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0: INTRODUCTION OF SMART STATISTICS

Smart statistics is the set of mathematical tools and techniques that are used to analyze data, collecting, organizing, summarizing and interpreting information in a numerical form. Statistics involves the use of sample data to predict, estimate and finally used in managerial decision making. It refers to the scientific methods by which the data are collected, organised, presented and analysed.

The purpose of making statistics is to summarise finding, to visualise results, to extract information from data and to communicate the findings. A statistic is a number collected on sample data that describes a characteristic of the sample. A parameter is a number calculated on population data that describes a characteristic of the population.

Population is denoted by N, is the entire measurement that the researcher plans to investigate. A sample is denoted by n, is a subset of measurements selected from the population of interest where as a representative sample is a set of example that has the characteristics possessed by the target population.

There are two types of statistic that are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is a method in organizing, summarizing and presenting data in an informative way and utilizes both numerical and graphical tools. It is used where never a researcher wishes to describe to someone else the findings and relationship that exist within a sample of observation. Inferential statistics is a method by which decision about a statistical population are made based on a sample that is observed.

Besides that, the sources of data can be obtained from published books, journals, newspapers, internet, annual reports, design experiment, survey and observational study. There have four scales of measurement for data that are nominal scale, ordinal level data, interval scale and ratio scale.

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From the data collected, we can build relationship between those data. There are four types of relationship involve in statistics that are linear relationship, perfect relationship, imperfect relationship and a correlation coefficient.

1.1: TYPES OF SMART STATISTICS DATA

Statistics have two types of data that are data quantitative data and qualitative data. Below are the elaborations of quantitative data and qualitative data.

1.1.1: Quantitative Data

A quantitative data is a numerical datum or observation that represents an amount or quantity. The quantity can be discrete or continuous. Quantitative data also known as numerical data because it can be analysed using statistical methods and results can be displayed using tables, charts, histograms and graphs. An example of quantitative data is “there are 16 students in PPISMP SN/BI/BM class”.

1.1.2: Qualitative Data

A qualitative data is a non-numerical observation that represents a category of data. Qualitative data are described in terms of quality. An example of qualitative data is “Pn. Afza is wearing a beautiful purple baju kurung”.

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1.3: Differences between Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data Figure 1: Differences of Qualitative and Quantitative Data 3 .1.

A bar chart shows the amount of frequencies for different categories of data by a series of bars. a frequency curve can be positively skewed.2. The observations that are collected but have not been arranged or categorized are called raw data. In the frequency distribution. we can know which one is upper class limit and which one is lower class limit. Data also are measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment or study. Then the data can be presented as a frequency distribution. do a tally sheet for each value. all the values need to be listed down. we also can make class interval. Secondly. 4 . ogive and chart. From the class interval. The difference between a bar chart and a histogram is that a histogram always relates to data in a frequency distribution whereas a bar chart depicts amount for any types if category. Thirdly. Lastly. It is also suitable for a continuous set of data. it presents the score values and their frequency. calculate for the percentage using (n/N) x 100 for each value.0: DESCRIBING DATA Data is a collection of information especially facts or numbers. combine adjacent values to form a grouped frequency is necessary. These data can either be grouped or ungrouped data. Firstly. A graph of a cumulative frequency distribution is called an ogive. negatively skewed or symmetrical. From the histogram. In terms of skewness. From the data. 2. A cumulative frequency distribution indicates the number of scores that fall below the upper real limit of each interval. There are four steps in making frequency table.1: PRESENTED THE DATA The data can be graphically presented by doing histogram. we can make frequency polygon by connecting the intersection of class midpoints and the class frequency. The class midpoint is also can be known and it is obtained by adding the lower class and upper class limits and dividing them by two. A pie chart is used for portraying the divisions of a total amount.

The size of each sector shows the percentage of the overall data it represents. 5 .1: Pie Chart Figure 2: Pie Chart A pie chart is a graphic representation of data using sectors of a circle.2.2.2: VISUAL ILLUSTRATION OF DATA Basically. there are many types of visual illustration of data when we want to represent the data such as: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Pie chart Line graph Bar chat Histogram Pictogram 2.

