TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT..................................................................................................1 1. INTRODUTION ......................................................................................................2 2.

GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT..............................................................3 The adoption of political modernisation and development approach theory is vital to the practice of Politechnocrats approach (which is a an academic approach invented by me with regards to this assignment) in general as a method of governance that promotes rapid development and good governance especially on the part of the population and the economy as it emphasised on the need for the progressives (technocrats) to join politics and be political involved since the Political modernisation theory attributes lack of enough participation in politics by the technocrats in the political superstructure as one of the reasons for industrial underdevelopment in the third world countries..............................................................3 3. GOVERNANCE......................................................................................................3 3.1 Understanding Governance................................................................................5 3.2 Governance and Good Governance....................................................................5 3.3 Features of Good Governance..............................................................................6 4. DEVELOPMENT....................................................................................................6 5. RELATION BETWEEN GOVERNCE AND DEVELOPMENT............................7 6. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT..........................................................................8 6.1 Modernisation Theory........................................................................................8 6.1.1 Classification of Modernisation Theory........................................................9 6.1.2 Economic Approach......................................................................................9 6.1.3 Sociological Approach..................................................................................9 6.1.4 Political Approach.......................................................................................10 6.2 Psychological Approach...................................................................................10 6.3 Classical Theory..............................................................................................10 6.4 Linear Stages Theory........................................................................................11 6.5 Structural Change Model..................................................................................11 7.0 APPROACHES TO GOVERNANCE..................................................................11 8.0 THE POLITECHNOCRATS APPROACH..........................................................12 REFERENCES:............................................................................................................14

1. INTRODUTION This paper is divided into three (3) parts, namely the introduction, the fact (body) of the assignment and lastly, my submission which forms the concluding part of the assignment. This paper highlights a new approach known as Politechnocrats Approach which emphasised the empowerment of the professionals (technocrats) working in conjunctions with the politicians for the purpose of good governance and development to achieve service delivery to the populace. The origin of the word “governance” was explained with reference to the history and evolution of governance. Different definitions of governance was explored with two (2) different diagrams, one illustrating the meaning and what good governance is all about while the second diagram explain the features of good governance and the relationship between governance and development are also discussed. Different definitions of development and the relationship between governance and development are discussed. Other areas the assignment covers are the theories of development while under modernisation theory, political modernisation development theory was discussed as a relevant theme to the submission of the fact in the assignment with reference to the adopted approach (final submission) of the writer in supporting the fact of the assignment and the new concept, Politechnocrats approach being advocated for by the writer. Conclusively, the writer was able to justify what politechnocrts approach is all about and how all the stake holders; especially the technocrats will function perfectly in democratic settings. Politechnocrats approach considers both the strength and weakness of a nation and ascribes roles and the best platform to both the politicians and the professionals for good governance to take place. Advice on how the approach can help the government to achieve the

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expected service delivery at home and be respected among the League of Nations with respect to their economic standards and the nations economy are also part of this write paper.

2. GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT The adoption of political modernisation and development approach theory is vital to the practice of Politechnocrats approach (which is a an academic approach invented by me with regards to this assignment) in general as a method of governance that promotes rapid development and good governance especially on the part of the population and the economy as it emphasised on the need for the progressives (technocrats) to join politics and be political involved since the Political modernisation theory attributes lack of enough participation in politics by the technocrats in the political superstructure as one of the reasons for industrial underdevelopment in the third world countries. This approach favours largely the combination of technocrats and politicians in political partnership to produce good governance and service delivery.

3. GOVERNANCE Historically, the word governance can be traced back to the Greek verb ‘kubernam’ meaning to plot or to steer and it was used by Pluto with regards to how to design a system of rule. The Greek term gave rise to the Medieval Latin ‘gubernare’, which has the same connotation of piloting rule making or steering. This word is what we now have in English as ‘Governance’ The word governance means different things to many people and arriving at a common and acceptable meaning is by understanding various definitions from authors on this subject. Governance can be defined as ‘The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised’-Kaufman et al. To him, governance is basically a way of exercising authority.

