l e s s p e r s i s t si n t h e b u i l d i n g . Snint-L6onardr is anothcr simplified example of the Pilgrimage fbrmula, though it is a rather c o n f u s e db u i l d i n g n o u . o n a c c o u n t o f l a t e r a d d i tions. It has a high vault abutted b-v quadrant v a u l t s ,a n d t h e c h e v e t h a s a p s e ,a m b u l a t o r v , a n d 'I'herc radiating chapels. are rcmains of a small -I'he rotunda. finest l'eaturc ofthe church is the adjoining tower, built about rr50, which bel o n g s t o a s e r i e sf o u n d i n t h i s r e g i o n a t S a i n t Martial, Limoges, the cathedral of Le Pu1. [rz7], and Brantirme, to namc the more important cxamples. At Saint-Martial thc charac-






terlstlc upper stages wcre an addition of rather I a t e r c l a t eb u i l t o n t h e o l d w e s t e r r l t o w e r - p o r c h . In the other eramples the dcsign was integral: at Le Puv, cast of the sanctuarv,at Brant6mc anclSaint-L6onard bcsidethe church. T h e t o r v c r sa r e a l l i n t c r e s t i n g s t u d i e s i n t r a n _ sition liom a square basc to a pointcd roof.r Saint-L6onard is a straightfbru.ard example, and anahsis of it rvill do fbr all. Thc rowcr is s c l u a r e ,w i t h t w o o p e n i n g s o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e lorvcr storeys, but the scconcl stage has a slight r c r e a l a t t h e c o r n e r , w h i c h s e t st h e p r o f i l e b a c t l little, because tho square has, in effect, small nicks takcn out of'the corners. This efi'ect is re_ p e a t e da t t h e t h i r d s t a g e ,w h e r e t h c a r c a d er e s t s 'I'he on round picrs. f b u r t h s r i r g ei s b o l d l r s e t back abor.e a slope, but has a stecp-gablcd ele_ mcnt brcaking fbrward. Above the spring_line wisc of this gable the tolver is octrgonal, set point_ that is, with arriseson thc cardinal and

dral of Limoges, Saint-Michel-aux-Lions, an11 S a i n t - P i e r r e - P c v r o u xI ) a v ca t t r a c t i l c s p e c i n r c n s of this tvpc of tower. The louer part of' rhr cathedral tower is Romanesque; the lowcst oi t h e o c t a g o n a l s t a g e s i s t r . a n s i t i o n a lt o G o t h r r . rrgr; the upper parrs have becn rebuilt in Gothic v'ith a strong Romanesque f-eeling. J.e Dorari is another striking church in thc Lim<rusin region nhich is relatecl ro the l)il_ grimagc group. Like Saint-N{:rrtial, it is rr church with two axial towcrs, ancl it has reminiscences of'Saint-Riquier, bur it is a ru.eltth_ c e n t u r ] ' c h u r c h . T h e r e i s a b o l d s t a g e dl a n t e r r r and belfiv tower o\-er thc crossing, the being octagonal in shapc and set point-uisr. 'l'he apsc, :rmbulatorl', and radiating chapcls b e v o n d i t a r e s e t a g a i n s ta l o n g t r a n s e p t , w h i c j l is happill. acccntcd b)- t$,o turrers. 'I'hesetur_ rets, with the crossing torvcr, recall the oltl Saint-Riquier arrangemcnt. At the west cntl

diagonal axes of the towor. -{ little buttr.css there is partial r e m i n i s c e n c eo f S a i n t _ R i q u i e r i n c l e r e r l y - f i l l s i n t h e a n p l l eo n t h c d i a g o n a l b c s i d e a h e a r , t toucr (which contains a dome) srrn_ -I'herc the gable. are trvo arcadecl stages of thc metricallv llankcd bJ- trvo charming octagonal octagon, then a frieze-like band with a simole turrets set point-rvisc. Substantial spur btrt_ p r r r m i d a b o rc . tresses conrributc to a r igorousp1-ranricla cl l c c r \t Uzerchc (in a church of similar tunncl_ in this parr of the building. 'I'he main portal is a n d - q u a d r a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n ) a r e l a t e d t o w c r h a s plain, two-archcd, with no sculpture on the t1,nr_ h a l f - e a b l e s s s t b e s i d e t h c c h a r a c t e r i s t i cs t e c o p a n u m , b u t v c r r , h a n d s o m e l l b o r c l e r e cb l r fbu:. g l b l c t l e l c n r c n t . T h c h a l f - g a h l e s .j o i n i n g s i m i o r d e r s o f c u s p e d a r c h c s .a n d f l a n k e c lb v t w o t : t l l lar hall--gables on the adiacent sidcs ofthe torver, l a n < e t - s h a p e dr e c c s s e s .l h e c u s p c r i . r . h . r r . fbrm intercsting acroteria. At Uzerche thc oc_ a p p c a r o n t h e l i r n t e r nt o u , e r ,a n d a r e c o n s i d e r c r l . t a g o n i s s e r f l a t u ' i s e ;a r B r a n t 6 m e t h e u p p e r p a r t o t c o u r s e ,a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s p a n i s h i n f l u c n c c . o f t h e t o w c r i s s q u a r e ,a n d t h i s i s t h c c a s el v i t h ( L a S o u t e r r a i n e (h , a s a s i m i l a r f ' a g a d ew , ith cnt h e m u c h m o r c e l a b o r a t et o w e r o l ' t h e c a t h e d r a l g a g i n g asvmmetries.)'l'he plan of'Lc Dorat is. o l ' I - e P u y , u h i c h h a s e i g h t a r c h e c l s r a g e sb c e x c e p t f b r t h e $ e s t w o r k , m u c h l i k e t h a t o f ' S a i nr _ neath the plramid. I ltiennc at Ncvers. I-c l)orat has no clerestorr. 'l'he octagonal tower set point-wise has in_ except in the apse. Its lantern tower is espc_ t e r e s t i n g il a t c r v a r i a n t s i n t h e L i m o u s i n . r S u c h c i a l l v i n t c r e s r i n g , f b r i t h a s s p h c r i c t a lp e n c l e n toners rise shcer, stage upon stagc, a trlcs, and a dome of circular olan. squa.rebase, with polygonal tourclles covering \loissac is relatcd somcwhal ro Le Dorrrr t h c l n g l e s o l l h e s q u a r e ,l a n g e n t l o t h c t o t r e r t h r o r r g h thc hear.r.western t o w c r . I t h a sa l r e a c l r a n c l c a r r i e d u p t h e l l l l h c i g h t o l ' t h c s h a f ' t .A n h c c n s . r i d r h r r rI l o i s s l c r r r s f i r s r p l a n n e d 1ir i. octlgonal pvramid of steep slope terminates the believed) as rr hall chr.rrch, then cor.ered b1 m a i n t o r v e r a n d c a c h o f t h e t o u r c l l e s .- l . h c c a t h c _ d o m c s , a n d finallv reconstructcdwith the pre-

z3I. Moissac, priorr church,cloister, ,. I loo, later relvorkcd sent Gothic laults Ir6o]. The famous cloister [ 2 3I ] w a s a l s o r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h c G o t h i c period. Moulded and pointed arches of' red brick now rest on the Romanesque impost blockswhich are so beaurifully carvcd, and srr gracefully sustained b1. the Romanesque columns, alternatelr. single and in pairs. with rich and imaginatire capitals.The handsome slabs with large ligure relief-sof r. r roo srill havc their places at thc corner piers. The rebuilt cloistcr, with its beautiful garth, is ycrl poctic indced. T o u l o u s e , t h e c a p i t a l o f ' L a n g u c c l o c ,h a s s u f tered greatly from demolition and roconstructton' 'Ihe most elaborate cloistcr in Lrnguedoc w a st h a t o f L a D a u r a d e i n ' l ' o u l o u s c ; i t w a s c l c molished in r8r3, and only specimensof the c a r v i n g sr e m a i n . T I n s p i t e o f t h c p r e s t i g eo f ' t h e P i l g r i r n a g e f b r m u l a , u h i c h u i r s b r o u g ; h tt o a c l i m a x i n S a i n t Scrnin at'l'oulousc,r the nclv half-Romanesque cathedral of Toulouse, begun in If,rr," was raclicalll dillcrent in tl pe- It marked a stagie in thc dcrelopmcnt of the characteristic widen a v c d G o t h i c o l s o u t h F r a n c c a n d C a t a l o n i a .I n t h c s e \ i r s t i n t c r i o r s p a c c sw e h a r e a n c r v v e r s i o n o f t h e u i d e n a v e sw h i c h p r o d u c c d s u c h r e m a r k able elI'ects in Carolingian and Romanesquc 'l'his timcs. kind of Gothic rctainecl Romancsquc proportions, antl uscd a version of Romanesque interior buttressing to makc poss i b l e m a x i m u m G o t h i c v a r r l t i n gs p a n s . 'I'he church of Bindrent-l'Abba1'cr" in rhc Limousin is relatcd to the Pilgrimage t]'pc t h r o u g h i t s a p s e . a m b u l a t o r - r ,a n d r r c l i a t i n g


M I D D L I , A N D S o U T H E R NF R A N c E

chapels, but thc nave rs like Cistercian work be_ c a u s co f i t s p o i n t e d b a n d e d t u n n e l v a u l t , s t o u t l l abutted bt'pointed transverse tunnel vaults bav b t b a - v .- \ a r r o n . p i c r c i n g s b e r w c e n s r . . . . . i r . ba1's and a timid clerestorv, norv lrlocked uo. show a concernlbr soliditr. 'l'he church dates from the twelfth centurv. Cistercian architec_ t u r e w h e n i t c a m e ( a s a t S i l v a n e s ,S 6 n a n q u e r l ) was al home among such buildings, lor ir is structurallv similar. This abutment system of interior recesses. when develope<1 vertically, 1,.ielded the effrcieni interior buttress slstem of'southern Gothic. is rather like aqueduct construc_ tion with'screen walls at the back and Gothic vaults sprung betrvecn. In a way it is like the Pantheon in Rome, where in effect aqueduct_ l i L e a r c h e sa n d s u p p o r t s f o r m a c i r c u m t e r e n c e . w i t h t h e d o m e t u r n e d b e r w e e nr h e m . With clerer irbutment such as the flying but_ tresses developed in the ilc_tlc_Francc atier rr7-5, Gorhic naves could go high. With stout spur buttresses or interior recessesther. could b e g i r e n g r e a r b r e a d r h .T h u s i t * r , p o r r i b l . , o achieve on a grand scale the ver\.spaclous n:lves of ample Romanesque proportions rvhich were prelbrred in southern France, Catalonia. and I t a l . v . ' l h i s i s r h c s 1s t e m w h i c h w a s e m p l o v e d i n t h e T o u l r u s a n c a t h c d r aI o l ' r : r r p e r h u p , , ihe firsr cxampleof its t.vpc.r The span ot..sjrtr_ four leet uas achiered in brick consrruc(i;n with immense square rib-v4ulted bavs. boldlv domed up over plain rectangul". rib., iike Lom_ b a r d R o m a n e s q u ev a u l t s . ' I ' h e l o w p r o p o r t i o n s and the detail are very dilfcrent from those of the High Gothic cathedral of Reims, started in t h e s a m ey e a r . Y c r t h e r e i s i n t h e n o l v m u t i l a r c d and unlovely work at loulouse a good promise of Albi and Gerona (where thc widest Gothic span, s'e venty-three l'cet, was reachccl).ir It is significant that the developmcnt of this type of building. with its Romanesque rrncture, rvas continued after the stanclard High Gothic of the ile-de-France had been introduced at

Narbonne in rz7z, Limoges in 1273, anl 'I'oulouse itself though the destruction of.rhi calhcdral ol r z r r was planner.l.and parrL, a c h i e v e d ,d u r i n g t h e w o r k s u n d e r t a k e n i n rz;, Calcassonne shows the pa.aiat..r". of tu',, Romanesque schemes. The Gothic Sainr_ Vincent (fourteenth century and later) has x single-nave span of sixty_eight f'eet, the wiclesr in all Irrance. On the other hand, the wesrcrn limb of rhe lbrmcr calhedral of Sainr_\azai.c. in the Citd, is a hall church dating back to roo6 in its beginnings. T h e l i g h t a n d b e a u r i f u lr r u n _ sept and apseofthe thirteenth century respecr the disposition, heights, and proportions of: thc old building - presenring, in glowing contrasr. the openness and light which Gothic bralurr made possibler .3 Along the \{editerranean coasr the influence of the Pilgrimage rype in the Romanesque ot. L a n g u e d o c w a s w e a ki c o n v e r s e l y , L o m b i r l r l and Catalan influences were strong, as alreaclr indicated. In this ver1, southern u-Ui..r, on.t climate the differentiations which make a buikl_ ing sepm French had no great occasion to de_ velop. I'et, perhaps because of the persistcncc o f l o r i n g l l s c u l p t u r . e do r n a m e n t , t h e r e i s sonr.. f l a v o u r o f L a n g u e d o c a b o u t t h e s ew o r k s . 'I'he cathedral of Elne,11in French Catalonir. is perhaps the best example. It is an eleventh_ century conception, interrupted in execution a n d c a r r i e d o n , c o n s i s t e n t l y ,a t a l a t e r t i m e . T h e nar,e has a semicirular banded tunnel vaulr carried on piers with crucilbrm nuclei antl attached shafts or pilasters. Thus there are three orclersofarches in the aisle arcade, for the transversc arches are single and the nave has no clerestory. The ell'ect is very substantial antl

'Ihere is a fine and characteristic handsomelv. the to church. Thc church of attached cloister Arles-sur-'I'ech was lebuilt rvith similar r.aulti n g i n t h i s p e r i o d ( c o n s e c r a t i o n ,r r S T ) . T h e r e are other picturesque works in the mountain country tirther west, but space does not sulice for their consideration.

monks, g-5 r ), retaincd the strongest imprinr, but oriental motili cuspcd irrchcs; ribs in con_ ncxion with domes and donricalraultsi rcncti_ t i r e o c t a g o n a ld o m i c a l r a u l t s a n d d o m c s i n e r _ haps also imbricirrrd rooting *er. p..pp.:r.d about thc rvhole Aquitanian region anclabsorbed into the eler,enth- and tuolfih-ccnrurv st],Ie. C a t a l o n i a ,w h i c h w a s i n a c t u a l c o n t a c t t v i t h t h e Nloors, shows surprisinglv little trace of thcir

How shall we achievcan ordcrh'statemcnt and explanation of' the wonderful flowering of Romanesque architecture and sculpture which we have fbund in the eleventh and twellth centuries in Carolingian Aquitania and its borderi n g l a n d s o n t h e L o i r e a n d t h e M e d i r e r r a n e a n? It is clear that there rvas an underlving dcvelopment, alive with Carolingian encrgy., in the Loire region, in the ninth and tenth centuries. This radiated northward into the region where Gothic architecture was to be crcated. irs we shall see later. Its radiation to the south and east may be roughlv traced b}'the churchcs which har eambulatories, olien tu,oaxial towers. and, in the earlier examplcs, the t-vpicalmasonrv wall-work; we find many such in Burgunclv and Aquitania proper. Obviousll also the Irirst Romanesque arca contributed to the architcctural fbrmation of Aquitania. Serious studv of lost earlv monuments will have to bc undertaken bclbre this flow ofinfluenccs can be clarifiecl, but onc cliscernsthat it must have been drawn on in developing the sculpture, and in vaulting basilican schemesabove the ground let'el. Catalan laulthg (alread)' fhirh adr.anced at the end of-rhc tenth centurv). earlv sculpture norrh of the Pyrenees,ancl Burgundian developments under First Romanesque inpact appear to har,c llowed rntoAquitania. Oriental influences flolvcd in too, from N,Ios_ lem Spain as earlr as the rcnth ccntury., from the Near East in Crusacler times. Auvergne. w h i c h h a t l t h e e a r l i c s (o n r e c o r d o l s r r c hn c n i n sular contacts (Bishop Cotlescalc antl his .zoo

i n f l u e n c e , t h o u g h t h e i r c a r \ - c r sm a \ . h a v e a i d e d i n I I r er e - c r e a t i o no l ' s c r r l p t u r a l tcchniqueduring t h e t e n t h c e n t u r r , r c i n l b r c i n g p e r h a p sa l i n g e r ing tradition in Septimaniaor Gothia. 'fhe centrcs trf power, mostl\ secular, began to gain focus about thc \ear rooo, il'not bcfirre, in the Aquitanian area, ancl tt'pe-monuments appeared which were to affect regional building fbr several cenruries afier that. -I'hcre is, howeler, also the intcr-rep;ional influencc of the monks of Clunv in their builtling enterpriscs a n d a R o m a n h e r i t a g e ,a l s o .T ' h e a r c a o f C l u n i a c wcstr.ard expansion until the end of Odilo's abbacl' (ro4g) w:rs almosr cotcrminous with A q u i t a n i a , r - it h c d o m a i n o f t h e i r f b r r n d e r D u k e William. Abbot Odilo is wcll known asa buildcr in r,arious rcgions. The r.ision of the Cluniac rnonks can surch be credited with an important part in the impulsc which brought about consistcntlv larp;er, more ma jestic. and bettcr vaulted church buildings, and some o1'theskill a n c ls u c c e s s o l ' t h c r c g i o n a l s c h o o l sm u s t b e d u e to thc stimulation of' wide knowledgc which c a m e w i t h t h c p r e s e n c eo f ' t h c C l u n i a c s . a n d t h e tidc o1' I'il grimalic ctrnracts. 'l'lius i n - { n i o u r s u c c o s s t u lc o m b i n a t i c r n o l ' thc principlesof'ribbed and of'domed construction was rnade. In Poitou quite surprisinelv monumental ellccts were earll- achieved with columnar supporrs and 'h:rll church' r'aulting, which had hardl_y, in prcvious times, achiercd 'I'he anv reallv noble ell'ccts. latcr application of' g r o u p e d p i c r s a n d p o i n r e d a r c h e st o t h i s s c h c m c opcnecl up a whole panoramt of interesting eff'ects.ancl these, together with -{ngevin vaults

good. 1'he aisles have quadrant r.auks dividctl i n t o b a v sb v d i a p h r a g m a r c h e s s h a l l o w a r c a d i n g ; decorates the exterior walls ofthe aisles. At ancl near the lbgade there is rib vaulting, a sign of.late date, but thc frontispiece has two crenellatcil torvcrs of traditional l,ombardic form. One is much heavier than the other, but thev comnose






f u r t h e r d e v c l o p e d , w e r c s u c c e s s f u l l vd r a w n o n indecd at the cathedral of' in Gothic work Poitiers itsclf, as well as later, with grcat art, in thc developcd hall churches o1'South France, Spain, and Germany. In P6rigord a quite pedestrian and utilitarian scheme of dome construction developed spccial and monumental effects of' genuine interest, quite apart liom the achievemcntof building the cathcdral of Pirig u c u x . T h e s a m e r e s i l i e n c e o f ' s p i r i t s h o l r , si n the livelv, original, and monumental tower and lantern lbrms, though the towcrs fiile d to multipl'l over the churchcs as thev did in Burgundl'and thc North. .In decorative works therc lvas a notable skill 'I'hcrc ofelerv sort. a r e s u c c e s s l u li m i t a t i o n s o f provincial Roman rvork, carvings rvhich havc the strong bulk o1-carlv medielal work, and others which suggest the subtlc refinement of Bvzantine or oriental works in ivorv such as w e r e t r e a s u r e db v t h c a r t i s t s ' p a t r o n sa n d k n o r v n to the designers themselves. In Anjou and Poitou the column-bundles, leaf'age,arcading, and mouldings arc treated with such consciousn e s so f e n r e l o p c , s u c h d e l i c a c vo 1 ' u n d e r c u t t i n g

and scale, such tirelessnessof'fancf in treatinqt h e s i m p l e v o c a b u l a r y o f l c a v e s a n d s c r o l l s ,t h a t 'I'hc the eflects are the equivalent of orientalism. g r e a t s c u l p t u r e so f t h e S c h o o l o f ' T o u l o u s e h a i t a l-uller c l a r i t r . o l i e n a n o r c r p o w c r i n gi n t e n s i t r. and thel' gain vastlv as decoration from tht stvlizcd fbrm and subtlc rippling surfaces, sri s w e e tt o t h c l i g h t , i n w h i c h t h e v p a r a l l e lo r i e n t r r l and Bvzantineworks. With all this. the fundamental tvpes createdin the area of (,arolingian Aquitania were not maeinified or elaborated bey-ond 'I'hev measure. alwavs remaincd eminentlr -Ihis practical. is the key to their usefulness in lronticr countr]' like Earl.v Romanesquc Spain. or the Crusaders'Holv Land. Both thesearcas were architectural provinces of' Burgundr. 'I'hc Poitou, and Languedoc. Romanesque ol Aquitania s h o w e d a r e m a r k a b l e e x p a n s i re power. In the mo\.ement towards Spain lvhich




All Christian Spain ultimatell' succumbed to French architectural genius, as thc Gothic cathedrals of Letin, Barcelona, and Seville clearly show. But thc northern kingdoms were building in the French Romanesquc stvle as e a r l ya s r o 5 o . Catalonia remained an active province of the Lombardic st1'lc until the advent of Gothic the Gothic of Citeaux, and that of Langucdoc, referred to in the preceding chapter. The Christians in the Nloorish part o1'Spain worked in the Nlozarabic st1'lebefbre thc tcnth centurv, as we have scen. In the lbllorving period they did not greatl!' develop thcir church art, 'l except at oledo, uhich lbr a time uas scmiindependent. The 'Ntuddjar' st.vle, that is, thc M o o r i s h s t l l e i n ( . h r i s t i a n s e r r i c e . a p p c a r st o have been worked out in -I'oleclo before the conquest (ro85), and drawn on as Christian buildings multiplied in the middle and southern parts ofthe pcninsula, where the \,{ud6jar was most appropriate to local conditions.l Iior us lts interest is largely confined to brickwork and wall patterning in the sophisticated Moorish tashion. The Mucl6iar was outsidc the currcnt of French architecture. ancl the Catalan Romanesgue alwavs maintained a certain indcpen-


even in Cistercian works. Hence these

trvo st1'lesrvill be considered befbre we resume our studl' of the expansion of French architecture to the other lands which had been r\loslem.

started seriouslv in the earlv eleventh centllr\. and in thc Crusadeswhich began in rog7, thc Frcnch took their architecture with them. arrd built it with a local nuance, but retained tht spccialstamp o l ' l ; r c n c hg e n i u so n i r .

N T u D a J A R o M A N I s e u EA R ( i H r r E c ' r ' u R L I\ BRICK The elcventh- and twclfth-ccnturv victories of

the Christian kingdoms in Spain advanced their frontiers rvellsouth ofthe equator ofthe peninsula, except in the hinterland of Valencia.The areasubject to the Christians lvas nearly'doubled 'I'he new conquests were in two hundrcd 1'cars. progressivell' more settlcd in character, and morc densel]' populated, with large N{oorish and Jelvish contingents in the population. N'toorish masons in thcsc rcgions built verv successfullv in brick. Sefror G6mez-\Ioreno makes the point that ordinarl building must have procccded as before, with ordinarv N{oorish craftsmen.: Clever N'Ioorish craftsmen style, and ultimatch learned the Christian

Christian crafismen lcarncd the N'Ioorish sty.le which was, after all, dill-erent rather than lbreign. In the earlier pcriod an ambitious Romanesquc work lbr the reconquercd arca would in-



volve all thc diffrculties attendant on importetl cralismen fiom Poitou. I-anguedoc,Burgundl or Spanish crattsmen from the norrh, with s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g ; s u c h l v o r k sw c r c n o t n u n l er o u s . Romancsque architecture in f-actnevcr reached Tolcdo at all; that was the centre of'rhe N{ud6jar s t v l e, a n d , a s t i m c w o r e o n , t h e S p a n i a r d s b e c a m e l e s s d c p c n d e n r o n l i r r c i g n e r s .W h e n p o s siblc, it uas naturirl fbr them to profit br the jar builders e r p er i c n c c o f t h e \ l o o r . i s h a n d N , I u d 6 in nervlr occupied arels, and to devclop Rtrmanesque variations on the N,Iud6jar stvle, built, lile the originals,largelr,in brick, but organica l l r R o m i r n e s q u cr a t h c r t h a n o r i e n t a l . . \ c t u a l l y , the rlecorative pilastcr str-ips and decoratire a r c a d i n g w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z et h e } I u d i ' j l r s t r l c irre bascd ultimatclv on the ver\, same elenrents u hich lvere de vcloped in thc Lombardo-(,atalan First Romanesquc stvle. In Spain the pattern work on the pale-brolrn brick rvalls,wirh the spicv shadowsof dccoratire cusped and intcrlaccd arches, givcs an oriental nuance tu the r i p p l e o l s u n s h i n c w h i c h p l a v su p o n t h e n r . \Ianv of the \luclt'jar churchcs arc ntodest aisleless a f l a i r s , w i t h p o l v g o n a l a p s e s ,g e n e r a l h precedcd bv a tunnel-r'aultcd sanctuart bar rvhich carriesthe torvcr.if therc is onc.'I-he nnrcs, and the aislesil' prcsent, are usuallr r o o f e d i n l v o o c l . \ l o o r i s h ' a r t c s o n a c l o s 'w i t h t l r i n t i e - b e a m so f t c r . o r c c u r a sn a r e c e i l i n g s . Xlozarabic brick rvorkcrs were among the settlers when Qgintana, near Sahaginr and L e 6 n , r v a sr e p o p u l a t e di n t h e t e n t h c c n t u r \ , a n c l t h i s p o i n t i s a l i k e l r s t a r t i n c - p l a c ef i r r t h e b r - i c k building str.le ol (-astilc. Earh- examplcs are l l c k i n g ; t h e 1 ,w e r e c k i u b t l e s su t i l i t a r i a n , : r n c l ,i n c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e , r e p h c e d b c c a u s eo t t h e i r modestscalc'l'he C l u n i a c a b b e l . o f ' S a h a g r i nt,h o u g h s ro n c built, had the brick chapclof'San Mancio, built 'l'his Irbout I roo. i s a s i r r p l e c l e s i g n ,a n d o n c o l ' t h c o l c l c r p r c s e r r e c l\ l u d 6 j a r w o r k s . S r n - l i r s o at Sahagin lzjzl, tuelf rh ccntur\', is much like a I r i r s t R o m a n e s q u cc h u r c h i n b r i c k . e x c e n t t h a t

the round-arched decorativearcading is sct i1 Iloorish-looking oblong pancls. San Lorenz,, a t S a h a e i l n t n d t h e P e r e g r i n ac o m e l a t c r , i n t l r q thirteenth centurv, and har.e thc cusping rnrl pointed arches which become er-cr morc ti.r_ 'l'oro quent in this work. has correspondins s i m p l e c x a m p l c s , t h e C r i s t o d e l a s B a t a l l a sa n r l S a n L o r e n z o , d a t c c la b o u t r z o o . L r L u g a r c j a l r Areraio is a similar work, Clistcrciana , n c ld a t e , l in the thirteenth century.+ 'l'he 'I'oledo oldest prescn'ed example at i. the extension, dated about roll7, of a tt:nllr_ centurv mosque called El Cristo dc la where ,{llbnso \rI paused rvhen he enrcred tlr.. citl on .z Here there is a rounrl- 5\ l a v 1 o 8 , 5 . . a r c h e t l c l e c o r a t i r ea r c a d c i n t h e l o w c r r e g i s t t r . . a n d a c u s p e d r a n g e a b o r . e .L a t e r e x a m p l e s ,l i l e Santiago dcl Arrabal (r. rz56), Sanro Tomr. Santa Fi (thirtecnth centur)'), and others arc more purelv oriental. San Romdn at J'olcdo, tirr. instance,is pcrl'ectlvNloorish in stvle: a cle:tr c a s eo l ' c c l c c t i c i s m , t b r i t l v a s c l e d i c a t e d i n r _ : :r bv,\rchbishop RodcrigoJimenez de Rada, r,r'ho laid thc corncrstoneof the Gothic cathedralin r227. T h i s s a m c 'm i x r u r c o f s t r l c s i s p e r c e p t i b l e i n the southern arca at Sclille, Granada, antl b e t ' o n c l ,a n c lt o s o m e e x t c n t i n t h c n o r t h d u r i n , r the Gothic period. A remarkable derclopmenr o f ' t h c I I u d !j a r s t v l e w i t h s r r o n g R o m a n e s q u e rcminiscenccs took placc in the Ebro Valler during thc Gothic agc, anclcontinued into rht 'l'eruel Renaissance. has splendid examplcs ril t h c f b u r t e e n t h c e n t u r r ' , a n d t h e r e l v a sa w o n c l e r ful floncring in Zaragc:za anclncar b1. Thc tlt, l c l o p m e n t t l i d n o t e n d w i t h G o t h i c t i m e s ,a sr h ( handsomc belfrv and crossing towcr of' fhe cathcdral of"l'arazona bcar lvitness ft5ry zi) -I'here is cvcn one cxample in America .r l b u n t a i n h o u s c o l r . ; { r 3i n t h c p u b l i c s q u i r r e, ' l ( . h i r p r d c ( i r r z r ri n \ l e r i c o . 1'he \ludijar stvlc oflcrs irn inrerestinr parrrlleland conrrast to thc 'brick Gothic' or' 'l'he Bttksteingttik of Germanv. latter str lu

. a nT i r s o . t u c l l i h c e n t u r r .l i o m t h c e a s t , 3 2 .S a h a g u nS





started with rctual Lombard Romanesque elcments about the middle ol the twellth ccnturv' rnd devclopcd interestinglbrms appropriateto brick. Its simplicitl accords well with the so'ere Baltic countrl rvhere it flourishcd. Later', like t h e M u d 6 j a r s t 1 l e ,i t b e c a m e p l a l f u l a n d i n t r o duced Gothic motifi. I TfiE MATURE ET Y L E C A T A L A NR O M A N E S Q US Ram6n Berengucr III, Count o1' Barcelona (ro96 r r3r), was masterof'the whole Nlediterranean coast-line from the Ebro to Nice. Under him French influences filtered into the architectural sculpture in Catalonia, but in general the area retained its Lombardic st1'le,which had dominated since the tenth centur-t. The increase of means, in Catalonia as elsewhere in the eleventh and twelith centuries, permitted an improvement in craftsmanship' particularly in exterior walls. the use ol'fine ashlar masonry for interior and 'l'he later churches are generous in scale, and ordinarily vaulted; thet are in

ditl'crentll-) and embellished rvith sculpture 1n the French mannsr; the dates probabll tlll betwecn r r r4 and r r5o. Yet despiteits |rcn11. elements thc resulting btrilding docs not stcrl French. Nor does San Pedro at Besalu.(It ha. an ambulatorl- uith nichcs in the outer \\rll s e r r i n g a s r a d i a t i r r g c h a p e l s ; t h e a p s e a r c a c l ri 5 d o u b l e c l , l i k e t h e s u p p o r t s o { ' a c l o i s t e r ' . )S a n t x Maria ol \iilabertrin, dated about Iroo, r'tsembles a simple Prorengal or Burguntli,rl c h u r c h . L i k e m a n l ' s u c h b u i l d i n g s i n F r a n c e. i t h a s q u a d r a n t v i r u l t e d a i s l e s ,a s c m i c i r c u l a r t L r n nel vault with trlnslersc archcs in thc nnrc. rvith a timid clerestorl', but it has Lombardic o r n a m e n t o n t h e e x t e r i o r a n d a c l o i s t c ro 1 ' L o n t bardic character. O f ' t h e g r o u p o f c l o i s t e r sr v h i c h m u l t i p l i e d i n the twelfth centur)'', a I-erv are noticcd hcrc,' being connected with intcresting churchcs: San Pedro Galligans, Gerona (about tt.;o), S r r n t aN l a r i a d e I ' E s t a n v ( r r 3 3 ) , S a n C u g a t d c l Vallds (about rI5o); the crthedral of Gcrona (neally contemporarv); San Benito de Bagcs ( r v e l l a l t e r r r 5 o , p r o b a b l l i n c o r p o r a t i t . t gc ' t r r,ings which belonged to thc cloistcl ol 9;:)' ancl, beside thc charming little latc Lomb:rrtlic church of San Pablo del Clmpo in Barcelon"r' a r i n v c l o i s t c ro l a b o u r I 2 o o , t o $ h i c h c u s l ' c t l arches give an odd oriental look. The visiror who makes the rounds of'thcse and others likc thcm cxpericnccs onc of thc tlclights ol lltc ' ho morttl metlieral trrrclling ecclcsiltsticu from monaster\ to monasterJ and slu sottttthing of life in the cloister wherever he r'r'ent' t The monasterv of Ripoll has an attracttr c l o i s t e r a l s o , i n t $ o s t o r e y s ,b u t t h e i m p o r t ' r n t s c u l p t u r a l m o n u m e n t t h e r e i s t h e e l a b o r a t ep i r r t a l o f ' t h e m o n a s t e r y 'c h u r c h . T h e c l o i s t e r n t ' t l b e a se a r l v a s I r z 5 a n d t h e p o r t a l a sl a t e a s I t 7 5 'I'hev were added, of course, to the remarlirblc church of ro.iz, lvhich $e have mcntlolrct' previously. o' I n r r 3 5 C a t a l o n i a r v a s! o i n e d t o t h e c r o u t t t t c t' ' t a b o u r \ragon, but the ttnion did nor bling



occasionally many cases richly ernbellished 'lvith carved with tvmpanum reliefs, usualll' capitals, and therv often have cloisters, richlv carr,ed and unfailingly poetic. Reminiscences of the Mozarabic st1'leare unusual, but there ts an indefinable half-oriental warmth in the buildings which must owe something ultimatel-v to the Moors. San Clemente oF'l'ahull,6 well known lor its paintings, is almost archaic for its date (tt3z)' It is a perfectly plain triapsidal wooden-roofed basilica without even a clerestory. The handsome square tower is traditionally Lombard. French influence in Catalonia may, as usual, be traced bl the ambulatory and radiating chapels (rare in Romanesque Catalonia) and by sculptural style. San Juan de las Abadesas'shows the old scheme of a tight cruciform plan ol surprisingly grand scale expanded by an lmbulatorv and radiating chapels (later rebuilt

233. S e od e U r g e l C a t h e d r a lr,I 3 r - ? 5 and later, from the north-west

, r3r 75 2 3 4 .S c od e U r g e l C a t h c d r a l r and latcr, analvticalsection

orientation in architecture. The Catalans think ofthe later twelfth centur,v as a rather decadent period in this art. So it is that the chief great e n t e r p r i s eo f t h e t i m e , t h e c a t h e d r a l o f t h e S e o de Urgel 143, 41, is in larious wavs like a maturer and more finished version of Ripoll, and in the lineage of San Vicente, Cardona (r. tozo-4o), San Pons de Corbeira (c. ro8o), and S a n J a i m ed e F r o n t a n y d ( r o 7 o ) . ' ' The grand old cathedral of rr3r-75 at the Seo ds Lht.lro has a T-shaped plan rather like that of Ripoll, but simpler. It is laid out rvith tremendous stout walls in fine ashlar masonrv. The walls oithe transeot enclsserve as the actual bases of trvo hear'1' towers (containing compartments which open into the transept), the

east walls of the transept also being thick enough to contain its fbur absidioles, and those of the apse thick enough to contrin a small arial rotunda. In the massive horseshoe-shaped nave thcre are t\lo files ofcrucilbrm piers lvith nook-shalis, supporting banded tunnel vaulting in the transept and naYe, groin vaulting in t h e a i s l e s .T h e c r o s s i n g i s c o l e r c d b 1 ' a c u r i o u s fbur-ribbed dome carried on squinches and 'l'he nate has a clcrestorlshallolvpendentivcs. of prettv paired arches suppolted on paircd 'l shatts like thosc of a cloister' he fiont of the b u i l d i n g w a s p l a n n e d l b r t u o s q u a t es t a i r l u t lets, llhich n'ith the huge tlanseptal torvcrs and the trvel\e-sidcd lantern would mark a strong silhouettc ergrinstthc sk-v Not the least rcmark-



able thing about the building is its almost pure Lombard strle, especiirlll'on the extcrior, where the design uith its decorative arcading, apse g:rllerl', and other f'eaturesmight casilv bc mistaken fbr an actual Lombard building o1'the errlv or middle twellih century. Completion of'the roofs, towers, and dome u'as in f'act contracted fbr in r r7S between thc Chapter on onc part, and Raimundus with lour lamhardos on the other: lumlturdus at the time s i g n i f r i n g n o m o r e t h a , n m a s u n .B u t t h c s t y ' l c of'the edificc shows thrt masonrv of-the Lombard ty'pe rvas expectcd, as it had becn fbr ccnturiesin Catalonia. 'l'he c o n s e r v a t i \ e c h a r a e t e ro f ' t h e b u i l d e r s i n C a t a l o n i ac a n n o t b c t o o m u c h e m p h a s i z e d .T h e C l u n i a c p o s s e s s i o n st,h o u g h t h e f i r s t g i f t d a t e s back to 966. serc nert'r actile ol important. 'l'hcrcfbrc. after thc Lombartls and thc ProVengaux, the first ensrrinp;ware of fbreign influence was thc (,istcrcian sn1e, which came in b e c a u s eo f t h e i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e n c w d v n a s t l ' (of Aragon, sincc rr.1i) carll erinced in the refbrm of Citeaur. The Gothic Burgundian halfin France so relativelv conscr\.ative

narrow openings, likc those of the Moorish LUlmt:. In passing, the other great Catalan Cistercian foundation should be mentioned Santas Creu. ( r r 5 7 ) , a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h a n a u s t e r ea n d c h a r ncteristic church which builds up into a beautilul octagonal cimborio or crossing lo\4cr r' Gothic date.rl Tarragona Cathedral, begun in rrTr,rr is tht heir of all these tendencies. Metropolitan archiepiscopal establishment in a city with manr Romirn remains. the church has the resolute Provcngal construction. sturdiness of the most invincible Roman or 'Ihough finished in

