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Author: M. Sajid Khattak, M.Sc Engineering Management Email: email@example.com Mailing Address: CASE - Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering, 19-Attaturk Avenue, G-5/1, Islamabad, Pakistan. Co-Author: Dr. Ali Sajid, Ph.D, (TI) Director Strategic Affairs, CASE (Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering), University of Engineering and Technology Texila, Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract E-Government has been employed by developed as well as developing countries to be an enabler toward accelerating quality processes, delivering a higher level of quality services to citizens/businesses and increasing transparency/accountability while lowering costs. Additionally, in developing countries it has been recognized as an enabler toward catapulting governments in to the 21st century while leapfrogging multiple generations of technology. It is in this contact that the Government of Pakistan has established the eGovernment Directorate (EGD) under the administrative control of Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication. In particular, the networking potential offered by the Internet and related technologies has the potential to transform the structures and operation of government. The World Bank suggests that e-government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends like better delivery of government services to citizens, improved
interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions. The paper highlights and evaluates the role of eGovernment and its potential impacts on common man in service delivery by government functionaries. In a corruption prone society like Pakistan, government services are not provided in an honest, efficient and reliable manner. It creates a sense of discrimination among the masses. Moreover, the quality of services being provided by government functionaries is not satisfactory and services are provided on the cost of bribery. The paper analyzes that how E-Government helps in empowerment of common man by getting more access to information, speedy and transparent services and in discriminatory/nepotism free services which lead to social justice and satisfaction in the society. Rationale of study: A common man in the third world countries is quite frustrated while getting public sector services. The motivation
behind this research is to know up to what extent e-Government of Pakistan helping common man by providing transparent and quality services which lead to social justice in the society. To know how much e-Government has influenced and satisfied the common man in Pakistan. To get result that how much is the correlation between Pakistani society and e-Government penetration. To create awareness about results produced by e-Services. Research Objective: The main objective behind conducting this research work is: To assess independently, the impact of e-Services on common man Does e-Government help in getting quality of services? To know how e-Government helps in empowering a common man in Pakistan? To know how e-Government helps to bring social justice and lead to satisfaction of common man in Pakistan? Scope of Research: The research analyzes the processes within Federal Government functionaries of Pakistan which are being adopted the concept of e- Government. The region of research is twin cities of Pakistan i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Research Methodology The following methods have been used to get data: By discussion with scholars/experts and e-Government project’s employees. By conducting interviews of people from different fields of life By studying different articles. By getting opinion of common man through questionnaire Constraints/ Limitations
Lack of relevant research work in the said area Non-cooperation by e-Government project’s employees Lack of awareness about eGovernment in society
What is e-Government? E-Government is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for delivering services by government entities, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various standalone systems and services between Government and Citizens (G2C), Government and Business (G2B) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire framework of Government.
Fig. 1 : Triangle Relationship Model
E-Government includes Providing greater access to government information Promoting civic engagement by enabling the public to interact with government officials; Making government more accountable by making its operations more transparent and thus reducing the opportunities for corruption; and Providing development opportunities, especially benefiting rural and traditionally underserved communities. 2
Effects of e-Government Better delivery of government services to citizens Improved interactions with businesses and industry Empowering citizens through access to information or more efficient government management, Increased transparency and greater convenience Reduce corruptions, and costs. A Triangle Relationship Model among Government, Business and Citizens is shown in figure. Impacts of e-Government on common man E-Government introduces transparency in data, decisions/actions, rules, procedures and performance of Govt. agencies in favor of common man. It Automates processes to take away discretion. It helps to trace any decision taken at particular circumstances. E-Government Builds accountability as it provides greater access to information through web publishingrole of civil society and Provides documentation to citizens for follow up. Its practice Standardized documentation of comments/ objections leads to effective supervision. Through introduction of EGovernment Better Service Delivery to Citizens and improved service for business is achieved. It brings transparency in different transaction and combat corruption. It leads to Empowerment of common man through Information. EGovernment results to Efficient Government Purchasing (e-Procurement) and improved access to offices (nearer home, 24X7) and functionaries (no intermediaries). It improves complaint handling. By getting access and service at home leads to less number of trips to government offices which saves transport cost and avoids wage loss. Through Egovernment services integration of data is
achieved across applications which provides improved intelligence and enables unbiased sampling for audit purposes. Other direct benefits which common man can get through EGovernment services are faster processing, shorter wait, shorter queues, more accurate and legible documents, easy recovery from errors and better reception areas. All these benefits finally leads to common man satisfaction. The Case of Pakistan According to UN survey conducted in 2006, The Pakistan comes under Midrange scoring countries by utilization of eGovernment (Mid-range scoring countries (percent utilization = 34 - 66%) All government services are being made accessible by public on the Pakistan’s relatively new web portal www.pakistan.gov.pk by using best practices in the world.
