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in book production compared with other Asian countries. Aside from having no human resource development program for the book publishing industry, the lack of incentives due to limited number of research grants and fellowships are reasons why many authors are forced to move to more financially rewarding endeavors. As a result, the book industry is currently plagued by the lack of trained and competent authors, editors, designers, graphic artists and production specialists due to non-availability of industryspecific courses and trainings. Not only do we have less locally-authored titles annually, our institutions of higher learning are also dependent on instructional materials produced by the western world because many of our researches are not converted or translated into curriculum materials. The severe disparity between local and foreign authored books can be observed from the book shelves in our libraries and bookstores. Creating a National Book Development Trust Fund amounting to Php 100,000,000.00 is significantly important for the creation and eventual publication of locally authored manuscripts from eighteen (18) regions of the country. If passed into law, the interest of the Trust Fund would enable at least sixty-five (65) grants worth PhP 150,000.00 each per region to be awarded yearly so that deserving writers or researchers in the Philippines could produce or finish excellent manuscripts on a variety of topics or subject areas for publication. This way, local books serve the development goals of communities, institutions of learning and the whole nation. Justification The reasons for the immediate passage of the National Book Development Trust Fund are justified by the following facts. These are: First, is the low book output which is a concern that has been raised by government policy-makers and stakeholders in the industry (Pacheco, 1996:2,13; UNESCO, 1995; Miranda, 1987:5;Aprieto, 1981:3-4; Albert, et al., 1966:2). This observation was also echoed by the Center for Policy and Administrative Development of the National College of Public Administration and Governance at the University of the Philippines. In 1999, while Malaysia and Sri Lanka produced 5,084 books and 4,655 books respectively, the Philippines produced only 1,380. This output is considered just a drop in the bucket when compared with the production of Korea at 36,425 books and Japan with 65,513 books (For more details, see Table 3).
Second, is the dearth of industry-focused instructional materials and textbooks even for undergraduate courses and the fact that most if not all of our institutions of learning patronize books that are mostly western-oriented. The Philippines is the third largest English Speaking nation in the world with academic books sourced mostly from the West. A case in point is the problem of having a dearth of locally-authored books e.g. instructional materials and books among state colleges and universities which has been raised by Dr. Frederick So. Pada, Executive Director of the Philippine Association of State Colleges and Universities. He cited as a reason that “books and instructional materials developed and published by foreigners are not affordable among the SUC studentry.” He also confirmed the observation on the capability of local authors when he said that “there are many capable SUC faculty members who can be tapped to develop instructional materials and write books for the Filipino students but they are not given the inhouse logistics, encouragement and administrative support.” Third, is the huge disparity in the ratio of imported books sold in our local bookstores. According to Ms. Juliet Gako of the National Book Store, the volume of books in said store was 70% foreign-authored and 30% locally-authored books three to five years ago. This year, the ratio is now 60% foreign and 40% local. But the sad part is that books that enjoy brisk sales are mostly locally-authored Romance Novels, she added. The purpose of the National Book Development Trust Fund is not to produce romance novels and novelettes but also books on various genres e.g. scientific and technical books, translations of classic works into the local languages or in subject areas wherein local books are either few or nonexistent. We need books that will play a key role in our national development. Fourth, is the huge disparity in book titles and the volume of books of foreign books compared to Filipiniana or locally authored books. The foreign to local book ratio at the Main Library of UP Diliman and the National Library is an eyeopener. Ms. Valdez estimates that of the 1,020,295 volume of books the UP Main Library has, around 95,340 – 100,000 books are locally-authored. The same is true with our local public libraries. Our libraries have very few locally authored books compared with imported books. The 2002 Book Distribution to Public Libraries shows that in terms of titles, our libraries have an average of only ninetwo (92) locally-authored books and four hundred four (404) foreign books. However, in comparison to the volume of books per title in our local libraries, we have more locally authored books than foreign ones. According to the National Library, the 2002 Distribution of Local Books showed all public libraries having a total of 30,118 Filipiniana books and only 7,061 foreign ones or .81% local and.19% foreign-authored books. In 2002, the US exported to the Philippines $15.3M worth of books and L3.4M from the UK. In 2001, the US exported $19.0M worth of books and L1.9M from the UK. According to a 2002 Report, the