Gothic times, the excellent ashlal masonry has Romanesque character. The plan has the ar'rangement of a much smaller French church ol the apse echelon type (nave offive bays, single proiecting apsidal transept ba1's,with sanctuar\ bay and triapsidal chevct bevond). The resulting effect of magnilic:rtion is awkward in various respccts, but imposing, since heavy lbrms dcrivcd {rom the Cistercian stvle (with Poiter rn influence, perhaps, in thc column-bunclle pier: ) wcre used with f-air consistency in the loucr parts of the building, and the exterior, flatroofed, is blockl' and plain like a Provcng:rl -l'he building. cloister is surprisinglv Burgurrdian - with Cistercian architectural forms, and carvings in the Cluniac tradition. Herc and elsewhere in thc cathedral establishment thcle are oriental touches. Of course, being fullr vaulted onlv in 1287, and dedicated complctc onll in r j3r, the building has Gothic details also: in thc wcst portal, the windo$ trrccrv, lntl the (characteristic) octrgonal crossing tower. 'I'he old cathedral of L6ridara [235], boldlr sct on a great rock which dominates th. mod"r', torvn, is a somewhat more consistent examplc ot'this samc solid, sunburned late half-Gothic architccture (rzo3-78). Its plan is simpler thrn tlrat ol Tarragona (an dchelon of five apscs to t h e c a s t0 t l h e t r a n s e p t i h a n d s o m ec i m b o r i o , , t

i n C a t a l o n i am a r k s r n a d r a n c c . P o b l e t , l ' a l r e a d v m e n t i o n e c li n o u r b r i c f ' s u r vel of'Cistercian archjtecture,rvasfbundcd in rr5r, and it became the Aragonese dl.nastic p:rnthcon, which erplains its fine construction and its vast developmant.'l'he pointecltunnel vault with transverse arches is of'undiluted R o m a n e s q u ci b r m . S u r p r i s i n g a s i t i s i n r c l a t i o n to its contcmporar), the 1,lult of Notre-Dlme in Paris (about rr75 g5), it u:rs quitc natural i n t h e C a t a l o n i ao f t h a t a p ; e w , herc the rib vaults of the aislosof Poblet werc) on the contrar\,, surprising. Throughout the vasr ertent of thc l a t e r m e d i e v a l b u i l c l i n g sa t P o b l c t t h e r e i s m o r e than a hint of'Romanesque c h a r a c t e ri n t h e r v l l l work irnd massing, rvhilc the plal ful Gothic trlcerr h'ls a half'-oricntal sparkle, and occurs o f t e n i n w i n c l o l rs l v i t h s l e n d e rs h a f t sa n d c l e q a n t

235. L6rida Cathcdral, rzoj

wcst ptrrtrl into the cathedral 7ll, vicw liom thc



6gAPTER r 8


p R E L l N l l N A R rC O N S T D [ , R A T I O N S Conservatism in Cirtalonia prevented an earlv or effective spread of Iirench Romanesque architecture to the region. It was quite the reverse in the Christian states to the west. in spite of the apparent barrier of the Pyrenees. The southrvard advance of'the doughtl' Spanish kings and soldicrs produced a splendid opportunity for inrmigration, and religious aspects of' the war turned it into a crusade. French participation in such crusades has usually becn accompanied bv good and practical rcsults ol-some L6rida, Exchange, rhirreenrhcenturl sort, and thc storl' of thenr is often written in architecture. The war of rcconquest began at Cor,adonga transrttonal st1-le; heavill,_built nave oI three bays) except that a Gothic .to;r,., ,o_.rtr, larger than the church was added at the west. 1'he cloister, which reall north; at the south_west is r rall octagonalroucr sct poinr_ in 7r8. It increasingl-v gained French recruits as the Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela flourished. Actually the conquering Christian kingdoms offered profitable opportunitics to adventurers becausethe population of Christian north Spain was not large enough to stand the 'lhc drain of cxpansion. arca of the Christian kingdoms trebled in the eleventh century. When the great cities fell, many faithful Moslems were displaced, their room being taken by Cas'l'his tilians and French, occurred alicr the rec o n q u e s to f ' T o l e d o ( r o 8 5 ) , H u e s c a ( r o t l 6 ) , V a l e n c i a ( r o g , + ) ,a n d Z a r a g o z a( r r r 8 ) . It was the same with the native Church: problems on an entirely nelv scale werc presented to it, and foreig;n ecclesiasticswith suitable experience had to be called to fill the great posts. The Isidorian church was overfloocled by. this tide, and Romanized befbre the end of the eleventh centurv. So ecclesiastics as lvell as pilgrims, knights, ancl settlers flowcd through

the passesinto thc Peninsula. A large proportion of them were southern Frenchmen - in particular from Poitou, Languedoc, and Burgundv. Benedictinism and Carolingian monasticisn'r earll-' filtered into middle and western north Spain, but lvere not rcally'ellectite until thc conringof the Cluniacs under Sancho the Great (97o ro35), King of Navarrc.l S a n c h o ' sg r a n d s o n , A l l b n s o V I ( r o 6 S - r r o g ) , the great patron of Santiago and Clunv, reassembled thc Kingdom (parcelled in accord a n c e w i t h S a n c h o t h e G r e a t ' s b e q u e s t s )a n d enlargcd it. He continued the ecclesiastical policJ' ol' Sancho, as we know. Srhagirn, the greatest monaster) in Castile, was associated with Clun1., and its abbot, Bernard of Agen, 'Ioledo in became primate aftcr the crpture of ro85 and the resuscitation of its ancient ecclesiastical dignitl'. T h e c o u r t b e c a m eg a l l i c i z e d ,n o t o n l f i n p o l i tics and religion, but also in blood. Four ofthe consorts of Allbnso VI were F'renchwomen, and sei eral of his children made French marriages; French chivllry flo*ered at the court, and so it \\'as that the arbitcrs of taste and the patrons of art were b.v-' nature fitted to desire French creations, though not quite to the exclusion of sophisticated Moslem works. Alfbnso's son-in-law, Ra1'mond of Burgundy, is known to have brought twentl' French mas<rns t o u o r k o n t h e w a l l s o l ' . i l i l a ( ro r l o )| 2 . 1 4 l. Alfonso VII (rrz6-57) lbunded a number o1' C i s t e r c i a n m o n a s t e r i e si n C a s t i l e , A r a g o n , a n d Galicia, which of course meant an influx of the usual Burgundian hall'-Gothic. Under Altbnso \''II's son, Sancho III (rr57 8), the Order o1' Calatlara rvas founded lbr the def'encc of the

has agreat port"r i*;;vr.?;;t.,r*.ljr#; q u a r t e r . sa r e a t t"f he

-l1 tn ,ttt.1. w rs e. ,l1 rke the Limousin tr

in the rburtee;;il;:T;:',Tll T:,i Romanesque.

I alencia,though temporarily captured and ruled bt, thc Cid (that is, Said, Lor<I; ,"nOlnJ wasnot rcally incorporated inro the A.ugo.r.se_ Catalan dominions until rz3g. A nom"n.rqu. cathedralwas begun there in rz6z,,- quiti-a naruralthing in the capital of that conservative architecturalprovince. The rich doorwaysof the building which have survived a larcr re_ construction are ver], elegantly embrasured, with manynook-shafts, andornamenfs of.Moor_

ish style. Certain other details can only be N:lTin origin, and are doubtless .or,.,..t"d with Sicily, whereaoual Aragonese .ute begai rn 1262. Someremains of medieval civicanddomestic rork ol'the Romanesque periodexistin Cata_ ronra,bur the fine examples (the {rchbishop,s t-r Barcelona,the Exchange in L !.i;; .O"ti:.. [zj6l), do nor anredare the thirteenth..n,r.f, when urbanism reallvbegins in the.egiorr. Brt an donion (,Torr. a. Ho-_.nrj"ji ,occasional with ward and enclosure walls, perhaps also survived,along with .ity t,our., l1*..1 lur in Mur, Solsona, Vich, Besalf, ard Ge.ona.So_e_ rhe back_country rillages,wherethe chrrrch rs likelr still ro bc Romanesque, thereis a medievalimprint yet remaininp; rt,. ,irnil. "" houses, porticoes, and overhanging.uu.r. Th. Romanesquestamp on Catalonia i, i"d;"; extraoriinarv.


,N D T H [ . spAIN, poR.I.UGAr, A t{oLy LAND





fiontier, under the Cistercian Rule. Sancho I I I ' s s o n ,A l f b n s o V I I I ( r r 5 g _ r z r 4 ) , m a r r i e da dar-rghrerof Henrl' of'Anjou (who had by his marrilge with Eleanor of- Aquitaine ".qui."d that great territorv- which long_int..".,.iE.rgas much as the Island) and th]s union fu'rher opened spain to influences from Frrnce' rn rzrz, at LasNa'a^s a. lotor", o.rif about roo miles from c6rdoba, Alfonso vIIi won the victory which insured an ultimate triumph (r492) againstthe Moors. Meanwhile Burgundian dynasts were acrvancing the' conquest of Portugal' \Iilitary strugglesin which Archbishop Diego Gelmir., ois..r,i"go *r, incidentally concerned, resulted in the in'-d.p..rd e n c e o l r h e c o u n t r l . u n d e r .A f i b n s o l in ,'ra3. In rr47, rvith the herp of pirgrimr, h..rptrr"i Lisbon' All modern portugal had been conquered lrom the Moors by rz7g. In spite of'the ob'ious French sources of style in northern spain. and the presence of' c o n s i d e r a b l en u m b e r s o f F r e n c h craftsme'n, the Spanishmonumenrsrealll'areSpanish.andnot ser'ile copies what precisely gi'es the subtle nuance it is difficult or impossible to sav liastidious tastc, rbrmed in the presence of Moorish a r t , d o u b t l e s sc o u n t s f o r s o m e t h i n g . Mozarabic archirecrureand Iloslcrn crafismen ha. some slight influence Traclitional skill in cxploiting e f l ' e c t so f s u n a n d s h a c l o w ; s i m p l e r bulks, ani the indefinable plaJ' of relationships between the buildings and their austere' alwavs mountainous surroundings or backgrouni may be lish rolalty


t h e c r - v ' ' po tf' ro3o has cylindrical plinths rrnder thc piers, likc those ofJaca Cathedral). Abore the arcrde thc wall at Jacais plain, with a single clcrestor] window over each opening in thc aisle arcatle. 'l'here 'included trirnsept' with tunncl is an vaulting in the arms, and a fine stone dome the latter slightll'distortcd to lit over an octagon made bl trumpct squinches. A rib rises fiom t h e m i d d l e o f e a c h s i d e o f t h e o c t a g o ni n M o o r ish fashion. Intermediate bays of tunncl raulting beyond the transept preceded three Rom a n c s q u e a p s e s ,o f l v h i c h t h e c e n t r l l o n e h a s been replaced. 'l'hornr. archaeological problems are posed b 1 ' t h c b u i l d i n g b e c a u s eo l ' t h e e x c e l l e n c eo f i t s construction and the luxuriance, vivacitr', and -I'he grcat merit of its sculptural dccoration. \ \ e r c p r one h i s t o r i a n s older Frcnch architectural to post-date such structures, but nerver studies hare pushed the enscmble of dates back b1' t\yentr or thirtl' vears. Noting that two of the in use ro6.1, finishcdlater 237.Jtct Crrthedral, column capitals in the intcrior of the church a r ec v e n n o w i n a b l o c k l c o n d i t i o n , n e v c r h a v i n g becn carlcd, we may suppse that the carving 'l'he high r v a sd e l a v c d a t J a c a u n t i l a b o u t r o 7 o . q u a l i t l o f ' t h c f a b r i c , s o u n e x p e c t c di n a r e m o r c place. rvould be due to thc personalintcrest of the King, and his excellentchoice ot il master influence of'Jaca Cathedral radiated through the district; wc find an ccho ofits plan, and pcrhaps of its structurc, in thc fine ruined Clastilian abbev church of Arlanza, dated about ro8o to r roo. L o a r r c ' f z j t i , 2 3 9 l , a l s os h o r v i n gt h e i n l l u e n c c of'Jaca Cathedral, has thc finest Romanesque c a s t l ei r . rS p a i n , a b l u l i m a s so f w a l l s t n c l t o w e r s bcautifullv set on a rockt spur, commanding gorgeous views of the Gdllego Vallel. and its mountain barriers. Parts of thc castlc antedate an cstablishmentol' Au-rustinian canons thcrc, sanctioned by the Pope in ro7I. 1'he church, builder. 'I'he

the architectu.e' 'lhis nuancc is alrva's to be understood' even when not mentionecl. in the ensuing discussions.

bu'ding spuin, .'.n *.iililTT:iJ:; ,.*i,,,::.;il;[TT: in:"iJ:"il:*,i]: n e v e r b c c a m e F r e n c h , a n c li t w a s thc samervith of de'elopment

i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t h e d r a l ,u . h i c h rvasto bc (perhaps only in part) a raultecl sr.rcture. A council is saicl to har.e becn helcl in thc building in ro63, but there is no assurance thrrr the lhbric was rhen adranced. .lhe b a s i cd c s i g n is very slggxnl, but so eclectic a s t o s u g g e s tt h i l r a Spirniard uas rhc :rrchirecr.

lliiil:ffiJil"l:'iJil:::T::::l',1':l"' or

tirle rocarschoor R"o-un".qu. n'.hi",.;';;p;;

In the fbrmati'e period of Romanesque ar.cl1tecture these two mountain kingdoms rcccired many architecturar impurses fiom abroacl, du. to their contacs wittr ttre pilgrimage and *irh clun,r,. parrs.f Ar;;';*sess brick Ronran_ .rqu. and Mucl.iar u..hi,, ancr this is occasionalll.echoecl in stone buildings, like the eleventh-centu.y.h..,..t ,o.,".rs of Ldrrcclc rrnd Gavin.2 r"-u".alf J*,ri',, *.,, represcnrcd in the cathedr"r oinoJ.-i. Ribagorga(ro.;6 (17). E c c l e s i a s t i c ac l o n n e x i o n sb r o u g h t a o.i.nt"tion. cluniac ;;;k;."-. abour ro:0, but thc earliest cluniac church still cxistinS^ is S a n S a l r , a d o r. t L . r r . , i"rr.rr, noted) [r-q71. I.-t is rvondcrtuilv ser in , nrounrrin .r.hc 'ailer. e a s r e r np a r t s o f t h e c h u r c h h a d been buirr hr ro57. They are notable fbr the h a n d s o m eu s eo f . irregurar) ashrar stone fro-.*tu, rn m;ln\ ,.gion, still an unusuar thing at this date. .l.he 'aulted crvpt somcrvhat reca's saint_\larrin_ a,,-canigou, bur ir is -rr.. o.iginat. srum'r .olu.nn, support hairpin-like rransr.erse archcs uncler the vault with .r,er1,, picturesque efrccr. 'fhc main triapsidal liun.,ur.1,, with parirllcr t u n n " l ' ' ' o r l t . , r c c a l l sL a n g u e c l o c . Bv the t*.cilih ."n,u.nawidenarcrvasaddcd, likerhoseof.thc i,oi..; i, now has fine Gothic vaults. The r.rrl Augustinian fbundation ar Siresa built 1als, ,o-"*h"t in the stvle of.Languedoc) a runncl_ v a u l t e c la i s r e l e s s church in roliz. Jaca cathedral, Lzlllinaugur{rcd a distinc_

At the entrance o1'the cathedral there is a tunnel-r'aultecl porch of tlvo ba1s. lbrmcrlv o p e na t t h e s i d c s ,w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n gw e s t p o r t a l - Burgundian in general srrle like the porch, but with lions and the XP monogram (later 'I'he copied in rhc region) on th{j tympanum. n a v ea n d a i s l e sh a v c b e a u t i l i r l s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r \ star vaufting, but the relativcl-v-. light original construction prcdicates a Romanesque rool in wood. 'l'he nave bals are double (except the westernmost one) with elegant round columns as intermediate supports betrvt:en groupctl p i e r s .T h e r e i s a h a u n t i n s r e m i n i s c c n c eo f ' t h e Loire region in the clesign, but onl1. impcr'ttct corrtparisons can be made (Saint-Sar-inien at Sens;Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire; thc abbel' church of Jumidges, to4o 67, which rvas in(luenccd lrom the L o i r e : r h e c a t h e d r a lo f A u r e r r e . w h e r e



PoRT('(iAL,.{ND l'llE II()LY L{\l)


ception, bcing set in an octagonal open spacc, screened off somewhat likc a classical building in its temenos,or like the Dome of'thc Rock in Jerusalem, which probably inspired the general form of this and similar buildings. Stronglv under Cistercian and Poitevin influcncc in plan is the half'-Gothic cathcdral of Tudela,10 wherc the high altar was consecrated in rzo4. A consistent st1''lewas maintained on the interior, although the building wasnot finisheduntil about r275. As in Catalonia, the tardv half-Gothic -I'arraw a s s u c c e s s l u l l va b s o r b c d ; L 6 r i d a a n d gona are thc comparable eramPles-

L [ , O N ,C A S T t L E A , ND GALtCIA Union with Navarre and Aragon, and everincreasing relationships rvith France, stirrcd a rery' interesting artistic rcvival in the western kingdoms. Le6n (in the Asturias) alreadl'had a national st1'le of'architccture, which we havc s t u d i e d . T h e c a p i t a l c i t . v ,L e 6 n i t s e l f ' s i n c eg r 4 ,
z1li. l,oarre, castle, r. ro1;5

z3g.Loarre,castlechapel,r. lo95

which now dominatesthe whole group, has an epitaph of rog5 carvedin the lower part, which probably indicates that construction was wcll on towards completion at that time. Approach to the church is through a long ascending stair corridor to thc castle ward, and thence bv a lateral portal into the ccntral bav of the church. To the west of this is an irregular tunnel-vaulted bay, and to ths east a very elcgant arcaded apse, the architectural lines being delicatelv rnarked by billet mouldings. The central bay itselfrises through a combination of' oricntal f-accted f-an squinches, broad trumpet squinches, and shallow pendentives pierced with oculi, to a hemispherical dome all in firstclass ashlar which has endurcd well. The sculptured capitals, placed on shalts under the gireatarches beside thc windows, and

-I'oulousan in the decorative arcade, resemble c a r r , i n g so f ' t h e t i m e . T h e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h o u g h close in detail to that of'Languedoc and Poitou. has a half--oriental warmth and seems verr Spanish. The aesthetic and acoustical effect ol' the interior is dramatic, in Spanish fashion; thc abrupt verticalitv of the middle bay' is startling,as one cnters, without harm to the graciousness or harmonious proportions of the interior. On the exterior the domed bay has a stubbl.octrgonal tower, brought to a square base over thc squinches by 'broach' rool.s cmall half'-pvram i d s , t h a t i s . T h e c a s t e r n c r o s s i n go f C l u n 1 . I I t had a somewhat similar roof, and the ty'pe became common in Aragon.o Relationships with Pamplona Cathedral in Nayarre cannot be traced, owing to the destruc' tion of that important Romanesque building,

rallied alter destruction by Almanzor in 996, and undoubtedll. initiated a new architcctural revival likc that rvhich had stirrcd Oviedo twcr centuries befbrc. Both Leirn and Castile had some peaccablc contact with the Nloors, and Nlozarabic works eristed in both areas before the Romanesque stl'le t'as introduccd. 'I'he earliest eristing fragmcnt of Romani n t h e r e g i o ni s a n e r l e n s i o n e s q u ca r c h i t e c t u r e to the Visigothic crypt of thc cathedral o1'Palencia. Date d ro3:[, it is in excellent ashlar work, and has a clcr,er arcade in the apse vault which shows competenceon the part of'the builders at this earlv date. I n L e 6 n u n k n o l v n m a s t e r so f r c a l g e n i u s e x tcnded the little old church of St John Baptist and San Pelavo de C6rdoba betrveenro54 and ro67 to fbrm a portico and the roval pantheon. -I'he church. latcr rebuilt, became the church ol San Isidoro [z4o-zl when the relicsof'the grcat D o c t o r o f S e v i l l e w e r e b r o u g h t t o i t . 1 1T h i s a n d

erected by Pedro de Roda, a Cluniac refbrming bishop, who is known to have been at Cluny in t h e y e a r r r o o . O n e o f h i s m a s t e r sw a s S t e p h e n , who worked on the cathedral at Santiago. Unquestionably the old cathedral of Pamplona, if it existed, would throw interesting light on the tangled architectural history ofits period. In passing, it is worth while to mention a few stylistically complex buildings which, with the Mud6jar work, show foreign architectural currents in this region ofAragon and Navarre, e\,en at a late date. There is, fbr instance, the halfGothic-half-Poitevin Santa Maria la Real at SangiiesaT (rr3r and later). The half'-Moorish Santo Sepulcro in'Iorres del Rios (alrcady reterredto Ir32, r33]; late twelfth century) ought to be mentioned, as well as the supposed 'l'emplar octagon at Eunate') - thc last, by rare ex-



o t h e r c h a n g e sh a r e l e f t t h e n e w w o r k o f r o 5 4 67 as a retircd chapcl, whereas in origin the pantheon was a kind of inner narthex with a

of the time. Its oblong area is dirided into si1 compartments over two ample columnar sunportsl the) :rnd the numerous rnall responll, har.e capitals which are among the best anrl most interesting of their periocl. The well_ d e s i g n e ds y s t e m o f d o m e d - u p g r o i n v a u k s j u s t above them has remarkable frcsco decoration. extraordinarily well preserved, which was pain_ red about r r75. The church ofSan Isidoro was progressirclr r e b u i l t , a n d u l t i m a r c l . rr a u l t e r l b y r h e a r c h i r e t l r 'I'he Petrus Deustamben. central one of its three a p s e sh a s b e e n r e p l a c e d b u t t h e h a n d !i c n e r o u s some lateral apses are still in place, with interesting sculptural decoration. The transepr, tunnel-vaulted, extends bevond the lateral apscs, and opens into the nave through lrsr c u s p e d a r c h e s ,a b o v e w h i c h t h e h i g h v a u l t ( c a r _ ried airily over a clerestory in the nave) is pro_ longetl.This is rcrl sqrnp.lent rvork of the cn.l ofthe eleventh centurv and the beginning ofthc tlvelfth. The carr.inEl,especiallr. on the latcrtli portal, shows progress bcyond the point rcachcd

z4o. Lc6n, San Isicloro,ro54 tweltih centurl 'l'he tribune abore it. p o r t i c o $ a s p l a c e c lo n i t s north flank. and ertended also along the west s i d e . w i t h t h e s o l i d m a s so f ' t h c c i t v n . a l l i u s t t o the west of the passagc-wa_l . 'P6rtico The c l el o s R e r e s ' t h u s e n c l o s e dt l v o s i d c s o f t h e ' P a n t e 6 n d e l o s R e 1 , e s ,'.I ' h e l a t t e r , o n c o f t h e f i n e s t a n d b c s t p r c s e r r c d r v o r k so l i t s kind, is reallv a special vcrsion of the Carolingian burial porch which we hare scen ar Saint-Riquier (where Angilbert was buriecl), and at Saint-Denis (where Pepin the Short was laid awav) and also a spccial version of'the t o w e r - p o r c h e s w h i c h w e h a v c s e e ni n t h e L o i r e

i n t h e P a n t e 6 n d e l o s R e v e si n t h e c a r l i e r p e r i o t l . We now turn to other important Romanesqueworks ofthc Leonesc school. A church resembling San Isidoro was builr (,. ro65-85) as the cathcdral of Le6n, but clcmolishcd to make wav for the present beautilirl Gothic building, under the pavement of u.hich the old fbundations came to light in r884 8.r San Nlartin at Fr6mistarr is a sort of'paradignr lor the Leonese school. Fr6mista, like Le6n, i, on the Pilgrimage routc to Santiaso de Contpostela. A monaster.!. was being built there br Doia Nlavor, widow of Sancho the Great ot Nararrc, rvhen the dollager Queen's testamenl 'I'his was written, in ro66. date docsnot strictlr applv to the church, and it mav be that the extraorclinarill vivacious sculptures date fronr the latter vcars of the eler.enth centurv. 'I'he c n s e m b l eo f t h e b u i t d i n g i s r c r r h a r m o n i o r r . and dignified, though it sufiers fiom hxr,ing been over-restored a generirtion ago. The platr

lo54 67 z4r. Le6n, San Isidoro, I'ante6ndc los Rc.vcs, z4z.Le6n, San Isidoro, 1o5.1 twcllth ccnturl'

Oo, |,Ot?


region ar Sr Nlartin of Tours (466 7o ancl about ro5o) and Sainr-Benoit-sur-Loirc (datccl rn rts presentfbrm shortlv after ro67). 'l'hc Pante6n dc los Reles is actuallv more accornplishcd than anl'existing French *.ork

lorrrro -a fr?t





is triapsidal, and rather short, with an octagonal lantern towcl over a tunnel-vaulted transept; the nave has no clerestorl', but is covered by a tunncl vault with transverse arches. carried. with the similar vaulting of the aisles, on logical grouped piers. The resulting building resembles a P o i t e v i n h a l l c h u r c h . T h e : r b r u p t v e r t i c a l so f thc pair of crlindrical stlir turrets at the west, and the boldnessof the hntern give it special character. It is quite clear that Leon could not have nrade the leap from N{ozarabic to Romanesque without France, but the exact incidcnce of the influencc is not easl'' to determine. There are, as in the case ol'the Prnte6n de los Reyes, cledible signs ol- connexions with the Loire region, nourished by the pilgrimage to the tomb of St Nlartin (a popular saint in Spain) and reinlbrced b1' contacts with French pilgrims to Santiag;o.Even more evident are the indices of Poiterin influcnce. The southward expansion ofthe Poitevin st1'lehas alreadv been the subiect o f c o m m e n t . I t i s e r e m p l i f i e d i n t h e c a t h e d r a lo f Ciudad Rodrigo [243J where also the nave is vaulted with Angevin ribbed domes; in the v a r i o u s c h u r c h e sa t S o r i a ; a t O v i e d o i n t h e l a t e r constructions of the Cimara Santa, beautifullv cmbellished uith figure sculptures i58]. and at Santiago de (,ompostela in the church of Santa Nlaria del Sar (rr44); also, in the portal, the Christ in Glorl', and the'Apostolado'(rr65) of thc f-agadc at Carri6n de los Condes.r+ 01'thcse buildings, the cathedral of'Ciudad Rodrigo is b1. fir thc most interesting and the latest in dats (1r65 r:io), proofof'continuing 'l'he contacts rvith wcstcrn Francc. intcrior has domcd-up rib-r'aults resembling Angerin construction, carried on substantial piers which remind one of the column-bundles of Poitou. The grcrt cffbrt made in Romancsque times b y w a r r i o r s , s e t t l e r s ,a n d c c c l e s i a s t i c l si o m B u r 9u''d!' makes it naturnl to expcct the work of Burgu"dixn architccts and sculptors. Although i n B u r g u r ^ . l yi t s c l f t h e s t l l c w a s c a p a b l eo f ' t h e z4j. CiudadRodrigoCathedral, nave,twelfrhcenrun p1rirndest ell'ects, it was never applied bf itsell i n a r e a l l v l a r g e - s c a l eS p a n i s h b u i l d i n g . E i t h e r it u,as used bv a Spanish architect in an eclectic composition, or bt a Burgundian masterin one episode ofa long-continued building enterprise. 'I'he Spaniards nerer developed a stvle strong enough to exclude all importations fiom the design of large works. Usuallv, as the great Spanish buildings went lbrward, the imported forms were progressivell hispanized, or, through change of plan, other fbrms were brought in to modify the design (not ahvavs to its advantage). A good example of this process, with Burgundian fbrms involved, is offered b1'the cathedral ol Santiagode CompostelaIr r3, r r4, rzz6 1 , t o w h i c h r e ( e r e n c ei n d e t a i l h a s a l r e a d v b e e n made. The main thcmc of Srrntiago rvas first a c h i e v e di n L a n g u e d o c , b u t t h e a x i a l c h a p e l o 1 ' 24+

wall, begun rogo

seems ratncr San Salrador, o1l'the ambulatorv' arches there Cusped Prorenqal or ;;;;;tt, a N'Ioorish gile in thc building .fi.*t... "nJ l r a n s c pt suggesl o f t h e t a n g .T h e c o r n e r t u r r e t s at Poitiers) poiiou tN.,..-Dame-la-Grande rowers (resembling the fzrz), asdo the rvestern of Angounorth-"".t tower of thc cathcrlral o fthe navc' e n d c a s t t h e a t l !m e ) ,b u t t h e t u r r e t s lirnousin' The ths suggest pointwrse, being set Cathedral was original west front of Santiago Pu-v Irz8l' but Le of that finished offr'athe r like from Burinspirecl rvas Glona the P6rtico dc la of the ('eels eft'ect thc gundv. In a wlJ'' one tn Roads Pilgrimagc iunn.l-rhrp".1 map of the a delivertng Santiago at France with its spout 'lhe eclectt(caturcs varietv ofFrcnch regional architect' of Santiago in<licatcs a Spanish "ir* lnterlor an mention In plssing one should cathedral the in Gloria la tlt if,. P6rtico ""p1'of

c a s e so f i n s p i r a t i o n of Orense;1ithere are other which have evldent hand second liom Iirance rrt weakncsses. ' where BurWe turn now to other examples l t i s c ertainl) fi'lt s t r o n g i s guntliirn influence elegar'c t hurch t h c a t S e g o r i a ' i n f l f U " l , . S . nf in Zamora' and at rhe Burgo' del oii.n,i*go of Aguas wooden-rool'ed church i.rigit,f"i sustained b) is cor.ering the Sr.ti"r, *hr.. and diaphragm nare arcadcs carr,rlng screens t ' l 'x 'rches. Ra'rg . . s u " a ] ' i s s t r o n g l v f ' e l ta l s o a t A v i l a : t 7 masonslo l ; r c n c h h r o u g h t *on.l.-ot Burgundr of lhclr trilolstart $orks there. and something 'Ihe Avilrr of [244]' rrt which rvalls tior, t;nr* i".a. when the cttl rogo' in ,ft"t'tuUo,',..a beginning thc ,ru. ,n nro...' of being rcpopulated.rlier o h s t r t r c tco l i l t l c and aonqu.r,. r,a still complcte 'lhc1' prescnt u bl subsequent construction'



magnificcnt Spanish ensemble earlier in 1111. than (.arcassonne,and not nearll 16 Dttlch rcstorccl. The Rorranesquc cathedral, now replirced. w i r s c l o s c t o t h e c i t - yw l l l , a n d q u i t c p o s s i h l i ., , was planned as a def'encc work fiom thc beqinn i n g . A n o r m a l t r i a p s i d a lp l a n ( ) r . r g d i n g b 1 s rl n c tural lincs which thc present Gothic cathcdrnl has inherited) would havc ioined and pcrhrps extended past the line of'curtain u'all erst o1 rhr cathedral. In the rebuildinel, thc transept \\a( apparentll enlarged eastward, and a spacrOus nelv apse, ambulirtor)', and radiating chirpt'ls were erected within a \,ast semicircular projcction which containecl thesc elements and 'llso continued thc line of defences: indeed .ru{jm e n t e d t h e m ; l b r t h e p r o j e c t i o n h a st h r o e b a t t l e mented passrge-wavs and a machicolatcd g,^rrll e r l . o f b o l d d e s i g n .T h i s w o r k i s o f G o t h i c c l a t e , b u t i t h a s R o m a n e s q u e c h a r a c t e r ,a n d i s m r g ir.ila Cathedral, twclfth centurr or later, 24.5. east\ie$, withour prrasitcstru,Jluie( (K.j.a'.) nificentlv imposing [24.5]. San Vicente at Avilars [u46-8|, a pilgrirnarrc 'oe{bie trog, itntl church, rvas begun shcitlr' continucd, with interruptions, to Gothic timcs I t h a s a p l a r r w h i c h b c c a m e c l a s s i ci n S p a i n sanctuary triapsidal, applied with short sanituarl' bays to a long transept with oblong bal:
c t roq and latcr zq6 arfi z,1i ivila. San Vicentt'

t:' t''

i ltr

projecting rvcll beyond the aisles; a lantcrtr t o w e r a t t h e c r o s s i n g ,a n d a r e l a t i v e l Yl o n g n a r c . The narc of San Viccnte has six bavs, groinr.aultecl, with ribs on the high r':rult. It is augmcntcd by'' r ver-r' Spanish lateral porch antl (crceptionalll-) br a tall opcn vaultcd narthe\ ba\. like a great hood betwecn thc rvestcrn 'l'hc tower ba]'s open lateralll upon thc towcrs. e x i i r l b a r . a n d t h u t s t l g H ( s ta n e r l c r i o r v r e s l t l ' l l transcpt.r" '-['hcle are other Burgundian featurcs about

_ilr L-"'

the squ:lrc crossing tower, thc San \ricente ",1,:d+,4q pier fbrms, thc high nare with half--Gothic vaulting. The p;olgeous \\'cstern portai, partll Burgunclian, parth' Poite\.in in inspiration, is one of the verl 6nest in Spain; it is of about rr50.




,48 (0!!0sne)'

i r09 and later Avila' San Vicente''

r' ro8{-r roo and later, cloister SantoDomingo de Silos' (below)" z4g.