2: Line Graph Graph 1: Line Graph Line graph is usually used to represent changes in data over a period of time. the angle of each sector can be calculated by using the formulae below: uantit of each categor of data x 360 uantit of the overall data Angle of sector or Angle of sector Percentage of each categor of data x 360 2.2. 6 . A suitable scale is important when drawing a line graph.The percentage of data represented by each sector can be calculated by using the formula below: Angle of sector x 100 360 Percentage of data To construct a pie chart.

2. 7 .2.3: Bar Chart Graph 2: Vertical Bar Chart A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. usually on small data sets. Bar charts are used for comparing two or more values that were taken over time or on different conditions.

Graph 3: Horizontal Bar Chart A bar chart can also be constructed horizontally or vertically. Graph 4: Combined Bar Chart 8 . A combined bar chart can be used to compare sets of data.

4: Histogram Graph 5: Histogram A histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies that shown as bars. Histogram also gives an immediate impression of the distribution of the data. a histogram is a representation of a frequency distribution. the bars must touch.2. every possible fish mass can be located in one of the classes. This is what makes a histogram. The intervals are shown on the X-axis and the number of scores in each interval is represented by the height of a rectangle located above the interval. In fact. A bar graph is much like a histogram but differ in that the columns are separated from each other by a small distance.2. In a histogram. however. Bar graphs are commonly used for qualitative variables. The shapes of histograms will vary depending on the choice of the size of the intervals. This is because the data elements we are recording are numbers that are grouped. A histogram is constructed from a frequency table. There are no gaps in the numbers along the bottom axis. 9 . and form a continuous range from left to right.

Number of IPGM Kampus Perlis Students Have Their Own Cars PPISMP SN/BI/BM PPISMP PSV/BI/BM represents 2 students PPISMP RBT(A)/BI/BM PPISMP PJ(A)/BI/BM Table 2: Vertical Pictogram 10 .5: Pictogram Number of IPGM Kampus Perlis Students Have Their Own Cars PPISMP SN/BI/BM PPISMP PSV/BI/BM PPISMP RBT(A)/BI/BM PPISMP PJ(A)/BI/BM represents 2 students Table 1: Horizontal Pictogram Pictogram is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. It can be constructed horizontally or vertically. A pictogram uses pictures to represent data.2.2.

1: MEAN Mean is defined as the sum of the values in the data set divided by the number of values. mode and median. 5. 10 is 5 5 6 8 10 5 34 5 6. The mean of a set Mean 11 . Mean is represented by the symbol of data is obtained by using the formula below: Sum of all values of data x otal num ers of data n or x n Example: The mean of 5. 8.0: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Measures of central tendency are statistical measures to determine a single score that defines the centre of a distribution.8 (x bar). 3. 6. The goal of central tendency is to find the single score that is most typical or most representative of the entire group.8 6. The three measures of central tendency are mean.3.

then the median is the value in the middle of the set.05 Mean 2. the mean can be calculated by using this formula: Sum of all values x corresponding frequencies otal frequenc Mean Examples: Score Frequency 0 2 1 5 2 7 3 2 4 4 Table 3: Frequency Table of Finding Mean (0x2) 0 41 20 2.05 5 (1x5) (2x7) (3x2) 2 5 7 2 4 14 6 16 20 (4x4) 3.2: MEDIAN The median is the value of a set of data that located in the middle of the set when the data is arranged in numerical order. 3. Example: 2. If the total number of data is odd. 4. 3.When data is given in a frequency tables. 5 3 is the median 12 .

5 3. 7 5 6 2 5.5 Median 2. the value occupying the middle position is between position 10 and position 11.If the total number of data is even. Example: In the word “MALAYSIA” the letter „A‟ is the mode. 6.3: MODE The mode of a set of data is the value or item that occurs most frequently.5 5. then the median is the average of the two middle values of the set. 2 3 2 = 2. 4. Example: 3. 7. Example: Score Frequency 1 3 2 7 3 5 4 4 5 1 Table 4: Frequency Table of Finding Median Since there are altogether 20 values. the median is the value occupying the middle position.5 is the median When a set of data is given in a frequency table. 5. 13 .

Example: Score Frequency 0 2 1 5 2 3 3 7 4 2 Table 5: Frequency Table of Finding Mode The mode is 3 because it has the highest frequency 14 . the mode is the value with the highest frequency.When a set of data is shown in a frequency table.

