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EElectricallectrical DDischargeischarge MMachiningachining

(EDM)(EDM)

lectrical D D ischarge ischarge M M achining achining (EDM) (EDM) Lecturer: Lecturer: Reyad Reyad Mehfuz

Lecturer:Lecturer:

ReyadReyad MehfuzMehfuz

OutlineOutline

1.

Review

2.

What is EDM?

3.

Process Mechanism

4.

Elements of EDM

5.

Process Parameters

6.

Process Characteristics

7.

Branches of EDM

8.

Advantages

9.

Applications

10. Limitations

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ReviewReview

Two types of machining processes

1. Traditional:

• Material removal by the direct mechanical contact of tool & workpiece.

2. Non-traditional:

• Material removal by thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical energies.

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ReviewReview contd.contd.

Traditional m/c

Turning

Turning

Milling

Milling

Drilling

Drilling

Grinding

Grinding

Non- Traditional m/c

Electrical Discharge m/c

Electro Chemical m/c

Electron Beam m/c

Laser Beam m/c

Ultrasonic m/c

Water Jet m/c

Electrical Discharge m/c Electro Chemical m/c Electron Beam m/c Laser Beam m/c Ultrasonic m/c Water Jet

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WhatWhat isis EDM?EDM?

Most Widely used Non-traditional machining process

EDM? EDM? Most Widely used Non-traditional machining process Workpiece material is melted and removed by the

Workpiece material is melted and removed by the heat from high density electrical discharges

Also called Electro-discharge or spark erosion machining

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ProcessProcess MechanismMechanism

Tool
Tool

Spark generates along the path of least resistance

tool w/p
tool
w/p

1. A shaped tool and workpiece are connected to DC supply and placed in a dielectric fluid.

2. When the applied voltage is high enough, a localized breakdown of the dielectric occurs and sparks are generated across the gap between tool and w/p.

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ProcessProcess MechanismMechanism contd.contd.

Process Process Mechanism Mechanism contd. contd. 3. 4. 5. These sparks have very high current density

3.

4.

5.

These sparks have very high current density and causes the formation of a plasma channel, vaporising part of the tool and w/p.

The vaporisation produces a high-pressure bubble that expands rapidly, ejecting a small amount of material and leaving a small crater on the surface.

The momentary local plasma column temperature ranges from 10,000 to 40,000 O C

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ElementsElements ofof EDMEDM

EDM Machine

Power supplies

– Pulsed DC

– 10 to 1000 amps

Example:

ONA DATIC D-2030-S. 4 axis- x, y, z & z rotation

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WorkWork MaterialsMaterials

ElementsElements ofof EDMEDM

Any conductive materials

Work Work Materials Materials Elements Elements of of EDM EDM Any conductive materials 9 9

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ToolTool ElectrodeElectrode

ElementsElements ofof EDMEDM

T m
T m

1. High electrical conductivity

2. Ease of fabrication

3. Resistance to wear

4. High melting point

Copper, Graphite, Zinc, Brass, Tungsten are most common

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DielectricDielectric FluidFluid

ElementsElements ofof EDMEDM

Dielectric Fluid Fluid Elements Elements of of EDM EDM 1. Chemically neutral 2. Low viscosity 3.

1. Chemically neutral

2. Low viscosity

3. Absence of toxic vapor

4. Absence of inflaming tendency

5. Coolant

6. Flushes the eroded particle away

Kerosene & De-ionized Water are most common

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CriticalCritical ProcessProcess ParametersParameters

1. Open Voltage (V)

2. Current (I)

3. Resistance (R)

4. Capacitance (C)

5. Discharge Voltage (V d )

6. Pulse on-time

7. Pulse off-time

8. Spark gap

9. Flushing system

(V d ) 6. Pulse on-time 7. Pulse off-time 8. Spark gap 9. Flushing system Energy/

Energy/ spark:

1

E = CV

2

d

2

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ProcessProcess CharacteristicsCharacteristics V3> V2> V 1 V V 2 • Material Removal Rate (Q): 3
ProcessProcess CharacteristicsCharacteristics
V3> V2> V 1
V
V
2
• Material Removal Rate (Q):
3
Weight of material removed
Q
Q
(gm / min) =
Machining time
V
1
Higher I, V, C, Pulse on-time, flushing flow
rate causes higher MRR
I
• Tool wear ratio (TWR):
Volume of tool wear
TWR =
Volume of workpiece wear
Higher I, V, C, Pulse on-time,
causes higher TWR
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ProcessProcess CharacteristicsCharacteristics Contd.Contd.
• Surface finish:
– High frequency spark and low I, V,C gives best
surface finish.
– Economically achievable avg. surface roughness is
0.4 µm.
• Accuracy:
– Sharp corner cannot be achieved
– Taper effect disturbs the machining accuracy
– Usual tolerance value ± 0.03 to ± 0.05 mm.
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BranchesBranches ofof EDMEDM

Die sinking EDM EDM Milling Wire EDM Wire EDG EDM Drilling 1515
Die sinking EDM
EDM Milling
Wire EDM
Wire EDG
EDM Drilling
1515

AdvantagesAdvantages

1.

High accuracy

2.

Surface quality

3.

Any conductive materials

4.

No hardness limitations

5.

Stress-Free and Burr-Free Cutting

6.

Suitable for mold making

7.

Suitable to machine difficult to cut or complex 3d shapes

Cutting 6. Suitable for mold making 7. Suitable to machine difficult to cut or complex 3d

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ApplicationsApplications

Applications Applications 17 17
Applications Applications 17 17
Applications Applications 17 17
Applications Applications 17 17

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LimitationsLimitations

Limitations Limitations 1. High specific energy consumption 2. Low MRR 3. Limited to conductive materials

1.

High specific energy consumption

2.

Low MRR

3.

Limited to conductive materials

4.

Formation of re-cast layer and heat affected zone

5.

Difficult to produce sharp corner due to electrode wear

6.

Risk of fume and skin irritation hazard to operator

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SummarySummary • EDM is the most popular non-traditional machining process • Material is removed by
SummarySummary
EDM is the most popular non-traditional machining
process
Material is removed by thermo-electrical process
• Suitable for any conductive materials
• No hardness limitation
• High accuracy and surface finish
Low material removal rate
• Sharp corner cannot be produced
• Suitable for machining intricate 3D shapes
Popular for die & mold fabrication
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Any Query?
2020