Santo Domingo de Silos is another site associated rvith line sculpture. The lost church (almost entirelv replaced between rySb ^nd r 8I6) was apparently a small building dating in part from the lifetime of St Domingo (d. ro73) but enlarged at both ends. There was a dedication in ro88. As finished, the church had a layout somewhat resembling that of San Vicente at Avila. But the interest at Silos must always have been in the remarkablecloister [249]. It is now two storeys in height, and in use bv the community planted at Silos in the nineteenth century. The most beautilul ol'its carvingsare those on the north and east walks at the lower level, and they are the oldest not dating before St Domingo's death in ro73 asArthur Kingslev

P o r t e r s u p p o s e d ,b u t q u i t e c r e d i b l l . i n t h e p e r i o d roljq r roo.l0 The church of Santillanadel Mar, near Santandcr, is another in this series of triapsicl;rl R o m a n e s q u eb u i l d i n g s . D a t i n g l r o m t h e t w e l l i h century (and continued perhaps evcn into thc thirteenth), it shows thc Spanish love lbr a sn le once received and given a Spanish cachet. Santl -I'era Marta de shows this in another way: in l building dated rrzg the plan (a simple cross). t h e b u t t r e s s s y s t e m ,t h e m a s s i n g ,a n d t h c d c c o r ' ative zoning are surprisinglv like thoseofa fine late Visigothic church, such as Q:intanilla dc las Vifras but the striking thing is that both rhc masonry and the detail are accomplished Romanesoue.:r

Another traditionxl element is the Spanish south porch connected perhaps. but not demonstrably, with the lateral porches ofSvrian Early Christian churches. In and near Segoria and Burgos there is a charming group of such porches: Sepirlveda, ro93 ff', Gormaz, Jarawith a millo de la Fuente, San Millin, and Sego\la' at Esteban, characteristic tower San This is all twelfth-centurl work'22 On the Duero and to lhe south' near thc western border oi the old Kingdom of Leon (the present Hispano-Portuguese border)' there is a group of half--Gothic churches which have

because the cathedrals irnd collegiate churches narc in h : r v et h e c a n o n s ' c h o i r a t r h e h e a d o l ' t h e u n excepp i e r s i n Spain); very heavv walls and condome ribbed tionable ashlar masonr)'; marked vaults; Angevin resembling struction (at thc emnhasis on elaboratc lantern towcrs in thc orientalism crossing); and a superlicial westcrn i n s t a n d b u i l d i n g s decoration.'I'hcse in their reSnain, as L6ri<1aand 1'arragona do and s p c c t i \c d i s tr i c t s ' f o r t h c R o m a n e s q u e in together received transitional Gothic as with indelibl-v marked and Spain, absorbecl,

national characteristics' probablv The cathedral of Ztmorazr lz5ol is a shong and unmistakably Spanish character' rcalized be to Duero ofthe the ol<lestofthe group The laiter include simplc, traditional Romanr r5z and i n b e g u n u a s I t l b r m . e s q u et r i a p s i d a l p l a n s ( w i t h s h a l l o w s a n c t u a r i e s i n i l s D r e s e n t



vault of the lantern is a singlc shell 61 ashlar work with a rib over each of the sixtcsn piers, and a gore over each of the sixtcen s 11_ -l'hc ribs have crestinp;which is drau n uD dows. i n a n o g e e c u r \ e t o t h e a p e x o t t h e t o u e r . 16 . gores and the spirclets (which repeat thc og^ee curve) both have a scale pattcrn on the stonq roofing. At the west enrl of Zamora Cathedral thcre is, lbr constrast, a vcry simple and impo:ing 'fhe squlrc to\\er. east end has unlortunilrl\ been rebuilt, but without spoiling the building. Near by, in the collegiate church of Toro, thc lantcrn of Ztmorr and the more famous onc which had meanwhile been built at Salamanc;r
z5o. Zxnora Cathedral, crossing towcr, ,. I r7,l



':." . i


-,j ,

Cathedral inspired a handsome but less erotic design. I'he church at Toro was built in thc period r 16o rz4o, almost exactly that of' thc cathedral o1'Notre-Dame in Paris. Thc herrr Romanesque walls and piers of Toro, its triapsidal chevet with short three-bav nave, sh()rt t u n n e l - r , a u l t e dt r a n s e p ta r m s a n d r i b b e d l o b u l , r r and dome d vaults, are in marked contrast to thc Parisian building, which was already on thc threshold of the High Gothic style. 'l'he l a r r t e r n a t T o r o h a s t w o s t o r e y so l ' u i n dows, like that of Salamanca, but it is finished offrather lamelv by a flat drum and simple rile 'I'here roof. is a great show of cusping on thr windows of' the drum, contrasting with ball ornament on thc corner turrets. porch at There alc two latclal portals and an 'Ioro. The north portal has threc

dedicated in

and Gaya Nufro think that the architect was not a Spaniard, perDoor irnd the crossing tower is self'-conscious



haps becausethe orientolism of the Bishop's and exap;gcratedrather than intimately understood. Yct the building is eclectic as Spanish designcrs' work often is. The transept l-agade has a strong Poitevin imprint; the interior is simple and perf'ect Burgundian half-Gothic. It has becn sholrn in an exccllentstudt'r'that the lantcrn at the crossing was inspired in part by the domc over thc Crusadcrs' transcpt at the Church of the Holr, Sepulchre in Jerusalem (dcdicated in rr-19), though the pcndentives and thc gored panels in the ribbed dome are spccial variants of' French and Mosleln work respecti\ cl\'. Shortll aftcr its first eonstruction, corner turrets and axial grrblcswcre ldded to the crossi n g l o l r c l a l Z a m o r l . a n d t h u s i t s c x t e r i o rc a m e r o r e s c m b l e t h e c r o s s i n gt o w e r o f t h e . l \ l o n t i e r neufat Poiticrs, a vcrv influcntial design lz5rl. One window of the lantcrn rvas obscured by cach of'the lbur corner turrots, lcavin.q twelve windorvs open thrce bctween each pail oftur-

figured archivolts, two ofcusping with a figulc in every cusp, and all radiating like the figr.rrcs of'a Poiterin portal, but set ofi'by alternating archivolts of'Moorish leafage.:5 -Ihe spread ofthe characteristic lantern motrl of Zrmort in the Duero region brought it trt S a l a m a n c a ,w h e r e i t i s r c p r e s e n t c d , w i t h r a r i ations, in thc crossing tower and the formct' c h a p t e r - h o u s eo f t h e O l d C a t h e d r a l , b o t h d a t c d s h o r t l - vb e l b r e r 2 o o . T h e l a s t i m p o r t a n t m c d i eval example is the thirteenth-century chapterc I I40 z5r. Poiters, Montierneuf, renrains ofcrossing tower




house of the cathedral of plasencia, whcre it is called 'el Mel<in' because of' the lobcs in the yault. Instinctively one fcels that the great lantern_ tower of the old cathedral of Salarnan ca fzqz, 25JJ is the masterpiece ofthe series. T.he aesthe_

at Salamanca. f n. .n r..h * ,,. ,i,. ornament Ercatest of Salamanca whenth" .itrl" earl.v conrribu(ions to intellecrual lifc ,n.t 1..,..,1 t'u' derelopnren wle r e beingmaderbou t oor2

varied asrhat ofzam or a, riiTJ,T"lJill.-::: wasachicr ed

tic background ofthe cath

r"q 0,t d ( . a t h c d r r l , :ir i5! .Sahmanca I o r r c d c l G r l l o , s l r o r r l rh c l b r er z o o










Salamanca, an ancient Roman town, was held by the Moors until about ro5o. Under Alfonso VI a special effort was made about r roo to develop it, and it was repopulated under Raymond of Burgundy. The architecture of the cathedral may owe something to a tradition started by a French archbishop, Jer6nimo of P6rigord, before r rz5. Anticipations of its elements are found in Poitou, Languedoc, and Burgundy, b u t t h e b u i l d i n g p o s s e s s ea s mature spirit ofits own as an accomplished Spanish work of art [254]. The warm but proud and unyielding mass of the beautiful procession of nave piers makes one forget that their originals are Poitevin ; the grave and severe succession of pointed

alitv of its architect, Pedro Petriz, ro be anr_ thing but Spanish.rn The building was begun about rr5z nn,1 finished early in the thirteenth centurl-. Peclrq Petriz is mentioned in r 163 or r r64 in the nill o l ' a S a l a m a n t i n ee c c l e s i a s t i c Vela who directcd the sale ol various assets fbr the work of thc 'sic cimborio quomodo dixerit PetrusPetriz quc de bet esse'. A Peter was master of the works in rrEz, rrgz, rzoz, tnd rzo7. Gudiol irnd Gala Nuio believethat the first master (responsible lbr the generous layout, with an outer porch. fir'e nar,c bays, and a transept extending a firll ba-y to each side of the nave and the triapsichl sanctuary) was influenced bv the School of' Avila; that Pedro Petriz, who took o\:er rhc building when the walls had been raised to l certain height, possessed more genius, and a bent towardsZamora. \mong Spaniartls the crossing tower go(\ 'l'orre under the name of del Gallo becausc of 'Ihe its rveather cock. tower has two storevs ot rvindows under a lobulated ribbed vrrultof sirt e e n c e l l s w h i c h c a r r i e s a s l i g h t l l , ' c o n v e xe i g h r sided fish-scale roof of stone with crockets on the arrises. This roof is in fact a separate shcll of corbel construction weighing down the 'fhe haunches of the ribbed dome. interspacc was filled with rubble. The thrusts of rhe dome are picked up by wide pilaster-like forms bchind the corner turrets, and b1'a projccting blr enclosing the middlc rvindow on cnch of' thc c a r d i n a l s i d e so f t h e r o w e r . ' f h e b a 1 ' s . . r rle oadcd b 1 ' w e l l - d e s i g n e d g a b l e s ,t h e t u r r e r s b y c o n i c a l rool-s which increase their resistance as but-

our consideration the area There remains for '; 'l hc rural C ompostcll d e about Santiago ot Galicia has a rarc charm' but f,-orrn.rqu. building in that rcmotc ,h.r. it no firsr-rate S l n t i ago The rirrtousmotet i o m r e g i o na p a r t produccd lht Romanesquc ol' w t , i c l t mlnt. - including Santiago ('athedral itself Sprin 'l'he in these minor buildings' ,.fl..t.d "r. still has its battlecathedral of'I'6v, lbr instance, are tardy Cathedrals Orense and Lugo ments. indeed the Romanesque and half-Gothic evcn to the flavour ofRomanesque is pleserved works' Galician rural in century fifteenth Santa Maria del Campo in La Coruia and a Santa Maria at Cambre in the province have like the rather in fact, Thelare, local interest. handsome Romanesque of near-b1. Portugal, which is worth)-ofstudY on its own account'

captured Lisbon in rr47 and held it, despitc N{oorish resurgence which gare much troublc rrr85 rzlr). After to Sancho I, his successo( struggles with the Moors, the Spaniards, and P o o e I n n o c e n t I I I . t h e d c f i n i t i r e b o u n d a r i c so f ' continental Portugal were reached and the During kingll' office assumed by Aflbnso III in Iu63' this process the Portuguese followed the policl-'of'repopulation with fbreigners (manr' ol' thcm French pilgrims and rdr enturers) which was so success(ulin Spain' It was Aflbnso I Henriques, ruler fiom r rz8 to r t85, who built the enduring core ofthe state, as his grandfather Alfonso VI had done in Spain. Many of the Romanesque churches date from this prosperous and effective reiP;n. Allonso Henriques's birthplace, the castle ofGuimaries, is realll' the cradle of Portugal lt goes back to g27, but was rebuilt by Henry I about rroo. and may'still be seen to-day, the finest example of Romanesque fbrtification in ifnot in the Peninsttla lts bold austere battlementcd towers are lull ofthe severit! of the time, and enormously picturesquc' Near b-v is the little nave-and-chancel church of Sio Portugal Miguel clo Castelo, where, probably, Affonso H e n r i q u e s w a s b a p t i z e di n r r I I . r o The rise o[ the towns' which occurrcd in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Portugal, is aptl-\ illustrated by a contemporary monument (about rzoo) theDomusMunicipalisorCouna cil Hall at Bragrrnql z 5 5 l . T h i s u n i q u ee x a m p l c of'civic architecture (in plan rlther like a fivesided pocket, on account of'an irregular site) is placed over a cistern adioining t he castle church' In function it resembled an abbey chapterhouse; like a chapter-house it h:ts a stone bench 'fhe intcrior is tworunning cntirelv around it. it waspossible h u s w o o d e n r o o l ' e d ' ' f a n d naved. to carry a gallery with thirty-cight windows en-. tirel.v round it at the top of the wall a rare mottl among existing buildings, but already reported i n A b b o t O d i l o ' s d o r m i t o r - va t C l u n l . l r o 4 l . ' I h e ro'15 n a r r l l e l b e t u e e n r h e t w o c o n s t tu c t i o n so f

G AL PORTU It might hale been expected that Portugal, as the Reconquest went forword, would become a part of Christian Spain, in spite of its somewhat more Celtic stock and the rather more orienlal c h a r a c t e ro f t h e c o u n t r v . T h e C o u n t l ' o f P o r t u ' gal (Portucalia. tlking its name tiom O Porto, the Port) rvas retaken in ro5.5 64, and Allbnso VI of Spain gave it to Henrv of Burgund-v in Iog5 as a plrt of the dowrv of his daughter Teresa. This gave Alfonso \iI a certain protection against the Nloors, uho still hsld considerable t e r r i t o r i e st o t h e w e s to ( h i s d o m i n i o n s ' On Alfonso \ l's death in t totl scparatism(lcveloped at oncc. The Irrench colonizers, who only succeedcd in gallicizing the court in Spain' reached indepcndcnt status in Portugal ln rr43, under Henrv of Burguncll"s son, Aflbnso I Henriqucs, Portugal achievcd an indcpendencewhich was onlv lost (and temporarily) to Philip Il and \apolcon I. Affonso I{cnriqucs extended the countrl' southward tiom the old bounclarl' on the Nilondego to the'l'agus, rvhere r'r'ithcrr'rsaderhelp he

254. Salamanca, Old Cathedral, nave, tweltih centurv nave arches, clerestory windows, and halfGothic vaults makes one forget that they' are Burgundian and Angevin; the crossing tower, though suggested by that of Ztmora, and ulrimately by the crossing tower of the Montierneuf at Poiters, is too deeph'stamped with the origin-

tresses, and break the silhouette ofthe tower in thc most admirable manner. The construction of the enormous nelv Late Gothic clthedral. begun in r5r3, involved clippingthe norrh trans e p t a n d a i s l eo f t h e o l d c h u r c h , b u t o n e m a y b e sure that the architects who left the remainder o f t h c b u i l d i n g i n p l a c e d i d s o b e c a u s eo f t h c general affcction in which it has alwavs bcen held.







.l.l r

a n d r 2 o o p o i n t s t o t h e r e l a t i v e c o n s e r v a t i s mo f cir ic architecture.j' Braga, the capital of Portugal from ro9-3 to rr47, was placcd in thc ccclesiastical province when the archbishopric was set up o1'Santiago, i n r r z o a t t h e e x p e n s eo f ' t h e a n c i c n t d i e n i t v o l -

influences we find that the cletail is Romanesq 1rc 'fhe sameis truc fbr the church of'Cedofcitl in O p o r t o ( r r z o i ) ; a t F e r r e i r a t h e n c r . ri n l l u c n t t . have brought a Poitevin apse.3(, The local building material, granitc, is x1 course similar to that in Galicia; hencc thc

gl*w*k*;"ilH'&, o*.ffi
:5.5.I3ragangaX , {unicipal Hall, r. r:oo

256.CoimbraC.athedral, begrtnt I6z. from thc north-ucst P o r t u g u e s eb u i l d i n g s a s a r u l e , l i k e t h e G a l i c i a n , are wisely kept simplc, ancl whcrc elaborate sculptural clle'cts are (by exception) sought fbr.. the lbrms show the limit:rtions o1' rhe hard material r er1'clearly. P i l g r i m a g e a n d B u r g u n d i a n R o m a n e s q u ei n _ flucnces s h o r rt h e m s e l r e si n t h e m o r e a m b i t i o u . P o r t u g u c s eb u i l d i n g s . rI S i o S a l v a d o r ,- I r a v a n c i r ( r ' . r r 5 o . ) ) a n d S i o P e d r o , R a t e s( a f t e r r r 5z) are 'fravanca triapsidal with thc traditional deen r e c t a n g u l a r a p s e o tn h e a x i s .B o t h c h u r c h e s hare the familiar grouped piers ancl pointed arches, though the1. were never vaulted. Even more naturallv do Pilgrimage and Bulgundian inflr-re n c e sc o m e t o t h e c a t h c d r a l s u h i c h F e r c b u i l t progressivcll' as the conquest and repopuhtion went forward. until, south of the Duero, the Iate date brings in Gothic architecture instead. S o m e t h i n g r e m a i n s o f t h e c a t h e d r a lo f B r a g a ' a triapsidal truilding originrlll begun about t r o o , a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h S a n t i a g ot h r o u g h t h e legend that Sio Pedro de Rates, a supposed disc i p l e o f S t J a m c s ,w a s t h c o r i g i n a l f b u n d e r o f t h e church in Braga. At Oporto a similar triapsidal cathedral church has been almost complctely transformcd. ,{t Lisbon there has becn much rcbuilding, but the cathsdral has been understandingll'' restorcd to something like its original fbrm. It s t a n d sp r e t t i l v o n a s l o p e a n d s t i l l d o m i n a t c s i t s quarter with a well-proportioned two-tower l a q a d ea n d p o r c h . T h e n a v e h a s a n a i s l c t o c a c h side; therc is a transept with a lantern, and'

\ I 6 r i d a ; b u t t h i s m e r e l y r e c o g n i z e ca l n eristing state ol'affairs. Artistic influences had long bcen coming lrom Asturias and Galicia. We have in_ dicated that the tenth-centur.r, church of l.ou_ r o s a i s t h e b c s t e x i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i r . eo f t h e Santiago Cathcdral which was built between 'l'he 86r and Ug6. s i m p l e r R o m a n e s q u ec h u r c h e s carr'\' on the schcme so often used in the small Asturian buildings, of a nare, and a smaller s h e d l i k e s a n u u : r r y b e y o n d ( e . g .S i o M i g u e l d o C a s t e l oa t G u i m a r i e s , r . r r o o ) ; b u t u n d e r n e w


S p A I N , p O R T U G A L ,A N D T H E H O L y L A N D

sr \



bevond, an ambulatory of Gothic ribbed con_ struction with radiating chapels. There were EnglishandFlemingsinthepilgrimbandwhich c a p t u r e d t h e c i t y i n t t 4 7 , a n d i t r v a so n e o f t h e Englishmen, Ralph of Hastings, who began the construdion of the cathedral in r r 5o. The church is, however, not an Engrish buitding; it has the Latin character and the fastidious warmth which we have mentioned in speaking of the finest Spanish Romanesque buildings.32 Lisbon cathedral shared two masters, Robert and.Bernardo, u'ith the cathedral of coimbrarr [.256],norv called the 56 Velha becauseits func_ tion has been transferred to a newer building. Work was begun on the Se Velha in r16z, jult alier Santiago Cathedral was finished. In this casethe Portuguese architects produced a characteristic variation on the theme of Santiago de Compostela. The resulti.

t h e v a u l t o f t h e c a t h e d r a la n d t h u s-"' , .u m a"k ai ,ttr ts-h ingplatformthere. T h e i n t e r i o r , e s p e c i a l l yw h e n s e e n rrrnr th. quadrant_r.ault.d goll..i: abore the ,i1.r,,1: very elegant and harmonious. The orr,.... . supported of'course on ,rr. g-i" ,,rr,ri,, _ i],l it aisles,andthereisatunnervaultwithrransrcrse arches over the nave, which is without a clerestory. 1'he lantern, square and rib_r,aulrccr, is carried high, and the l(ht which it sheds un the head end of the church is a happy f earure ot.rhe interioreffect. t"or", O.i"g in the south beyond the.fagus, was not captured from the Moors until r166, when the sanctuary of paris Cathedral al_ ready under corrst.uctiorr. At Evora a spacious cathedral was started in the Romanesque sr1,le in r rg5 or r rg6 and consecrated in rzo4, ten

and ele'enth examplesof the tenth 6odest .enturles' t" erample u c 6nd thisoutstrnding ntl, ont. do in \lcobaqa at architcctttrc-here ^f'Cirr.r.irn 1'r:mplars thc in addition but fotrugtl. l"rn-or. by one of thc finest of thcir "i.-r.p..r"ntttt existing the churchot rhc Constill i'uifainst 'l'omar 257':58 " G traldino l' | ]Jn,oao Crit,o ,t ot the Order of Grand Nlaster pri, *.r elecrecl in rr5o, and it washe ti. Tr-pl. in Portugal to the time still close at the Tomar' fortified who r r6z, goes to back church The Moorishfrontier. late fantastic in the a nave of addition with the Gothic and transitionalstylc called Portuguese Manuelino.

glvrng Lrp the frivolouschiralrl,of'the dav'to 'l'he-v fight for the true and suprcme King'. had man! rr'c1xi1s lrorn the vagabond crowd of 'rogues ;1n{ impious men, robbers and sacrilegious- murderers, periurers and adulterers' (to grv(- St Bcrnard's list) who overllooded the Holl- [- lntl in searchof'salvation and plunder, which 11'g1g both available thcre. St Bernard sponsorcd the morement; its rule was sanctioncd 11 the Council of'l'roves, and soon thc Order rl'as establishcd in irlmost all thc kingdoms o1'I-atin Christcndom. Bclbre long it had rich eq{6s'rpents and cxceptionirl privilcgcs; it becapl6 a polrerful international institution with establi<hments rvhereler crusrrding enthu-

fir'e.nave bays, a transept with a t..min"l p.of e c t i n g b a 1 ' a t e a c h e n d ' a n d t h r e e a p s e s- b u t the superstructure, suffused with an elegance w}ich betokens an appreciation of the delicacy

resem br in gthat fSan o : ffiT"'[1'5:;ruffi ,:f i:1H:,TlT:r "1,1"1_?f "l:,',::11 dral has the last of the peninsular
of Eoo." il;?il;;;;ihii
cimborios in the Romanesque tradition, built about r:s: when the wonderful chevet ofBeauvais cathcdral was being reconstructed. yet the cathedral

s i a s mc o u l d b e s t i r r c d . -{t J crusalem quirrtcrsu ere earll gir cn to thc A N D T I I E H ( ) S P I T A t , L } , R S 'Iemp111s T H ET E M P L A R S i n B a l d u i n I I ' s p a l a c ea d j o i n i n g t h e l ) o m e Roman1 ) f 1 5 s R o c k , ( r 8 . 59 r ( m i s c a l l e dt h e N l o s Flcnch to lbllow about Since we are que ol (161r,) and the'Distant'X{osque el \qsa esque architecturc to the Near East, this is an appropriate place to consider the reflex from the great intcrnatitrnal another pilgrimage pilgrimage and series of Crusades to the Holv Land. These movements werc' greatlv facilitated, and serious help was given to individuals and to the Christian Levantine states.b1'the military Orders of Templars and Hospitallers. Both Orders had dependencies in Europe which served pilgrims and wa1''farers,encouraged recruitment, and provided income lbr the grert work ofdefence, protection' and charitable care which the Orders perlblmed in the East NIediterranean area. The 'Poor Knights of the Christ and the Temple of Solomon' are remembered fbr con'l'he Order was siderable works of building. founded b-r-Hugh oi Pa1'ns,a Burgundian, and Godefroy of Saint-Omer in the north of'France. In rrrg thel'undertook the obligation to protect pilgrims on the Palestinian roads. Joined soon after by other knights, they banded thems e l v e st o g e t h e l t o l i r e i n c h a s t i t y , o b e d i e n c e , and povertv ilccording to the rule ofSt Benedict, ( e i g h t h c e n t u r - v , r o 1 - 5 ,a n d l a t e r ) , b o t h o n t h e i m p o s i n g r o c k p l a t l b r m u ' h e r eS o l o m o n ' s T e n r ple an3 thc later templcs all had stood. Both of' the mo5qvss (churches under thc C,rusaders) 'l'emple ancl otr occasion the porticoes of the platfbrrn entered into the Templars' pattern tbr church building in the Ordcr. Thc mosquc calledthe Dome of.the Rock is a great n.rasterpieceof Nloslem architecture, ultimatrll, inspired tiom thc Rotunda ot the Anast;1si5 at the Church of the Holl' Sepulchre. It takcs one part ol'its name from a rvood-built centritl dome carried on a cvlindrical wall 'l'hc piercc{ b1' columnar arcades. dome covers rockl a outcrop stcred to the }{oslcms because Mohammed is said to have ascended to hcaven from it but the rock is bclieved to have been sacrctl in Jewish times also. Onll thc clergv m i g h t c n 1 s 1t h e d o m e d s a n c t u a r y ; o t h e r w o r shippcrs rcmaincd in thc aisles(also woodenrooted) which envelop the cylindcr, but are 'l'his bouncled b1'an octagonal extcrior wall. a r r a n g e m e n to f c e n t r a l r o t u n d a a n c la n n u l a r a i s l e

craftsmen, has a verv different temper from the robustBurgundian sanvicenteantltheopulent

of xloslemarr on rhepart of its designers and

Languedocian santiago. Decorative a.lditiorrs by' 'Joio de Ruio' (Jean de Rouen) and his school carlv in the sixteenrh centur),have made the building intcresting to historians of Early R e n a i s s a n c ea r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h o u t r e a l l y spoil_ i n g i t . I t s t i l l r e t a i n s i t s s e v e r ew e s t f r o n t , with corner turrets and a proiecting shallow tower_ like mass comprehending the <ieepl,"-' embrasured main portal and rvcst window of the church. Except fbr a corbel table the portal a n d s m a l l a r c h e si r t t h e w i n d o w s , t h e w a l r s rise shecr' and they are crowned vigorouslv and prettill'' with Moorish battlements (cubes or square parrrllelepipeda abo'e the parapet' linished with pvramidal blocks). On account of the mild climarc of coimbra, ir was possible ro pave

ribbed .omes over the aisres,and a strong c.is_ tercian or other Burgundian rnfluence in thc plan and in many of the details. .fhe church hrs u ,,rr. ..rd aisles of six bays, rhe transept er_ tending beyond them. The sanctuarl. has been rebuilt, unfortunately i. ,rr.'.rrT;'.;il,;:i not in a Gothic centurv; fbr the Romanesque w a s s t i l l b e l o v e d i n p o r t u g a l c l u r r n gt h e Gothic period.jl The great quarities of the 'ery spacious cistercian abbey: church at Alcobaga, to which ref.erencehas already U..n -"a., o'J _;#.;que qr.ralities, although the church was buil between r r5g and rzz3. one might well cat thc hall church (here so magnificentrl represenrerr insturdl.ribbedconstruction)atransfiguration. bv the genius of poitou, of the F-irst Romanesque hail church type which we have followed in

harf:Gothic, ,,, irh


ON FRANCE -]15 S T Y L E SD E P E N D ! ] N T




LILLLU J.ll.l.l.[)

iii ii


u-57 and z-58. T'omar, (lhurch ofthc Conventodo Cristo, plan (K.J.C.) and sancuan,

at Templar church ol'the Vera Crtz 11 the i s s i x t e c na m b u l a t o r l t h e Spain a.uoJ, in t w o l s c o m p a r t m e n l c e n t r a l small .ll""a; tttt t h e r e a r e - p r o i e c t i n ga p s e sl o w a r d a n d l.r.t.a' - like those of a normal church' Thc ;;;;t, is givcnfor this building''" ir,. tros flourishcd in Nararre under The Templars 'I'he octagon at Wise (rr5o-94)' the Sancho h i s t ime Eunalc'; is t o iunate may well belong Puente la Reina' whcre the Pillitu.t.d near R o a d s lrom France all joined' It was a crimage b u r i a l church. not a'femplars' church, iilgrims' the influence of the ihJugh cle"tly built under is well proportioned, octagon The Templars. it is ribcompartment; interior no has it but east' vaulted, and has a rib-vaulted apse at thc arcaded remarkable a in free The church stands porcourt which recalls (with a difference) the ticoesofthe'Iemple platform in Jerusalcm ; but z5g.Laon, 'I'emplars' Church, r. r I6o

the connexion is not proved and the arrangement is not in its original condition. The odd arcadcd court, with some Moslem detail, which stands beside the little wide-naved church of San Juan de Duero may be related to Eunate, or perhaps to the atrium of a mosque. The church belonged to the Hospitallers of St of thc militarl. John of Jerusalem, anothcr orders. N{ore familiar among the Tcmplars' churches is the octagon at Laon, in northern Francerr hasalreadl' [259], dated about r I6o; this church been mentioned. The greatest church of the 'l'emplars in France was that in Paris, destroyed It was built as a rotunda Revolution. the at about r r5o, but cxtended by a porch and a vast choir later on. shrinc In England one well-known'Iemplar -l'emple Church, London, consurvives, the

was used by the Templars in a limited number of their most important churches, and often augmented later by a choir or nave, or by both. The I'emplars built vaulted churchcs in the Romanesque or Gothic idiom of their times, and quite lost the enchantment of'their oriental originals. Like Cistercian architecture, the 'femplars' works tend to be monotonous, and not one of them ever rated high as an archi_ tectural masterpiece. The real architectural geniusof the West never took on the'femplars' problem as such. Their establishments were like contemporary conyentual structures, with little or norhing specifically T'cmplar, except, occasionally, the church. 'I'he great Tcmplar church of the Con,r,cnto do Cristo ar Tomarr5 [257,2581, already mcn_ tioned, is a notable exception. 'I'he older part ofthe church, begun between rr5o and rr6z, has a sixtcen-sided exterior aisle wrappecl round an arched octagonal tower-like structure which serves as sanctuary. 'fhe stvle here is half_ Gothic.




'Iemplars, After the suppressionof the 111. b u l k o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y p a s s e dt o t h e O t d c r 1 ; 1 ' the Knights Hospitallers ol' St John of'-lrrLrr s a l e m( b 1 ' r 3 z o ) . 1 ' h e H o s p i t a l l c r s a c t u a l l l a n r c 'l'emplars, having been organizrd dated the '1har about rrr.1. Gcrard, the Iirst Nlaster of Ilouse of God the Hospital fbr the supporr of' p i l g r i m s a n d t h e n e c c s s i t i e so f t h e P o o r ' , r r 1 . c o n f i r m e d b l P o p c P a s c a lI I i n F e b r u a r l o f t h . r t 1car. The pilgrims wcrc olien both poor irnd sick; the Hospitallcrs especiall-vcarcd (irr sur[ 'Palace of the Sick' in unfbrtunates in their J r : r u s a l e m .T h e h o s p i c e w a s l o c a t e d , u s t s o u r h o f t h e C h u r c h o 1 - t h eH o l y S e p u l c h r e , b r S a n t r X , l a r i aL a t i n a , a n d i t s o o n h a d a c c o m m o d a t i , r n fbr 75o sick poor. In r 16o John of Wiirzbursleports 2ooo sick and rvounded being carcd Ior there. lvith ir mortalitl of liftl'a da1''l'he H o s p i t a l l e r s l b u g h t a l s o ; t h e l h el d , anrong othcrs, the grcxt fbrtrcsses at thc Kr.,.lk des Chevaliers(after rr4z; r'. rzoo) [z{rrl, antl 'with man) towers that scentc(l \'largat (r'. r zoo) t o s u s t a i n t h e s k y . . . e a g l e sl n d v u l t u r e s a l o n t could rcach its ramparts'.r. In Er.rropc the Hospitallers had vast posscssions, with myrirds of buildings of'all sorts. sccular and ecclesiastical, but no charactcristie architccture. One striking Commanderv is preservcd, at Saint-Andrf it Luz, rz6o.rr It dor' not include a hospice, but its grim still haltR o m a n e s q u ef b r m s a n d i t s l b r t i f i e d c h u r c h r l c otherwise very expressivc.At this late perit,tl the Hospitallcrs also participated in thc cons l r u c t i o n o l h r s t i t l e s ,b u t t h c l a t t e r t r e p r o p ( ' r l \ studied under thc herding of civic planning and design in the Gothic epoch.



; ( i o . C a n r b r i d g cS , t S e p u l c h r ci,. I t 3 o

('heralters,r. tzoo clcsCheraliers, z6r. The Krrk clcs 1'emplars and losses and suffering Later the somewnat' distress sr-rch mitigated Hospitallcrs r o97 thele b1 A great military ellbrt came earl-v; on thcir Constantinople in *.:r. ,5o,ooo .oldicrs ott'1. t in whereas Land, Holy wa-vto the archbishop ot. of Tooo pilgrims including the in point of It"i.r, ort, .onsiclered remarkablc

secrated in churches

rr85, alongl with three relatcd thc Norman rotunda ol'St Sepul-

c h r e , C r m b r i d g e ( b u i l t a b o u t r r 3 0 ) [ z ( r o ]; S t Scpulchre, Northampton; and the supposed Hospitallers' church of Little Nlaplestcad (r'. rr rg r27z,later rebuilt).'I'hc Temple Church, L o n d o n , i s a g o o d e x a m p l c o f t h c E , a r l 1L - n g l i s h Gothic sty'le,with stronpi Burgundian and othcr R o m a n e s q u e r e m i n i s c e n c e s .A n o b l o n g c h o i r was added in the (iothic style about rz4o.r" 'l'cmplar 'Comnrndcr'1--' survives comNo pletc. but such a group rvould bc easil,''understandablc on thc basis of'what we know of monastic architecturc. The knights thcn.rselres would havc quartcrs rescmbling those of I mona s t e r l ' o f ' t h e t i m e , i n t e g r a t e c lw i t h t h c c h u r c h . Quarters like those of the monastery scrvants would be provided fbr thc servitors and garris o n . S o m e e s t a b l i s h m e n t sw e r c l i k e m a n o r s . I n fications; thel Palestinc the 1'cmplars manned Crusader lbrtilrcquently built irnd streng-

Francc by loose colonial empire attachcd to a !rench wls lt biood, historv, and sentiment a a f t e r w h o ' i o u r n ef fr3m I I , Pope, Urban Parma through lirance along a route burgeonln!i churches, preached the with new Ro*"n.rqu. z6 NovFirst Crusacleat Clermont-Fcrrand on lrche m b e r t o 9 5 . l n t h e p r e s e n c eo f l b u r t e e n '+oo bishops, about z5o bishops and about prohe Spain, and abbors fiom Francc, Ital-v, nounced a remarkable tddress in Romance' and making a drarnatic cali upon Iirench picty 'fhe enormous' was response chivalric pride. and it had the efl'cct ol re-uniting Western Christcnclom behincl Urban II at the expense

TIIF. IIOLYLA\D Examples of French Romanesquearchitectrtre to tlt' still existin the IIoll l.and as witnesses C r u s a d e s ,w h i c h , t h o u g h a s p i r i t u a l m o v c m e r l t . rcsulted in thc establishment of a nunrber ot L a t i n s t a t e sr u l e d b y . F r e n c h d v n a s t s r e a l l r . t

t h c n e d c a s t l c s ,a s n e c d a r o s e .

nrtmbcrs. thc fleets ot With considerable support fiom hosts Crusade'r the Italian maritime cities thc I5 on Jul!aclvanced, and capturecl Jertrsalem 'Ihe-v died II L-lrban befbre weeks ,ogq, ,*o arrangemcnts fbr ha.l-not madc lrcll-reasoncd t e r r itorics'and were lhe gorernment ol' their r n e c i n e i n t e o f i e a l o u s i c sw ' hile thuJat the mcrcl of the AntipoPe Clcment III' reassembled ro99' in clisunitecl th. N{url.*.. 'I'hcre ln il 'Ihe was precedent tbr thc enterprlse Crusaders missed thcir earl-v thcir strcngth. Y I I ' a l G r e g o r ] ' b v I o 7 . 1 force gathercd in lnd \lcppo' .rppnr,uniit lo capturc Dam:rscus Near though the troops were not sent to thc dominions \ l o s l e m t h e c u t *'hi.h *uuid harc E.rt.' It was Urbitn's plca that the Crusade of ('hristirrn dettnce the conscqucntlv irr two; thc should bc an orglnrzcd erpcdition' but and ultiPalestine was much more diflicult' great waves of'em<ltion which rvere generateo b1 brigandage end matell hopeless Perfidy great sent throngs eastward prematurcll ' with



irresponsible Christians made it necessary for the Moslems to destrol' the Crusader states. Jerusalem itself was lost in r r87, and its Kingdom came to an end in t244. A theocratic government was first attempted under the former bishop of Pisa, Daimbert, who had accompaniedUrban II to France, and ass i s t e d i n t h e c o n s e c r a t i o na t C l u n y ' I I I i n r o g - 5 . He came to Palestinc with the Pisan fleet, and r.rnsuccessfull-v tried to set up a state like the Papal Patrimony.'Ihe e c c l e s i a s t i c a li n t e r e s t , h o l v e v e r ,w a s a l w a v ss t r o n g , a n d a l i e r t h c m a n ncr of its kind, succeeded in gaining considerable fiscal advantages. This meant ample resources for building. l'he best-known construction which resulted is the Crusadcr enlargemcnt of the Church of the Holy. Sepulchrel2 [262, 263]. 1'he originrrl

Constantinian Martl-rion had been destlolq4. and the Rotunda twice rebuilt - in.(rr4 .:r1 6, t h e P a t r i a r c h N l o d e s t o s ,a n d i n r o . 1 5 8 h r 1 1 . , . Emperor Constantine \lonomachos. FIe 1.s t o r c d t h e T o m b o f C h r i s t , t h e R o t u n c l aa b q n l it, and the ambulatory' with radiating chapel5 on its wcstern side besides which he ;rcldgfl n e w a p s e so n t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e R o t u n t l a . 'fhe Crusaders rcplaced these lpses with a Jolg trxnsept entered through the frmous clouble thc most lamiliar aspect of the church. portal of its south fagade, which is for us b1 lirr 'lhg lagade is flanked on the east b't' a small domcd vestibulc,and on the wcst bv a belfrl.toner. \t the crossing of the transept, on the east-\\rsr a x i s o f t h e R o t u n d a o f t h e A n a s t a s i s ,a s n r a l l dome was built (the model lbr the lantcrn rrt Zamora\ and the cilst-west aris rras further


r I49' Church of the HolJ' Sepulchre' dedicated t ^tanstt! ) and 2o3. Jerusalem,

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prolonged across a choir to a new eastern apse surrounded by an ambulatory and radiating chapels. Thus the new porrion of the church was in effect like the transept and chevet of a Pilgrimage church. The ambulatory was required in order to provide communication with earlier shrines on the site. Bevond the apse, the crypt of the Martyrion basilica survived as the Chapel o[ St Helena, and a sub-crypt opening downward to the east from it was none other than the grotto where, according to tradition, the relics of the Holv Cross were found by the Empress Helena in 326. Beside the choir on the south, and served bv the choir ambulatory, a raised chapel was built over the traditional Rock ofCalvary. Exterior accessto the Calvary chapel was through the small domed vestibule already mentioned. The dome of the Chapel of St Helena projected upward into rhe garth of the cloister of a monastcry built fbr Augustinian canons who served the Holl'Sepulchre; l a y t o t h e e a s to f t h e n e w a p s e . this

form. It is much to be hoped that there ma1,b.,, sympathetic restoration of the Crusader [.o1; and the Rotunda, where Constantine NIo16_ machos's work was buried within clumsl. ar* cading after a fire of r8o8. The old builclinq retainsa certain dignity in spite ofall its drrlr_ ters and the divisioning which has been neccssary in order to accornmodate the various sccts which possess rights in the building. Its greatest moment is at the Orthodox Easter, with thg traditional ceremony of the new Easter firc, brought lrom the tomb to the multitude waiting, in the darkened Rotunda, with their cancllcs ready for the symbolic light. The beautit'ul south doorways ofthe transcpt ofthe Church ofthe Holy Sepulchre are exccptional in their richness. The carved lintels, rvith scroll-work and figures, recall early twelfihcentury Toulousan work.a3 Crusader masonrv is fine, and the buildings make their point bv ercellence of construction, on which account they are in many cases srill preservetl entire with but little change. In lirrrl and execution they are comparable to good French work; the designers were obviouslv men in close communication with the motherland. Many churches were in Cistercian or Burgundian half-Gothic style, though with the rerracc roofs which the climate permits. The cathedrul of Beirut (now the chief old mosque of the citl ) is fairly typical. It has a dignified nave of fi.e bays with a tunncl vault with trans\,erse arches and a clerestory. The aisles are groin-vaultcd. a n d t h e e a s te n d i s t r i a p s i d a l . P o i n t c d a r c h e s . r r c u s e c l ;a n d t h i s , t o o , i s q u i t e g e n e r a l i n t h c C l r r saderchurches.Tyre, Caesarea, and Sebastich 'I'ortosa have transepts. has chapels arrangctl like the Orthodox prothesis and diaconicon; the C , l u n i a cp r i o r y c h u r c h o n M o u n t T a b o r ( n o u destroyed) had western towers provided rvith small interior chapels. Apses enclosed in bloclt masses of masonrv (asis occasionally t h e c a s ct t t Provence)occur at Nazareth. Ramleh, Mount 'I'abor, T o r t o s a , C a e s a r e aG . .oin-t"ulted n,t,.t

occur. lbr instance' at St .re uouSull. but do S t A n n c h a s a c r o s s i n gr Ti t h inn. in J..u.utem on pc.ndenti\(jsresembling thosc of ,'aoa. which is also unusurl " ie i' 1-rT ig os r. d, buildings hare somehow kept alir e the of the Crusadc' too oftqn lbrr e l i g i o u sa s p e c t ' reed' ofignoble conrpcritionsg t " l . s t t t . i n ootLn \4oslem of innocent '^suffering ierfidy, lealousl rcsourccs' lvhich are folk and waste of human f'eaturesof Llrusader history-' conspicuous such that the popuA r a b o b s e r v e r ss e e m t o i n d i c a t e relativell' well was states Christian the lation of breathe off, and the shrines which still remain ofa satisfYing religious lif'e. In passing, Cyprus should be mentioned lt was conquered by Richard Cceur de Lion in rr9r, on his wav to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade, and sold to Gu!' de Lusignan; the Lusignans held it until I-189. Bellapais Abbey, Cistercian in character though dated c. r324-g, remains, with seleral clstles, irs a memorial lo their regimc.''