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Governance involves many areas of our lives either as a person or community. “Governance is the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises, mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulates their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences” (UNDP). From this definition above, it is clear that governance is the art of running a nation, its people and resources. Understanding governance requires the identification of both the rulers and the people they rule as well as the various processes by which they are selected, defined and linked together and with the society generally considering their culture. Governance goes beyond the local sector as it exists all over the world both at the nation and the corporate levels. It is a global phenomenon with reference to world politics and people centred with service delivery as focus. In exploring governance, there are formal and informal actors involved in decision making and implementation. Government among others, depending on the level of operation and application are the actors in governance. ‘The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences’-UNDP. From all this we can see that that there many actors in governance as there are other participants in governance. Graft, rule of law, and government effectiveness are part of the fundamental aspects of governance, other dimensions are voice and accountability, political instability and violence and regulatory burden. – (Kaufman, Kraay and Zoido-Lobaton 1999). From this we can deduce that governance has to do with leading people and power

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3.1 Understanding Governance

Un e t n in o Go e n d rs a ding f g v rna ce

13 May 2009

Leos Presentation on Governance & Development

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Fig.

1.1

Representation

of

good

governance

(Courtesy: Leo group) It can also be defined as the way ‘power is exercised through a country’s economic, political and social institutions.’-the World Bank’s PRSP handbook.

3.2 Governance and Good Governance It should be pointed out clearly that there are differences between governance and good governance both in practice and representation, Governance is “the traditions and intuitions by which authority in a country is exercised,” (Kaufan et al). Here emphasised is on the authority and ruling the people. Mechanism for measuring good governance have three key elements: Internal rules and restraints (e.g. internal accounting and auditing systems, independence of the judiciary and the central bank, civil service and the budgeting rules): “Voice” and partnership (e.g. public-private deliberation councils, and service delivery surveys to solicit client feedback): and Competition (e.g. competitive social service delivery, private participation in

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infrastructure, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, and outright privatisation of certain market-driven activities).- WDR 1997. Good governance aid development, promote rule of law, encourage transparency,, be responsive to the needs of the people among other factors like equity and inclusiveness, accountability and effective service delivery. Promotion of a capable state where peace and stability are guaranteed, quantified developments through creation on an enabling political and legal environment for economic growth that will promote the equitable distribution of the fruits of the growth, formulates policies and implements them through the engagement of technocrats to fight poverty, invest in the nation’s development and promotes education, health and public safety, provide security, promote governance transparency and accountability. These are the objectives of Politechnocrats approach. 3.3 Features of Good Governance
FEATURES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE

EFFECTIVE AND EFFEICIENT

ACCOUNTABILE

CONSENSUS ORIENTED

TRANSPARENCY

Good governance

EQUITABLE AND INCLUSIVE

FOLLOW THE RULE OF LAW RESPONSIVE

PARTICIPATORY

Fig. 1.2 fruits of good governance.

4. DEVELOPMENT Arriving at an acceptable definition of ‘Development’ was not an easy task as development means different thing to many people. Recent United Nations documents emphasise “human development” measured by life expectancy, adult literacy, access to all the three levels of education, as well as people’s
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average income, which is a necessary condition for their freedom of choice. In broader sense, the notion of human development incorporates all aspects of individuals’ well-being, from their health status to their economic and political freedom. - “Human development is the end-economic growth a means.” (Human Development Report 1996, published by UNDP). Development is the growth of humans throughout their lifespan, from conception till death. Development implies transformation of society at political, social, economic and legal-levels (Joseph Stiglitz, President of World Bank). The scientific study of human development seek to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life including growth, emotional, perceptual social, and personality development. Development can be physical and can be measured via a set standard and practice based on its objectives and the assessment of the government in power e.g. policy maker may want to find out what the social development position (as defined by policy makers) of a population in order to inform policy formulation. Also, government and international communities can assess the impact of a particular development initiative and therefore want to have measurements of the program before and after its implementation. “Development is the process of enlarging people’s choice to live long-healthy lives, to have access to knowledge, income and assets: enjoy a decent standard of living” (CIDA 1996). From the on going one can deduce that development encompasses all the areas of life of a person, family, community and the nation in general and it has become a yardstick for measuring good governance

5. RELATION BETWEEN GOVERNCE AND DEVELOPMENT There are distinct relationships between good governance and development; both have to do with human race in general. Good governance reflects in the development of a nation infrastructures and human capabilities as a sign of development.