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Emails Questionairs Telephone calls Personal Interviews
Fig. 2 Distribution of participant’s contacts
Survey Formulation Different community groups have been contacted via Emails, questionnaire, telephone calls and personal interviews within twin cities of Islamabad & Rawalpindi. Their distribution is as: Emails Questionnaires Telephone calls Personal Interviews 400 70 50 35
The distribution of contacted persons is also shown graphically in fig.2 and similarly their distribution according to age wise is shown graphically in fig. 3. Number of e-Services suggested by each group is given below: Age Group 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41 above No. of e-Services 80 112 96 74 22
Fig. 3 Age wise distribution of participants
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41 and above
Summary of Survey Findings Internet Usage: All the respondents have experience for Internet usage. 93% of the respondents use Internet daily. Remaining 7% are using it alternatively. This indicates the large number of citizens are using internet which will increase the online usage of e-Services and their value in the social arena E-Services essence: Every respondent is interested to have e-Services. They know about the potentials of e-Services by saving time, money, resources ultimately getting more efficiency and satisfaction. Barriers: Pakistan is a developing country having less resources and infrastructure problems. The major issues are i. Lack of education and awareness ii. Insufficient Electricity iii. Political Issues iv. High Internet Cost with Lower Bandwidth v. Reliability and Security vi. Infrastructure problems vii. Technology and trained staff viii. Economic issues
Fig. 4 Number of e-Services suggested by each group
E-Service Usage: Citizens are not able to find the needed e-Services either in the form of informative or interactive eServices so availability and awareness are still important issues. Besides above mentioned problems Government is still providing some e- Services According to respondents result few of them are using the provided e-Services. Intension: Every respondent has recommended that there should be eServices from e- Government. 68% respondent use available e-services and 32% have not used any e-service. Citizens choices in developed country and Pakistan E-Govt. According to (Richard D. Holowczak) Government services are constrained by the citizens’ personnel choice which are based on different tasks and made applicable by the Government and to make improvement in access of service to citizens. e-Government has made lot of investments in this regard. (Al-Kibsi et al., 2001; Sia and Neo, 1997; Chan and Pan, 2003). This indicates that Government should take more responsibility for making these e-Services applicable by providing easy access to the citizens. This is also 4
10% 21-25 26-30 31-35 38% 36-40 41 and above
abstracted from survey results that Government of Pakistan needs to identify the importance of e-service to citizens and these services should reflex the needs of citizens. An emphasis is also given by (Gronlund, 2005) and centric (Scott, et al, 2005). Survey Conclusion The survey result locates that improvements are required for implementing e-Government services in Pakistan. Overall results depicts that every body is looking for e-Government facilities. Though a lot of informative websites are in place but still their usage is not so common. To make them publicly accessible, Pakistan Government may need to follow a developed country like USA or New Zealand as both these countries are already using same such e-Services. In Pakistan, the interest and e-Services expectations of citizens are increasing towards e-Government. Following are the expected e-Services groups from most demanding order to least Citizens are also expecting improvement in the following areas: Education and Awareness, Electricity, Political Issues, Internet Cost and Bandwidth, Reliability and Security, Infrastructure, Technology and Trained Staff and Economic. Recommendations for E-Government To accomplish public expectations, transparent policies along with certain step by step viable goals should be maintained as per current circumstance. Therefore, Government should start thinking more strategically about how e-Services can play role in the enhancement of productivity and use of information in the public sectors at larger extent E-Services are acknowledged to be exclusive concern of citizens and citizens have a lot of expectation from Government. The theory and analysis of survey conclude, in order to meet
citizens expectations Government should consider few more things A single portal can produce better communication concurrencies among the various departments and the citizens. Awareness and Utilization should be encouraged at all levels. Flexibility with respect to language, culture, and common man’s ease should also be considered. Common man's participation must be improved in order to achieve maximum utilization of their required e-Services. Make all Government services accessible to the common man
References: : Center for Digital Government, (2005), `Introduction to Citizen Service Technologies and 3-1-1: Hello - The First Word in Reinvigorating the Relationship between Citizens and their Government - A Strategic Guide for Local Government,' : Cook, M.E., (200), `What Citizens Want from E-Government Current Practice research , Center for Technology in Government University at Albany / SUNY : Dawes, S.S., (2002), `The Future of E-Government,' Director, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany/SUN, June 24 : Gronlund, A. and Horan, T., (2005), `Introducing E-Gov: History, Definitions, and Issues Communications of AIS', Volume 15, Article, May, pp 12-14 : Gore, `Reengineering Information Al., (1993), Through Technology. 5
Accompanying Report of the National Performance Review', Washington: Office of the Vice President : Gronlund, A., ( 2005), `What's In a Field - Exploring the eGoverment Domain', `appeared in the Proceedings of 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences', Big Island, Hawaii.
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