volume of book exports from the US to the Philippines is greater than Belgium and France. (See Table 5 for details) Fifth, the kinds of books we produce do not meet the needs of our reading population. The kinds of books we produce may not meet the needs of our schools at all levels. Consider these facts. In 1999, the Philippines produced 63 titles under General Category, 15 in Philosophy, 41 in Religion, 79 in Language, 53 in Science, 79 in Arts and 75 in History. In that same year we produce 117 books in Applied Science, 227 titles in Literature and 631 titles categorized under Social Science. Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand produced titles by the hundreds and thousands. (For more details, see Table 4). Sixth, there is a need to develop and promote a book reading culture among Filipinos, especially books written in local languages. A 2003 SWS survey commissioned by the NBDB showed that adult readership of non-schoolbooks tends to be higher among the following: those with high levels of education, who attended private rather than public schools, from higher socio-economic levels, with higher personal monthly income, from the urban rather than the rural areas, younger in age, not married, have libraries in their homes and offices, live near bookstores and public libraries and with social networks who also like to read. In the same study, it found out that fifty-seven (57%) of Filipino adults prefer to read non-school books in Tagalog, 30% prefer English and 13% prefer Cebuano. Positive Outcomes With a Trust Fund for book authors and writers, the ratio of foreign and locally authored books may surely change. For sure, sixty-five (65) grants annually will not be enough. This can be selected through an annual manuscript competition where selected winners can get published and at the same be given a grant to write more manuscripts on various subject areas for future publication. With a trust fund, the National Government can help produce books that help develop a generation of students who take pride in their rich cultural heritage. Ms. Marilou Nicolas, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of the Philippines commented that “if Filipinos knew of their pre-colonial roots and its linkages to their Asean countries, they would better appreciate their ethnic past and take pride in their cultural heritage…Ethnicity, after all, is the heart and soul of national identity.” The National Book Development Trust Fund can facilitate in producing a set of history books that every Filipino school child should read such as books on local knowledge and histories and take pride in their heritage. With the enactment into law of the National Book Development Trust Fund, the following positive outcomes of book development can be realized. With more locally-authored books, establishing retail outlets in every barangay or
municipality will materialize. Even state universities and community colleges as well as elementary and secondary schools can have retail outlets via a collaborative arrangement with publishers. The output could be campus-based book sales outlets. The NBDB can set up the mechanics and a committee composed of various book publishers and suppliers or just the LIBRO franchise to realize this goal. The enactment into law of the National Book Development Trust Fund can pave the way for the establishment of linkages between NBDB and state colleges and universities, higher education institutions in offering library services or diploma or graduate courses in book publishing to develop the human resource of the industry, improve the library system and develop the distribution systems at the local levels. This can be realized with the following possible scenarios. These are: • Development of courses on book publishing in selected state colleges and universities in the regions especially those currently offering degrees in education, psychology and mass communications. NBDB can create a pool of experts on book publishing and management or book editing and publishing, prepare course outlines for all major subjects and submit these to selected schools beginning with UP Diliman, UP Visayas and UP Mindanao. Or if this will take decades to realize, offer the concept to schools like Ateneo and De la Salle. These private schools have regional branches also. • Establish linkages with universities particularly at the regional level to help develop manuscripts that will have local character and reflective of the experience of the population of a regional unit and in the training and development of students and authors with literary inclination and potential.
With over 382 public higher education institutions including 98 state colleges, book development will have a better future. NBDB can stress its crucial role in book development considering that the Philippine Association of State Colleges and Universities has already initiated a book writing project beginning with 6 titles. NBDB can assist them in facilitating technical support from the mainline publishers in the areas like editing, proof-reading, lay-out and design, even printing even at the expense of NBDB as our contribution to this project.