Spain stronger than it had been befbre. This was true also of the Nloslem conquosts and the Iconoclastic troubles, which expatriatcd vast numbers of'Greeks some of them artists, some 'I'he ofthem patrons with a taste fbr Eastcrn art. Ottonian Bl zantinism afi'ectcd architecture but little. Bt Ottonian times divcrgcnces betwcen East and West were strong in churchmanship and monastic practice especially strong at thc t i m e r v h e n R o m a n c s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r eu a s b e i n g formed. Consequentll', at that time the actrral oriental inlluencc was relatively small, be1-'ond what was bcing absorbcd by a sort ofarchitectural osmosis. Critics with sound architectural training and Sir Alfred \\'as one are littlc imprcssed b,-v supcrlicial and literary resemblances when practical and structural elemcnts do not corres-I'his objection is valicl in the case of Arpond. menian architecture, rvhich is the most subtle, Iinished, and impressive of all the protoRomanesque stvles. T h e - \ r n e n i a n a r c h i t c c t sd e a l t w i t h t h e s a m e elements antl manv of the same conditions as the Romanesque architectsof the West. Thcl' d e v e l o p e dp a r a l l c l s o l u t i o n sa t a n e a r l i e r p c r i o d , a n d s i n c et h e l - t i c e d t h e i r b u i l d i n g s l ' i t h a s h l a r , t h e s u p e r f i c i a l a p p e a r a n c eo f t h e b u i l d i n g s i s sometimes quite similar to Romancsque. One of the most notable buildings in this respectis t h e c a t h e d r a lo f . { n i ( 9 8 q r o o l ) b . v ' I r d a t . T h i s g ;r o u p e d p i e r s ; is a domed basilica possessinp pointed arches,ribs. lncl Iault; decoratire cxt e r i o r a r c a d i n g s o m e w h a t r es e m b l i n g P i s a n work, and (befbre its destruction) a gracefirl crossingtoner with a dome on drum and pen'lhe Armenian church designs most dentives. ' b u i l d u p ' i n t o d o m e sa n d t u u e r s o f t\picall\ this t1'pe.The noticeablelack ol this arrangement in supposed imitations counts hearill' against the idea of direct influence fiom Armenia on the Occiclent. S i m i l a r d o u b t : l t t en d s t h e i d e a o 1 ' d i r e c t t n fluence fiom -\rme nian ribbed vault construc-

This work has largely'survived,though disfigured in parts, and much of the rest is at present under restoration. Therc is a considerable though not disturbing variety in style and fabric. Fine Syrian limestone is the material used, and the original work is beautifully cut. Four rcigning sovereigns of French nationality were present, during the Second Crusade, at the dedication of the new lvork, which took place on r5 July rr49, thc fiftieth anniversary o f t h e f ' a l lo f t h e c i t y i n r o 9 9 . l t i s l i k e l y . r h a rt h e building was complere at rhe time, although t h e r e w a s n o s p e c i a ln e e d f o r - t h e C r u s a d e r st o the Rorunda of ro45 8 which they took oyer was a fairlv spaciousbuilding. The existing work is very complex stylistically: thcre is a range all the way fiom the classicism of thc transept cornices through the half-Pror,cngal-half-Poitevin transept and sanctuarl' to the Gothic bell-tower. The high vault of the transept is ribbed, and its design has an odd 'l'he Burgundian flavour. dome is of Levantine build in a hurry

IXCHANGE OF INFLUENCES: T H EP R O B L E M OF ARMENIA Sir Alfred Clapham, in his exccllent book RomanesqueArchitetture in Il/estern Europe' takesoccasion in the chapter on the Holy Land and the East to consider the theorics of oriental influence on Romanesquc architecture. Hc was, quite rightly, a convinced 'Westerncr' inclined to place high discounts on theories of clirect influence, except where trust\{'orthv historical 'fhis information is available'. is the case with the Templar churches, rvhere the Western imitation is admittedl]' \,ery imperfect. Supposed derivations too often repose on guesswork and suPerficial resemblanccs. Stress was laid by Sir Alfrcd on the point that intercourse between East and \\jest sufered no interruption at the fall of the \\iestern Empire' and that the rcconquest undcr Justinian rendered Eastern influence in It,rl1. :rnd parts of




'l'he tion to the West. h i s t o r r , o f ' t h i ss o r t o f r . a u l t o r d e r o l t a l e n ta t t r a c l e dt o t h e p r o b l e n r , : l n r l rh. construction in Armenia begins with Surb \ ast resource\made ar ailable fo, ,.rron",l I{ripsim6 at Valarshapat (6rg), rvhere 1 ,,1_ twelve grammes of def'ence. 'l decorativeribs exist, probabll suggested br St h c e a r l r C r u s a d e rc a s r i e s i n p a l e s r i n t l.r , . r Sophia in Constantinople, but ibrmine (in r r a t l r t i o n a ls q u a r e o r o b l o n g d o n j o n . . groups of threc) the arms of'a d e c o i a t i v e a n g u l a rs u r r o u n d i n gu a l l s ";,1,1" : t r e n g r h e n . . tU . , , f r l cross on the soflit of the dome. The Roman_ long towers. The perennial shortage ol ,rr,,n_ esque-loofting -{rmenian ribbetl work of the power lbr fighting in the Holy Land made effi_ tenth centur\ is a passing phase fbr th e clcr cloo_ ; crent design imperative. ,\Iuch was lcarned m e n t c o n t i n u e si n t o i n g e n i o u sc t , m h i n a t i o n , o l . Iiom local examples oi' Byzantine ..d \,.;; ribs arrangcd (somctimes over fbur s u p p o r t s ) lortification, and experienced .ngin..r",,t like a printer's sign for space ftf ) wirh a turret ar the arca.Progressir e impror cmenrs rnclu.lirr, the summit. centrall\ placecl. In l.act, the Ar_ r o u n d t o u e r s ,t a l L t s e s o.t h c r d e r i c e s .. o n . . n , r i i menians rvere alwa\-s interested in ccntralized a r r a n g e m e n t s ,a n d r e g i o n a l s i g n a l l i n g bcrrccn r i b s c h e m c s ,a n d t h e s e h a r e h a d onlv slight in_ c a s t l e s- t a u g h t a l e s s o nt o t h e W e s t . f l u e n c ei n r h c \ \ c s t . Richard I Caur de Lion of England, son of. It is knorvn that the .\rmcnians r.ere good Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II, after pr,rc_ masons.and |erftxp. somrthing o l t h e f i n e tical experience on the Third Crusade, buiit thc q u a l i t , r o l ' t h e ( . r u " - a d e rc h u r c h e s in Svria is due finest o1'the twelfih-century castles in France to them; but thc Sr.rians, equall1., are good Chdteau-Gaillard on the Seine at I_es Andelr s. m a s o n s ,; r n d d o u h t l c s s g o o d m a s o n r a*rna liorn n o t fa r I r o n r R o u e n ( r t g h 7). It had projct.riD,g France. It is significant that u,hen rhe French to$ers. (hrce succcs\i\ewitrds,of rhieh rire patrons rvereactualh,close to .{rmenia and its inner had *alls witlr )ucccssi\.c onrex nrrrier_ a r c h i t e c t u r e a n c li n d e e c lt h e r e u e r e Armenians t i o n s t o i n c r e a s et h e e f l e c t i r e n e s s o l . d e f c n d r rr . i n - f e r u s a l e ma l s o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n l l u e n c c fire, and a central donjon. prefigured It the conr v a sn i l , o r b u t l i t t l e m o r e . I n s t c a d , r v c have an centnc castlcs which were dcleloped '6cole in thc d'outrc-mcr' lvhich is verv largelr. Bur_ thincenrhccnlur\-rnd buijt. in imposing lrr.:rr. gundian and Prorenqal Frcnch. bv the Crusaderknights in Svria (includins tl,. .{n authentic case of influence f rom the Near. K r a k d e s C h e v a l i e r s a n d M a r g a r ) . F u r r h e r . J.East on the Romanesclr-re and Gothic norlcl is velopments of machicolated galleries. bratticcs. ol]'ered br rhe lbrtifications. .I.he Crusaders crcnellations, applied to the royal and noble learned 'thc hrrrd waf ibout Bvzanrine and r e s i d e n c c t ,g r a d u a l l r g a \ e t o , u . h ,trr.tur.. -{rab impror ments on ancient Romln fbrtifica_ the picturesque and unmistakable characttr t i o r r , w h i c h u , a sa l l , o r n e a r l r . a l l , r h c !tr'esterners which we lssociate w i t h r h e l a t c m e d i er . rI knerv. Iircnch dci.clopmcnts of. thesc Near_ chitcau. But the development was functionrrl. Iiastern motil's in fbrtification becamc in the cncl a n d t h e r \ a s g c n urne. n,rt J ) i C t U r c s q u e n c s : rcal architcctural fl.atures of the French chi_ rontantlc. t e a u x , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l r .o f ' t h e c h u r . c h c s . The With this comment on the reflex liom thc increasing scrle of rvarfhre in the \\rest for it C r u s a d c s ,r y e l e a v e t h e H o l l . L a n t l , : r n d alsoibr. became national in scope in thc course of the a ttme the regions lr,here French influencc l1rr: trvellihcenturv would inant,caschavebroueht paramount, in order to take up the subiect oj abuut innorltions antl impro,e*..nt, .non_ m a l u r c R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t c t . t u r ei n the qrc,rr t a n e o u s l . i\n r h e O c c i d c n r . b e c a u s e ol rhe hieh arcils a s s o c i a t en d. i t h i nt h e H o l r R o m a n E m t r i r . .





The areas which are to be considered in Part Six have a very loose geographical and stylistic connexion. Thev oftbr a magniFcent architectural panorarna ol-local developments based on the primirive Romanesque of the rcspective regions. T h e y d e v e l o p e d s p e c t a c u l a r l r , i n s c a l e ,r i c h ness,and supcrior cralismanship from thc local E a r l y R o m a n e s q u es t 1 . l e sb , ut lackcdthe invent i v e d r i v e w h i c h c v e n t u a l h . a c h i e v e dt h e d e l i n i tive solution (in Irrance) of'thc esscntial vaulting problem. Gothic architecturemight hare come out ol a number ot-the schools which we are about to analvse rhc components of Gothic w e r e t h e r c ; b u t t h e e s t l b l i s h c d s r y l c sh a d g i v c n a f a i r l y g o o d l c c o u n t o f t h e m s e l v e s ,a n d t h e h o l d

of traclition was too strong. A certain unitl' will be givcn to our cxposition by mention of the lcatures u hich the respective st]'lcs contributcd to thc dc\ elopment of'Gothic architecture. beginning with the The order to be follorved is geographical, 'f w o S i c i l i e sa n d p r o c c e d i n g

northward through Italv and, altcr an excursion to Dalmatia and Hungarl, northward again to the Germanic lands. I t n e e d st o b e e m p h a s i z e dt h a t t h i s a c c o u n t i s purell topographical, and not dcvelopmental. L,ach locrrl group has its own historl' but the s t r a n d s w h i c h a r e i n t e r l v o r e n r e p r e s e n ts t 1 ' l i s t i c impulses which we havc scen appearing in thc great stlles the styles alreadr treatcd as our principal thcrne.




A P U LTA As to the Holl'Land, so also to south Italv and S i c i l y ,R o m a n e s q u ea r c b i t e c t u r e c a m e b e c a u s e o f f a b u l o u sl i r e n c h a d v e n t u r i n g . T h c m o u n t a i n barrier of the Apennines and the Abruzzi, together with the stagnant Papal state, kcpt off influences tiom the north - except what might come through the pilgrimagc to Nlontc Garwhile the brilliance of gano, and later to Bari Byzantine and Moslem civilization was rcflected from the south and east, then in closc maritime and political contact with south Italv and Sicilv. The Eastern Empire had gradually- lost the Beneventan and Salcrnitan arcas fo local dukc-

d o m s , a n d t h c i s l a n c lt o t h e A r a b s i n 9 r 7 , b u t retaincd Apulia, Crrlabria, ancl thc Basilicata. Bcginrring about ro-jo seleral sons ol"l'ancred of' Hautsville or Hautteville-la-Guichard, near Coutancesin Normandv, came into thc south Itllian areaat the head of Norman bands. and b 1 r o . 1 rh a d a s t r o n g h o l d o n A p u l i a . O n c o f t h c s o n s ,R o b c r t G u i s c a r d , r v h o a r r i v e d i n r o 4 ( r ,w a s b v r o 5 g r c c o g ; n i z e da s D u k e o l ' A p u l i a a n d C a l a b r i a ; a l s o a s f i r t u r e D u k e o f S i c i l 1 . ,a s h e 'if said. thc grrce of'God and St Peter help me'. The same year marks the consccration of the f i r s t c h u r c h a t t h c a b b c v o f V e n o s a ,w h i c h w a s built to be the famil.v panrheon. In ro6r qr S i c i l l w a s c o n q u e r e c l ;R o g e r I I , C o u n t o f ' S i c i l v ,

2b4. Bari, San Nicola, undcr construction to89






obtainedthe titlc of'King in r r 3o; he united ancl filled out the Normirn posscssionson the mainl a n d b 1 r r 3 7 , b u t i n r r g . 1 t h e l ' p a s s e dt o t h r : E m p i r e . ' l ' h e a r e ap a s s e dt o t h e R o m a n l r o m t h e Blzantine patriarchate in the pontificate of Urban II, and saw hosts ofthe First Crusade depart in rc96 7.

The first seriousbeginnings of Romanesrluq architecture came tt this timc, and Lombill.(l influencc. rvhich had played upon Normantlr. irscll. is felr in .{pulia in rhe oldesr Nornr,rn church of importance in the south of Itall'. 'l hc building in qucstion, San Nicola at Barir l z 6 q 6 1 ,s t a n d sa s t h e h e a d o f a r e g i o n a l s t J - l i s r i c

composition San Nicola As an architectural a n d e c l e c t i c w i t h t h e t r a c e so l a is sophisticated pcrsonalitv in thc design' matur. inaitiatral t h e s i g n so l d e r e l o p m e n l w i l h i n t h e t t t t n ,rth.t tradition' frarne ofa the first as a The church was planned from at Saintas earlier here, church; pilgrimage meant a large crypt, with lenign", Diion, that groin vaults az quadrille , supported on columns' Lombard fashion. Access to the crypt was stairways opening into the easternby arranged where there were m o s tb a y so f t h e c h u r c h a i s l e s , part of' the This entrances' lateral suitable finished in was superstructure, its with church, rog8, when Pope Urban II held the Council of. Bari in the building. A large part of the church was built and embellished by rI3z, but the work dragged on to a dedication in r I96 a fact western in the which explains irregularities towers. With these towers San Nicola became, in intention at least, a fbur-torver church (one tower at each corner), and perhaps the original of a Hungarian group of such buildings' Almost certainly, however, the fine great bulks of the western towers one Lombard in appearance, the other hall-oriental \ ere not part ol the first design, though the sheer prccipice ol' masonry which they m:rkc, flanking the strong basilican profile of the church, is verl' efi-ective' If San Nicola was indeed at first intended to

th c-rut'warc l rust of the aisle raulting. -\borc it rich arcaded uall-gallcrl at the trii s a thcre lbrium levcl an early cxanrple ol' this motil, rvhich became very common in Lombardl' Thc t r i l b r i u m s p a c ei t s c l f . a s a t P i s a .o P c n s u p o n t h e n a v e t h r o u g h a s e r i e so f ' t r i p l e a r c h e s u n d e r e n closing arches; above there is a simple clerestor!'t as at Pisa. Analysis thus shows that thc d e b t o f t h e b u i l d i n g t o P i s a C a t h e c i r : r li s m o r e rcal than 2rpparent. A further debt to Tuscanf is evitlent in the nare. diridcd into two mirjol bals' eachcorresponding (as at San Nliniato al Nlonte, Florence on columns' I z 9 o ] ) t o t h r e e a i s l e b a 1 ' sc a l r i e d As at San Nliniato there is a grouped pier at thc junction between the maior bays, and it is possible that a diaphragm arch was inrended (as at San Miniaro) though nerer execu(ed' It seemslikely that the western maior bay was l1 serd e s i g n e ds p e c i f i c a l l yf o r t h e c o n g r e g : r r i o n 'l'here ancl arc thrce portals xt the tag:rcle' r icest h e r e i s a l a t e r a l p o r t a l i n e a c ha i s l ca t t h e h c a d o t this maior ba1'.The eastern maior bal of the nirr e would then serl'e specilicalh f'or the scholu (dnturuilt of the monks, marketl oll' fiom the thus leaving the flanking aislcs and public portals ibr accessto the pilgrimage cr-vpt' 1'he transept opens behind a triumphal arch rvhichfrrmes the altarand the apsc ln ldclition, thcre is iln open three-archecl screen rvhich ser\es to mirrk off the monks' choir fiom the t r a n s e p t , a n d a t t h e s a m et i m e t o s t r e n g t h e nt h e (irn oclagtlnitl sul)l)orls ol the crossing to\rer rrltar' rvith a T h e h i g h lirntern on squinches). l c n e a t h ,a s o l i e n i n E a r l l balclacchinoi ,s p l a c e c b r'l Chlisrian times.'l'he modern arllngemenl clergr'' thc fbr flanking stalls kceps this area clear but in thc Romanesqueperiod the u'holc tranbe s ep t o f I B e n e d i c t i n c c h u r c h w o u l d n t r r m a l l l ma1' reserretl fbr the monks' derotions This s t i l l b c s e n s e c li n S a n N i c o l a , u h c r e ' l o g i c a l h t ' n o u g h . l h e r c l r e n u t r i l l ) s e p tp o r l r t l s the E , a c ha r m o f ' t h e t r a n s e p t h a s a n a b s i d i o l c ; ( ' h r tsE a r l r ' m a i n a p s e h a s a s 1 ' n t h r o n o ni n t h e

265 nnd z(16.Bari, San Nicola, r:nder construcrion ro89

h a v eo n l y l h e t w o s l e n d e r s e n t i n e l r o w c r s a t t h t ' eastern corners, be-vond thc crossing, it lvould originally have resembled Sant'Abbondio at Como (r. ro6J 95) l.;ool. However. one ol'the 'l'hc aislcs tower pair has never bcen completed w e r e r a u l t e t l , a s a t l h e c a t h e d r a l o l P i s : r( r o f i . j ff.). Disorders in the western ba1'sof this cons t r u c t i o n h a r e c a u s e dt h c i n t r u s i o n o f l o w d i a phragm arches spoiling the efitct of the wcst end of the great nave, rvhich was intended to rise free. as the castern part does' to the wooden-I-hc handsomc rangic ol t r u s s e c lr o o f a b o r e . a r c h e d s p u r b u t t r e s s e so n t h e f l a n k s , r a t h e r l i k e those ofa Poitevin church, has taken care ofthe

group localized on the east coast of Norman Italy'.


The relics ofthe venerablc wonderworker St Nicholas, bishop of \{,vra in Anatolia so much i n h o n o u r w i t h t h e G r e e k s a n d R u s s i a n s ,a n t l

knowntousasSantaC.hus had beenabstractctl trom his tomb in thc ancient cathedral ancl brought in ro87 to Bari, rvhcre they still are, in x sanctuar) rvhich was alreadvbuilding in ro[it1. u n d e r B e n e d i c t i n e a u s p i c e s ,t o r e c e i v c t h e m .



z6j (lpplsitt).


bcgun Io98' from the west Cathedral,

trulli (corbelled tlomcs),traditional 2f8. Alberobello,

esque addition, perhaps suglgested b-v thc I-ateran transept [283]. The wall has shallou. arcading with a half-pisan, half_Lombard look ahnut it. well related to thc more visorous mus, onc ol thc mcn uho first rencue,l th.,art b u t t r e s sa r c a d i n g .r h e g a l l e r y .a n d t h e p o r t a l s . i n I t a l v . I t i s p o s s i b l et h a r I r e i n r c n t e d rhe well_ Nor rhe leasr charm of San Nicoia is it, known motif of'achurch portal lvith its columns hanclsome ashlar masonry. Thc stone_wort. carried on the backsofanimals; at anv rate the finel1.cut, has mclloived to a warnt soft grevish m o t i l d p n c e r si n S l n N i c o l a a r B a r i . wirh rhe h r o w n , a c r i re i n r e x r u r c a n d l r i t h l o , elr iurir.. animals in the fbrm o1'corbels.: 'fhis e f l c c t si n r h e s u n s h i n e . beaurilirl.,on.*r. It rcmains to mention thc box_like wall which gencrallv ar.ailable,and its use characterizes the e n c l o s e sa l l t h e a p s e so f ' S a n N i c o l a , a n d m a k e s w h o l e s e r i e so f b u i l d i n g s r e l a t e c lt o S a n N i c o l a , a sheer straight east wall for the church, cm_ vert grearl,v to their advantagc. 'l'he bellishecl bv the rich rvinclow of the main arrse. g e n c r a l d e s i g n o l s a n i ' i . . o l a u . a sq u i c k l , a n d i n t c n d c r lt o h l r e t h c : l e n d e r t u i n r o u c r s absorbed into Apulian architecture, ,na ,n. r i s i n g a b o r , ei t a t t h e c o r n e r s . I t was a Roman_ resulting tlmily.of buildings consrlrutes a \ert. Bari

t i a n m a n n e r , w i t h a b i s h o p ' st h r o n e o n a x i s .T h e 'l'hrone, as ir is callcd, has an interestins p l e c ci n t h c h i s r o r r o l R o m a n e s q u c s c u l p tu r e ; Ibr, dated ro98, ir is a marure u,ork ol.Gueliel_

a t t r a c t i v er e g i o n a l g r o u p r a n g e d a l o n g a n d n c a r 'fhc the coast north-rvesterll'from Bari. notable examples are all cathedrals. Several of them stand boldly with their sentinel tolvers close to t h e w a t e r ' s e d g c o n t h e A d r i a t i c s h o r e ,a n d t h u s a d d t o t h e p i c t u r c s q u e n e s so f t h c r o w n s . \ l o s t closelv rclated to San Nicola are thc cathedrals o f B a r l e t t a ( b e g l u na b o u t r r 3 9 , u n d e r w a v i n r r 5 3 , a n d e n l a r g e d i n a d i f i - e r e n ts t 1 ' l c i n t h e f o u l t e c n t h c e n t r . r r l ' ) ,B ' , r r i ( b e g u n a l t e r r r 5 6 , under wav in r r7<.;) B , itonto (begun r r75;portal t z o o ) . R u r o ( t l ' e l f t h c e n t u r l ' ) ,a n d B i t c t t o ( m o r c o r l e s sc o n t e m p o r a r l ' ) .r Less clearll li'om Bari is the filiation of the cathedral o1'Tranir [:(r71, begun in rogll and dedicatedto St Nicholas the Pilgrim, an idiot

b o y u n a b l e t o s a l a n v t h i n g b r t K . 1 ' r i ec l e i s o n . 'I-his pilgrimage who attracted pious attention. church hasa complete cr]'pt; there is a fine wcst p o r c h l c a d i n g t o b r o n z e c l o o r s ;t h e r c i s a s i n g ; l e bold western towcr. The u'ooden-roof'ed basilic a n n r \ e h a s a n i n c l u d e d t t ' a n s e p t ;t h c e a s t c n c l has no towers or'box' only thrcc projecting ,he buildr o u n d a p s e s .t s e a u t i f i r l l v u ' c a t h e r e c l t ing is lerl' handsome in a setting which hrrs 'l'hc detail is h a r d l r c h a n g c c ls i n c c i t r v a s b u i l t . largcll l-ombrrd. To this rathcr Lombard group of NormanoItalian buildings ma]. be adclcd a sporaclic d o m e d g r o u p . D o m e s h a d b e e n r r s e dt i r r a l o n g 'hcel' of' Itrrll', as at Alberobello timc in the [ 2 6 8 1 ,f b r u t i l i t a l i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n s . '


L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I l H I N T H E H O L Y R O M A N E M p I R E


N f o l f ' e t t aC a t h e d r a l [ 2 6 9 1 ,l i k e t h a t o l T r a n i , has Lombard detail, and is set close to the water. Like the churchesat Bari. it has slender paired eastern towers, but the na.r'eis cor.ered with three domes in line, and the aisles are quadrant-vaulted: a most unusual arrangement. f'he date falls late in the trvelfth century (r l6z r-loo). \Iolfctta C,athcdral, 2611r rf)2and latcr, fiom thc north-ucst ff., with some reconstruction about

The repeated dome occurs also in 1l1o cathedral ol san Sabino in Canosa,dar;n, f i o m r r o o a n d l a t e r . H e r e a t C a n o s ai s a l s o th" domed classicizing tomb (rrrr t8) ofrhc r....,less and laithless crusader Bohemond, son ot. Robert Guiscard." Tuscan influences flowed, rather parsimoniouslv, into Norman Italy too.7 Troia Cathc_ dral, lor historical rex.sons,is Tuscan in str lc.

on lhc (\teriol of the apsc. ,acept perhaps i r s u f f i c i e n t l vl i l c t h a r o l K a l a t S e m a n i n *ifi influence questionol F'astern s u r i a t o r a i s et h e through thc Crusadesl tbl the n . . . r r r t i l y lot begun in roq.l' and uas well along .hur.h *"t i1 rtzT fzTol' has Siponto Cathedral (twclfth century) also, but the church arcading exterior Tuscan block. \'er'\' orientalis an abrupt squarc Cnthcdral.begun I ot1-1, o.'I' roia. 21 upperPartof west far,rtle

interesting, except for a later campanile ancl a domed tomb or baptister]-(r. r r8o). So far we have seen little or no l"rcnch influence in this architecture of the Norn.ran 'I'he latter were fighting men, and their dvnasts. entourage was lar too mixcd to havc anr' artistic orientation. Moreover', when the Hautcvet hardl,r'constituted villes lef t Normand-v, the Norman school u as :rs its great earll monu-

F l:,]i


looking in mass. It has a rich portal in the Lombard style, and thus is suitabll' eclectic for the region. The great shrine of St Nlichael of' Monte Gargano, or Monte Sant'Angelo, resulted from a vision of the archangel seen bl a bishop of Siponto in 49r. The sitc is not architccturall.v

ment, Jumidges [:.SZ ql, dates lrom ro17 66. -l'he Norman French wcre then still under strong influences fiom the Loire, fiom Burgundl-', and fi'om Lombardv, on which the south-Italian Normans alsodrew. ln the latcr pcriod atier l05o' thcf( is o c c a s i o n a lF r e n c h i n f l u e n c e i n N o l m a n I t a l l '




T h i s i s t h e c a s ca t V e n o s a( b e g u n a f t c r I r o o a n d nerer finishcd or dilapidated, so that it sho*s the technique of Romanesquebuilding) and in Acerenza (related to Venosa). A't'ersa," not far lrom Naples, has a cathedral dating lrom about r r 5o, containing an archaic-looking rib-r'aulted ambulatory, which would sccm to be ultimatell ofFrench inspiration, though with the church 'l'cramo of San Ciemente at Torre dei Passieri, ( r r T t l - 8 2 ) , w h i c h h a s a h a l f - - B u r g u n d i a nt r i p l e porch, it may have acquired thc libs through Lombard influcnce.') Riroira believccl that thc ambulator-v at thc cathedral ofAversir dated back to ro49 56, and Arthur Kingsley Porter rvas lcd to give considerable emphasis to the sculptures of San N i c o l a , B a r i , a s e a r l v e x a m p l e sd u e t o P i l g r i m age connexions; but the remoteness 01'the Apulian school, and the f'act that the civilization of the Two Sicilies was hardll a Romanesque cir,ilization, make this Romanesque really a Romrrnesque in ltartihus, oi which the reflcx influence elsewhere was perceptible, but not grear.

whrr.h earlier.ll It is one ofa group o1'churches are basically versions of the Byzantine firtrr.column church. Another Byzirntine reminiscence is that ot St Nilus of Rossano, who, driven fiom the region by the Saracens,carried the Eastu.l (Basilian) monastic mle to Grottaf-errata, nrrr Rome, where Otto III, perhaps remembcrins 'Iheophano, a i d ed i 1 his Bl zantine mother founding a monasterv (roo4) which is srill B r r s i l i a n .t h o u g h u n d e r p a p a l a u s p i c c s .

SICILY The fantastic history of this island guarantecd it an exotic architecture. \iery little ol'rcrl importance to the histor]- of architecture $as built. as lar as we know. between Greek and Norman days, though the successive Roman, B v z a n t i n e , a n d M o s l e m r e g i m e sl e f t t h e i r m a r k . T h e N o r m a n s , w h o c o n q u e r e d S i c i l - vi n r o 6 r 9r, hare left monuments of great dignitv but composite st1'le. Like their English cousins. t h e l a c h i e v e d ,w i t h p a p a l s a n c t i o n , a t i g h t c o n trol ofthe church, and intelligently prevented fiiction between the Latins, the Orthodox, ancl t h e M o s l e m s . N e w e p i s c o p a l s e e s\ 4 e r c s e t u p 'fhe and staffed with Latin ecclesiastics. hallNloslern-half-Byzantine charm of' the place afl'ectcd them. the court. and the architects p r o t b u n d l v , a n d t h e i r R o m a n e s q u ea r c h i t e c t u r e absorbed. with much grace, thc alien elemcnts. This mode of building was still in logue uhcn the Two Sicilies were united to the Empirc.

THE BASILICATA W o r t h l . o f n o t i c e i s a s m a l l g r o u p o f c h u r c h e si n 'Roccella d i S q u i l l a c e ' ,n e a r t h e s i t e o l Calabria. Cassiodorus's sixth-century monasterv o1'Vi\,ariunr. has an imposing ruin of rather Bvzantine character, in some wavs like the tenth- and clerenth-century churches in the capital. The policv of the Normans, who acquired this region in ro57, was countcr to the Orthodox 'I'he plan o1'Roccella Church. d i S q u i l l a c e ,w i t h a crypt, a wide transept, and a lvide woodenrooled navc, seenrs Western, probabh of the l a t c e l e r , e n t hc e n t u r v .I o 'La Cattolica'(Catholicon, the chicl church of a monasterl') of Stild, near thc coast, closell rescmblcs the latel rustic Bvzantine rvhich is fbund in the Balkans, and mav date fiom the fburtecnth ccnturv, though it is otten dated

r rg-+.
Court architecturelr naturally. inclined to Moslem modcls; for the Normans of thc court we're human alter all, and thc N,Ioslem pallccs were designed to house a lif'e of sophisticrtecl rsfinement such as wrs hardly known in the north. l'he Farcra, Menani, L,a Ziza, and L;t Cuba are knolvn cxamples - Palermitan builclings in which the oriental lords of Sicily would h a r c b c e n r e r v m u c h a l h o m c , T h e l o e, r l

27r. Palermo.PalatineChapel,r r3z- tig


L A N D S A S S O ( ] I A T t r DW I I ' H I N







z7z. Palermo,the X,{artorana, r t_1.j5r irnd later, flank building material, none other than the prtros (rough limestone) which the ancient Greeks used their temples, adapted irself verv _-fbr happih ro rhe new archirectural mode. In it decoratir.e Moslem arcading and pattern_wort looked u'ell; ir combinecl happill: wirh stucco panelled effects, and with marble and mosaic fbr rich interiors. One finds in these designs, without seeming contracliction, the round Roman arch, the interlaced Norman arches which make pointed_arch patterns, rhe for , N4oslem pointed arch, and rib u.ork. rre d e c o r a t i v ed e t a i l sw h e r e R o m a n e s q u e , Moslenr, and Byzantine motives frolic together; ther.c are columns of classic proportlon takine thcir part in composirions u.irh Br.zantine mosair. and Moslem domes, honel,.comb roof art(.s o n a d o sa n d s t a l a c t i t ec e i l i n g . s . All are brillianr in A{editerranean sunshine and glowing rvirh warmth; lbr the limestone walls weather to enchanting toasted browns, buffs, and grers, richly contrasting with rhe azurc ,krl ,n.l

bowers of orange, lemon, and palm trees. crosslng towers here. Wherever originated, the RogerII acquired territorieson the mainland tower design of the N{artorana has been half_ the orientalismof orientalized, and developed rowards thc fbrm of Aftica,which accentuated and naturally came to expression w h i c h w e s h a l l f i n d i n t h e d r a m a t i c c l u s t e r s o f dominions his turrets at Palermo Cathedral later on. 11the architecture. suggested that It has been very reasonably San Giovanni degli Eremiti,r, of rI jz, has the Orthodox in the Greek parts of the island o n t h e c h u r c h ( a s i m p l e b l o c k o f a b u i l d i n g o f had for two hundred years been assimilating austere oriental exterior fbrm) a series of Moslem and Byzantine archirecturalmotifs, trloslem domes which irre hemispherical, and t satoir-faireby which the Norman placed wirhout mouldings on short achieving cvlindrical early architects drums. The tower terminatescoquettishh in a A famous example of' l'aried architectural similar dome. There is a poetic cloister. San is the Palatine Chapelin Palermol combination roval [z7r], actuallywithin what remainso1'the there. It was built br,Roger II between palace rr32 and rr43, and dedicatedto St peterl really it is a miniature church, with slencler columnsof marble dividing the navefrom the aisles ofa triapsidalbasilican plan.The columns and the lavish wall mosaics- applied, except for somerestoration, between r r43 and r r89 are purely Byzantine in stlle. Tall pointed arches of Moslem form, and an elaborate stalactite ceiling over.thenave are the oriental compon !nts in this design. The'N{artorana'15 [z7zl, reallvthe churchof SantaMaria del Ammiraglio, built and clecoratedbetween I r4-tand I r5r forKingRogerII's great admiralGeorgeof Antioch, wasdedicated to the Virgin 'with much love, and as a small andunworthy-recompense' so the inscription 273.Palermo,San (laraldo,bcfore r r6r says. Later building has disturbedthe original entrance system.An axial porch (still existing, Cataldo [2731, essentiallv similar to San Gioand marked by a late tower) gave upon an vanni, was built as a svnagogue and taken over atrium and narthex,as in an Early Christian a s a c h u t c h i n r r6r. Exotic and unchurchly asit churchI hovlerer. bel.ond rhe narthex rhe is, with Nloslem domes and decoratir.e pointed building was arrangecland decoratedlike a a r c a d i n g . it does not seem out of'place as an Byzantine four-column, exceptthat the e c c l e s i a s t i c ab l uilding in Palermo. Pointedarchesand the squinches of the dome N{eanwhile, in rr.1r, construction of the wereof Moslem design.The tower (fburteenth c a t h e d r a l o f C e f ' a l i rh a d b e e n b e g u n r Tl z 7 4 l . k s centur)') is the crossing tower of p a t r o n , ( , o u n t R o g e r I I , w a s a c c o r d e d t h e t i t l e theMontierneufat Poitiers r]. Perhaps there o f K i n g b l t h c a n t i p o p e A n a c l e t u s I I . a n d f i r r [25 is influence from the Salmantine school of t h i s alliance was excommunicated in r r 1q bv

TllE TWt) srcrt.rE.s 357

but,the situation was pope Innocenl ll. was serrcd b1' a in rr'lo ,"iut^tirra .Celalir c a n o ns' For them a A u g u s t i n i a n of at-rpt.. was built. in the stvlc of the . l o i t r . . l..ity to the norlh. {fter Roger II's time ihurch, iust project at Celilir languished; ulti$e^t the pately the royal pantheon was established in palermo, and even King Roger's sarcophagus his tombwas transf-erred there from this, church' In plan Cefalir Cathedral is very handsome -lhe east end walls are substantial. [275].'fhe groin vaulting and a has a sanctuary covered b1 deep flanking it are two semi-dome; pointed runnel-vaulted chapels. The transept, slightlv proiecting, is covered partly by tunnel vaulting and partly by wooden roofing. These parts of the church had been hnished and decorated in the nave rr48, but there is much later work w a sb u i l t b e t w e e n r r 8 o a n d I 2 o o o n a r e d u c e d plan, and the wooden-trussed roofing of the nxve was restored in rz63; the faqade dates

fiom rz4o, with some rebuilding in thc htteenth century. 6nest in all the Sicilian Romancsque. handsome to\r'ers, like North-African The exterior of the cathedral is perhaps the 'l'wo minarcts

in design, flank an elegant columnar porch rvith three pointed archcs, bchind rvhich appears the faqade wall ofthe church, decorated 'lhc nale ancl with Norman interlirced arches. aisles are of course basilican columnar shafis mark off the aisles, u'hich are sroin-vaulted, with lateral arcading. In the nave proper, the roofis at a lower level than wasat first intcnded. 'Ihe transept is carried higher than the nave, m o r e t h a n a t N { o n t e c a s s i n oo n t h e m a i n l a n d ; the sanctuary be-vond it, though Byzantine in p l a n a n d d e c o r a t i o n . i s R o n r a n e s q t t ci n s t t ' u c ture, proportion, and extcrior decolation. The great Christ of the semi-dome, singularlv impressive, is one of'the finest Byzantine mosaics to be fbund anywhere. It is a perf'ectly pure exarnpleof the Second Golden Age, and goes



zTq,and , e u u nr r . i r z i 5 . ( l c l a l i r( l a t h e d r a lb


b a c kr o

'l-he minor originals in Constanlinople bcautl ' g r e a t i n t e r e s t a n d are also.of IuUi..ts of Santa \4aria la \uorl in The calhctlral is the clin.rax of Sicilian Monrealel8 lz76-8.) 'l a r c h i t c c t u l c . h e s e e \ 4 a se s t i l b Romanesquc the cathedral huilr br King Willished and to the po$er o{ the a fiam II as counterpoisc

their decorative character

and conscquenrlt. quite the reverse ol' the development in the north of France, which at this verv rime was systematizing the flying buttress and ushcring in the accomplished phase of F-arlv Gorhic. There is no sign ofthis architectural progress ar Nlonreale. Fires werc not so li'equent in the

archbishop of' Palermo. It was served b1Benedictines from La Cava on the tnainland, where thc monks observed the Cluniac rulc, and for them an intcresting conventual struc'fhis t u r e w a s r a i s e dt o t h e s o u t h o f t h e c h u r c h . building and the exterior ofthe church are in a markedly local Romancsque sttle; integrated so happily that one is not so conscious of stylistic 'ingredients' as in manl ol the SiculoNorman edifices. H o * ' e v c r , i t m u s t b e s a i d t h a t t h e m o t i f - sa r e a rather riotous growth, interesting lafgcl.v for south as in the north, so that it was admissible to risk wooden-trussed roofing over the wide spans. The vault and the Moslem t1'pc o1' :rll-but-pointcd Moslem pointed arch were

sufficientll'stablc fbr the narrouer spans. Monreale Cathcdral was apparentl) started in r174; in t t76 decds and endorvmentswel'e deposited on the high altar, and in rr8z the I - a b r i cw a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o m p l e t e. 1 ' h e s i t e , u p thc Conca d'Oro lrom Palcrmo, is onc ol'grcrt l r e a u t ) ,b u t t h e c h t t r c h e x t e r i o ri s n o t a s f i n e l s that of' Cefhli - fbr thc interlacing pointed

zi6 and 277.NlonrcaleC.athedral, begun r r74

'lHETwo slclt.tts


arches on the apse are overwrought Romanesque Baroque; the two blocky tower bases have disparate and not altogether pleasing terminations; and the heavy portico ot t77o between the towers is very inappropriatc'r" The interior, however, is perfect. The plan is Romanesque, with nave, aisles, transept, deep sanctuary and deep flanking chapels; the sup !rstructure fbllows Early Christian lines in the basilican nave, which is divided from the aisles b.v classic Corinthian columns (though with Moslem pointecl arches). The st1'le is Romanesque in the transept and sanctuary.

dr:cor.xand \1n51." tion is Byzantine (in the mosrrics) ( t h e m a r b l e d a d o o f t h e a i s l e s ,t h e p o l r c h l o r y l " ceiling). No attempt was made to tirse 16. styles: they' are here independent, anLl ;n coniunction.2(' The cathedral at Monreale has ;r r s1, beautiful cloister enclosed within the bloclr s e r i e s o f m o n r s t i c b u i l d i n g s o n t h e s o t r r l r. 1 1 . of the church. This cloister is dated I 17: 89. Possibly' refugee sculptors came here aficl thr: f a l l o f , l e r u s a l e mi n r r 8 7 I t h e w o r k w a s s u t e l r finished b1' rzoo. The cloister has twentr-fiie

where pointecl arches are used also.