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Development is the yardstick for measuring good governance in any country and the progress of their economy. The latter is the instrument of measurement for the performance of the former, be it human, economy, infrastructure, education, commerce, employment, poverty, inequality, health, gender discrimination, youth empowerment, transparency and accountability among other factors. Without good governance, development cannot take place.

6. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Theories is an indispensable tools that is use to organise facts. There are many schools of thoughts that have developed and offer a brief but critical appraisal of development. The hegemony of these schools changes with time accordingly as new theoretical discourses are now taking prominence with emphasis on development theory with international currency undertone and variation in the theoretical frame works. There are many theories associated with development but for the purpose of this paper, four theories will be discussed, namely: 1. Modernisation Theory 2. Classical theories 3. Linear Stage Theory 4. Structural Change Model

6.1 Modernisation Theory Between 1950s and 60s emphasis was placed on the transfer of significant amount of aid and provision of extensive technical assistance to the third world countries accompanied by systematic national planning in conjunction with bilateral and international agencies (Richard Haines) . Large scale industrial projects were seen as central components in the promotion of rapid economic growth, and on development aid and technical assistance in improving socio economic conditions on a range of fronts. Most modernisation

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theory tend to assume that all societies progress in linear fashion from a traditional state to modernity, with model of development based on historical processes that have taken place in the industrial world.

6.1.1 Classification of Modernisation Theory One way of classifying modernisation theories is to distinguish between economical, sociological, political, and psychological approaches bearing in mind that though they overlap in terms of concepts and perspectives the later version of modernisation theory were not as comprehensive, ambitious or predictive as earlier version.

6.1.2 Economic Approach The best known modernisation theory and the representative of the economic approach is the economic historian called (W. W. Rostov). He argued that economic development involve the passage of a society through five evolutionary stages. Traditional stage is when society has problems expanding production significantly. They have simple technology and preNewtonian scientific world view. Stage two is the take off stage, characterised by the rise and expansion of new industries yielding profits that is reinvested in new plants and ventures. Third stage is drive to maturity stage, the economy is now mature and able to broaden its base to include more sophisticated technology and work processes, and shift well beyond the original industries that propelled it’s ‘take off’. The last stage is the age of mass consumption where the advance sectors of the economy are increasingly dominated by the manufacture of consumer goods and the provision of service 6.1.3 Sociological Approach There are two streams of sociological thoughts fitting into modernisation theory. One incorporate Max Weber’s writing on the relationship between Protestantism and the development of capitalism, and concentrate on the

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cultural and the individual psychological prerequisites of modernisation, while the other current stem from the thought of Herbert Spenser and Emile Durkeim which stress social or structural differentiation as the main feature in social change. Springboard for many modernisation theories (especially for a non economic variety) by synthesising and simplifying elements of Durkheim and Weber in his structural functionalist modelling of modern society was done by Talcott Parsons (1973).

6.1.4 Political Approach This entails ‘…..the progressive rationalisation and secularisation of authority, their growing differentiation of a new political functions and specialised structures, and increased participation in the political process’ (Kamrava 1993:193). Most modernisation stress the inadequacy of political superstructure and capable leadership as the underlying cause of the third world industrial ‘backwardness’. This is a relevant approach to the theory of Politechnocrats approach which is the stand point of this paper.

