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Chapter 3

Networks and Telecommunications


Outline
¾ What is the value of a single computer?
¾ Why are computer networks so important in today’s
businesses?
¾ What components do you need to install to create a
network?
¾ Why does it matter how your computer is connected to
the network?
¾ How is it possible that you can connect your computer
to a network at the office, at home, or while on the
road, even overseas?
¾ What is the Internet, how is it controlled, and how does
it work?
¾ What problems are you likely to encounter if you need
to connect to a supplier in a different country?
Internal Networks
Teamwork
Communication
Scheduling Internet
Sharing

External
Suppliers
Customers
Banks
Sharing Data: Transactions

Internet

Database Management
System and Web Server
Sharing Data: Decisions & Searches
¾ Decisions & searches
File Server and Database
¾ Teamwork & joint authorship

Data
Team Document
and
Tools

Report and
Comments
Sharing Data: E-mail

Internet

2. Message 3. Transferred
transferred to via the Internet
account on to the
server. destination
account.

4. Message
received when
user checks e-
1. User creates e-mail message. mail.
Sharing Data: Calendars

8:00 Mgt meeting


8:30 (open)
9:00 Staff meeting
9:30 Staff meeting
10:00 New meeting
Hardware Sharing
¾ Printers
¾ Storage
¾ Processors

Corporate or Tape Drive


external computer (backup)
access Workstations

Shared
Printer
Server
¾ Files are transferred from workstations to the server.
¾ Software automatically copies files to tapes.
¾ LAN administrator can restore files if needed.
Packet-Switched Networks
¾ Data, Voice, Video
™ All converted to packets
™ Packet has data,
destination, and
Voice Sent as packets: 1 2 3 4 5
source address
B
™ Switched services 2
Chicago
™ Packets routed New York
as needed C
™ Reassembled A
4
at destination
E 1
Atlanta
Dallas D 3
5

Computer Sent as packets: A B C D E


¾ Computers Network Components
™ Servers
™ Work stations
¾ Media Personal Computer
™ Cables Personal Computer
LAN card
™ Fiber optic LAN card
™ Radio
™ Infrared
¾ Connection devices

Internet
LAN card

LAN card
Router or Switch
Firewall Shared Printer
Server
Server Scalability
Server farms distribute
the workload. Add
more computers for
more power.

Sun 10000 Increasing


performance
within a
product family.

Sun 3800 Rack mount


server farm.

Compaq

Sun Ultra 5
Network Transmission Media
¾ Electricity Fiber Optic Cable
¾ Fiber optics Example:
Long distance phone lines
¾ Radio waves
reflective cladding

Twisted Pair
Example:
glass or
Local phone lines plastic

Radio or Micro Waves


Example:
Coaxial Cellular phones
Example:
antenna
Cable TV
Shield
Fiber Optics
¾ Faster
¾ More data
¾ Less magnetic interference
¾ Long stretches without
repeaters

900 copper wires can be


replaced by one fiber
optic line (for telephone
connections).
http://www.jsc.mil/images/speccht.jpg Frequency Spectrum

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¾ All waves behave
™ Sound

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http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.pdf
Shared Connections

With shared connections, machines have to take turns, and congestion


can slow down all connections.

With switched
connections, each
computer has the full
bandwidth of the
connection at all times.
Performance depends on
how fast the switch can
handle connections.
¾ The need for standards Connecting Networks
¾ A changing environment

Internet
Backbone fiber optic

Routers or Switches

Switch

Hub

Hub

Radio-based network
Shared-Media Network

Tap Shared Media


Switched Network

Switch

Servers

Workstations/PCs
Enterprise Network
Building 1
Building 2
Fiber optic
Switch

Servers
Firewall

Workstations/PCs

Internet – ISP
Subsidiary
¾ Client server Client/Server Network
¾ Peer-to-peer
™ Operating system
™ Multitasking
Server

Server

Workgroup Printer
Workgroup Printer

Clients

Clients
ISO-OSI Reference Model

Layer 7 Application Original Data Application


Layer 6 Presentation Translate Presentation
Layer 5 Session Sign on and resources Session

Layer 4 Transport Data Packet Transport

Layer 3 Network R Add routing data Network


Addresses &
Layer 2 Data Link A R C Error Check Data Link

Layer 1 Physical A R C A R C Physical

Physical Media
Introduction to the Internet
¾ No control
¾ Services
™ Mail
™ Telnet
™ FTP
™ WWW
The Internet
¾ WEB searching
™ AltaVista
™ HotBot
™ Lycos
™ WebCrawler
™ Yahoo
How the Internet Works
Network
OC3: 155.52 Mbps
service
OC12: 622 Mbps
provider (NSP)

T1: 1.544 Mbps


Backbone
T3: 44.736 Mbps
network

Internet
service
provider (ISP)

Phone Cable Phone


company company company

Dial-up: 33.3 - 56 Kbps


ISDN: 128 Kbps
DSL: 256 Kbps - 6 Mbps Company
Individual Cable: 1.5 Mbps Web site
Internet Connections
¾ Backbone providers ¾ Phone companies
™ AT&T ™ Regional Bell operating
™ SBC companies (RBOCs) (6)
™ MCI ™ Competitive local exchange
™ Sprint carriers (CLECs) (new)
™ Qwest ¾ Cable companies
¾ Network service providers ™ AT&T
™ 1998: 39 ™ Cablevision
™ AGIS ™ Regional.
™ AT&T ¾ Satellite
™ Cable & Wireless ™ Direct Satellite
™ IBM ™ Starband
™ MCI/Worldcom ¾ Internet service providers
™ Qwest ™ America Online
™ Sprint ™ Microsoft Network
™ UUNet ™ Earthlink
Domain Name System Registration
Internic.org

DNS
Registration
Internet World ISP
207.46.250.222
www.microsoft.com
Arin.net Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Net Range Redmond, WA 98052
US
207.46.0.0 – Real World
207.46.255.255
Internet entities
Microsoft- are anchored to
Global-Net the real world
through the DNS
registration and
through their ISP.
If they tell the
truth!
M-Commerce

Internet access
everywhere
Cell phones
PDAs
Laptops

Great potential
Limited usability
Better than voice?
Cell Phones and Wireless Communication
Wireless cells work by
handing off the wireless
connection to the next tower
as the caller moves.
Connections to multiple
towers at one time enables
the system to triangulate to
get a fairly precise location
of the cellular device--even
when it is not in a call.
Location knowledge will
make it possible (although
perhaps not desirable) to
offer new business
opportunities as people
move into range.
Global Telecommunications
¾ Technical problems
™ Multiple standards
™ Language
™ Developing nations
™ Time zones
™ Limits to space & waves
¾ Political complications
™ Transborder data flows
™ Taxes
™ Privacy
™ Accessibility
¾ Cultural issues
™ What is an object?
™ Management & control
Cases: Wholesale Suppliers

Annual Revenue

4
W.W. Grainger
Billion $

3 Univar
Ow ens & Minor
2

0
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

How do suppliers connect to customers?