5 3.5 11.1: CENTRAL TENDENCY OF DATA Below are the analysis of central tendency of data based on the survey that conducted among IPGM Kampus Perlis Students: fx f Midpoint (x) 1.5 9.7 fx 0 21 82.5 172.4.5 11.12 15 .5 ∑f 50 Mean Class interval 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 .5 5.10 11 .0: ANALYSIS DATA FROM SURVEY A frequency distribution of IPGM student shoes size is shown in Table 6 below: Shoes size Number of students Cumulative frequency 1-2 0 0 3-4 6 6 5-6 15 21 7-8 23 44 9-10 5 49 11-12 1 50 Table 6: Frequency Distribution of IPGM Students Shoes Size 4.5 47.5 7.5 Frequency (f) 0 6 15 23 5 1 N ∑fx 335 Table 7: fx Table Mean fx f 335 50 6.

21) †23 8.5 7.5 = 7.67 1 1 2 Mode = L ( )C Where L = Lower class boundary of modal class 1 2 = Frequency of modal class – frequency before modal class = Frequency of modal class – frequency after modal class C = Class width 16 .5 5.5-10.s ÷ fm X C 50 2 = 7.5 + 4 ÷ 23 X 1 = 7.5-2.5-4.Median . M = L + N 2 -s ÷ fm X C L = lower class boundary of median class N ∑f = number of items in the data s = cumulative frequency of all classes prior to the median class fm = frequency of median class C = size of median class interval Class limits (x) 1.5 3.5-8.5 9. M = L + N 2 .5 Frequency (f) Cumulative frequency (cf) 0 0 6 6 15 21 23 44 5 49 1 50 Table 8: Cumulative Frequency Table Median.5-7.5 + ( .5-12.5-6.5 11.

Mode = L ( = 7.5 23 9.5 1 Table 9: Modal Class Table Using the formula.5 6 5.Modal class is the class containing the mode and which has the highest frequency.5 ( = 7.5-8.5 5 11.5-4.5-12.5-2.5 0 3. Class limits (x) Frequency (f) 1.5-6.5 15 7.81 1 1 2 )C 23-15 ( 23-15) ( 23-5 ) 8 8 18 ) 1 ) 1 17 .5 ( = 7.5-10.

5.10 11 .1: BAR CHART Shoes size (x) 1.12 Shoes size (x) Number of students (f ) Graph 6: A Bar Chart of Shoes Size against Number of Students 18 .12 Total Number of students (f ) 0 6 15 23 5 1 50 Table 10: Percentage Finding Table Percentage (%) 0 12 30 46 10 2 100% Graph of shoes size against number of students 25 20 15 Number of Students (f) 10 5 0 1.10 11 .2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 .0: GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION Below are the graphical presentations of survey: 5.2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 .

5 10.5 10.5 12.5 Shoes size Graph 7: Histogram of Shoes Size against Frequency 19 .5 Frequency (f) 0 6 15 23 5 1 Table 11: Upper Boundaries and Frequency Table 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 2.5 4.5.2: HISTOGRAM Upper boundaries 2.5 8.5 8.5 4.5 6.5 6.5 12.

10 11 .3: FREQUENCY POLYGON Shoes size 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 .12 Midpoint (x) 1.5 7.5 5.5 11.5 Number of students (f) 0 6 15 23 5 1 Table 12: Midpoint Table 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Shoes size 4 5 6 Graph 8: A Frequency Polygon of Shoes Size against Frequency 20 .5 3.5.5 9.

0 6.0 14.5.5 8.0 10.5 10.0 4.5 6.0 2.0 8.4: RELATIVE CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY OR OGIVE Upper boundaries 2.0 12.5 12.5 4.5 Cumulative frequency (cf) 0 6 21 44 49 50 Table 13: Cumulative Frequency Table Cumulative frequency 0.0 Shoes size Graph 9: An Ogive of Shoes Size against Cumulative Frequency 21 .