ccnturtes As the twelfth and thirteenth achiered a designers Sicilian the advance<l. stvle - eruberant' strangebut satisfyingexotic which g as decoration Jetig'i-tti.tgin spicy \1as monument great lts beautifully handled' in r r7z-85 b1 r'ebuilt Palermo' of .i. .t,ft.i."f of the Mill (Gualterio ir.ftbltit"O Walter 'rhe modelled gorgeousll 85) o;;;iit",''r6q cresting and arcading rich its with """*'i'""0., ot thc st\lc Perh'tps cxample prinre t. irtt'f' " of the Hohenrnt, l...'ogni" the inflrrcnct in the atn ". (r194-1266) ,,tti." a"-i"ation irnd of the cathecltal' .rfit"* u, the four corners



t.. l
fi :,: :i



:78. Monrcale Cathedral, cloistcr, I I7:-Et1 27() (af?oete). Palermo ()athedral, r r7z fitieenth centur\' south firgadc




in the fantastic group of turrets joined b1' a bridgc to the rvest faqade(r3oo 59), fbr thcl' have strangc, belated reminisccnces of the 'Ihc Carolingian rvestwork at Saint-Riquier. south portal dates fi'om r4z-5, and its great porch lrom later in the samc centurv. unlbrtunatelv thc interior was spoiled bt rebuilding between r7[ir and r8or, but it containsthe roval and imperial tombs of thc dynastv, including that of the E,mperor Flederick II. f'hev scem strangelv lost in the plastcr whiteness of the uther austerc Baroquc inter.ior. Sicilr''s orvn riotous, warm, mcdier al stllc

derius imported objectsof'art lrom Constanti_ nople, called artists thehce, anclactualll. mrr11s provision fol training Italians and others in thr various arts. G r e a t r e s o u r c e s w e r e a r , a i l a b l et o h i m 1 1 n part surely fi'om the Normans), and DesidcriLrs undertook a general re building of the monaslu.,,. 'l in the ninth rcal of his abbacv. robb. lru dimensioned description in Lco of Osti;r's no doubt that the main parts ol thc church and monastert, though rebuilr rn the fburteenth centur\.and [ater, r.etainctl D e s i d e r i u s ' s s c h e m ed o w n t o m o d e r n t i m e s . I l r m e a n s o f p a r a l l e le x a n p l e s b u i l d i n g s o b v i o r i . ll.inspired in various l-eatures b\ N,Iontecassino it has been possible to make a trustworrh\ restoration [z8o]. In roTr the church urrs dedicated nninto trepudio 'with the grearcsl possible stir' in the presence of numer.oLrs r a n k i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c sk ; nouledgc of it instantlr sprcad f-ar, and Montecassino continued to draw visitols of malk. 1 ' h e l a 1 - o u tw a s o b v i o u s l l t a k e n f r o m O l r l St Peter''s in Rome [j], with monumental srair'. propvlaea, atrium, and T-shaped basilic.r, t h o u g h o n a m u c h s m a l l e r s c a l e( r o u g h l l ' o n c third linear'; single aisle at cach side; no s c r e c n e d r e c c s s e sa t t h e e n d s o f t h c t r a n s e p r . which was tliapsidal; ir hcavv, stumpr. belltower of local tvpe at the north-east corner ol the atrium). ^{ctual materials rvcre bror.rght from Rome, and some ol'these were carricrl u1, the great slope b1,the fhithlul an anticiparion of the cart cults o1'Gothic cathedrals.

lvould fit them much better.rr

'1,,f, ;'if :
stud]' as ln ro75 ( K . J . c l . ) Abbe1, restoration z8o.Montecassino istics were due to this influcncel and in tact some of these feutures are anlicipated in existing North-Alrican work F o r e x a m p l e .a b o u t l o 5 o t h e i n n e r p o r l i c o o l the Great Mosque at Mahdia (Tunisia) had pointed arches and peculiar groin vaults, with arrises nearly straight, as at Sant'Angelo in Formis, a priory of Montecasstno. Desiderius's propylaeum and church porch' each with five arches, are reported as having ' l a n c e o l a t e 'a r c h e s o l ' \ a u l t s ' fornttes spi,ul,t5 with a ver-vblunt point il' they were like the single remaining original pointed vault in the south pylon of the outer porch,r3 which I 'l'he porch of measured befbre the destruction Sant'Angelo in Formis,21 though later than the church of ro58-75 and more oriental in feeling, is a somewhat unskilful conflation of the tll'o porticoes at Montecassino lz8o z)' The pointed a r c h a n d v a u l t w e r e w e l l e s t i r b l i s h e di n E g l p t by the tenth centur.v' Eg1'ptian arches, eren to this day, are constructed over a rough filling carried by straight sticks forming a mitrc, and the arches, brought up to the apex ofthe mitre, naturalll' take pointed shapes' The characteristic straight arrisesol thc groin vaults ol'the porch ol' Sant'Angelo in Forrnis [z8r] were d o u b t l e s sf o r m e d o v c t ' d i a g o n a l m i t r e s ' Abbot Hugh of (,lun1' r'isitcd Nlontccassino in ro8l. Greatlf interestedin building (as we have seen), he, or an architect in his suite, s u p p o s e t l l r t r a n s m i t t e d t h c n o r e l l e a t u r e sl t . r C l u n l l I I , t h e b u i l d i n g o f w h i c h b e g a nb 1 ' r o 8 8 ' Unquestionabl-r- the oriental pointed arch, the B 1 ' z a n t i n ei r n d o r i e n t a l p i n c h c d l a u l t ' i r p p r o r i nritel-v of catenarl' profile, and the straight-arris groin rault were rationalized b-'-'Desiderius's 'fhel' marked a distinct and Hugh's engineers. step forwarcl in Romanesque engineering, and perhaps started the process which eventuall]' crcJtedthe nevt Gothic tlpe ol enginecring' 'fhc tbrtune ofthe pointed arch lnd vault was m l t l e u l t e n t h e l w e r ea p p l i e d ,t o t h c n u m b c r o l are neirrll'two hundred, at Cluny' As f:rr as rve t h cre w e n t t h e v p r e s e n t , able to make out at Iiom Montecassino. Desiderius'sporch had plaster-work decorabronze tion, presumably also Moslcm, and

CANIPANIA A N D N E I G I I B O U R I \ GR E G I O N S The Normans acquired -{r'ersaand its rcgion about ro3o, (,apua (in which rcgion Nlontec a s s i n ol i c s ) i n r o i 8 . G a e t a i n r o 6 j ; t h c r e g i o n s a b o u t B e n e v e n t oa n c lS a l c r n o ,i n c l u d i n g { m a l f i , i n r o 7 7 : N a p l e s ,h n a l l r ' ,i n r r 3 7 . 8 1 l - a rt h c n r o s t i m p o r t a n t s h r i n e i n t h e r e g i o n r v a sN l o n t e c a s s i n o , with its august memolies of' -l'he St Benedict. monasterl', lbunded in -5.2g, h a d b c e n r e s t o r c c la f t e l b a r b a r i a n d e s o l a t i o n s (Lombards, -58r; Saracens,8[J:), and subscquent to 95o it flourished again. An elegant interprctation of the much rebuilt Renaissance church and conventual buildings has replacccl. on thc same sitcs, the structures dcstrol-ed in t h c S e c o n c l\ \ o r l d W a r . The great Abbot Desiderius assumsd ofhce w h c n t h e N o r m a n r e p J i m ew a s b e g i n n i n g . I { e gathered a pleiad of important churchmen, s c h o l a r s ,a n d a r t i s t s a b o u t h i m , a n d m a d e t h e abbey. a light to its age, as rccounted bv his excellcnt archivist and biographer Lco of O s t i a . : r D e s i d e r i u s l a b o u r c d t o r e - e s t a b l i s ht h e fine arts in Itah, lvhcre '\.,IistressLatinitas had been wantins in the skill of thcse alts . . . tbr' f i v e h u n d r e d v c i r r s )a n d m o r e ; a n d b l t h e e l 1 b r t ol this man, rvith thc inspiration and help of God, merited to regain it in our time.' Dcsi-

Sevcral I'catules of'Desiderius's church rvelc novel, and they should be noted here. Somc ol the builders were from Amalfi. then at thc summit of its powel as a widelv ramillcd commercial republic, with stations in Cairo. Jcrusalem, Cyprus, Constanrinople, Alexlnd r i a , a n d T u n i s . T h e c i t y - ,r u i n e d s o s o o n i r ft c r ' . must have sholln these oriental connexionsin i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e .I t i s o u r b e l i e f t h a t t h e n o v c l t i c : at N{ontecassino which hare oriental charactcr-





J , '5

in Formis, fbundcd ro58, Iinishedr. ro73 5 2 8 r a n dz8z. Sant'Angelo

plates fi'om Constantinople on rhe door-\,alves; a dccorative lunette was each of the door_ wavs,in the Bvzantine manner i and the interior was Ii'escoed in Bvzantine stvle. 'I'hus we ha,r,e h c r e i n r o 6 6 7 . 5a n a p p o s i t i o n o f s t y - l e sl i k e t h a t which lr'e find in Sicilv a centurv later. In lerelling the rocky' ridgc to make a place f b r t h e b a s i l i c a ,a t o m b u n d e r s t o o d t o b c t h a t o f St Benedict was discovered about ten I'eetunder. the surface. The monks at Montccassino in thcir recent cxcar.ationshar,c corroborated this, but the g;rave w a s e m p r i e d ( i n 7 o 3 ? ) ,w h e n r e l i c s supposed to bc those of St Benedict wcre taken to Fleury-sur-Loire afier the Lombard cleso'l'o lation. retain the ncwly--discovered tomb untouched, the transept pavement was established eight steps above that of thc nar.e. I)esiderius built a cenotaph, clestroyed later,

with most of the tomb, when the high altar *rrs moved here. Thc paintings of the interior mav be judgcrl by-those o1'Sant'Angelo in Formis, a Dcsiderian church (asremarked) [z8zl. Thc whole interior. here is painted in the Cassinese style. It is b e l i e v e dt h a t t h i s s r v l e w a s t a k e n u p b y . C l u n l : the chapel of Berzd-la-Ville surr.ives as r witness.l-t 'I'he dvnamic I'eaturesof Montecassino. then. were taken up and developed in Burgundl. But in the main the abbey church was a conserr,atir,ebuilding, and the conservan\.e asDects o l ' i t a l e r e f l e c t e di n t h e c a t h e d r a l s ol'Salern, (dedicatedin ro84), Benevenro (rebuilt rrr.1 rz79), Ravello (by rr56), and Amalfi (Romanesque, to rz76; rebuilt). All are basilican. Besides these there are many rustic rcductions

of the motif

including the church of the town o f A q u i n o , w h e r c S t T h o m a s A q u i n a s * a sb o r n , In the region therc are manv elaborate pulpits,rb usually of white marble rT'ith mosatc rlnd opus Alerandrinum insets, in medielal R o m a n s t - v l eE . xamples dated befbre r2oo exrst ( a l ter log5)' La (.ara (alier r r'1h)' at Rarello -l'hev and Salerno (between rr53 and rI8r) show, as does the basilicrn architectule' thrt 'I'wo Sicilies is a architecturally this part o('the but the attentive e1'e will Roman province find Byzxntine and Nlloslem details in them' The pulpits are parapeted platforms carricd on c o l u m n s a n d r e a c h e db 1 ' f l i g h t s o t ' s t e p s ;u s u a l l - v there is a plojection with r lecteln whele thc baldacchinos in actual reading is done. XIan-'-.Such furnipreserved' marble have also been

and Minuto.

ture is often verl' picturesque, wherc thc workmanship is rustic and the air is of folk art On thc other hand, this architectural and s c u l p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n w a s t h c b a s i so f t h e r e v i v a l in thc works of the Emperor of antique st,-vle Frederick Il.r; His gate at Capua (t233 4o) was built in Roman-stvlc ashlar and adorned w i t h c l a s s i c a lb u s t s , o f ' r v h i c h t h c P i e t r o d c l l a V i g n a i s t h e b e s t k n o w n . S u c h c l a s s i c i s mw a s d b , r ' t h c a n c i e n t m e m o r i es o f d o u b t l e s ss u g g e s t e C a p u a a n d t h e i m p e r i a l o l f i c e ; i t i s a w i t n es s t o the catholic taste of the Emperor, and it ma)' l ' e p r e s e n la l s o I r t a c l i o n a g a i n s t t h e e r o t i c ' overblown Romanesque of Sicil-v' lt was obliousll the training-ground lbr Nicolrr Pisano ' P c t tu s d c \ p u l i l " a u t h o r ' ( . . | 2 2 5 7 8 ) .s o n o l rveshall o f t h e c l a s s i c i z i n gp u l p i t o f r z i g r v h i c h find in Pisa.







in 896, was rebuilt betwcen go,1 and 928 bv Sergius III and John X as San Giovanni in Laterano,without losingits rank.r It wasfurther rebuilt alier suffcring gravely from fires in r3o8 -I'he a p s e ,t h o u g h d a m a g c d , r e t a i n e d and r36r. its old ambulatory, laid out in the ninth centurl' (or possibly' in the lburth) without radiating chapels [2831. This august example probably had some influence on the development of ambulatories at the main.pavement level during the N{iddle Ages. It was destroy'edonl.v in r 876 ; the medieval transept and navt: had been masked and Baroque additions. bv Renaissance Near by' was the Lateran Palacc, replaced in r 5 8 5 6 . T h e v e n e r a b l eo l d c r b u i l d i n g [ 2 8 3 ] w a s in various fbrms the papal palace for nearll' twelve centuries, though fiom the time of' Gregory lX (tzz7 4r) malarial conditions in the district led to the transf'erofthe actual pontifical residence to the Vatican Palace.r The medieval building (resulting liom progressive rec o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a l a c eo f t h e L a t e r a n i , g i Y e n by Constantine to Pope N,liltiades) was much larger than the present one, and more open in construction. It had a great man]' rooms with a p s i d a l r e c e s s e s ,a n d t h e s e i n c l u d e d s c v e r a l ceremonial halls. Of all this, only' the terminal a p s co f t h e T r i c l i n i u m s u r v i v e sa s a s o r t o f p a v i lion, by the ScalaSanta.+ The monastery adjoining the Lateran had a long historl'. It was the refugc of the Benedictincs of N{ontccassino, whcn their own monastery was destroyed by the Lombards in -58r, and was their first establishment in Rome. The pretty cloister, in the Roman Romanesquc st]'le, was built about tzz7, Pietro Vassalletto and his s o n b e i n g t h e m a s t e r s . s ' l ' h eg a r t h , s q u a r c , h a s a fbuntain hcac in the middle of a sarden; the


of the capital of the Empire from The removal century'' the barbarian disfourth the Rome in rule of thc City as a part of the the locations, e x a r c h a t ci t h e c o m i n g o l ' G r e e k a n d Byzantine the S y r i a nP o p e s ; t h e s t r u g g l c s o l l o c a l n o b l c s . not pontifl.s, and the emperors the commune, to mention the malaria and the burning of a part of the City by Robert Guiscard all make a is little room history therc In such a story. tragic for interesting building. Architectural style remained so stagnant in Rome that the church of San Clemente, rebuilt alter Robert Guiscard's fire of ro8a. was mistaken for the fburth-century church on the site, until the ruins of that building under the present church were susp e c t e d( r 8 4 7 ) a n d e x c a v a t e d( r 8 5 7 - 6 r ) . Though it figured in the military struggles of' the Middle Ages, Old St Peter's [3] escapeddestruction, only to be demolished piecerneal between r45o and 1585 to make way for the present church. Recent excavations have revealedthe history ofits apse, where the altar, iI' present, stood until about 6oo in fiont of the Memoria Apostolicu,asmall ancient recessat the pavement level. By the ser,enthcentury the apse pavement had been raised to the top of the memoria, and the high altar cstablished abor,e the latter. A semicircular corridor was formcd, contiguous to the apse at the original pavement level and giving access to an axial corridor b1' which the memoria could be reached from behind.l'I'his arrangement underlics the primitive Lombard crypts, and contains the germ of the arnbulatory scheme.

z8l. Rome, I-atcran Church and palace, restoration stuclv as rn r r45o (Rohault de Fleurv)

The cathedral of the Saviour. built under Constantine, and overthrown by an earthquake


lHl' LANDs AssoclA'lED \\'lTlllN


w a l k s . o n a l l t b u r s i d e s ,a r c n o w g r o i n - r ' a u l t e d ' 'fhe L - s h a p e t lc o r n c r p i e r s t e r m i n a t e r a n g c s o l supports, inclucling lour oblong piers betrvccn (irsmateach pair. I classicalentablaturc with a esque liicze is carricd entirclv around the cloistcr abore them. Each intetval betwccn t$o plcrs has 6ve grrrcctil arches cirricd on {bur pairs ot slentlel colunns abore a pilrapet the middle prrirs in each case bcing twistcd. It rlas an easy' step liom this thirteenth-centur]' work to some el o i s t u r s o f t h e E a r l l R e n a i s s a n cc Cosmati and Cosmatesque work, iust mentioned, takes its name trom a Roman familyw h i c h f l o u r i s h e d a ft e r I r - 5 o .1 ' h c y d i d o n e s e r i ous work of architecture, thc portico, in the Ionic st1'le,ol the cathedral of'Civita-Castcllana, ncar Rome.(' rvhich is aln-rostpcrfectlv classical and in design, though built in r z r o b1 Lorenz<.r Romc. Santa\Iaria in (,osmctlin. zfl-1. interior, r. r roo (rcstored)

J a c o p o C o s m a t i . I t h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i ct l g 1 , , t ative marble and mosaic ornament rvhich rr 1n i n d e x o f t h e C o s m a t i s t - v l e .T h c l ' a n d o t l l 1 1 . rvorking in the samc mxnner devekrptd 16. ts ornillnrnt a n c i e n t t ] ' p e o f o p u s' l l c . r t t r r t l r i n u m fbr cloisters, pulpits, chancels, Paschal crrrl1ll1sticks,thrones, tombs, altars,and the likc. 'I'he most f'amiliar t\pe ot'olrl.\ '4ltttn,ltttttrut ilppearsin the beautilul Roman church p11cm e n t s . T h e v a r e m a d e o f s l a b so f w h i t e n r . r r b l e and disks ol-colourcd marble (olien porphr 11) w i t h l i n e s o f g o l d a n d c o l o u r e d m o s a i cs c t i n t h e bordcring slabs as an embellishment. \bbot Desiderius had such a pavsment maclc lbr -N{ontecassino. A beautilul example ttnc o1' manf in thc citl' exists at Santa Nlari:r in (.osm c d i n i n R o m eI i t i s d a t c d l b o u t t t o o l : \ - 1 : s e e a l s o 2 8 5] . ;

(Ilunsen) stud-r as in r' I roo e85. Rome, San Clcmcntc' rcsroration







Cosmati work applied to church furniture is naturally more delicate in scale than the pavements, and this is true ofthe cloisters also. While in general the columns are Corinthianesque, as is usual everywhere in the Middle Ages, the Ionic and Composite appear frcquently, and in important works. Elsewhere these orders were little used until Renaissance times. Columnar fbrms are ordinarily much enrichcd: often the shafts are 'Salmonic' (twisted), and straight or spiral fluting was regularlv garnished with mosaics set in running designs, especially star patterns. For a long time classicalreminiscences were strong in Cosmati work, but it was also used in conjunction with Romanesque themes, as in the cloister ofN{onreale, and eventually in Gothic designs. Very handsome baldacchinos, sometimes in Cosmatesque work, were made at this time. T h e v a r e s q u a r e o r n e a r l y . s q u a r ei n p l a n ; t h e y have four corner columns with connecting architra.r,es, above which there is a staged open-work turret with small columns; ther. ordinarilv ter_ minate in an octagonal pvramid, with orb and cross. f'hus a plaJ.ful 'turritus apex'took the place of the dome which is usual in Byzantine baldacchinos. Beautilul examples are to be seen at San Lorenzo fuori le N{ura (rr48 ancllater), San Giorgio in Velabro, Santa Maria in 'I'rastevere, San Clemente (where the top is gabled [285]), and Santa Maria in Cosmedin [zSa] (a Gothic design), all in Romc. The baldacchinos in south Italv ar Bari, for examplc lz6ql - arc inferior in desip;n,proportion, and execution to the Roman works, but they and the pulpits

de Compostela. Originally- such sralls werr 1. stone. but wood was later introduced for 1.,,6 fort, and canopies were built to preventdraughts T h e o l d c h a n c r .b l uilr br PopcJohn VIII 1i-.,, w a s r e - u s e da t S a n C l e m e n t e . w h e n t h a t c l r r r r l \ w a s r e b u i l t b y ' P a s c h a lI I . S a n t a S a b i n a a l s o l l x . the old choir arrangement, recentlv restoreclg ith lragments dating back to about [12.5. Occasion_ allv, in the monasteries, fald-stools (-fitnrrtrlrtst arententioncd; thev nrust hare becnoftcn Lrsrtl. Although there was a grear deal o1'disturb_ ance in Rome during the strugglc o\rer thc In_ \.estltures, the r.igour of the Papacy.induccrl a certarn amount of' building. Verv little recrrlls Gregorl-VII, Victor II, or Urban II, bur sc\cral interesting churches are connected with Paschal II (rogg rrr8). It was he who rebuilt San Clemente (ruintd i n r o 8 4 d u r i n g t h e s i e g eo f t h e c i t v b v R o b e r t Guiscard), and thc works continucd to about rr3o. The resulting churcht [285] non adventitious Baroque decorations, but the old arrangements are clear. The old propl'laeurl and atrium are not greatly changed; the orientat i o n i s r e v e r s e d ,a s i t w a s i n t h e f b u r t h - c e n t L r r . r b a s i l i c aT . h e n a v es r i l l s h o u s l h c o r i g i n a la l r . . r n a t i o n 0 1 ' p i e r sa n d I o n i c c o l u m n a r s u p p o r t s . I r 'fhe has a clerestorr. head end is triapsidal, rvith a raised central platfbrm. The semi-dome has ir quite lovely mosaic with patterns of'rinceaux in gold against a dark ground, perhaps a work of' the twelfth century. Bclow, there is a marblc throne on the axis, with a sl.nthronon lbr lou cr clergy extending along the apse wall to cithcr side. l'he altar is beneath a beautiful baldacchino, and the celebrant, with his back to thc throne, officiates at the west side or back ol'the altar, looking eastward tolvard the choir in the nave (previously mentioned) and the conliregation. 1'he lront ofthe apse platfbrm is pierced, beneath the altar, by a f'enestrellagiving upon :r 'l'he spacefbr relics. arrangement is an unusuallr perf'ectexample of the Constantinian disposition of the sanctuary elements.'r

choir of San Clemenle' dating f h e c h a n c e lo r "'--t^,,r Rrz as already indicated' ma1 be ttor" ' l, because here the atsl r schola cantorum ^iled, v "' - or '- c ^ a n o n sw o u l d g a t h e r monKs -^in bodY of the

which wassung'Suchliturgical lir'ri.o office, from Scriptureat interr als' t.taings l?.., ftt". pulpirsuere prorided oneto InJfor,tt.t. the during and gospel the epistle for .r.ft.ia. used dirccin readings use for lectern a and ti. rmr, space' congregattonal the towards ted
\laria in Cosmcdin' 2 8 6 .R o m e , S a n t a ' r2oo (reslurcd) l i 1 ; r a r ,r ' , I 2 0 . t o s c r

The church of the Santi Qyattro Incoronati was likewise rebuilt by PaschalII, rogg rro6 or r r r2, by which time the rather stump-v campanile was finished. San Bartolomeo was also rebuilt, about rIr3i the tower' ho$'ever,dates from about rzI8. San Giorgio in Velabro and Santa Pudenziana have towers which ma-vfairlv 'I'he towers be ascribed to the twelfth centur].. of Santa Maria in Cosmedin [286] and Santa 'Irastevere may have been built before Maria in

o[icn hare a naire lush altracti\eness. Few churches have preserved the old arrange_ ment of'stalls, namely, a chancel marked off bv a parapet at the head of the nave. as at San Clemente [285], with its auxiliariesof pulpits, lecterns, and Paschal candlestick. 'I'he canons or monks used to stand inside these enclosurcs. though in the eler.enth or twelfth centurv sralls began to be pror,ided, as by Gelmirez at Santiaso










c h a p e lo t S a n Z e n o ( 8 z z \ , r e c e i r . e di t s rernri.-m e n r o f d i a p h r a g m a r c h e si n r t . r * . t t i r , ]irt u r l . S S . G i o r a n n i e P a o l o .b u r n e d i n , :' ;, ,. " , 1 t r e s t o r e d ( b y e x c e p t i o n i n t t . t - o . t r r U"' . very true to type. The one which is most advan_ l a r g e l yb 1 H a d r i a n I V ( r r S + q , t h e o n l v I.,"i,'^lr tageously placed stands at rhe lbcade ol the Popc): the touer is, howerer, i" ,h. R;;;l church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. This is an style, and dated rzo6.r1 old building incorporating a Roman corn hall. At San Lorenzo luori le Mura a simple, rerr but it is basilican; it was rhe church to which austere cloister was built to. the Ci.t"r.i.n, Gelasius II was attached lrom roTg until his about r rgo. In the monastery at St puut,, out_ e l e v a t i o n( r r r 8 ) t o t h e p a p a c y . A l t e r G e l a s i r . r s ' s side the Walls, a new cloisrer ,r, bu;lr .bout death (r r r9) Calixtus II continued repairsand rzoo, similar to the Lateran cloister which r.s embellishments. The interior, wcll restored have mentioned.r: w i t h a c e i l i n g an d a s c h o l ac u n t o r u m , i sa r c h a i ci n The Torre delle Milizieli is a private lbrtil'eeling becauseol the piers in the colonnaclc and fication dated about r2oo! or later. Nlore irrter_ the small clerestory winclows. ._fhe fine pave_ esting is the miscalled House of Rienzi, near menr darcs liom the rimc ot Gellsius or Calix_ Santa Maria in Cosmedin, a strangelv cnrbel_ tus. At the cosr ofa very folly Baroque fiontis_ lished brick tower-base where the architect ( per_ plece ln stucco, the f'agadehas been restored to h a p s a b o u t r r o o ) u s e d u n c o n r . e n t i o n a lm r u n s its old condition, asofabout r rzo, with a porch (partlv Moslem in inspiration?) to enrich rhe in front ol an open narthc\, and a chamber design. above. Brick is tlre constructional material, as This completes the list of Romanesquc de_ 'lhe trsual in Rome. tower, hardly chansed in signs of importance existing in Rome, ,n.l .rn_ 8oo years, has seven store_r.s abo'eihe wiidow_ phasizes the conservative c h a r a c t e ro f t h e c i r r i n less shaft which reaches to the eaves line of the a r c h i t e c t u r e .B u r g u n d i a n h a l f - G o r h i c t l i t l n , , t church nave. Each ofthe sevenstoreys has arcad_ come in until about rz8o, and then uniquclr in ing, u'ith the impost Iine carriecl as a strinE Santa Maria sopra Minerra. finishetl ,1. , ;oo. c o u r s e a r o u n d t h e ( o r l e r l e l c h s r a g ea l . o has a The French High Gothic is not reDrescnred . l . h e brick cornice. gr-acelirllr propor.iioned. irt all. Br r4o: Brunelleschiand Dr.rnrrrrllo lower storevs, logically more substantial, have were in Rome together, studying Antiqr.rin in f'ewer openings, and piers; the uppcr storel,s o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . have triple openings with marble mia_watt shafts. Somc of the Roman towers havc ceramic TUSCA NY r n s e t s ,b u t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s ea t S a n t a N{ariain Cosmedin.r(, Florence, rvhere the Renaissance was to begin, Santa Maria in Trastevere, with a fine tower h a d m o n u m e n t s l e s sl a i t h f u l t o t h e a n t i o u e s r \ l e o f r r . 1 8 , i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l yt h e c h u r c h b u i l t bv than contemporary Roman *o.ks. bui hrr,llf Innocent Il as a thankoffering lbr. his s u c c e s s less clas.sical in spirit. The area covered br rhe over the anripope Anacletus II. Ir was finished Tuscan Romanesque s c h o o li n c l u d e s t h e D u c l : . . undcr Eugcne III, the first Cisrercian pope, Sardinia (which the Pisans conquered), irnd 'Ihe about r r50. intervening Lucius II (r r44lS) some special monuments in the northern lnd \r'asthe restorer ofSanta Croce in Gerusalemme, s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f t h e I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a .E s s c n n e a r t h e L a l e r a n . S a n r a p r a s s e d e ,r e m a r k a b l e tiallv the st1.le c o v e r st h e d o m i n i o n s a n d r e p r c fbr ninth-century mosaics and the beautiful sents the effective reign of the great Countess

r2oo. The tower oI SS. Gior.anni e Paolo is dated to rzo6, that ofSanta Ceciliato rzzo. an<l that of Santa NIaria Maggiore to r378. Rome has thirty-six of these campanili, all

not only I5)' well remembered .r.tjld,.Oo46-rr 'i)^ but political figure' ,n rgr,i'pro-papal patronol'the arts ruler. enlighrened ?"'.r ,n personalfriend ot HildcS liUfopttite' the the Lomencouraged She Anselm ilrr'narna of the derelopmenr and.favoured illa ,o*nt, amongthe greatest of Bologna..then f'eschool. progresswas being ii-Europ., where active law' and in medicine' canon and in ciuil Irade reflect not necessarily does architecture While ol'the the'Roman-mindedness' conditons, such that thc Roman madeit natttral sovereign qreat lwle shouldbe rt homein her domain.It is no lessnatural given the active temper of the - that crealive ditlerentiations should Deriod and .pp..t,.t theydid parlicularl]in Florence BaPtisterl ' Florence, 287.
exterior, fifih ( ?), eleventh, and twclfth centuries

Pisa. Endowed with a classicalsense,and able to profit by an excellent tradition offine workmanship, moreover, provided with good builcling stone and the means to use the easily available marble, the architects put a special stamp on a considerable number of 6ne buildings, particularly churches. Florence prospered in the age ofNlrtilda, and characteristic works were created there. Recent studies have brought down the very early dates ( l o r 3 , r o r 8 ) a s s i g n e d t o c o n s p i c u o u sR o m a n esque works without disturbing importancc ol the buildings. the relative

In coming to Florence we instandy encounter the controvers!' over the date o{'the Baptistery o f S a n G i o v a n n i l r [ 2 8 7 , 2 8 8 ] ,t h e v a u l t o f w h i c h






ol'the present huilding arc indiconstruction mcdian ioint tliridcs thc foundation Jt"a " lengthwtse' earll octagonthcre was an i o t h e e a s to f ( h e n o w . r e p r e s e n l e db 1 t h e s t r e e t . a n d h c 46ium, a t r i u m s t o o d ( a s b e l b r e ) t h e b a s i l i c ao f t h e oond originalli' built in the sixth Reparata, Santa a long period it served as the century. For The remains may be seen cathedral building. crypt which has been ararchaeological an in ranged near the west end of the nave at Santa Maria del Fiore, the present cathedral. Santa Reparata was augmented in various ways: the sanctuarlr level u'as raised; the apse wasflanked, as commonly in Imperial churches, by two towers. A transept and probably also a crossing tower were built. Beginning earlf in the eleventh century, both churches were rebuilt on a slightly larger scale, respecting the old locations. At San Giovanni the core of the existing octagon was built, replacing the earlier baptistery with a clear open u'alls sheathe an aquedtrct-like construction bent around the eiglrt angles. The space. The .288. Florencc,Baptisterv, rnterlor,supcrficiall.r' eler.enth and trvellth ccnturies was srudied as a model fbr the .dome, of the present cathedral, the 6rst great vaultins enter_ prise ot' the Renaissance. San Giovanni is octagonal in plan, with an oblong extension on the western side, where f o r m e r l r t h e r e w a s a n a p s e .T h e r e a r e doors on the south, north, and east sides, filled respec_ tively by the memorable valves of Andrea pisano (tr3o) and Lorenzo Ghiberti (t4ot 24, tq47 5z). From wall to wall it measures about go f'eet English, or close to 93 Roman feet. While proximity ro the ciry wall sugglcsts that _ the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore mau o c c u p ) a n E a r l . r C h r i s r i a n c a r h c d r a ls i r e , in t.aci t h e s e e w a s n o t m o r e d l i o m S a n I . o r e r r z o( a c _ cording lo tlocuments broughr forward b1 Franhlin Toker) until the ninth centurr,. Nor_ malll' a baptisrery would first be built ar thar time, and the familiar opinion that the ocrason was the original carhedral buildinE would sccrn to bc unrenable. 'I'he oldest documcnted remains are those (,1 the earlv-sixth-century basilica of Sanrrr Reparata. We recognized a stretch of sesnienljl fbrrndation uall raithin the ocragon as rht remarns of'a henricl,cle at the west end ol. thc original atrium. The active bishop Andrcrrs ( 8 6 9 0 3 1 i sc r e d i t e dw i r h m o v i n g r h e s e e ,b u i l t l ing the early octagon, and installing the relics ol St Zenobius, so rhat thc basilica becam.,,r Pilgrimagechurch.r5 Foundations show that the original octagon. a relatir.ell small building, lackedaisles arouri.l the central space. However, two episodss thc. in new basilica,also rvooden-roofed, was more substantial but resembled the old design in many ways. This work was deducirtcd in ro-59 by Gebhard of Burgundy, the Irlorentine bishop who, at the time, in Florence, was clected as the reforming pope Nicholas II (ro-Sg-6r). In this election the present rule of having the pope e l e c t e db y t h e c a r d i n a l s a l o n e w a s i n t r o d u c e d . About the 'rear r2oo the interior of San Giovanni rvas giren its present charactcr and covered b-"- the existing vault. The better to sustainthis r,ault, the present system ofcolumns a n d a r c h e sw a s a p p l i e d t o t h e i n s i d e o f t h e w a l l s of the otlagon ol r05q, reslingon conliguotts f o u n d a t i o n s i u s t w i t h i n t h c o c t a g o n o f r o . 5 9 .I n the new upper structure a series o1'arches, three to a typical bay, carrl' the remarkable cupola and the buttress-like external ribs which support the roofing. The exterior attica datcs from this period, but the arcading below which

sheathes the octagon o{' ro59 seems later, fbr it corresponds to the upper arcading on thc present cathedral. The latter building was planned by Arnolfo di Cambio about r zg6 to replace Santa Reparata. design, already started, was considerably augmented in scale about r j-55. T'hough Gothic, its interior thus became almost Roman in grandeur, and this great building Arnolfo's presented Brunelleschi with his opportunity to construct, in r4zo 36, the first splendid monument o{' the Renaissance. The Baptistery's Corinthian columnar and pilaster orders, with entablature or arcades,and its parti-coloured marble veneering became and continued to be usual in the Florentine area until the Gothic came. Parti-coloured marble, coffered panel work, and paving slabs of great beauty and delicacv (exemplified also at San NIiniato, Florence) were made as time passed. Some importation of the zebra-work of Pisa occurred which befbre tzg3 'macigno' stone. as on the corners of the Baptistery, showed the structural

The interior of the Baptistery is dignified. Pairs of handsome free-standing columns between pairs ofpilasters at the angles of'the octagon sustain an entablature in the lower storey. Each column or pilaster of the ground storey has a pilaster above it, with the entablature abo\,e serving to mark the spring of the great octagonal vault. The recessesof the aqueductlike structural arches of the wall are masked by pretty bifora between marble parapets and parti-coloured panels. The vast mosaic above, and the extraordinary parti-coloured pavement beneath, both belong to the thirteenth century. San Miniato al Monterb [z8g grl is the most remarkable Florentine basilica. It became a Benedictineabbey church in ror8, and by rogo a new church was essentially complete, though the fbgade was finished in the twelfth century and the pavement dates fiom rzo7. There is an interesting open groin-vaulted crypt which en-

c E N , t R A Lt T A L \ ,


'I'ht' navchasa series olgfls a raisedsancruary' with bavs three clerestorr free three-arched in each,ditided br' and tbur trusses lindo*r archeson grouped piers The apse dirphragrn with a mosaicon the arcade. a decorative f,1s the fagadealso has a decorative rcoi-dome;

arcade with a mosaic above. Marble vencering and the brightly painted ceiling and rrusses add to the colourlul effect. San Miniato is believed to have inspired the fbgadesof the Badia at Fiesole (late twellih century, though the church was given to the Bene-

.414:-." *

z9oand ugr. F lorcncc,San trliniato, tnterior,linished ro6z go, and plan

d i c t i n e s i n r o r 8 ) , a n d t h e c o l l e g i a t ec h u r c h o l St Andrew in Empoli (twclfth centurl'). Smaller churches in Florence and the sur-f rounding region are much simpler. hey have a great deal of bare stone-work, but possess the classicaldignitv and good proportion which are generally characteristic of Florentine buildings. 'I'he year ro6z was signalized b1' an overwhelming victorv of the Pisan navy in a battle o1I' Palermo. This action marked a 6nal successin a long war against the SaracensofSicily, whom the Pisans, with the Genoese, had fought to a standstill in Sardinia. and driven fiom that island.