6.2 Psychological Approach This approach tends to emphasis internal factors and psychological motives as the main spring of transition (Larrain 1989), McClelland (1961) identifies the ‘need for achievement’ – a self conscious desire to do well- as a crucial factor. He pointed out that by spreading among actual and potential entrepreneurs in a particular society, this will contribute significantly to economic development

6.3

Classical Theory

Classical theorist like Adam Smith who propounded the theory of division of labour as an instrument of trade and production and David Ricardo who advocated for free trade and also went ahead to develop the theory of ‘Comparative Advantage’ are examples of classical economists. They see the

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market as a mechanism for maximizing efficient resources use of human well being.

6.4 Linear Stages Theory This theory is identified with economist like Walt Rostov. He emphasised on economic growth rather than development. He however did make a remarkable distinction between “more developed” and “less developed”

6.5 Structural Change Model This model has to do with the ideas of gradual shifts over time along a particular path as indicated by Todaro (2000). The basic theme of this models of development was the way in which national economics shifted from rural, agricultural base to an urban, manufacturing thus seeing development as largely economic phenomenon as amplified by W. Arthur Lewis.

7.0 APPROACHES TO GOVERNANCE This has to do with the method of governance adopted for administration of a state for the purpose of development. These three different approaches are relevant to this paper, namely Technocrat / Economic approach which emphasis economic empowerment development as trademark for development. Ownership approach which emphasised general involvement of people at all spheres of governance. Political approach which advocate for democracy and the fundamental human rights of all citizens. The sustainable development literature suggest that development is only possible if we move beyond a narrow concern with economic development to ‘ensuring that peoples’ basic needs are being met , that the resource base is conserved, that there is a sustainable population level, that environment and

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cross-sectoral concern are integrated into decision making processes, and that communities are empowered. (Munslow and FitzGerald, 1994) It is based on this assertion that I now advocate for a new approach, Politechnocrats Approach.

8.0 THE POLITECHNOCRATS APPROACH The name Politechnocrats is derives from the combination of representation and meanings from both the Political approach and the Technocrat/Economic approach. While the political approach is emphasising development through democracy and legitimate government through the electorates, the technocrats/economic approach is basically used by the international donor/ funding community as a corrective policy measure to reverse a bad economy and to put a nations book keeping in order to enhance development through economic empowerment. To have a good governance in a state, democracy must be at work and the nation’s economy must always be at a +surplus. Political approach is employ when dealing with the people (electorate) while technocrats/economic approach is to be employ when dealing with the economy of the nation. This approach is highly recommended when dealing with both the people’s welfare and the economy of the nation in general considering their different roles to achieve same objectives of stable nation building. It is humane, people centred and service delivery focus based on democracy and people participation in a functional state that is institutionally strong where public safety will be and the rule of law is the order of the day. Technocrat’s functions will includes, articulating and implementing government economic policies and programs since economic achievement is one of the yard sticks for good governance. Government economic policies will be professionally administer ranging from sound macro-economics management, institutional reforms, investment in human resources development for sustainable poverty reduction with equitable growth through the building of strong forms of development at all level.

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Private sector involvement and participations through the building of an enabling environment for economic growth, job creation and income through promotion of political and policy stability inclusive of a fair and consistent application of the rule of law, equity and all inclusive government. Inclusion of the technocrats in a democratic set up is to be able to check wastage spending on the part of the government and out of budget spending. Also, the approach will ensure that the country does not run into any debt whatsoever so that we don’t reduce ourselves to the role of a beggar thereby allowing the donor community to be dictating to us on how to structure out economic policies. Conclusively, Politechnocrats Approach is all about the coming together of both the technocrats and the politicians to promote good governance and promotes developments in a nation, it promotes the fundamental human rights of all citizens, participatory democracy, promotes private sector participation, attack poverty, provides education, jobs, allow rule of law, develop the economy, provide portable drinking water, promotes gender equality, initiate and promotes sound international trade policy, create a watch dog body to check corruptions. The combinations of the politicians and the technocrats in a democratic settings will promotes efficiency, professionalism, private sector participation in governance, service delivery and development at all sphere of the economy.

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