NBDB Mandate Creating a National Book Development Trust fund is consistent with the provisions stated in the National Book Policy which was approved on 4 July 1999. The National Book Policy states “the State shall create the best condition for the promotion of Filipino authorship and other creative activities in book development
(General policy #1). In terms of Implementing Policies (1.1-1.6), the National Book Policy provides for the following: a. Develop new writers/authors and/or upgrade skills of writers/authors through collaborative arrangement among the NBDB, DECS, CHED and other appropriate institutions, stakeholders in the book publishing industry with preferential attention to subject areas wherein there is scarcity or no locally-authored publications; b. Encourage and support Book Development on Philippine literature, heritage, the creative arts, etc. c. Encourage the publications of books in English and local languages consistent with the bilingual policy of the State; d. Promote Filipino authorship of scientific and technical books; encourage the translation of foreign-authored books to local languages; e. Establish a registration system and database of local and foreign manuscripts to assist authors and independent editors and publishers, encourage indigenous authorship, and promote book development in the regions and provinces; f. Institutionalize linkages with universities at the regional level for the purpose of training and assisting students and authors in developing manuscripts that will have a local character and be reflective of the experience of the local population; g. Formulate mechanisms to ensure that the intellectual properties of authors and publishers are adequately protected through collective reprography licensing and other schemes; h. Give incentives to outstanding contributors to book development in the form of awards, prizes, etc.; i. Establish a book development fund for authors and other personnel in the book publishing industry; and j. Encourage the formation of associations of authors to effectively protect their interest and spur the growth of literary creations. References: Center for Policy and Administrative Development. A Policy Study Towards the Development of a National Book Policy for the National Book Development Board. University of the Philippines. October 1997. Department of Trade and Industry. “UK Exports of Books Etc.” Dept. of Trade and Industry Analysis of Data from HM Customs and Excise. http://www. britcoun.org /infoexch/publishing/books2000_2001.xls
Jambora, Anne A. “School Kids Take Pride in Pinoy History.” Philippine Daily Inquirer. 19 October 2003. p. E-1. Mancebo, Samuel T. and Santillana, Carolina P. “Frameworks Strategies in Instructional Materials Development.” “Proceedings of the National Seminar-Workshop on Instructional Materials Development and Book Writing and Publication. 26-28 February 2002, Bayview Park Hotel, Manila. Milliot, Jim. “Book Exports Dropped 1.8% in 2002 to $1.68B.” Publisher’s Weekly. . http://publishersweekly.reviewsnews.com/index.asp . National Book Policy. Pada, Frederick So. “Goals and Objectives of the National Seminar-Workshop on Instructional Materials Development and Book Writing and Publication.” “Proceedings of the National Seminar-Workshop on Instructional Materials Development and Book Writing and Publication. 26-28 February 2002, Bayview Park Hotel, Manila. Social Weather Stations. A National Study on Filipinos’ Book Readership, Reading Attitudes and Reading Preferences. Unpublished Manuscript. 