- |l' 'l'



zl!9. Florcncc,.San Miniato, llEade,

a : : :: : a

ro6: and twelfih centurr

l I -T F I f ' a l -



ltg' +l' The fbund.ll l,."t"raUtecathedral laid in an openstte' were the church llt""r --. "t oaptistery ( r r 53 ff')' ftee-stanolng --^ ^ lqrEe

Pisans began '- 'ro following year' 1063' the

ff') (r278 Santo tr')' andcamPo #;';i;;;of examplcs finest i, to make ffii :l'.:f .tht All the buildings tJl"t*

buildings' cathedral and arcading' panelling' marble with lr. t*.0 beautifully' weathered hare thel Li-nra.r, to rhc monumenr standas a splendid l;;;t rePublic'1; Pisan *rna.ut of the or by Buschetus " lh..r,h.dttl wasdesigned about earnest in began Boschetto.Building by Gelasius .t.or,t".tation wasperfbrmed lo=ig. westward homogeneous fairly A ii"in ttta. Rainaldus was not the building. by nave the of have ,*t.nrion Like man-v othcr great sttuctures which 126r-72' The plan is an elaborannirft.a trrr:Jl ofPisa cathedral the school, or group u layout reallythe conjunc- initiated tion ofthe basilican
group from the air' tob3 t35o zg4.Pisa,cathedral

tion of three basilicas, each with a galler-v: the great double-aisled nave is intersected b1' a minor transept formecl of two single-aisled crossbasilicasset front to front, with the domed t h e m lzg5l Each ing ofthe great nave between an apse with provided was oflhe minor basilicas and with extremit-v, outward the at own its of rel urned r e t u r n e d a i s l e sa t i t s i n u a r d e n d ' T h c s c great ofthe aisles aisles coalescewith the inner and basilicas' transeptal the off nave, screen (on plovide extra support lbr the oval dome crossthe at shallow pendentives) squinches an<1 galleries ing. The aisles are groin-vaulted; the extremltles' the at Except wood. in are covere<l around the aisles and galleries arc continuous


PisaCathedral, ro61, ro8g r:72



zg5. Pisa Cathedral, Io63, rolil


of baptisterics: 296.Scctions ,r. Pisa,r r.5-j i265, lvith hall-plans hall-scctitlns comparative n. Parma, I r96, section'rvith Plan






l L'.


is, within an embracin !i unity, stvlistically,comp o s i t e . I t s b e a u t i l u l l v s h e a t h e dm a r b l e e x t e r i o r has decolrti ve arcadesand pilaster rirngeswhich were probirbly suggested from Rome and Florence, rarher than (as has been suggesred) ii'om Armenian works remote in time and place, and dillelent in design. I'he lbur-sroried arcading ofthe faQade, Iinished in the thirteenth centurv, probably' reflects Lombard lree-standinE gallerr worl. Such arcading in marble, freestanding or applied, becomesthc sign manual of the Pisan school, especialll when accomp a n i e d w i t h s q u a r e p a n e l s s e t p o i n r u p r v a r d si n -l'he the tlmpana of the arches. n a v e a r c a d eo f ' the chulch is sct on a magnificentrangeofantiq u e c o l u m n s , p u r e l v R o m a n i n s t y l e, w i t h s l a b like impost blocks. f'he upper parr of the nave has zebra u'ork (ultimately inspired from the classical olur mittum) which becomes onlv too

Romanesque and Gothic. A pointed triumphal arch terminatesthe navc. b u t t h e r r c h e s b e v o n d a r e r o u n d , a n c lt h c m o s a i c o f t h e a p s ei s c l e a r l y i n t h e B v z a n r i n e t r a d i t i o n . T h e b a p t i s t e r y , d e s i g n e db 1 ' D i o t i s a l v i [ 2 9 . 1 ] , thc Holl h a s l e m i n i s c e n c e so f R o m a n a n r i q u i t y , a n d o t Land, to which the Pisan merchanr

I-amiliar in


The great Pisan belfr.v Iz9z] is c1-lindrical like the old belfries in Rlvenna, but much morc elaborate, being faced rvith marble and embcllished with six storel's of decorative malble g a l l e r ya r c a d i n g .U n l b r t u n a t e l y i t w a s b u i l t w i t h insufficient lbundations on ground ot unc\cn resistance, and was carried fbrward in spite ol' early settlement. Loading the uppel side and bending the shaft (which as a result has someu e r e u n a r a i l i n gt o w h a t t h e s h a p eo l a b ; r n a n a ) arrest progressile deliation fiom the perpend i c u l a r ,a n d t h i s h a s o n l r t t c c n t l r b e e ns t o p p e t l by a modeln fbr.rndationThe building is conand the cathes i s t e n ti n s t v l e w i t h t h c b a p t i s t e r . v dral, although cal'ried fbrward as late ts t27r ( b y G e r a r c l o ) . T h e m o t i f i s c s s e n t i a l l yt h a t o f the galleried fbgade ofthe cathedral envcloping 'I'he bcll the cvlindrical shali of the tower' As r 3 5 o ' a b o u t f i o m chamber at the top dates

thus linished the torver is r79 f'cethigh, and it ts slightly' more than thirteen f'eetout of plumb' 'Ihe Campo Santo [:94] is the lburth of thc great buildings in thc cxthedral closc at Pisr. and it is said that the earth coveringthe garth is i n d e e dh o l y , h a l i n g b e e nb r o u g h t f r o m P a l e s t i n e as ballast in Pisan ships Although the fianrpo Santo was largel-vbuilt (b1' Giovanni di Simone) in rz78-83, and has Italian Gothic archesxnd tracer]',it is laid out like an clongatcd classical u ith tamousliesa t r i u m . L a t e r i t w a st l c c o t ' a l e d stoa poecile' c l a s sical l i k c a i t c o e s .w h i c h m a d e I n p a s s i n go n e s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e t t o r t l t t r i u m came to metrt ((ttt(lcr.)tin medie\al Latin' Both are mcdieralized t h e u s a g ca n c l t h e a r ' c h i t e c t u r e e x a m p lc (It sullered in this lerr beautiful greatlv in the Second World War') In the citv, thc chlractcristicswhich rvehave n o t e d i n t h e c a t h e d r r r lg r o u p a r e f u r t h e r c x e m -

marine was transporting crusaders and pilgrims at the time of its construction. 'fhe scheme is l i k e t h a t o f t h e R o t u n d a o f t h e A n a s t a s i si n Jerus a l e m ,b u t t h e d e t a i l i s P i s a n , a n d t h e i n t e r i o r i s vaulted. The original vault is a truncared cone, w i t h i t s e r e n o w c l o s e d ;t h e o u t e r v a u l t ( l a t e r )i s a dome Iz96,r ]. Both tvpes of'roof , in wood, har-e protected the Anastasis. The older carving on the building is very beautiful, and r,erv classical i n s p i t e o f i t s d a t e ( r r 5 3 a n d l a t e r ); N i c o l a P i s a n o participated in the remodelling of'the exterior i n t h e G o t h i c s t y l e( r z 5 o 6 5 ) . t N



c E N T R A Lr r l r _ v


b;rsilicas in the Pisansttle man) wooden-rooled thcse \\e ma\ menlion San A m o n g b u i l t . were 'forrcs (late eleventh centur-Y Porto Gar,ino at 'double-ender'), e x c e p t i o n a the b v to t. rrrr; (r r t6 and a t C o d r o n g i a n r t s S a c c a r g i a d i Triniti ,. rrSo-r2oo), and Santa NIaria di Castcllo at (r. r zoo-r. r 3oo). Caglialrt On the mainland the Pisan Romancsque spreadfar bevond the boundaries of'the Republic. The style is exemplilied in parts of the cathedralofGenoa ( r r gg and later) ; at Pistoia in the church of San Giovanni luor civitas, trvcllih c e n t u r y ( t h r e e s t a g e so f P i s a n a r c a d i n g o n t h e 'Pieve' long flank ofthe church) ; at Arczzo in the (ranges galleries church ofcolumnar on or parish the laqade of the church, above an applied arcadei in stone, Izr6). Massa N{arittima Cathedral was built, still in the Pisan Romane s q u es t y l e , i n t z z S - 6 7 . O t h c r e x a m p l e sa r e S a n Giusto at Bazztno in the Abruzzi, and, firlther o n , t h e c a t h e d r a lo f ' ' l ' r o i a i n A p u l i a ( r o g t t o t h e thirteenth centur,v) rvhich wc har c alreadr' seen22 [z7ol. Before quitting central Itall w'e should mention three sites ofspecial interest. At the abbey of Sant'Antimo, near Siena, a Burgundianlooking church with apse, ambulatory', and radiating chapels, embellished, too, rvith sculpture in the Toulousan st.vle, was begun about I I I 8 . B u r g u n d i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a li n l l u e n c eb e f b r e the arrival ofthc Cistercians is almost unheardo f , a n d S a n t ' A n t i m o i s n o t w e l l e x p l a i n e d .I t w a s not Cluniac.ri At San Galgano betwcen Siena a n d M a s s a M a r i t t i m a t h e C i s t c r c i a n sb u i l t t h e i r chief house in Tuscanl'. The chulch there (alreadvmentioncd) datesft'om rzz4.

T h e r e m a i n i n g s i t e i s n e a r S i e n aa l s o ,n a m c l r . . San Gimignano, which still has thirteen tall towers (out of' 48, or tladitionall.r'76) which were raised as prir,ate fortilications liom the t w e l f t h c e n t u r v o n w a r d I z 9 7 l . S u c h t o w e r . si r l s o servc as refuges fi'om the Iiequent conflagrations which dcsolated the wood-built and crorvdcd citics of the time. At San Gimignano, a s e l s e w h e l e ,t h c t o w e r s a r e s q u a r e i n p l a n , a n d rise sheer with no ornament and ver]. f'ew openi n g s . S u c h i n d i v i d u a l c i t a d e l s , r v e rb eu i l t i n g r e a t n u n b e r s d u r i n g t h e i n t e n s e s t r u g g l e sa n d c o m petitions of medio,al cir,ic lif-e. At San Gimig n i r n o t h e t o w e r s o f t h e S a l v u c c i a r c a s c r i b c dt o the twelfth ccntury. The Palazzo Comunale ( 1 2 8 8 1 3 - 2 3 )h a s a t o u e l r 7 . 3 f - e e th i g h r v i t h a mark bel.ond which private towets might not rise.:r t o r v e r s ,a n d L u c c a Florence is reported to havc had r5o such 'rose like a lbrest'. As the

desolatedcities werc rebuilt. better construction, with greatcr useol'masonr1" in the houses, rendered the towcrs less necessarr. Because of t h c i r c o n s i d e r a b l eb u l k a n d t h e i r t e n d e n o t o t i p when not well fbundcd. almost all the towers have now been destrol'ed- 81, erception, thc t o w e r o f t h e A s i n e l l i l - a m i l y( r r 0 9 - r g ; 3 z o G a r i s e n d a( r r r o ; t e n I'eet high; foul feet out of plumb) and the Torre fcetout of plumb; never finished) irre to bc seen in Bologna, which formerlr had about t8o privlte touers. O f t h e C o u n t e s sM a t i l d a ' s a n c e s t r a lc a s t l eo n Canossa, a rockl' f'astncssnear Reggio Emilia so much in thc news of ro77 - practicallvnothing rcmains. In generll thc tbltifications of the r e s i o n a r e r - e r vn u c h l a t e r i n d a t e .

297 San Gimignano, gcncrrl of torvcrs, I a r g e l i t s c l t i h t n ( l ( h t r l c ( . n ( lc tcllurics

is in the Pisan Romanesque I'aqade,rvith a nar.t h e x , d a t e d a b o u t r z o 4 . S a n N I i c h e l e ,a l s op i s a n . great The r erv much be_str.iped ancl be_ dates lrom r r43 to the lburteenth centurv. San pinnacled miniature of Santa N1aria F l e d i a n o . | | | z . 4 j . h a s a s t r i k i n g m o s a i ct n r h . d e l l a S p i n a ( a t h o r n f i o m t h e c r . o w no f t h o r n s ) . f a g a d e ,a n d i s m o r e R o m a n . A l l a r e b a s i l i c a ni n r . 1 2 57 . s h o u s h o u s o m e l h i n g o l t h e s p i r i r o l . scheme, and employ marble, as is usual in the (.athedrrl Romanestlue livcrlon in Tu:can 1'uscanv.2o 'I'he' Gothic.1" expansion olthe Tuscan school was r erl L u c c a h a s a b e a u t i f i r ls e r i e so f c h u r c h e si n t h e considerable. In Sardinia it is found with litrlc P i s a n s t y l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e c a t h e d r a lo f s a n N t a r _ c h a n g e . r rA n E a r l v C h r i s t i a n d o m e d c r u c i f o r m tino, rlhich, through irs possession ofthe ,\'olto c h u r c h s u r v i v e s ,i n p a r t , i n S a n S a t u r n o , C a g l i a r i Santo' lrom the eler,enth century onwar.d, be_ ( f i l i h c e n t u r . r) , a n d t h e r e a r e r a r h c r r o u s h larcl c a m c a p l a c eo f ' p i l g r i m a g e .T h o u g h r h e i n r e r i o r exanrples in the same sryle,s.ell r.uult.d.Bur ofthc church is Gothic, our architectural interest from the eleventh to the fourteenth centur\

plified. San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno (begun about rzro) is a smaller and sercrer r.ersionof the




I CE VEN with thc Bvzantine East Constant rel'ltionships cast qaue Ven.tiun architecrure a Blzantine ol' c l a s s i c i s m a s t h e "which p c r e e p t i b l e is a..".il] fulll' most itself shows This Tus.anr'. Rome and Marco'r begun in Iob3' not in the church of San the ducal chapel; it is a st h e b i s h o p ' s s e a tb u t a s Evangelist St Mark' of thc the shrine for relics in 828, and -{lexandria from Venice to brought The old housedin a cruciform church after 976 u'as and r9oz, tell in tower in thePiazza, which this with associated lvas rebuilt, afterwards building. The ncrv church o(' lo63 w''rs dedicated in rog5, but it was not linished with its mosaicembellishment until wcll into the twelfth century. As first built, it was almost purely and undoubtedl-v due in large Byzantine in st-vle, oart to Byzantine architects and craf tsmen The standard of workmanship is verl' high, especially for the time. The church is a good example of'the t-vpe 'cross ol domcs' or composite known as the cruciform five-domed church, for it has five d o m e d u n i t s s o c o m b i n e d ( u i t h i r p s el n ' 1 n a r c extension) as to mark a gleat cross in groundplan. This was thc'rrrangement of Justinian and Theodora's imperial mausoleum church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, and Justinian's church built at tl-retomb of St John the Evangelist in Ephesus, both of which hirve been destroyed. San N1arco difters from the original in lacking a gallerl', in h:r'r'ing the sanctuary in the eastern limb ol the cross (rather than cent r a l ) ,i n h a v i n g w i n d o w s i n t h e d o m e s c o r e r i n g t h e l i m b s o l ' t h e c r o s s ,a n d , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e l a t e r additions of pointed and Renaissancest1.le'The proiecting pierced piels go back to the B1'zln-

tine originals, and were ttansmitted, as wc have seen, to Saint-Irront at P6rigueux. A Bl.zantine church sould probablv not have large mosaic subjects on the pier rvalls, below the spring of the vault, but otherwise the decorative scheme 'l'he marble veneer of the runs true to tvpe' interior, now patinated to a beautiful soft brown, is actualll- made of slabs which werc almost white when applied. Much of thc furniture of the churcl-r is Byzantine in style also. N o ' s c h o o l ' d e l e l o p e do u t o l t h e e o n s t t ' u c t i o n ofSan N{arco in Venice''l'he building, bcautiful as it was, had ver.vlittle direct efect a sure sign $cle Blzirntine' rnd out ol' that its rrrchitects 'l'he B y z a n t i n c m o s a i c i s t s ,n o t touch with Italy. so f'arremoved in sentiment, rverc more influential. 'Il Santo' (the church of'Sant'AnAt Padua t o n i o ) l r a s l a i d o u t ( r 2 3 I ) i n s o m e l v h a tt h c s a m e * a 1 ' , b u t i n t e r i o r l y - f a c c dw i t h h a n d s o m ea s h l a r , and cxteriorly carried out with l'ombald brickwork and detail'[zg8' 299]. At Torcello, Santa Fosca (perhaps d ated I o r i ) is a much Italianized version, with exterior gallcries, of'a centralized B1'zantine squinch church t5'pc Perhaps therc is something of Bl.zantine subtlcty in the hands o m eb u t s i m p l e b a s i l i c a nc a t h e d r a l( 6 ' 1 r, r e b u i l t in 86+ and again about Ioo8)' The sereneint e r i o r i s s t i l l a r r a n g e d a s D e s i d e r i u s ' s b a s i l i c aa t Montecassino was. The torvcr beside it is very elegant, and enriched with tall dccorative irrcad' o m b a r d ' b u t r e l a t e dt o ing, which is essentialllL B1-zantine work. It recalls the original shape ot t h e t o w e r o f S a n N l a r c o o n t h e P i a z z ai n V e n i c e ' ' Pelhaps something of'the eleganceofthc church at Mur ano (a crucilbrm building with a beauttabout fully arcacledrnd gallelied apse, finished also' contxcr t I.1o) comes fiom thc B-vzantinc

zgli. Padua,Srnt'-{ntonio, bcgun rz-lr


L A N D S A ^ S S O C I A T I DW T T H I N


N o R T H E R Nr r . r r _ v


Romanesque,$ orks to the pcl'iod of the -, and alterwa,ros -Lflgue its allurial character. the region W c a u s eo f b r i c k . The clar burns to enchanting b u i l d si n browns tn the ceslern pall o, thc a n d dnls full, beauti[ul. brighr. rich reds in dley, and to about Nlilan. Sout'ces of'stone are, dre region \erl remote, and eas-tcomh O W e v e rn . ever it possible to use that material made municadon freely, often in combination with blick. The g1one is rather grey and grittv; hence, lor better. marble and breccia (also obtainable) N'ere 311ect, 'fhough Veneusedwhen the means allowed it. was littlc imitated, the gaiety of' thn architecture cristing Venetiancolour and rich matelirrls had its eli'ect on the mainland design. Architecturally, as we har,e scen, rhe rcgion had international importance bt the year 8oo. Its style of that time, the Lombardo-Catalan First Romanesque, did not change mr.rch as it matured. It was used in larger, more substantial buildings of much better workmanship, with more ambitious vaults, and enriched br, more elaborate mouldings, galleries, ancl sculptural rnotifs, but it shows little trace of outside indor ton'ards Spain, Irrance, S*itzcrland, Gcrmant. fluence. and Two striking features do,eloped, horveyer: the squarebelfrl rower, and the rib vauh. Ot' courseRoman towers stubby tlrrre.s - had been built in Lombardi. Thc scricsof monumcnral church towers appears to begin wirh San r . o r e n z oi n M i l a n ( a b o u r 4oo. later rcr.r extensively rebuilt). The church, a qurrrefbil, has four corner torvers, with pr-oiecting apses bet w e e nt h r e e o f t h e p a i r s . T ' h i s s c h e m eo f a n a p s e b e t w e e na t o w e r p . i , * u . t a k e n up in Germany (Fulda, about 7go. and manj orhers subscquenrly). It is the tall Lombard tower built specificallv as a belfry, with pilaster strips and .o.b.l ,"b1.. ils decoration, which appears to otle something to Rome, the Exarchare, ancl thc B-rzanrines. The great betfiv of Old St Peter's in Rome, built into the propl'laeum range [3], largel-rin 755 6s,

u , a su n d o u b t e d l y v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l . T h e p l a i n old M o n k s ' T o u c r b e s i d eS a n r ' . \ m h r . o c i o in \lilan [.1o2 | i s o n e o f t h c o l d e s t n o r v i n e \ i s l e n c c ( r e n rh century) though the belfrf is modcrn. San Satiro in l\{ilan has a characferistic cxamnle. dared ro43 rarher. t h a n c o n l e m p o r a n e o u s l _u ri r h the church. Belfl.ies multiplied in the eleventh centurv becauseof improvements in bell castins. antl increase o f m e a n s m a t l e i t p o s s i h l cf o r r n r n , churcltesto hare sets ol bclls. Conspicuous a m o n g t h e t v p i c a l L o m b a r d t o w e r so f e a r l 1 . date and mature design is that of pomposa (ro63), built by Abbot Guido of Ravenna [3or]. It has nine stap;es,marked by pilaster strips, applied shaf-ting, and arched corbel rables. Orieinallv t h e o p e n i n g s o n e a c h s i d e i n c r e a s e df , . , r - o n c narrow loophole at the bottom to tbur generous arches in the bellil-.-1 While within the Po Vallev onc f'eels Lombardy as a great corridor, in the north one is conscious of the radiating mountain pirssesand the reflex influences { Germanic lands. l.he Lombard belfry r'25 represented on the pied_ montese cathedrals of Ivrea and Aosta bv the e a r l r e l e r c n t hc e n t u r ) . T h e r e i s a f i n e e x a n r p l c of paircd bclfn rouers on lhc church of Sant'Abbondio ar Como in north Lombardv | 3 o o l . h r e p l a c e d a n i n t e r e s r i n gE a r l y C h r i s r i a n structure which has been traced by excavation. 'fhe n e w c h u r c h , b u i l t o f s t o n e , w a sb e g u n a b o u t ro63 and dedicated in ro95.r,The deep sanctuarv has two bavs ofrib vaulting and a ribbed apse; lateralll' there are two groined ba1,s to each s i d e a t t h e e n t r a n c eo f t h e s a n c t u a r l ' ;e a c hh a s a n apsein the thicknessof the wall, and oler this p a i r o f l i t t l e s a n c t u a r i e so , n e a t e a c hs i d e .t h e t a l l . acti\e bulks of the belfrl rowers rise. The church has a dignilied basilicrn lbq:adeand a generous clerestory in the nave rvhich, like the d o u b l e a i s l e s ,i s r o o f c d i n w o o d . I t i s w e l l k n o w n as a typical example of the use of'decorative applied shafting, pilaster strips, and corbel tables fbr articulation of'the dcsign, and fbr the enrichment of the wall surface. The wooden roofine of'

zgg. Padua, Sant'.{ntonio, begun rz.1r

Rut the lict that the Lombard stvle flooclecl in so close ro San l{arco in Venicels n;.;;';; artistic maturity ofnorth ltalv_ LOMBARDY

Thegreat alluvial plain of the po and rhe Adige whicl l_ombardv lies is r.evealed br a mere 11 rt the map as a narural corridor. Th. t; 9r"l-._. itselfis navigable lrom near the .onflu.rr.. ui,hJ River Sesia,for 337 miles to rts mouth. This rvas a great aid to trade in the Middle -tg"r, ,lr.n land transport was so dilicult. Ur.l,lrn. V.ri." I n L o m b a r d - t .t h c o l d e r connected Lombardl, Romanesque buil(1, u,ith southcrn Italv and lnFs prcsenr difticulr the Near East. A system chronological p.ohl.n,.. of Alpin. purr...*rl There are two schools ring upon Milan facilitared o f ' a r c h a e o l o g i c atlh o u g h r c o n n e x r o n sw i t h r h e one inclincd ro stress North. We ha-vealready exumplc. :;r.,1,_ seen how p o s e d l v t r a c e a b l et o toeas moyed from t h e e l e \ . e n t hc e n t u r l : t h c Rar.enna through this corriothel inclined ro assign fhe gr.cater.rhr,.. ,,,

A magnificent rotv of towns existetl crcn in a n l i q u i r vj n r h c p o | a l l e 1 . \ f t e r a d c c l i n e ,r r , r , l e derelopcd antl ther.increased greatll in poprrl.t_ tton and urban consciousnes^ _i ^ particularlr in the eleventh and twelfth c e n t u r i e s .s o t h a l r h c l uere capable of conlionring F r . e d e t . i c kl t r r r _ b a r o s s aw i t h t h e i r L o m b a r d Leaguc (r r(rS g.l) whenthatEmperorsoughrrorcgarn r.ighru s hir.h n a d l a p s e dd u r i n g r h e p e r . i o d o l . p a p a la n t l i r n _ perral anarchv.




the nave is both archaic and prophctic; for alter the carthquake of'rrr7 manv fine naves wcre roofed on wooden truss-work to ar,oid the risk of falling vaults. In passing, the trefbil plan lnd the vaults of San lredelc at Como should bc mentioned, fbr thesearc said to have been influenced lrom thc north. The aislesare carried entirely around the t r o n s e p t s r o t h s r l ' i a p s i d a lc a s t e n d , p e r h a p s i n partial imitation of St Mary in Capitol at C o l o g n c ( r o 4 5 6 5 ; s o m e w h a tl e b u i l t l ; r t c r ) . 1 ' h e date of San Fedelc apparently' fhlls, fbr most of i t s p r e s e n ts t r u c t u r e ,i n t h e c a r lI ' t r v e l f t h c e n t u r v . I f s o , S a n F e d e l eh a sa n e a r l \ e x a m p l eo f t h e d e veloped Lombarcl caves gallerl' which we havc notcd previously at San Nicola in Bari. The earliest definitell- datcd. fully der,eloped ex3oo. (lomo, Sant'-\bhondio, r . r o 6 3 9 5 , s o u t hf l r n k

ample is claimed t try).i

against conservative protesl


f o r t h e c h u r c h o f S a n G i a c o m o i n C o m o ( ro r ; ; W e n o w t u r n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o no f L o n r h 1 1 6 rib vaulting, a much rnorc difficult subjecr 11 involves some qucstions of-date and scopc 61' i n f l u e n c e sw h i c h m a y n e v e r b e s o l v e d , b e c a u s s of'lost monuments. For us it is sullicient to say that about lo5o there was, ovel a wide area, stretching all the rvay from Armenia through the Near Easr to v a u l t s o ( ' r ' a r i o u ss o r t s Italy, Spain, and lirance, a eireat interest in rib ribbed tunnel, domical


from the wcst church and tower' Io6j'

o r c l o i s t e r ,r i b b e d g r o i n , a n d c o m p o u n d v a u l t s . The original impulse was Byzantine (thc dome of St Sophia is the lirst ambitious ribbed rault); h t e r t h e i d e a w a s t a k e n u p b l ' t h e N l o s l e m sa n d







used successfirlly though sporadicalll' by them. The Armenians first applied it systcmaticallv to church architecture, beginning early in the seventh century. Trdat, the Armenian architect who repaired the r,aultof'St Sophia about 975, was one ofthe innovatorsin the'Second Period ol'Bloom' of'Armenian architecture. Afierwards (perhaps in the eleventh cenrury:) the Armenians der,eloped (especiallv for nartheces) a cler,er compound vaulr with thc r.ibsarranged in plan like a prinrer's sign for space (f ). 'fhe narthex of the church at Casale Monf'errato, so arranged, but dated about rzoo, is late enough to show Armenian influence of'this sort operati n g t h l o u g h t h e C r u s a d e s ,b u t i r i s n o t p o s s i b l e to trace definite influence from Armenia either at the critical rime (about roso) or upon the critical form (groin vaulting).t At most, oriental contacts mal har,e stirred thc originalitv of W e s t e r n b u i l d e r s , a n d l e d t h e m t o d e r el o p t h e i r own essentiall\ R o m a n i n h e r i r a n c. e 'l'raccs of a Lombard ribbed groin vaulr claimedfor ro4o existin the ruined older part of t h e f o r m e r a b b e l ' c h u r c h o 1 ' s a n n a z z a r oS e s i a ( n o r t h - w e s t o l N l i l a n a n d N o r a r a ) .T h e o r i g i n a l church, reported as fbunded in ro4o. has becn r e p l a c c d .b u t t h e r e a r e r e m a i n so f a b r i c k n a r t h e x with two-storer groin-r'aulted aisles flanking an o p e n n a v e , a n d c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n st h a t t h e t r i b u n e was (as at V6zelay, about rr4o) carried across t h e o p e n n a v ea t t h e e a s te n d o f ' t h e n a r t h e x . O n l v t h i s a x i a l t r i b u n e b a v h a c lr i b s , a n d t h e v r e s t e d on terracotta capitals of archiac lbrm. Herringbone work and pebbles in the construction also give it an archaic air. Such wall-work usualll' indicates a ninth-, tenth-, or earlv eleventhcentury date. Restoration work has shown that this wall was not integral, and that the narthex may be of the twelfth century. While Sesia is on the border of the Milanese area, the first Lombard ribbed groin vaults were most probably built farther east, in or near Milan." In view of Nloslem rib constructions. it is worth noting that the piersat S:rnnazzaro Sesia

are rather like Moslem piers turned thron[\ f o r t r - f i r e c l e g r e e sA . gain, the aisle and rrih,.11," vaults still existing have strongh'salient ar.rises I n t h e o b l o n g g r o i n v a u l r b r i d g i n g r h e n a r c , 1l " addition ofdiagonal ribs produced a much bctter s y s t e mo f i n t e r s e c i o n s a n d m a d e t h e v a u l t e a s i c r ro construct, in addition ro enriching it. Odcllr cnough ar Vezela) the high raulr aborr rhe tribune actually has diagonal ribs also, thougtl the other bays do nor (dated about rr.lo); ar Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, as well, the narthex h a s r i b s , t h o u g h t h e o t h e r b a - v -o -s f the atrium (dated about rog8) do not Note should be taken that Ivrea Cathedral. twenty-fir'e miles from Sannazzaro Sesia, .nas rebuilt after 96z and before r oo r on a large scalc, and with an ambulatorr'. Without minimizing the importance of the mountain barrier, rvc mat sa) that the interr,ening Kingdom of Arlcs united lather than divided Lombardl. and France, for by the year r ooo very interesting and clever structural work (including a remarkable n a r t h e x ) w a s d o n e i n t h e L o m b a r d s t 1 - ' la et S a i n t Philibert, Tournus, scarcely 25o miles norrhwest from the Nlilanese area. William of Diion, who did such important architectural work at Saint-B6nigne(roor-r8), came from Volpiano (forty miles distant) and Novara (only twenrl' miles distant from this same region)., t h e s ew o r k s a t T o u r n u s a n d D i i o n d o n o t p o s s c s s rib vaults, and would seem to show that the Lombard ribbed groin vaulr doesnot date back to the earll years ofthe eleventh centur]-. In Lombard churches the aisle arches arc ofien paired, with an intermediate column bet w e e n t h e s u c c e s s i v ep i e r s . T h e c o l u m n s a r e \ e r V p r a c t i c a la n d u n o b s t r u c t i v e s u p p o r t s , w h i l e the piers provide bases tbr interior wall butt r e s s i n g .C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l , o m b a r d d e s i g n e r s o f t e n t h o u g h t o f t h e i r n a v e si n t e r m s o f d o u b l e bays the more so becausethe aisles were abottt half the width ol'the nave, and divided into s q u a r eb a y s .T h e n a v e ,i f i t h a d d o u b l e b a y s ,l l a s rhythmicalll divided into nearlv square units.

interior.buttresses rising from the Theshaft-like p i e r s s o m e t i m e s .c a l l i e d d i a p h r a g m ooup.a * h i . t l u r t h e r e m p h a s i z c dt h c b a v c o m irches. T h u s - t h e w a v w a . sp r e p a l c d l b r l a r g e I'osition. u r 1..of groin vaulting' resembling in Ilurt. thc large raults ot thc Basilica of * t y t M ,J *r .* r n r i u . and Constlntine and thc rhermll in Rome' establishments vaulted bays, inherited fiom square The history in the cr1'pts, Rome,begin their medieval (as in Moslem quadtille n used e are where they already menN1ilan near Agliate, [65], work). extioned, has an archaic eleventh-century w ith i n r u b b l e , i s i t s e l f ample. The raulting these are work In earll'' bays. the between erches ,disappearing arches'at their base, for the impost blocks of the columnar supports were relatively small, and wall responds were shallow or lacking. For the arches belween bays ol' a i s l ev a u l t i n g i n t h e c h u r c h e s , t h e p r i m i t i v e T shaped grouped nare-arcade pier developed spontaneousl!'!since there \rcre three arches 1br it to support. When transverse diaphragm arches w e r ep l a n n e d r o s p a n l h e n a r c . l h e r e u c r e f o u r a i c h e st o s u p p o r l . a n d t h e p i e r t h e r e u p o n q t t i t e naturally developed a cruciform plan (SS' Felice eFortunato, Vicenza,..rooo; Lomello,.' r025' with diaphragm arches resembling Carolingian flying screens; San Carpofbro, Comtl' rozE 4 o ; r 0c o m p a r e S a n N l i n i a t o a l N l o n t e , F l o r e n c e [z9o], where the applied elements are round, r. lobz ff.). Further development in the rault suggestedthe addition oflogical elements in the piers. Nook sha(ts on the diagonal appeared when diagonal ribs were introduced. Since the :risle bals vaulted without ribs o b v i o u s l y 'i n d i c a t e r v h a t u n s u p p o r t e d a r e a t h e engineers could convcnientlv vault, it is worth noting that a criss-cross ot ribs in the dotrblc bays of the n:n'e would divide such bays into four triangles. each equal in area to a squilre a i s l eb a y . A s t o u t a r c h e d c e n t e r i n g w a s e r e c t e d under each arch and rib; false-work bstween provided a suppolt fbr the rubble of'the Iault

while it was being constructed,and also in the period of' lveeks or months during which it 'I'he Lombards built these vlults as solidilied. ponderous dome-like affairs which were not g o o d t o l o o k a t o r e a s yt o a b u t [ S o : 6 ] . A c t u a l l v the ribs neutralized the advantage of domed construction, for the.v brought to the angles of the vault strong concentrations ofthrust which 'l'his were neither understood nor prepared for. was particularll dangerous in large-scale high vaults. and in consequence such vaults have not behaved well. Partisans of earlv dating suppose that man] earlv vaults of this tvpe failed during the severe earthquake of rI17, but that examples continued (though less fiequently) to be built. Partisans of later dating assign such rauk, in general to a generationor morc after r r I7. Lighter vaulting' built more or less in the French Gothic manner, superseded the ponderous Lombard type late in the thirteenth century. Many important churches which had been rooden-roofed were successlully vaulted at that time. There is no specific documentarl reference t o e a r l y r i b b e d h i g h v a u l t s ,t h o u g h , b y w h a t o n e 'historical dead reckoning' conmight call mid t h e o f r e v i v a l g r e a t t h c w h o l e sidering thesewere due to appear in elerenth ccntur] sonre imltortant btrilding Proiects aboul l065 o r 7 5 o r 8 . 5 .B u t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e original examples are lost, and the more conservative methods of studl indicatc a later date' For the creation of the fbrm, it would only be necessarv, as we easily perceive, for an engineer to imagine auxiliarv ribs like the usual arches ofthe little groin vaults in the crypts, but p l a c e d o n t h e d i a g o n a l a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n ,p r o b abl,v, of Roman groin vaulting (where, to be sure, the arris ribs are not auxiliarv construction, but integral). Since the engineers were alrcad.t building substintial centering under t h e a r c h e so f c o n v e n t i o n a l v a u l t i n g , t h e d i a g o n a l the centering which is so uselul in facilitating imagined' easil-v was construction of big ba1's


L A N D S A S S O C T A T E DW r l ' H r N



:oz. X{ilan, Sant'.{mbrogio.fiom thc * t e n t l tc c n t u r l a f i e r r r 8 r

3o3 and -io.1.Nlihn, Sant' \mbrogio,

ninth. elcr cnth. irnd twcllih ccntrtries (rcstored I li63)

along with the nook shafrsin the piers fbr the permanent support of the diagonalribs. -I-he historically important church of Sant' Ambrogio in Milan L:oz .Sl is a convenicnr erample ol'rhe developedfbrm ol'this architec_ t u r e a n d e n g i n e e r i n g .H c r e t h e L o m b a r d K i n g s and German Empcrors were crowned with the Iron (,rown, rvhich is nou, at Monza. Unfortunatelv the clating of the church is largelv conjectural, but it is usuallv accepted as r e p r e s e n t i n g w h a t t h e I , o m b a r d e n g i n e e r sa n d d e s i g n e r sw e r e a b l e t o p l a n a n d u n d e r t a k c a b o u t ro8o.r1As early as r196, however, the vaults llere being repaired, and the high vault mav

n o t a c t u a l l v h a v e b e e n b r . r i l te a r l i e r t h a n r r r ; . We have referred to the building preriou:lr b1'mcntion of thc old apscwhich u'ith its intnrductorv bal of tunnel vaulting (an earlr cra m p l e ) w a s l e f i i n t a c t , r v h i l et h e s o o d e n - r o r r l i d basilican nave was replaccd by' a complcrclr vaulted, aisled str.ucturc of bricft u.ith stuccoed brickandrubbleraulrs. Itisapproachedrhror.rgh a spacious atrium with bold arches and snLr' 'l'his b u t t r e s s e s[ 3 o z ] . s e e m st o b e d a t e d a b o r r r l o g S b 1 , a n i n s c r i p t i o n ,t h o u g h i t h : r sb e e n t , built to a certain cxtcnr. It joins the church in ,r handsome narthex, which, u.ith its tribunc. ir i n c l u d e d u n d e r a w i d e s u ' e e p i n gg a b l e .



tharofthe wasnot,for its north wall ioined nave 'rirr.r, trit<-rrium rnd aisles tht rna the rrults of the against built *"tt.subsequently * the Accordingto documents' wall. l"rUi*a ro67I and (he new wasstill in u^se-in oiJnt". admitthis and must j'1' We rog iru. rtt.uay in comprerented conditions special ,uppot.that

to have been in use in rr3o lvith the altar reh a b i l i t a t e c l ,t h e d a t e o f r r z 8 f b r t h c f i r s t c o m pletion of Sant'Anrbrogio appears to be reasonit until r rTll (with a b l e . F r a n k l , h o w e r " e r ,d e l a . v s repairsas earlv as r r96). Sant'Ambrogio has a richll carled and embrasured main door-wa1.. Upon cntcring the

3o6.Rivoltad'Adda, San Sigismondo,ro99(r) elevcnthand trvcllih centuries pletion of the westernmost ba]' of the nave, where it joins thc tower. I n t h e n a v eo f s a n t ' A m b r o g i o , d o u b l c b a y s o f domed-up rib vartlting were plannecl fiom the first. Conservative archaeologistshesitate to put their actual construction befbre the earthquake o f t r r 7 . I n r r z 8 r e v e n u e sw h i c h h a d g o n e t o t h e rrronks, presumabl-v tbr building' were reass i g n e dt o t h e c a n o n s ,a n d s i n c e t h e n a v e a p p e a r s builcling, the visitor seesthrec great ba]'s ol' d o m e d - u p r i b b c d q u a d r i p a r t i l e\ a u l l i n F ' m u c h rebuilt, but probrbl-r likc the original late raults' 1'}re eleventh- or earlv twelfih-centur',Y like covered formerlv was be-vond, ba-v, fburth as an the others. but subsequentll'can'ied up ht o c t a g o n l l l a n t e r n . T h t a i r l e sl r e c o r e r e e l . t t n t n t orlum t h e i s a l s o s o l a u l t s ; ribbed groin tne rvhcre thel' are ill placcd to rcccl\e galler,-v,

T h e c h u r c h w a s s e r v e c ln , o t a l w a r s p c a c e a b l l, bv a communitl' of monks and a chapter of c a n o n s .E a c h h r r c a l c l o i s t e r .T o t h e s o u t h s t a n d s -lower thc lerJ' simple N{onks' (tenth centur'1) and to the north the verv handsome Canons' 'I'ower intcrruptcd in r r 28, and finishcd of r r 2.1, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i e i i n a ls c h e m e a l i c r r r 8 r a sophisticateddesign which is much admired a n d r . e r vt y . p i c a l . I t h a sp i h s t e r s t r i p s a n d a p p l i e d

s h a f i i n g , w i t h c o r b e l t a b l c s t o d i v i d e i t i n t o f r rc stagcs a b o r e t h e e a r e so f t h e c h u l c h . T h c o n i r l a r g e o p c n i n g s a r e t h r e e i r r c h e so n e a c h s i d c o t '.I'he late date explarrn the loftl' bell chamber. i t s s i m i l a r i t v t o t h e b e a u t i fu l b c l f i l . o f ' S a n F r a n c e s c oa t A s s i s i ( a f i e r r z z 8 ) . The masonrl indicates that the atrium *rts alreadJ. finished when the tower was unde:'taken in r rz3, but the wcsternmost bav of'tltc







t h r u s t o f t h e r . a s tr i b b e c l b l . s o f t h e n a r . e . ' I ' h e supports are logicallr clesigned,and conseq u e n t l v t h e ' s l s t c m ' i s a h e r n a t e ,w i t h s l e n d e r e r intcrmediate supports not columns, but ilpp r o p l i a t e l r a r t i c u l a t e dg r o u p e d p i e r s . E a c h p a i r of'main piers supports not onlv its shareof'the r a u l t i n g , b u t a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a lb u t t r e s s i n g u a l l uhich riscs to rhc roofing. clirectly abore thc tlanslersc arch. Such rvalls, bl isolating the separate ba1,s of uooclcn rool' construction, 'fhe would arrest a fire thele. big vaulting ba1..s arc harmoniouslv composed, but lack thc process i o n a lq u a l i t v o f t u n n c l v a u l t i n g .U n q u c s t i o n a b l v the church was \.ery dark befbre thc construct i o n o f - t h e l a n t e r n ; f o r t h e r e i s n o c l e r e s t o r t . .'r l\lention should be made ol'Earlv Christian churchesin Nlilan. rebuilt in the mature Lombard Romanesque stvlc thc Basilica Apostolorum and San Simpliciano particularly. Rivolta d'Adda has in the church of San S i g i s m o n d o , d a t e d r o 9 < yi ( ), authenric earh, Lombard domed-r.rp rib-r.aults [3o{rl. The church is instructire, in that the east end is cor cred by two windowless bays of semicircular tunnel vaulting with transvcrse arches. Beyond these come tr.o navc-bays of rib vaulting, which are vcrv irregular in curvaturc - in parts almost c o n i c a l - T h i s s h o w s i n e x p e r i e n c ea n d , t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l v r u s t i c , c i r u t i o n su s a g a i n s ta c c c p t i n g very earlv dates for the rjb construction. Here. o $ i n q t o s m a l l n e s s ,a c l e r c s t o r y i s p o s s i b l c . r l I n t h c g l e a r c h u r c h o l ' S a n \ | i c h c l c a r P a ri a ' [3o7] rvehave a stonecounrcrparr of Sant'Ambrogio in Nlilan. It was built slowly, about thc vear r roo to about r r6o, over a crucifbrm plan and uas providcd originallv wirh a small 'I'he clerestor\'. church has a semi-dome ancl a big single quadripartite bal. at the east; rhe t r a n s c p t h a s i t s a b s i d i o l e ss i m p l y c u r i n r o t h c subst:rntial east wall, with a crossing cor-cred br an octirpSona dlo m i c a l v a u l t o n s q u i n c h e s , a n d arms hy tunnel vaulting without trans\,ersc a r c h e s ; t h e a i s l e sa n d g a l l e r i e sa r e c o v c r e d b v

unribbed groin vaulting; the nave was inrcndcd t b r t n o b i g d o n r e d - u pd o u h l c b a r s o l ' r . i br ; r r r l t _ i n g , b u t w a s a c t u a l l y ' c o v e r e db v o b l o n g s i n q 1 . baysin the French manner. The clill-likc srrin. fbgadc, with a single sweeping gable fr-onring both nare and aisles. i s r c r ' l l a m o u s .a n , l , . r , intelesting lbr irsfriczes o f b e a s t s c u l p r u r . c |. 1 1 .

jo7. Paria, San Xlichelc, r. r roo 6o, from thc rvcsr

3o8. Parma Cathedral, twcllth ccnturv

fagade is articulated by shafiing and dosscrcrs w h i c h l b r m s h a l l o w b u t t r e s s e s ,a n d i s a d o r n c d at the top b1, a fine arcaded gallery. There is singular power in this design; and this comment mav be made gencrally on works in the Milanese area. Quitting the region about N{ilan fbr F,milirr. we find two excellent examples nl Lombald s t t l e i n P i a c c n z aS . anSavino,dcdicatcd in r ro;. h a s a n a p s cu i t h a t u n n e l - v a u l t e d s a n c t u a r ) b - al. f b l l o w e d b 1 't h r e e b i g d o u b l e b a 1 . s ofrib vaulting-. each with a single clerestorv window on cach side, and accompanving unribbed aisle bals. 'fhe interior has much r,igoul and harmoniou' proportions. The critics who date Lomblrd l a u l t i n g c o n s e r \ a t i v c l v a s s i g nt h c d e d i c a t i o n o l rIoT to the cltpt, which is a fine and spacious

example. The date might better be applied to the t u n n e l - v a u l t e d s a n c t u a r v ,i n w h i c h c a s et h e b i g double bays of rib vaulting might be later perhaps (inevitablyl) after the earthquake of rI17. It is an admirable example of the large Lombard parish church.r" P i a c e n z aC a t h e d r a l , l Tb e g u n b y r r 2 2 ' i n u s e by r r58, and finished, with somc rebuilding, in the thirtecnth century, is one ofthe grand row of E m i l i a n c a t h e d r a l s .I t h a s a w i d e t r a n s e p t w i t h a p s e sa t t h e e n d s , l i k e t h e t r a n s e p t o l ' l ) i s a , a n d 'l'he screened, as at Pisa, lrom the main navc. bold exterior forms ofthe church at the east are d r a m a t i z e d h a p p i l l ' b y a s e r i e so f ' G o t h i c p i n nacles ( i n b r i c k , l i k e t h e l a t e l c o n s t r u c l i o n si n the church). There is a single big brick tower, 'l'hc ofthe usual sort, to the north of the nlre

lbqadeis, like the older work in the cathedral' carried out in stone. It has thc usuirlsweeping w i d e g a b l e ,g a l l e r i e s ,a n d t h r e e p o r c h e s w i t h t h e columns carried on the backsof animals. Each 'I'he p o r c h h a s a r e c e s sa n d t r i b u n e a b o v e i t . Gothic st-vleappears in a dignified rose window. Here ancl there in the fine m:rsculine interior t h e r e i s a t o u c h o f t h e G o t h i c , b u t t h c e l l e c t sa r c R o m a n e s q u e . l ' h e n a v e h a s b i g r i b - r ' a u l t c c lb a v s with a clerestoly (except fbl thc traditional t u n n c l - r a u l t e d s a n c t u a r v b a 1 - ) ,a l s o t h e u s u a l octagonal domical vault on squinches at the crossing, and a spacious cr1'pt under the raised choir. Thc efl'ect, both extcrior and interior' is . verv impressive I n P l r m a ( l a t h c d r l l ' " l - i o l { l u e h a v ea t t o l h c t ' s p l e n d i t lc r a m p l c . T h e r e u a s a d c d i c a t i o ni r r










short with the nllc' but planted lt ir arr,a te ' ' r tS t r n t ' t "* nd .. from the church. likc the prir 'f he toners har e thcir t'ear in l\lilan irl.ogi" f a u i t h r h e l a d ew a l l o t t h e c h u l c h ' *rffr i"fin. p roiect both in widrh antl in dcpth' ,Jtlrt tft.u in colouri tbr only the corner ih.y .onrtutt trtipt. thc corbel tables' and tltc openflrrt.t t,on.. thc restbeingot led blick Thc lngrrr. in ao*at \\ iIScarried up onl.r hal I ;r stage : the no-rttt other is capped b1' a Gothic fourth tt"g. oi the that in turn bl.pinnaclcs and and stone, in belfry active profilc but late roof'of a tall pyramidal date. To the south-west near this towel stands the b a p t i s t e r vo f t h e c a t h e t l r a l , b u i l t o f b r i c k l n d stonein the tw ellih-century' st1le, although not finished until the thirteenth [296e, .ioSl' I'here 'Beneare rich portals and other sculptures by Porter's (in X'{r Antelami' detto miscalled phrase). The sculptor is believed to be the a u t h o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g , w h i c h w a sb e g u n i n I r 9 6 ' I t h a s ,a b o r e r h r : g l o u n d s t o r e r . l b u r s t a g e ' o f gallery colonnades between strong spur but(at the corncrs); a decorative arcade and tresses arched corbel table, plus corner pinnacles, terminate the design. Perhaps the colonnaded galleries were sup;gestedb1-'the fagade of Pisa Cathedral, which was being finished at the time. The interior also has colonnadccl galleries, two in number, coming above the portals and their intervening niches and below a ribbed vault -l'he of eight compartments. font is of convcntional form, with steps and an octagon:rl parapet. Monumental baptisteries of'this sort are rare in the Middle Ages; they recall the timc rvhcn baptism was an episcopalfunction, and when large numbers of' catechumens were baptized together at Eastertide. Cremona',rhas a similar cathedral group begun in rr2g-.+-l with the church, but the transept arms date onlv fiom r 288 and lverc not finished unril about r342. T'his transept) the c r o s s i n g ,a n d t h c c h o r r a r m a r c \ c r \ i m p r e s s i t e

i n c o m p o s i t i o n a lm a s s . ' I ' h eb u i l c l i n gi s l a r g e l r o t b r i c k , r v i t h a f a q a c l eo f s t o n c . T h i s i s i n p u t Romanesque, but it is adorned b1' a Gothic portal, pierced b-v a Gothic rose rvindow, and capped by huge scrolls of Renaissance design a r c a d e ,p e d i m e n t , a n d p i n with a Renaissance nacle on the axis. A vast torver of Gothic date r i s e st o t h e n o r t h , a n d a l a r g e b : r p t i s t e r l ' o 1r r 6 7 'I'hc cnsemble ]ras is set at the south and rvest. a p p o s i t ei n s h o u i n g i s s i n g u l a r l r a n d bold scale h o w t h e g r a n d q u a l i t i c so f t h c L o m b a r d R o m a n csque lived on into the Gothic and Renaissance periods. T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e ,g r e a t n u m b e r s o f s m a l l e r buildings, each with somethinq of interest, rvhich cannot be taken up in a general work ol' t h i s s o r t . P a s s i n gm e n t i o n o n l y c a n b e m a d e o f thc substantial rotunda ol the old cathedral in Brescia (about r I r 5) ; San Pietro in Cielo Aurco a t P a v i a ,d e d i c a t e di n r r 3 2 , f i n i s h e da b o u t r r 8 o , S a n t ' E u s t o r g i oa t M i l a n , w i t h f i ' a g m e n t sd a t i n g back to ro4o, but made over into a vaulted hlll church. with unilbrm domed-up groin vaults' a f t e l r r 7 8 ; F c r r a r a C a t h e d r a l ,w i t h a f i n e p o l t a l of'rr35; Verona Cathedral, with sculptures b1 Niccolir. dated about rr35i the cathedral of Borgo Sirn Donnino, with sculptules bl.Benedetto Antellmi; San Pictro at Asti and San Salvatoreat Almcnno. both circulal churches ofthe elerenth centurY (a rare fbrm in f,onlbardl').2" As ,r fine example of thc twelfth-centurv wooden-roof'cd church in [-ombardv' there can be no happier choice than S:rn Zcno Nlaggiore 'Ihc s t fu c t u r c i n c o r r r l. in \ ct'onlrr [.ilo. .1 p o r : r t e sl r a B m e n t s d a t i n g b a c k t o a b o u t t o . 1 o , but the building which we know took character Fine a b o u t r r 2 3 3 - 5 ,a n d w a s l o n g u n d e r w a 1 ' ' . was used patinated, beautifullv marble. now '['he f'aqadeis much licelf in its construction. aclmireclfbr its harmonious pl'oportioning, with b a s i l i c i r np r o f i l c : i t s e n r b c l l i s h m e n t si n t h c l b l n r ol' marble relief.s neal the door (dated abottt

3og. Parma C,athedral, trvellih ccnturl

r I 0 6 , b u t t h e e a r t h q u a k eo f l r r 7 w a s d i s a s t r o u s , and only parts ofthc old work were retainedin 'l'hc t h e m a g n i f i c e n tr e b u i l c l i n g . c h u r c h w a sl a i d olrt as a great cross in plan [jogl, with a huge cr_r'ptrecalling that at Spel'er Cathedral. The c r l p t i s c o v e r e d b 1 ' a q L r a d r i l l co f ' g r o i n - r ' a u l t e d b a r s . H e r e , a s a t t h e p r i n c i p l l l e r . c l ,t h e c r o s s i n g . t h e s a n c t u a r yb a r , a n d b o t h a r m s o f t h e t r a n s e p t a I c p r a c t i c r l l \ s q u a l ' c il h e t l a n s e p t t e t m i n a l e s i n a p s e sa t t h e e n d s , a n d e a c h a r m h a s a n e a s t e r n a p s en e a r l v a s l a r g e a s t h c p r i n c i p a l a p s e .O n t h e extcrior this ploduces a powerful composition of serniq,lindrical and cubical fbrms building 'l'he u p t o a n o c t a g o n a ll a n t e r n . a p s c s ,t h e t f : t n s e p t , t h e s a n c t u a r v b a 1 ' ,a n d t h e t o r v c r a l e a l l enriched bv galleries. T h e w e s t e r n l i m b , r ' : r u l t e di n r r 6 z , h a s s e v e n b a v s w i t h s q u a r eg r o i n v a u l t s i n t h e a i s l e s ;t h e r e are uniform oblong ribbcd bavs,now sustained by tie-rods, over an arcacled tliforium gallerl 'l'his ancl a clerestorr', in the nave. unilbrm s\stem marks the surrcnder of'the traditional

L o m b a r d s c h e m ew h i c h r v e h a v e f b u n d i n S a n t ' Ambrogio and elsewhere; it is in line riith French developmcnts, though in France all thc vaults would be ribbed, the constructionllould b e l i g h t e r , a n d t h e c l e r e s t o r vw i n d o w s w o u l t l o f necessity (on account of the climate) be lalgcr. The weightiness of Parma is in the ltaLan tradition. A t t h e f - a g a dt eh e d e s i g n , b u i l t o f s t o n e ,m r i n tains the Lombard characterintact. I'here is a precipitous great wall carried up to a tremcn(lous sweeping gable, boldly accentuatedby a rich cornice and a continuous stepped gallerr bc'l h. trveen pvlon-like verticals .t th. .orn.rr. horizontal is masterfullv intloduced b1'trvo less open horizontal galleries and the threc port.rls' w h i l e t h e p r o i e c t i n gc e n t r a l p o r t r l l r i t h i t ' t l i bunes and buttresses,and the big oculus pielccd between the latter, give a vertical accent. 'I'his striking flqade was augmentcd bv t\1o t o w e r s , s t i l l r e p r e s e n t i n gt h e o l d t r a d i t i o n o t t l r c free-standing belfry, since thev arc not inte-

; 1 O O L A N D S A S S O C I A ' t E DW T T H I N T I I E H O L y R O M A N E M p T R E



1 r o. \'erona, San Zeno, r. r r zl and latcr

3rr. Verona,San Zcno, r. r rzl and later

I r 4 0 ; b y a r t i s t sn a m e d N i c c o l d a n d G u g l i e l m o ) and bronze door valvcs (incorporating earlr eler,cnth-ccntury elements) are wcll known. Familiar also is thc soaring; tower, set to thc south of the church near its eastcnd. The interior is basilican, with a relatir,elv small clerestorv and no trilbrium. The nar,e, covered by a beautilul Gothic rrelbil ceiling, is l a i d o u t i n a s e r i e so f b a y - s , dir,ided by interior buttrcsses which rise from compound piers. T ' h e s e b a v s a r e i r r e g u l a r b e c a u s eo f ' t h e d e l a v s in building. Thcre is a vcry narrow single bat just inside the fagade; then there fbllow, between compound piers, a three-archod bar, and thrce two-arched bavs, all with columnar shafts a s i n t e r m e d i a t e s u p p o r t s . T h e s u c c e e d i n gb a v i s s i n g l e - a r c h e d .T h e a b s i d i o l e sa t t h e h e a d o f '

t h e a i s l e so p e n e d i n t o t h i s b a y , w h i c h s c r i e d r s a sort of dwarf transept. The same bav anclits neighbour, plus a vaulted squaresanctuarr bar and apse of Gothic date, lbrm a line Lombar d 'high c h o i r ' . B r i d g e - l i k e s t a i r st o i t , i n t h e a i s l e s . s p a na d e s c c n d i n gf l i g h t w h i c h e x t e n d st h e $ h o l c width ofthe chulch and leadsto a magnificent c r ) , ' p tb e n e a t h t h e ' h i g h c h o i r ' . T h e c r y p r o p en s through three gencrous arches upon the stair'way leading liom the nave, and a large part of it is actually visible fi'om the nar.c. 1'he litulgr, s e e n a c r o s s t h c d e p r e s s i o n ,g a i n s s o m e w h l t i n dignity' because the sanctuary- platlbrm is clcvated and somewhat remote. Lccterns fbr thc readings are efl'ectivelr placed on the parapcl here and in a number of other churches uitlr similar crvots.

The arrangement iust described is, of course, the fullest possible and most monumental development of the old crypt and high choir scheme which we saw in its.beginnings at Old S t P e t e r ' sl a b o u r 6 o o ) , S a n t ' . \ p o l l i n a r ei n C l a s s e . Ravenna (ninth century), and Sant'Ambrogio in Milan (about g4o), all places of pilgrimage. This further reference to pilgrimage may serve to introduce the group known as Santo Stefano in Bologna,:r rsall].a Lombard Romanesque red-brick version ofthe Holy Sepulchre. The octagonal church representing the Anastasis has a twelr,e-sided central structurc. It is rather rough wolk, dating h'om about rr5o. Adioining it is a court of tr4z which represents the Holy Garden (covered, in Jerusalem, b1''the -I'he Crusader transeDt dedicated in rr49). ad-

joining church of San Pietro is more or less contemporar]'. The interior of San Pietro is disappointing, but the fagade is one of the best of its kind. With this we conclude our general study of the Romanesque church architecture of Lombardy. But we must go f'ar in order to reach the fbrthest limits ofthe style for echoesofit penetrated to Dalmatia (and on into Serbia as we have seen), Hungary, Gcrmany (and on into Russia, as already mentioned), the Netherlands, Scandinavia. and even, in some degree, to the north of France. It shared eastern Italy with designs partly dependent on the'liuscan style, all the way to Apulia. One Lombard monument will be best understood in this combined Lombardo-Tuscan am-








i..:.:. Miniato [zgr l and San Nicola [:.661 in irs 1sx, l:'l.::: big double ba1--s, with intermediate colurnnr, supports, a trilbrium (though lalse) rvith t1io1. i.l1i'li a r c h e su n d e r e n c l o s i n ga r c h e s ,a c l e r e s t o r r ,4 1 u a. rr",.'.i phragm arches, and wooden rooling. F-rch diaphragm arch carries a parapet which hrrs bqq. built up well above the ridge lcvel irsa precaution against the sprerd of fir'e starting in 15. intermediate wooden looling. I-ike San \icolr 'inch.rded' at Bari, Nlodena Cathedral has an ,nd t r a n s e p t .O n l f i n G o t h i c t i m e s ( r 4 - i 7 , r - 1 4 ( ra later) did the church receire its vaulting.'l'hcrc

rather than suprn in feeling encloses, I gallerv This, rvith rather B"ri;, at ias bav, makes a ive triple arches in each

3r2 to -lr+. N{odena Cathedral, begun togg, e\tcrl0r, rntcnor! ancl plan

& t
$ I




n a m e l y - ,t h e c a t h e d r a l o l t h e c i t v o 1 ' Modena, which, though Lombard. \{'asactuxll-v within the dominions of the Countess Nlatilda bient of I'uscanl'' and thus particularl)' open to Tuscan influence [3I.2, 3I31. The building was begun in rog9.23 Tuscan influence, and doubtless the successf u l d e s i g no l ' S a n N i c o l a a t B a r i ( b e g u n r o 8 7 o ) [264, 265], explain the other\4ise surprising lack of Lombarcl rib vaulting in this important work which has rather emphatic Lomblrd stl.listic details. Actualll-' the plan [3 r 4] recalls San

i s o n l r o n e t o u e r , o l L o m b a r d t t p e . s e l t l o t l l tr ' 1 the transept. It carries:rGothic spire.'lhc stntinel towers of San Nicola are reduced to ir pllr ol tulrels abore the apse. Lanfianco was the architect, and, to jrttl$c bv his building, an independent and ver\ pcr'r s o n a l r l e s i g n c r . L n d e r h i m c l o u b t l e s st h c t t l ' l was finished (r ro6), and he is supposabll .r'csponsible fbr the ordonnance of thc iI)teft()r' which isall in uarnt rctl blick, asrrellastirl lhe e x l e r i o r , t h i c h i s a l l i n t i n c a s h l a r ' S r tu r r ' : l J malkcd alcadinc uhich is Pisan rather tb'ttt

S HOWING S N E I G H B O U R IR NE GG I O N srYLE Eo M B A R D c o M P o N E N To sF M A T U R L Eastern and Middle ltalT Echoesof Lombardl in Liguria (GenoaCathedral, twelfth to thirteenth centurv)and Sardinia. areslight' In Rome itself (Uta, twelfth centur-v) (about rr55) is the onl-v Paolo SS. Giovannie by' exexample; howeret' in the regionnear show often thel' and trrnples are more nurnerous interesting combinations' has a strong Lombard Anagni CathedraF+ is of Roman chalacter' interior but the e"terio-r, lz63 b1' Vassalletto' of throne a possessing of St John *ho- *J have met in the cloister e' (parish the'Pier in Rome.At Arezzor5 Lateran whilethe Pisan' is which exterior Jrt.fti rttt tt and a ba1's is Lombalcl, with double i;i";





raised choir. Ancona Cathedral (dedicated in rr28, largely linished in rr89) has a crucifbrm plan with apsidal ends on the transept, and zebra-work masonry, all of which recalls pisa, but the general feeling of the superstructure, with its lion-backed portico, is Lombard. The fine church of Santa Maria di portonuovo near (twelfih century, some_ times dated earlier) with a dome, but arranged in plan like a Norman church. Farfa (Fara Sabina):o is a disappointment, though there is now, once more, a monasterv e s t a b l i s h e da r r h e p l a c e w h e r e r h c f a m o u s C o n _ suet'udinary of ro43 was tbund. Architecturallv thereis norhing recognizablv Cluniac in u.hat remains. There is a single old tower, with three Clarolingian lower store1.s. an intermediate staee -;l-;. Tuscania,San Pietro, clcvcnthand twcllih centuries Ancona is Lombard

dated about ro8g-gg, and three later 511n." a b o l e . { p p a r e n f l )f h e r ew a sa s o r to l . u " r , " , * rransepr wirh somerhing like a .t,t,rurl aboreit. The surviring constructions ar..1.r,i-, simplein fblm and Lombardin lecling. \ ,xi_

be rewarding.

[:H:ll, ;ffil:: J;"i,,::'1il:;., ll;, hi

At Spoleto the f'agade of San pietro:; (trrcl{ih to fourteenth century) is rich with ".cldiug "nJ sculptured panels, somewhat in the manncr of. San Zeno in Verona. Over the main door is an e x c e p t i o n a lh o r s e s h o e - s h a p e d tympanum. .[.hs three portals are flanked by proiecting bcasts. but without the Lombard columns and hood. A,{ost attractive and best known among this gloup of churches are San pietro and-.Sanra

-. ,:^ Messiore at Tuscania (formerly called T ' - ^ ^ - " t t " t . ' o S a n P i e t r o I 3 I 5 | a p p e a r s( o b e t h e ^"a archaisms have led Riroira to irii"r, of it to thc eighth centurr ' It is a irtrn otro .a, wooden-roofed col umnar basilica' ilr.""-;tf There is an interesting crypt of bJt, of tton.' eleventh centur)' supporttng a o f t h e the end triapsidal raised sanctuary' arell-proportioned dates from iog3 ConThe main baldacchino the church continued to a on work structional 'I'he the west front' conclusion about rzoo at r e m i n i s c e n c c so f f a g a d ei s o v e r w r o u g h t . w i t h and even Lombardy, Tuscany, Burgundy, and its window rose the in Spain perhaps flanking ajimez windows. The best effects at San Pietro are in its powerful nave, where the p r o t r u d i n g v o u s s o i r so f t h e a i s l e g i v e a s i n g t r rr6. Tuscania,SantaN{ariaMaggiorc, and tower ilenenthce.turv-rzo6, l'agade

larly vigorous effect, and the view to thc raiscd sanctuary is indecd imprcssrve. Santa Maria Maggiore [116], with a frcestanding square Lombard tower, has a similar though simpler and finer fagadewhich has been much copied in modern times. It has a rathcr barn-like nave with exceptional dw:rrf- transcpt arms at the head; beyond is the sanctuary, with a Moslem touch in the cusped arches of the baldacchino, and a Byzantine touch in the extensive painting above the chancel arch, which matches the transept arches and thus suggestsa centralized scheme. Santa N{aria was begun, it is believed, in the eleventh centur]'' and finished in rzo6. Influences projected forth from Lombardy' and Tuscany, which engendered the interesting








local works iust reviewed, also operated across the Adriatic Sea, and thcre produced a number of interesting churches in mixed style, but (as in ltaly) with strong Lombard emphasis.

Croalia and Hungury In the period which concerns us thcse two areas wcre architectural provinces of I_ombardy- and eastern Iraly. Architectural influence fiom Burgundy began with the Cistercians, in r r4z, but monuments earlier than rzoo har,e not survived. Villard de Honnecourr had r,isited Hungary by r235, and French Gothic influence doubtless came in with him. Some German architectural influences had come durine the reign ol King .{ndrew and eueen Gerirude (d. rzr3), but with a srrong Lombard imrrrint upon them. Influcnct:s flowed naturallu alons the Danube, and later through Croatia. We have heard of'the Hungarians before, as unwelcome pagan r,isitors to Burgundy in 937 and 954. In g55 Emperor Orto the Great ad_ ministered a crushing defeat to them, and thev were converted to Christianitl,- as a rcsult of stipulations in the peacc treatv of g73. The reigning Duke was baptized, and the Church was organized under his son Stephen, whose reign began in 9g7. Pope Svlvcster II (Gerbert. whom we hare followed from Reims to Catalonia, to Otto III's entourage, and finallv t o R o m e ) ,r e c o g n i z c d S r e p h e na s K i n g i n , o o , ' . S t e p h e n d i e d i n r o . 3 U ,a n d w a s c a n o n i z e t l i n Io83. In his time ten dioceses wcre created. a n d a n i n t e r c s t i n gs . v s t e m o f c r o s s r o a t lc h u r c h e s was instituted, with ten villages responsible for each church. A palatine church was built at Sz6kcsfehdrvdr (Alba Regalis, or Stuhlwcissen_ south-west of Budapest) for Kine Stephen. His great sarcophagus no* hr, , place of honour in the museum there, but all his buildings have been destroyed. The kine_ dom. which mighr hare hecn conquerecl for the burg,

Empire but for the struggle over the Inrr:sti_ tures, was able to abstract itself lrorn 11. troubles by becoming a ficf of the Holv S,.., under Gregory VII (ro76). and,o.onq,,.1Croatia - thus acquiring a stretch ol. 16i Dalmatian coast during the ensuingconfusign ( r r o . z ) .L a t e r r h e k i n g d o m a l s o included'l r,rn_ sylvania, and it extended almost to Craco$ in the north, almost to Vienna in the west. In this great region the Hungarians constructed, uirl a local savour, buildings basically relared t6 Lombard, German, Burgundian, and other. French models. The plans, however, er,en in ambitious buildings, remained relatively simplc. 'fhe mounrain barrier hasaluavs forbidtlin,:_ ly hlocked off rhe inrerior of Croatia from rhc Adriatic, but the coastal region was alrcacll u n d q r L o m b a r d a r c h i t e c t u r a il n f l u c n c ee r e n in the Carolingian period, as already noted. .I.hc stream of Lombard influence continued to flo\i. in the mature Romanesque period, when it was augmented by that of Tuscany, as in the case, already considered, of middle and southern Italy. The Croatian area, though theoreticallr 8 1 z a n t i n e . w a st h e n t o o r e m o t e r o b e i n f l u e n c e j by Byzantine architecture, except through the Exarchate. Easy navigation of the Adriatic en_ couraged contacts with all of eastern ltal\.. D e f i n i t e A p u l i a n i n f l u e n c e( i t s e l f p a r r l r T u s c a n and Lombard) can be rracedalso,especiallrin t h e b a l d a c c h i n o so f r h e c h u r c h e s . There is a succession of striking cathedral towers on the islands and mainland of the coast. which mark it as the twin sentinel towers mark the coast of Apulia. Thev are Lombard in general character. One of the best known o1' these towers was built beside the mausoleum of Diocletian at Split (Spalato), rhen, as now, the cathedral; another, in the Ravennate stvle, was constructed at Zadar (Zara) Cathedral in r r05.

in artistic orientation befbrc -"rking a change i n r 2 8 5 ' S a n C ' r i s o g t ' n o^ t T a d n r '" is a more c.nsistcnl Lombard l t ju fi fo r ,n . 't n I t 7 5 . 'r Rab i \rhc) pl.:t"ntt anolhcr amwith an ambulalor\ .*^-Plt lluor, i n spired perhaps from century.). iri."."tn at Verona (qgo)' ln general thc S , . f u n o [.nro m c l h o d s a p p e a rt o b c L o m h a r d ilnraru.,ionut m aterial is good ashlarslone and ii. Uu;faint '-There rubble' are rich doorwavs also, more or less 'I'he finest of them, though Lombard in form. is essentiall-vtardv leafage, i h., ,o-. Gothic of r z4o This is the Romanesque eclectic doorta-v of Trogir ('Irair) Cathedral i.rt..n The door has bv Radovan' a Slav sculptor' S p o l e l o in ltalr' ther a s a t b u t . l i o n s . prolecting -l h e t)mpanum' t h e m a b o l e c o l u m n s n o The rough r Nativity, recalls Venetian work' a it essentiall-Y makc late date execution and thc piece of folk art. It is charming in its place; in -l'rogir is a place ol enchantiaa the island of ment.30 Turning now to the properlv Hungarian monuments,rl we note that the Benedictines came in ggg ancl afterwards as genuine agricultural colonists, and greatly improved thc economic basis of the still distracted countr-v' The rvestern connexions oi these monks arc archirecturallvacknowledged in the oldest ol' their abbeys, Vdrtcsszenkereszt (or Vdrtes, west of Budapest ; r r 46), and in the second cathedral of Kalocsa (suuth of Budapest; alier r r5o)' where tracesof ambulator-v and radiating chapels h a v eb e e n r c r c a l c d b r e r c a r a l i o n s ' The Cistercians, welcomed and much favoured beginning about rr8o, did their usual part, as in western L,urope, and the other orders 'l'he ('istercian olclest surviving ioined them. 'fransl'li n work. at Kcrcz (fbundecl in rzoz; vania, now a ruin), is of the usual tvpe, except that the church apse is polvgonal; Apitfalva (founded in r z3z) is normal Cistercian work'

St George' I r4z fl 3r7. Prague(Bohcmia).

A curiositl' of the region, from the eleventh ions' c e n lu r \ o n . a n d k n o w n P a r t l \ f r o m e r c a r a l pol-vand round of number large relatively' a is and Ibil churches, often with Lombard detail, Romanescourts' local usualll' connected with these que architecture has an eastern fringe of wal'ot central-plan churches which extends, by Bohemia. as far as Bornholm' prcLombard influence shows strongl]'in the lhc n e a r ( F i i n l L i r c h e n ' o l ' P d c s c a l h c d r a l senl Drava River and the old boundarl. of Croatta) in ro64, restored [3I8]. The church was burned g r ' The plan is trir 8 [ J r i n a n d ,r5o' (br the "boo, aosidal. with seven big ba-vs three fbr the three cry'pt, ,".,",urr,n and Lombard vestibules lbr west' the at one, open nave, and like that of and a tribune.'I'his plan looksrather but Cathedral' San Nicola at Bari or Modena

St Mary, the cathedral of Zadar, has a Lombard east end, but the west end is pisan.


L A N D S A s S O C T A T E DW T T H T N T H E H O L y






a dditi otts

Gothic. and rcminds ttsthat Queen ransirional F r e n c h : l i k ew i s e , l a t e r . Q r e c n l \ l a r * r , Ann. q u e r i t e .a s i s t c r o t ' P h i l i p \ u g t r s t u s . l n d e r : d ' t h e in r3o8' f,ngevin T h e c a p a b l cH u n g r r i a n a r t h i s t o r i a n G . E n t z from the upper Rhinclancl, identifies influences fiom South Germanv in the and Alsace, flep 'l'hc principal latcr and times. centurv twelfth existing architecturaI examples showing a tincflrre ofthese influences in our period arc a series of important Beneclictinc anrl Prcmonstratensian abbel' churches, almost all near the rivcr' These with their dates arc : L6b6n1' (not r er-vf ar fiom Vienna, rrgg rzr2, tzlzfr'.),JMk (orJik, almost south of'Vienna, near the fionticr, r : t o portal 56, with an elaboratehalf-Romanesquc dated about I z5o), f iirje (south o1'L6b6nv, near s 9 F+!+-]-.|-+= \) 25 lsxr. -5() Ff . . Lake Balat6n I about I 24o), and Zsirnb6k (ncar B u d a p e s t ;b e f b r e I z 5 8 ) . l ' h e s e w e r e ' S i p p c n ' l/oster' (nobles' toundations). Thcv and their a r c b a s i l i c a ni n p l a n . s i n g l e a p s e d o r derivatives -l'he triapsidal at the east. with no transept. w e s t e r nt o w e r s a r e p a i r c d , a n d s e t o v e r t h e c n d b a y s o f t h e a i s l c s ,w i t h o p s n i n g s i n t o b o t h t h c n a v ea n d t h e a i s l c s .a s a t t h e c a t h e d r r l o f ' S t r a s s burg and its extensire related group in middle Germany. The cathedral of G1'ulafl'hirvir (Karlsburg or Alba Julia in l'ransllvania) rvasfinished in its original forn-r shortll bc{bre the Taltar invasionof r24r 2. It lrs partlv rebuilt altcrwards, but the new work does not disguise a Romanesque plan, Lombard and German. The sanctuarl has becn lengthenecl, but the tw<.r semicircular trrnscptal absidioles reniain as before. 'l'he sancturrr bal, crossing, irnd trvo t r a n s e p ta r m s a r e c o l e r e d b v s q u a r e r i b r a u l t s ; the nar.e has threc double ba-vs,with alternatell' stout and slcndcr strpporlsil\ro big $(stern towers rise boldll' wirh a high open sqtrare them, and E r o i n - r ' a u l t c dp o r c h s p r u n g b e f r v c e t r a still half'-Romanesquc pointed mlin doorwav is set in the f'aqadcwall. 'l'he re construction afier lrnrrtu, through papll interlention' bccame

r2+2 was not rapid. It was still under q'irr in r287, and one feels that bv then thc Gothic of Hungary, likc its Romanesque, had become a sort of folk art, delightfullv local in feeling. Yet it is said that a Frcnch master, John, son ol' '-flno of Saint-Di(', was at work in r287. Villard de Honnecourt's visit was in rzt<.