2003. Wresch, William. “E-Commerce Innovations in the Book Publishing Industry: Opportunities for the Developing World. http://www.uwosh.edu /faculty_staff/wresch/ICIS.htm. UNESCO Institute of Statistics. UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1997. UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Book Production : No. of Titles by UDC Telephone Interviews Conducted 1. Mr. Domenden, Division Chief, Public Libraries Division 10:00 A.M. 21 October 2003 2. Ms. Juliet Gako, Asst. Purchasing Manager, National Book Store, Main Office 10:30 A.M. 21 October 2003 3. Ms. Valdez. Main Library. UP Diliman 2:00 P.M. 21 October 2003
FOREIGN FILIPINIANA TOTAL 2001 352 34 386 % 91.1% 8.9% 2002 414 92 506 % 82% 18% 100%
Table 1. Percentage Distribution of Local & Foreign-authored Books in Public Libraries in terms of Titles. (Source: The National Library)
FOREIGN FILIPINIANA TOTAL 2001 12,226 11,300 23,526 % 52% 48% 2002 7,061 30,118 37,179 % 19% 81% 100%
Table 2. Percentage Distribution of Local & foreign authored Books in Public Libraries in terms of volume. (Source: The National Library)
COUNTRY Korea Japan India Thailand Indonesia Iran Malaysia Sri Lanka Philippines 1992 19,938 33,316 10,069 6,229 4,771 3,756 2,778 1,650 217 1993 30,242 48,053 11,884 7,378 6,303 4,259 3,659 2,396 617 1997 27,313 56,221 12,006 8,142 1,902 10,410 5,843 4,115 546 1998 30,487 65,438 14,085 12,000 537 12,020 5,816 2,822 958 1999 36,425 65,513
121 14,783 5,084 4,655 1,380
Table 3. Book Production. First Edition Book Titles Published and Printed (Source: UNESCO and IPA 2003)
COUNTRY Korea ‘96 Japan ‘96 India ‘98 Thailand ‘97 Indonesia ‘98 Iran ‘99 Malaysia ‘99 Sri Lanka ‘ 99 Philippines ‘99 Gen 303 1149 406 464 13 612 157 426 63 Philo 678 1791 408 202 9 706 59 368 15 Religion 1608 1078 1150 275 17 4504 547 533 41 Social Sci 3201 12770 3350 2456 117 1319 1058 1384 631 Lang 1384 1402 275 259 12 1486 662 169 79 Science 359 1363 570 617 145 1844 526 68 53 Appld Sci 3513 12155 760 2371 69 2426 614 347 117 Arts 6543 10046 573 407 72 733 222 103 79 Lit 4164 11924 5294 644 5 247 998 1110 227 History 716 2543 1299 447 78 906 241 147 75
Table 4. Number of Titles Produced per Subject Area (Source: UNESCO and IPA 2003)
Top US Book Export Markets 2001–2002 In the World ($ in millions) 2001 Country Canada United Kingdom Japan Australia Mexico Singapore Hong Kong South Korea Germany Taiwan The Netherlands India Philippines Belgium France Total, Top 15 Worldwide Total $727.7 250.0 129.3 66.0 63.8 49.0 29.4 35.5 34.0 28.9 35.2 16.0 19.0 11.5 10.5 1,712.3
2002 $742.6 270.6 100.8 70.8 64.9 49.6 31.6 29.1 29.1 24.7 22.9 19.5 15.3 12.8 12.4 1,681.2
% Change 2.1% 8.2 -22.0 7.3 1.8 1.2 7.3 -17.9 -14.5 -14.6 -34.9 22.0 -19.2 11.8 17.3 -1.8
$1,505.8 $1,496.7 -0.6%
Source: U.S. Commerce Department Table 5. Top US Book Export Markets in the World Top UK Book Export Markets 2001–2002 in Asia (L in millions) Country (Rank) 1. Japan (8) 2. Singapore (12) 3. Hongkong (18) 4. India (21) 5. South Korea (27) 6. Taiwan (29) 7. Malaysia (33) 8. China (38) 9. Thailand (41) 10. Philippines (45) 11. Sri Lanka (74) 12. Indonesia (95) 13. Bangladesh (101) 14. Vietnam (110)
2000 2001 % Change 42.2 26.3 18.6 13.1 5.6 8.7 3.8 4.7 3.3 1.9 1.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 39.2 28.4 15.3 13.0 8.5 8.3 6.8 5.6 4.3 3.4 1.1 0.5 0.4 0.3 -7.2 7.9 -17.7 -1.1 50.1 -4.8 78.0 19.2 30.3 74.6 -18.0 35.4 35.9 59.4
Source: Department of Trade & Industry analysis of data from HM Customs & Excise DTI Strategy Unit (formerly Statistics Directorate) 10/05/02 Table 6. Top UK Book Export Markets in Asia
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