(-1tptr Burgund.),and Neighhouring '!re as (S a.-o.1,, S n,i t zerI a n d) -I'here is a special charm to the mountain chur-

c h e si n t h e n o r t h o f L o m b a r d y ' a n d o n t h c A l p i n e slopeswhich descendtowards the north. The region had treen a part of thc old Kingdom ol' A r l e s o r o f B u r g u n d l ' , w i t h b o r d e r i n g a r e a si n Italv and Swabia. Here, as in Catalonia, -\ndorra, and rural Burgundl', the fbrms ot the F i r s t R o m a n e s q u e p r o v c d t e n a c i o u s ,a n d t h e l still give ch:rracter to thc countr]'sidc. On thc 'barn' church with r upland slopcsthe modest singlc toll'cr. as wcll as thc navc-and-chancel church lrith a similar to$er, eonlinue in ust, and are adrnirable in silhouette against thc 'f gigantic mountain masses. he steep rool-s necessitatcdb1' screre wcather give thcm a r. T1-picallv, the sharplv individual characte , nd thcl c h u r c h e sa r e w e l l c o n s t r u c t o do 1 ' s t o n c a :rre often vaulted, though in manv crrses the l a u l t s w e r e b u i l t a f t e r t h e R o m a n e s q u ep e l i o d . 'fhe towers. also, often reprcscnt ir latcr mof o r t h c s o u t h - G er m a n a n d A u s t r i a n 'fhc Baroque flourishcd in Switzerland too. belfl'ics of the mountain churches ofien hare nent. ver!' prettv rncl cffcctire Baroquc silhoucttes. -\part liom the mountain churches,thc rcgion -l'he hardll' has an architccture of its own. towns wcre not large, :rnd no great movement was centrcd here. The abbcl' of Allerheiligcn' SchallhausenIr361, was undcr (]luniac infltrence, and, lvith Cluniac Pa-v*erneI r 3-sI and R o m a i n m 6 t i e r , r e p r e s e n t st h e t r a d i t i o n a l C ' l u n i a c l b r m s . r h o u g h w i r h G r : r m a n i ct l i t l e r e n r i a a n d t l c t a i l C i ' r r r t i c o 'r t tions in sul)erstructurc


atl d.itiitrt-,

3rll. P6csCathedral,r. r r5o li-.

without the rransept and wirhout columns be_ tween the piers. It is a fbur_tower chtrrch rhat is to say, a church with a to\ on each of its four corners. There are rwo towers attached o u t s i d e t h e a i s l e sj u s t w e s t o f t h e a p s e s , and two flank rhe main fronr in a similar vrav. (This arrangement looks ocldly. like an augmentation

of the scheme for the west front of.the Ottonian cathedral built afier 994 ar Augsburpi, nor lar from the Danube. euite unusually for Ger_ many, this building had a pair of square belfrv t o u c r s s c t n o r t h a n d s o u t h ,r c s p c c t i v e l r . ofrhe wesr fagadc, with a rvestern apse terminating the nave between. The similaritl, between Augs'_ burg and P6csmay be fortuitous.) In t h e c h u r c h a t I ) e c sh a s m a n r . l e a l u r e s " n u . i . . which are Lombard, even to the raiseclchoir. The westcrn i n f l u e n c c . I n c o n t r a s rt h e r e i s B e l a I I I , s n a l a t i n e gallery, however, is characteristic in the Hun_ c h a p e l ,w i t h t n o p o r r l l s o l B u r g r r n c l i : r.n .hur.,.plarianRomanesque. 'fhe tcr. Burgunclian componcnt, n.hich clnrc 'I'he striking scheme of fbur rolr,ers was uscd c a r l v t o f l u n g a r i a n a r c h i t e c r u r c . w a s \ . e r \ .D e r _ also at Sz6kcsleh6n.dr (whcre St Stephcn hacl s i s t e n r . ' l h e a p s c o l t h c c h a p e l ,l l n r r . r . r , i , j n

b u i l t t h e p a l a t i n ec h u r c h ) a n c lE s z t e r g o m( G r a n . $herc St Srcphennas htrried; it lics nc,,rr lr,. grcat bend in the Danube norrh of Butlancsr. a n d i t s R o m a n e s q u cc h u r c h i s k n o r * , r l i . , , n , excavations). At Szdkesf-eh6rYdr and F,sztersonr t h c t o w e r sa r e u i t h i n t h e r c t . t a n q l e of thc nl;rrr. 'lhe l ' o u n d a t i o no f t h e s c c h u r c h t r i s a s e rib,itl 1,, G i i l t t r r o 3 o ( r o .b u r i t i s c e r r a i nt h r r r h e rcrLr,rl. existing structure)- rverenot begun earl1., or scion linishcd. Though we ma\.recosnlze the sourccs of Hung'arian Romanesque, we are alwirr s conscious o l i t s r i g o u r a n d i t s l o c a lt b c l r n e . Esztergom Cirrhetlral, ltrr instlncc. oa, ,.btrilt under Bela I I I ( r r 7 3 9 ( r )a n d l a t c r . a n c lh r t i a portal lvith columns on the backs ol' lions (rzoo-g), showing a confinuation ot Lomb:rrrl


L A N D S A S . ) ^ O C I A T E tD vttilrN



mounrain church rvith paintings (r.. r roo), is strongly Lombard. T h e c o m b i n : r t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e si n t h i s c r o s s _ r o a d s a r e a i s e a s i l yo b s e r y e da t t h e l a r g e s to f ' t h c Romanesque cathctlrrls ol' thc rceion, thltt o,. Bascl,r: at thc border of'the old Kinedom ol. \r'lcs or ol Burgundr. 'l his chrrrch hls the general f'eeling of a Rhinelancl church. which indecd it is. ln it thcre arc somc remlrns of a lireat church consecratcd in thc prescnce of H c n l u I I i n r o r g ; l b r r h i s e d i E c er h e l , r m o u s golden altar fiontal now in paris was made. flut

t i o m S t r a s s b u r ga . l i t t l e l a r t h c rd o u n t h . , r r ,,rrn The elaborate ,Grllusptbrte' ., hql f;., Cathedral is named fbr St Gall, th. pi,,n.,.',, m i s s i o n l r t o f ' t h e r eg i o n ; b a s i c a l l , r g ,u r g u n , l ; a ; i n d c s i g n , i t i s a h a n d s o m eb u t r a r h e r u n i n s p i r c 4 twelfih-centurv work, somewhat rebljll 1nj augmented.

ilff 'l;*|.".' :'"'j..",T,ili..i:.l,',: Iil,,li

t h c b u i l d i n g l r a s r e p l l t . e da l i e r a f i r c r,1I 11_ and the ncw intcrior is raultcd.poinr.,l ,,,,.1,"t h c i n g u s ed , a s i r ) n e r r - h \ . B u r g u n d . v . f Li. j,,.i'





part of this I olunle we have gir en In rn earlier the chief monume nts of German of dl account up to the end of the Iiranconian Romanesque Hohenstaufen dynastv, rule. Under the new which ruled fiom rr38 to rz(r8, the country rchieved greater maturitv in political matters, rnd embarked upon a large programme of expansion, colonization, and elangelization. There was a regularly authorized crusade against the Slavs in rr47, followed by- a long processof expansion at the expensc of these neighbours which rvas onl,v-undone rvhen the Third Reich fell. Frederick Barbarossa(rr5z go) considercd himself the heir of Constantine, Justinian, and Charlemagne; and he did something after the manner of each to make German-v powerful and prosperous.His son Henry VI ( r rgo-7) brought the Holv Roman Empire to its maximum idealll. 'lhese rnd territorially. two great nloments are faithfully reflected in architecture. But the Emperors had dreams ofgeneral union lnd universal dominion which could not be realized because ofirreconcilable Italy, and the competing, mutuallv exclusive ideals of the papac1,,cspe_ c i a l l yu n d e r P o p e I n n o c e n t I I I ( r r 9 8 - r z r 6 ) . The diverse architectural influences which had been interwoven to fbrm German Romanesque became mature in the course ol' the eleventh century and wcre brought to a fuller the twclfth. under ir new irnd lbr.cc_ ful plal' of influences from L,ombardv and Burgundl. We find the powerful Carolingian architectural strain continuing. Proot'of this is the Beneraldesign, comparable to Saint-Riquier, of tlany ofthe greatest churchcs in thcir larcr lirrm Mainz, Worms, and Spel,cr C-athedrals among

them. There are mrnv other e\anrples


more imposing than St Gertrude at Nrf-els or uithin thc BelNivcllesrljrg,3zol, now h'ing1 gian borders, vct related, perhaps (through its massi'r'e lagade) to r group of churches in Saxonl, [1": Sl. The building was burnt out in the last war. It has a great wooden-roofed nirle (now handsomelv restorecl), an interesting vaulted sanctuarv,and an imposing westwork, dating basicallv fiom thc eleventh century. Thc Palatine Chapel at Aachen also served as an inspiration in this period; the octagonal Ottmarsheim in Alsacc (dedicated ro49) is an example i n t e r m e d i a t ci n d a t e i N i j m e g e n i s o f t h e t w e l f t h , t Gcrtrudc, 3 r g . N i v e l l c sS elercnth century tnd latcr, liom the south-uest, as restored after rvirrdamage.


L A N D S A S S O C I A T E DW I ' I H I N

T T I I ,T I O L Y R O M A N E M P I R E



centurl'. Something of the influence of Aachen survives in thc two-storel' opcn-rvcll churches a n d c h a p e l so f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r r ' . The Lombarcl international First Romanesque component of the old architectureopcncd the wav for mature Lombard influcnces. The influence of Clunv continued, thoush with diminished force. It had comero Germanv

ecclesiastically, and stvlistic11l,. with Hirsau; the date of foundation is r095, and after a preliminary dedication of r ogg const..stion continued unril r r27 or later. Paulinzclh a little later still, shows some influencc f10nr Clunl'III.r 'I'he special influence o[ Burgundl, caq. strongilv to Germanv with the Cistercians bejbr"


longohurdiwt.5Richcr ot'it as arrangcd st'hernttte mouldings and greatcr elaboration of parts resultcd liom Lombard influence. lior cxample, the handsome two-storev church of Schwarzrheindorf," ncirr Bonn (crucifbrm, trefbil' rvith a central well,,. rr5o), hrrsrvhat is said to bc a n e a r l v G c r m a n e x a m p l eo f t h e f u l l l - d e v e l o p c d e a v e sg a l l e r l o f L o m b a r d c h a r a c t c r [ 3 z r l , a n d

-i:o. Nir ellcs,St Gcrtrude, interior ol sancturrr'. declicrted ro-16 u n d e r t h c a u s p i c e so f t h c E m p e r o r H e n r v l I , Bishop i\Ieinwerk ol' Paderborn, and Abbot \l'illiam of Hirs:ru, who refbrmed about r lo h o u s e si n S w i t z c r l a n d a n d G c r m a n v , v e t e \ . e n t h e n t h e s p e c i f i c a l l va r c h i t e c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e h a d not been strong. The 'Hirsauer Schule', based partlv on Clunl II, is reallr, German in manr w : l v s ,a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o r e c e n t o p i n i o n , p e r h a p s not sumcicntl)'closc-knit to be callcd a School.l M e n t i o n s h o u l d , h o w e r - e r ,b e m a d e o f t h e h a n c l s o m e c h u r c h o f A l p i r s b a c h , a s s o c i a t e dg e o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e l l t h c e n t u r v . +K a m p , n e a r K r e l ' e l d , r v a st h e f i r s t C i s t e r c i a n f o u n d a t i o n r n G c r m : r n r ' ( r r z 3 ) , a n d i t s p l a n a p p e a r st o h i r \ c been thc simple earll' plan used by the Oldet B u t f o r s o m c t i m e . i n t h e e a r l vp c r i o d ,t f t s r l r , l r i t e c t u r e o l t h c G e r m a n C i s t e r c i a n s$ : t s o l t ( n l o c r l i n t r p e . \ { ; r u l b r o n n ( r r - 1 67 8 ) | r \ + m a r k e d a n e w e r a b v l b l l o w i n g t h e t u l l r , 1 .' c l o p c d , w c l l - e s t a b l i s h e t . l .s t r o n g l \ B u r g u n , l i . r n C i s t e r c i a nm o d c l s , t h o u e h $ i t h G e r m a n u t i r :l t l i n e s si n m a s sa n d d e t a i l .

tloublc church. 3zI. Schwarzrheindorl. r. rr5o In France, meanwhile, Cistercian architecture absorberl the somewhat inert rib lault of the Burgundian half-Gothic' which was repres e n t e db y a b o u t r r 6 o a t C l a i r v a u x , a s w c h a v e seen, and the authoritv of this design brought ribbed construction into German1.. Concurrcntly there u'as an influx of nlaturc Lombard Romanesque motif-sto German.v. The trefoil plan has becn thought (doubtfully') to be a casein point; at any rate the medicval description of the trefbil of'Klosterrath (Rolduc) speaks

q z z .I l u r b a c h , a b b c l c h u r c h , t \ c l f t h c e n t u r r( n l r e d e s t r o r t c l l thc motif had been used on the \'{inster at Bonn b e f b r e t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f I I 6 ( r ' - \ t t h e s a m et i m e l ta s m u k i n g i t s p r o g r e s s : u i t n e s s t h c r i h r ' ; r r - ru St Patroklus, Soest, belbrc the dedicrrion olrr66i Worms Cathedral, after rrTr ; Schwarzr h e i n d o r f, i n t h e e r t e n s i o n o f r r 7 3 ; M u r b a c h ; ruellih cenltrr\ nou onlr d liagmenl ol l.lz,zl. thc beautifirtll proportioncd lireat church which rich fbrmcrlv existed at this historic sitc with lo lhosc a r c a t l i n g ,a n t l p a i r c d t o n c r s c o m p a r a h l e ol sant'{bhondio in Como l.iool'




( ; E R N I A N \ " \ \ .I T H T T I } ,N } - T H [ , R I , A \ D S A N I ) I ; I ' { \ D F ' R S


Romancsqucthus matured is characteri s t i c a l l y ' w e i g h t v ,s o m e t i m e sa l m o s t t o t h e p o i n t of' clumsiness. N[any' of' the examples sufl'ered greotly from over-rcstoration in the nineteenth centurv, but thc mass of' accomplishment in Romanesque belbre the true Gothic bccame d o m i n a n t i n G e r m a n y -( n o t b ef b r e r 2 q o , t h o u g h Magdcburg Cathedral, begun in rzog, shou.s the first Gothic lbrms) was verl grcat: so llreat i n d e e d a s t o i m p r i n t i t s c h a r a c r e ro n I h e c o u n t r y . the Lahn" is in*ardll It is no accidentthat St Gcorge at Limburg on rather likc Laon Cathe-


The important south-German churchr. 1y,, basilican i n l b r m . b u t t h e r c a r e m a n t s m r r l1 l .n_ t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e so f t h e t w e l f r h a n d t h i r t c r l l S cenluries. Some are chapcls satellite t,r l,1p*. churches. Others. well reprcsentetl br .r 1;n. example of rzro, with an apsidal elemcnt, 11 Hartbcrg in Styria, are cemetery chapels61 charnel houses. Still others are palace and casrle chapels. These latter are tvpicallv of two storcr,5, 'Ihe l i k e S c h w a r z r h e i n d o r f[ 3 2 r ] . i d e a g o e sh n s f t to thc Rhineland and Aachen, where, as regularh. in chapels of this sort (including the SirinteC h a p e l l e i n P a r i s , t h e C h a p e l a t V e r s a i l l c s .1 1 6 St Stephen's Chapel in London), the ruler and his suite are provided fbr at thc uppcr lcrcl. Thcse south-Gerrnan churches are smaller than the eramplcs iust mentioned. Thcy often conopen fiom sist of nine compartments, with the middlr one the ground floor up through thc second level, and carried, above this opcn \ll Saints' Chapcl' Rcg-cnsburg exteriors. . . I | 5 0 ) , a n d C u r k C ' a t h c d r a l 't o iilso a trefoil: ' * o n t " , o a n l o n g a c o n s i t l t r a b l cn u m b c r [rnrion ' of examptes

r'ery often carried abo\ e them. This produces a tall, rather flat, but bulkl and strongh profilcd mass which tcrminates the church at the west in largc r n o n u m e n t a l f a s h i o l l ,a n d , i t t h c c h u r c h i s a the silhouette in stronglv one, it cleclaresitself hirvc of the whole citv. Somc ol the examples tbund in alread,vbeen mentioned, others rvill bt:

dral, whilc extcriorly it is a notablc example of Gcrman Romanesque, elegant and beautilully composed and its dedication date is rzj5. In order to deal untlcrstandabll with such a

large number and variety of buildings over so extended an arca and chronological scale,it will be necessary to dir,ide the subject geographicallv and morphologically. 'I'he a r c a sa t t h e e a s t a n d n o r t h o f G e r m a n y within thc Empire have relativcll little to contribute to our studv; we therefbre all but omit Moravia, Bohemia (excepting Prague [rr7]) and Prussia from our considcration, and dir,idc the remaindcr into (l) South Gern.rany, rvith Baiaria and Swabia, inclucling Alsace; (a) 'f S a x o n y , w i t h W e s t p h a l i a ,E a s t p h a l i a ,a n c l h u ringia; (c) the l,ower Rhinc and the Nlain countrv (Franconia, Upper Lorrainc, and Lower Lorrainc).

RIIGIONS AND NLIGHBOURING SAXONY t h e L o w e r R h i n e a r e aa n d i n S r v c d e n ' (with Wcstphalia' Eastphalia' and In Saxony At Wimplen im Tal,r: Iiranconia' the middle there arc several groups ofchurches iiuringit) is emphasizcd in that it is pl:rced as it \ s i n t h e s o u t h ' t h e l a r c b a s i l i c a n structure , us. a bridgt orer thc wcsl porchi lhi\ o n 1 \ e r e s e r c r a l r a r i e t i e so l r h e b a s i l i c a n in tryou,.with clateofarrangiement is cxccptional, but thc early give them great savour olan. Local variations twelfth the in rebuilt but (befbre Wimpfen 9q8, andcharacter' century) sugllcsts it as an intcrmediate cxample' is interesttng particular in f'agade' The'Saxon thc Gandcrsheimlr in Saxony' has pelhaps to the laqade tvpe and imposing. It is relatcd u'hich tlpe faqade thc of handsomsst crample (Strassburg, roI5) 'fhc o"i h,*o integrated towers church w e h a v e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n[ 3 2 3 ] ' intermediate rn to prominence gives [7g], but occurrcd between which fire a atter rebuilt was is to\ucrs' and ,riu.tu." which is as dcep as the e.h r t r c l t\' \ c s l l r u n l ' Gandcrshcim 323. late eleventhcentun rzr. \linden (lathctllirl, .l"i.nth and lwclfth centurics'fagade

ccntral space, upward to a dominant central towcr. It has been estimated"that over roo o1' these ccntrllized chapels existed in Bavaria, thc 'l'hc Austrian provinces, and Bohemia. rlpc was represented in the castlc at Nurcmberg^. { s i m p l e r p l a n , t r i a p s i d a l , w a s r c p r e s e n t e di l S t George, Regensburg. S t J a k o b ( o t h e r w i s ec a l l c d . f r o m i t s i b u n t l i n g by' Irish monks, the Schottenkirche), Regcnsburg (dated about rr8o), has a lateral port:rl, quite unusually'elaborate fbr the era and the fc'l'his church is a columnar basilica,sith groin-r'aultcd aisles and vaulted triapsidal sirncgion. tuarv; there is, however,no transept: the buildi n g i s , s o t o s p e a k ,c o n t i n u o u s f r o m c n d t o e r r , l . l i k e t h e H u n g a r i a n c a t h e d r a l n f P 6 c s( w h i c h i r a p a r a l l e le r a m p l e . d a t i n g l i o m a b o u t r r 5 o , , r r r J possibly related to this German type). l)ccs. h o l r c v e r ,h a s p i e r s l a n d i t s h o u l d b e r e m a r ' L . J that simple piers lre of licquent occurrene. in t h e s o u t h - G e r m a n c h u r c h e s .1 o In Latc Romanesquetimes South G..*.nt p r o l u s e l yc m p l o y e d L o m b a r d d c c o r a li r e m o t i l ' 'fypical a r c a d i n ga n d b a n d s e n r i c h t h r c h u r t h

f. m

S O U T I IG [ , R M A N Y This region is traverscd by thc upper waters of the Rhine and thc Danube, natural connecting links with Lorraine and llungary respectively. Thc parts of the south-Gcrman rcgion which are most important architccturally lie in the e c c l e s i a s t i c a lp r o v i n c c o f M a i n z . T h e m c t r o politan archbishopric of' Mainz also includcd the important central and northcrn bishoprics of Speyer, Worms, Wiirzburg, Paderborn, and H i l d c s h e i m ; a l s oS t r a s s b u r g .




'l'here is a great show of'arcad1063and rog5. register, and abovc that a verilower the ing in table precipice cut by simple horizontal string courses into fbur stages, bevellcd at the corners. These bevels arc carricd up into octagonal towers, each with a shaft, a bellry stage, and a pyramidal roof. Between the towers, and just below thc shali, there arr: three twin openings with mid-wall colonnettes, admirably placed portal directly with respect to the similar opcnings in the belfries and the tunnel-like below. The N,linden Cathedral of ro6r had two towers, betwecn which, in thc twellth century, a taller oblong belfry was built, forming a hand'Ihis somelv stepped mass [jz-1]. same process changed thc liont part ol'the Carolingian westwork of Corvcy on the Weser into somcthing likc a'Saxon faqade'.r' At St Patrolilus in Soestl5[325J the corner towers are reduced to the mcrest pinnacles b e t w e e n t h e g a b l e so f a s t o u t b e l f r v t o w e r w h i c h has a porch and gallerv wrapped around three sides of it. The eristing church wirs built, rvith groin raults, in the sccond half'of the twcllth century, and the astonishing great westcrn tower just mentioned is ascribed to the !'ear r zoo or thcreabouts. Freckenhorstr'' has an equallv astonishing f'agade, dating fiom rr16-z9. A plain ground storer, with a single relatively small portal is flanked by the bases of'two cylindrical towors, each advanced slightly, and provided with an 'lhe entrance doorway. central mass rises sheer to a tall hip roof, with thrce stagcs of bclfiy openings. Each stage has two twin mid-wall'l'he shali windows. cylindrical towers, enveloped at thc base by decorativc arcading, are plain through a part o1'their height, above which the cylinders (now disengaged by a sct-back of' the main belfry) rise to two stageswith twin midwall-shaft windows. Their conical rools are set upon eaves a littlc higher than the caves of'the main bclfry. Behind this imposing and beautiIully prolilcd great westworli the nave and aislcs o1'the church extend to the transept. bevontl w h i c h i s t h e s a n c t u a r vf l a n k e d b y t r v o t a l l s q u r r c towcrs. The evident love of towered masses rccrlls the primitivc examples of the type which *e h a v ee x a m i n e d i n S a x o n E n g l a n d . E v i d e n t l v t h c same spirit informs thern all, allowing Ibr thc sophisticationsand outside influences in thc mature Romanesque of Germany. It is hartl to douht rhat sonrething ol'the ,rltl s p i r i t u n d e r l i e s t h e w a r m y e t a u s t e r ec h a r m t , l the fine basilican constructions in Saxonr. Sinrp l i c i t y o f f o r m ; w e i g h t i n e s si n d e t a i l sl i k c m o u l d i n g s a n d c a p i t a l s ; e x c e l l c n t n r a s o n r y ,a d h e r e n c c to traditional even Carolinsian idcals: thcsc are the notcs of'the style. Hildesheim Cathedral (dedicated in I o6 r ) htts bcen rcbuilt, hur Sr Michael [84J, alrcrtl'
325 (olposttt). Socst, St Pxtroklus, wcstern to$cr'' ' 326 (ahrrce). Hildcsheim, St Godchard, r r.13 7z I2oo




=-.....-./,/,/ --




partly remodelled under Bishop 6escribed. and well restored recentlv' il.log f,r7r-qo) for the accomplishmenl ol'the school' iiandswell impressive' It had a woodenIt i, tingult.ly_ which is unusual. and a painted . p t . , ilfrd medieval date' Important among its . g i t i n g ,o f remarkable sculptured choirw ;ertures as a from Bishop \delog's period d a t i n g .oeen richlv decorated cuhical lr186). Examples of pairs of columns between on the Lpitals occ,.tt, pporl the na\ e u all in'l r ei u t hsi gem su which oiers phrase has Stiitzennethsel,as the neat German c ommon in i s o l c o u r s e s u p p o r t o f it. This type (St Michael 83]. basilicaslT [82, German the suffered severelY in the last war.) S t G o d e h a r d ' a t H i l d e s h c i m( r r 3 . 3 7 z ) l . 3 z 6 l is a similar building, differing in that it has a masonrv apse vault, an ambulatorl.with radiating chapels, an octagonal crossing towcr' and paired western towers. It has preserved a stucco tympanum which is a notablc example of that sort of sculpture seldonrsecn at pr('senl. htlt practisedimportantl-r'b.v the Germans fiom the ' timeof Saint-Riquier onwards. In Goslar, the old Imperial Dict town' the cathedral (dating fiom about ro4o and later, destroyed in modern times) was vaulted, in a heavy manner, at a rather late date. Its rathcr archaic'Saxon tragade' stood svmbolicallv at thc foot of a long easterl-vslope which was used for vast offi cial assemblages. P l a c e dt r a n s v e r s e l va t t h e t o p o i t h e s l o p e ,t h e old Pfalz,'z0 dating originalll', asalreadv reportcd, f r o m a b o u t r o 5 o . a n d r e s l o r e da f t e r a c o l l a p s eo f r r 3 z , s l i l l e x i s t s( o v c r - r e s t o r e d ,r 8 7 3 ) [ 3 2 7 , j : 8 1 . The ground floor is enclosed, and could be 'fhe heated upon occasion. main hall, on the u p p e rl e v e l ,i s a t r e m e n d o u s t w o - n a r e d r v o o d e n roofed afi'air with a central throne room marked offby parallel arcades, and communicating with a b a l c o n y .T h e t h r o n e r o o m a n d t h e l a t e r a l p a r r s o p e n u p o n t h e o u t d o o r a s s e m b l vp h c e t h r o u g h characteristic double and triple arches, now glazed, under enclosing arches. 'fhe sober bcst

qualities of' German twelfih-centur1. architecture may be discerncdhere.At the south end of the building there are imperial rptrtmcnts. which include the interesting two-storcv chapel of St Ulrich. cruciform in plan, and balancing the older Chapel ofour Lacll'sct near the north end of the palace. The cathedral boundcd the east side of the assemblv area A n o t h e r g r e a t h o u s e ,w i c l e h ' k n o w n t o o p e r a 'sangersaal', is the Wartgoers because of the burg, picturesquelv placed on a height near E i s e n a c h .A c t u a l l r E l i z a b c t h ' s ' t e u r e H a l l e ' w a s superposcd on thc original residence of-the twelfth centur--v [329] not long after the Iirst construction. It addcd grcatll'to the amenitv ofthe 'I'he structure rs first built had three building. spacious rooms in enlilade on each of'two levels, fronted bv a graceful arcaded galler-r of lighter c o n s t r u c t i o n , u i t h d i l ' c e t e r t e r i o r a c c e s sl i o m 'I'he main room on the ground the courtl'ard. (central and largcr than the others) was a floor kitchen, and the larEle room abole it was the 'fhe structurc was much rebuilt in original hall. r838 67.


. l r 7 l n d . 1 2 8 .G o s l a r , t h c P f l l z , r c h u i l t r t t e r r r - i : , r c s t o r a t i o n s t u d J ' i s i n r . r r - 5 o l n c l c - r t c r i o r ; s c c a l s o ( r - 1


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qz9. liisenach, Wartburg, twelfth ccnturr restorltion stud!'







I n T r i e r t h e F r a n k c n t u r m ( c l a t e da b o u t r o q o ) shows what the Romanesque tower-house was like, with single sup-erposed rooms. One is likell to fbrgiethow rvidelv distributed and horv important this cit_y-'t)'pc of rcsidence rsalll.was, becausc so f'ew er:rmples have sun ir,ed. tardilv. In Saxony the vaulting ofchurch na\,escomes 'Ihe oltlcr vaults are hall'-Cistercian.

ing Gothic influence. Charming and ingenioLr5 translations ol the Gothic elements were ntl(lc into brick and rerracotta fbr thc embellishnrtnt of the buildings, and srucco panels brightcntll t h c w a l l s w i t h n e a r - G o t h i c p a t t e r n s .T h e C i s r er _ cianabbevsof'Lehninand Chorin} (rz7j r.i.iqy are both good examples of this, as are rhc gr-r1r churches and town halls o1'Danzig and Liibe cl Bockstcingttil,is in fact the first reallr. succes,ful German Gothic lbr the imitatir.e works in stone of'the earl-vpcriocl invariablv I'all trrr shor.r oftheir originalsin the il.-d.-Frunce. 'l'eutonic The Knights logicalll' adoptccl the B uck s tei ng ot i k . r s t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e ,a n r l i m p o s ing monuments like X{arienburg (r276 ancl ,. rjzo l4oo) and Nlarienwerder(r. rj4o)r.t spcal, mutely o1-their action. A large number of tht' Hansa cities were in north Germany, and in neighbouring rcgions subiect t<l north-Gernran i n f l u e n c e ,a n d ; f t h a t i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l m e r c a n t i l c commonwealth ma1- bc said to have a national a r c h i t e c t u r e ,i t r v a st h e B , t c k s t e i n . q o t i k . In our iudgement the best of the Batksttitt{r/il is not surp:rssedbv anv but the finest of the late, mature, and charactcristically German 'fhe Gothic buildings. qualities which thr,' carlier Gcrman Gothic inherited through thc R o m a n e s q u ef r o m C a l o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g d o n o t olien combine well with the G:rllic qualities ot Irrench Gothic. But the Germanic qualitics, under the limitations of brick-work, are at rn xdvantxge in the Backsteingotik. The winccoloured precipices ofbrick breaking into sharp spires and pinnacles of copperl green arc irt every wa!' as fine as the massive stone \a'allsol t h e R h e n i s h c a t h e d r a l sa n d a b b e l ' s . T h e e x c c l l e n t p r e s e r v a t i o no f t h e b u i l d i n g s a f t e r p e r i o c l s lrom 6oo to goo years should also be countc.i heavily in their favour. Symptomatic is the lict that great architects of the twentieth centurl like Ragnar 6stberg, Josef Olbrich, and Dominikus Boehm have drawn on the Backsteingotil' stvle, sensing its elemental force and authentic grandeur.



hall'-Lornbarcl, with domed-up rib vaults double bavs, and thc churches thcmsclves, er,en l t a l a t e d a t c . a r c R o m : r n e s q u ci n c o n t . e p t i o n , with relativelv simple cxreriors, heavv wallwork, relatir,elv small windows, and 'mural v a l u e s ' i n t h e i n t e r i o r d c s i g n -M a g d e b u r g C a t h e dral, begun in rzog, counts as a true Gothic church, the first in Germanr,. Ycr ar Miinster in W e s t p h a l i a ,u h e n i h e c a t h c d r a l w a s v a u l t e d i n a r e b u i l d i n g o f r z z , . 16 5 , t h e r e s u l t r e c a l l sF r c n c h t r a n s i t i o n a lc h u r c h e sl i k e t h e c a t h c d r a lo f : \ n g e r s (nave vaulted about rr5o) [zr5], though Miinster has aisles, and Germanic detail.rr Under Lombard inspiration and Burgundian auspices, brick construction appeared in north G e r m a n r , a n d , l a r g e l v b e c a u s co t ' t h e p e n u r v o 1 ' g o o d b u i l d i n g s t o n e ,s p r e ; r d a l l a l o n gt h e G c r m a n Baltic coast, into Poland, and cven to regions n e a r P s k o l i n R u s s i a ,b e f b r e r z z o . I ' I ' h e a v a i l able clar s burn to a fine red brick; good mortar is obtainable, and from thc beginning the German bricklavers possesseda map;nificent sense of their craft. The church at Jcrichow, not lar fiom tr{agdeburg^ and on the borders ofBrandenb u r g , w a s b u i l t a b o u t r r , 5 o ,w i t h m o s t a d n r i r a b l l ' ser,ere lines and good proportions, fbr a Prem o n s t r a t e n s i a nh o u s e o f A u g u s t i n i a n c a n o n s z r 'l'he building is wooden-roofcd. I r 8 2 , r 8 - j] . b a s i l i c a ni n p l a n , a n d r o u n d - a r c h e d . Brandenburg Cathedral, onll ab6s1 16111' miles lrom Jerichow, hrrd bricli construction u n d e r w a - yi n r r ( r 5 , L i i b e c k C a t h e d r a l i n r r 7 3 . It was natural that the pointed arch should soon appcar, and with it the name of Buckstetnqotik; the rib r ault wasintroduced (Lchnin, t. r2oo 70); tracery motifs came with incrcas-

l\leusc l\loscllc Rhinc rcgion. The Scheldt along the Nlain, is the oldwith its extension part of Germanl', wherc Roman established and fine building has its traditions are stronger history' The longest and most distinguished ccclesiasticalprovenerable the in lie territories I n earlicr v i n c e so f C o l o g n c ' T r i c r . a n d ' \ l a i n z ' parts of this volume man]'of the most important because firstLuildings have been mentioned, Nlaturitl' region' in the earl.v appear rate works Maria Laach, as well' here is early style of founded in Iog3, has alreadl'been described; and the church (largely built bctween Ir3o a u s tere t h o u g h i s a c c o m p l i s h e d rr56) [92, 931 in style, and the latest parts have, as mature has, a Lombard German Romanesque generall,v'. dnge.

What remains is to show how in the pcriod ot full Romanesque maturitr the architccture hcre 'Carolw a s ,a s S i r A l t r e d C l a p h a m s o l p t l l ' s a i c l . guise'' clothed in Lombard ingian how the placid spirit of Hersf'eld and Limburg on the Haardt, along rvith thc frank grancleur of' Wiirzburg Cathedral and St Gertrudc at Nivelles[3rg, 120], was transmitted to theselater buildings. 'l'he Franconian cathedrals ofT'rier Ij3ol and 'Lomb:rrd guisc' onl-v in Speyer acquired their the latcst works of' construction' Worms and Mainz were more profbundll. affected b-v the new morement. ()f The earll elerenth-centtlr\ calhedral 'live on' in the present j t o i s s a i d r Worms:(,[33 one, in that the lbundations are the same A cons e c r a t i o no f r r 8 l m a r k s a s t a g eo f t h e r c b u i l d i n g at the east; the polygonal westernchoir was be-

33o.Trier Cathedral, eleventhand twelfih centurics'from the west' Ia"rgely r. r21o-53 Liebfrauenkirche


L A N D s A S S O C I A T E DW I T H I N


(Kautzsch) centur-1 restorrlionstutly as in the tweltih -^ '!{ainzCathedral, tt"' r r8r ele'enth ccnrury' much rebuilt alter , .., Mainz Cathedral, 4nu rrt JJJ

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3lr. Worms Cathcdral, eleventh, tu'clfih, and thirteenth centuries, fiom the south-west

gun in r 234 in Lombard half-Gothic. The nave has five very sturdy clouble bays with rib vaulting above an arcade s]-'stemrather like that of Speyer. Tie-rods have been neccssarv in order to keep these vaults secure, as flying buttresses have never been built for them. The belfiy of the north-west tower is frankly Gothic, but the architect respected the old scheme, which called for round towers of equal weight flanking an octagonal tower of larger girth but inferior height. These round towers are on a transverse axis, flanking a sanctuary bay with (exceptionally) an octagonal tower over it, whereas those at the east are staggered, for the round towers are one bay east of the transept and its corresponding octagon. The apse is included within a straight east wall, and the towers are tanpient to the line of this wall, which again is unusual. 1'his arrangement results in a very successful tower system. Mainz Cathedral,rt the grand old metropolitan church of middle German-v [78, 332], is

about equal to Speyer Cathedral in magnitudc, stone gives it warmth; twelfthbut the effect is rather different. The red sandthe richness of' thc and thirteenth-century articulation givesit movement [3J3, 334]. This work on the building was done between rr8r and rz.l9, t h o u g h a c r u a l l ] t h e e a s t e r nc r o s s i n g f o \ ^ c r \ \ J : carried up in Gothic and then replaced In Romanesque Revival style, the top of the western crossing tower having meanwhile becn -l rebuilt in Troubadour Gothic (I769-74). *tt o l d r o u n d t o w e r s d a t i n g f r o m t h e c a r h e d r a l, ' f roog j2 at Nlainz terminate the axis of the western transept, which with its central octagonal tower and western apsemakesan imposing front. At the easl there are a more impo:i:tg transept and octagon, with a trelbil sanctuir-)bel'ond, accentuated bv a pair of slender octagonal towers, all enriched by arcading and g a l l e r i c s .T h e h u g e b u l k o f t h e c a t h e d r a l s t a n r l : up grandly abore the town, and is visible iot' ''ts man-v miles in the valley of the Main, which'


L A N D S A S S O C T A T E DW t T H T N


RoN,rANEMpTRE G E R M A N Y , W I ' I H ' T H E N E T H E R I , A N D SA N D I L A N D F , R S T2<

it approachesthe confluence with the Rhine. flowsncarly straighttowardsthe church. 1-he interior, covercd bv rib vaultine in d o u b l e b a . v sa h o r e a g e n e r o u s c l c r e " t o r r . . hLrs a frementlous aquetluct-like arcatleon cach side of-the nave, with vaulted aisles beyond. The efl'ect is overwhclming because of its vast scale, which makes one fbrget the rarher dry design. The trefbil which has just been _.nrion.ji, sometimes thought to have replaced an earlier one; at any rate the trefoil motifwas established in the Rhineland by the eleventh ..n,u.y, ,nJ rt underwent a special development ihere. Supposedly the trefbil scheme came fiom Lom_ bardy - Early Christian Lombardy _ ro the region.?8 In the Rhineland the key church of trefoil plan is St Mary in Capitol at Cologne:e [::S_Z]. A sanctuary which was the scene ofthe dedica_ jJ5 to .].]7.Cologne,St Mart, in Capitol. .. ro4o 12r0

to a wooden-roofed nave antl aisles ,rached ro-1o. Befbre the definitive conabout [egun Io69 the old apse had been replaced in s !cration by a new chevet, consisting ot a vaulted apse 1nd a transept with crossing tolver and vaulted lpses. The nave rcmainccl unvaulted, but groin-vaulted aisles were carried all around the 'l'he f'agade, building, except at the west end. with its projecting tower ancl lateral stair turrets, r e c a l l st h e P a l a t i n e C h a p e l a t A a c h e n . W i t h t h e construction of this fagade St Mary became an example of the old church type with two axial towers. Like a Lombard church, it has a vast crypt, which, however (unlike a Lombard crypt), is closed at the west - being approached by narrow stairways liom the transept arms. Actually the e{l'ect at St Nlary in C:rpitol is very different from that of its supposed model

tion ofthe

church by Pope Leo IX in ro4g was

t h e ( n o w l r r r g e l vr e b u i l t ) c h u r c h o f ' S a n L o r c n z o in \lilan. Thcre the main sp:rce ro spcak, u n i f i c d , r o u n d e d , a n d c e n t r a l i z c d .S t \ I a r v l a c k s g a l l e r i c s ,w h i c h i n S a n L o r e n z o a i d i n b i n d i n g in the central space; St Nlarv has a strong axial movement, both longitudinal and transYcrsc, w h i c h i s l a c k i n ga t S a n L o r e n z o . S t M a n , i n C a p i t o l b e c a m cm o r e L o m b a r d i n charactcr during a reconstruction at the end o[ the trvellth ccntury or the beginning of thc thirteenth : the exterior, formerly-rather austere, -l'he vaulting of'the was enriched with arcading. transept and sanctuary was completed at that time, and thc nave then receivcd the first serpartite \,ault in Germanl' ( r z r g). T'he church of the Apostles in Cologne is a r,ariation on the theme ol St Mary. in Capitol, dated about r rgo and laterr" [j38]. In spite ol' its tartly date.the chevet is rich with Romanes-


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fi8 (belon,). Cologne, Church ol the Apostles, r. r rgo and later, fiom the east (small cupola and castern spir.esnot replaced in post-war restoration) y9 ( right ) . Tournai Cathedral, nar.e and rranscpr fi'om the south-west, rrro, rr65 fi.

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que arcading and Lombard eaves galleries. The trefbil does not have an ambulatory. Its main apse is flanked by a pair of slender cylindrical stair towers which are carried high above the crossing tower. At the west a deep bay under and behind the axial entrance tower ioins thc western transept in making a sort of angular t r e l b i l . ' l ' h ee a s r c r n partol the churchis raulrcd like that of St Marv in Capitol, in the Romanes_ que manner; the nave has sexpartite vaults and and seven_Dart raults. rather iike those of thc much earlier church ofSainte-'lrinitd at Caen. The axial tower and the eastern stair turrets have each individual f'ace finished ofi' with a sharp triangular gable, as is usual in Gcr