The negative skewed curve has the long tail appears at the left side of the central maximum axis.0: COMMENT ON THE SKEWNESS OR SYMMETRY IN HISTOGRAM. This type of curve is said to be skewed to the left or possessed negative skewness.67 and mode is 7.81. median is 7. Thus. This can be prove by referring to the data that we got that are mean is 6. we can interpret that a greater number of students wear bigger size of shoes more than the mean sizes of shoes or more students in this IPGM Kampus Perlis have long feet. 22 . the mean is less than the median which means it is also less than the mean.7. FREQUENCY POLYGON AND OGIVE The curve formed in frequency polygon that is made from histogram is look like negative skewed curve because the distribution of the data is skewed to the left. For negative skewed curved.6.

Moreover. Afza Binti Abdollah. histogram. Nevertheless. we have learned so many things from it and it is interesting yet challenging. 23 . we tried to gather some information and notes from different sources in order to prove our understanding on the theories involving smart statistics. it is been a great experienced for us to get the chance of doing this kind of assignment. we have learned how to conduct a survey in order to collect data. mode and especially we improve our abilities in managing data by constructing a frequency distribution table completed with relative frequency and cumulative relative frequency. We as a pair group have learned to work in a group and we managed to distribute our work equally. We also made comment on any symmetry or skewnness in the histogram based on the histogram that we have drawn. We made survey about what is shoes size among IPGM Kampus Perlis students. We also have applied some statistical skills when we were doing this assignment such as finding the mean. Each of the group members has given their best contribution in finishing this assignment. Besides that. We also felt so grateful because along we do this assignment. the managed data that we got based on the survey conducted we presented it in visual illustration like bar chart. median.REFLECTION After completing this basic mathematics assignment. frequency polygon and ogive. Furthermore. we received a lot of guidance from our beloved supervisor that is Pn.

Basic concept of elementary Mathematics.org/wiki/Pictogram Pie chart.).com/definitions/line-graph. 2009. (n.com/stats/centralten/ Data interpretation. Retrieved August 4.). (2003).d. K.).wikipedia.wikipedia. from http://cnx.com/statistics/histogram/ How to conduct a survey. Retrieved August 5..). Retrieved August 4. median and mode.. Retrieved August 4.). Retrieved August 4.ac. from http://www. S. (n.com/Conduct-a-Survey Leng.. (2009. S.wikipedia. 2009. 2009.d. (n.org/wiki/Numerical_data Peterson. 2009. P.).d. January 8). Retrieved August 4.za/robert/DataInterpr.wikipedia.quickmba. Selangor: Federal Publication. Federal study aids Mathematics S. Retrieved August 4.org/wiki/Mathematical_statistics Mok. Retrieved August 5. from Wikipedia: http://en. 2009. (n. (n. Quek. 2009.d.org/wiki/Bar_chart Central tedency. 2009.mathsisfun. from Wikipedia: http://en.). 2009. Retrieved August 5. G.org/wiki/Qualitative_data 24 .petech. (n. & Yong. (n. Numerical data.org/wiki/Pie_chart Qualitative data.REFERENCES Bar chart.d. Bhd.). A Mathematics course for diploma of education semester 2 & 3. USA: Pearson Education. 2009. from Wikipedia: http://en. from Wikipedia: http://en. from Wikipedia: http://en.d.d. Retrieved August 3.wikipedia.). from http://www. M.wikihow.d.html Mathematical statistics.htm Dean.org/content/m17104/latest/ Histogram.d. from Wikipedia: http://en.com: http://www. Line graph. from MathsIsFun. Retrieved August 4. (n.d. (2003). Retrieved 2009 3. (n. S. Descriptive statistics: Skewness and the mean. August. Pictogram.wikipedia. Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn.d.netmba. S. from http://www. (n. from wikiHow: http://www.).). (n. 2009. K. & Illowsky. B. 2009. (2004).

Symmetry and skewness.wolfram.open. Cumulative frequency polygon.).html Weisstein. Retrieved August 4. from MathWorld: http://mathworld. (n.). E.). W. 2009. 2009.html 25 . Retrieved August 4. Frequency polygon.com/FrequencyPolygon. (n.php?id=163579 Washinton. from MathWorld: http://mathworld.ac. Basic technical Mathematics with calculus. (2008).com/CumulativeFrequencyPolygon. E.d. 2009.uk/mod/resource/view. W. USA: Pearson Prentice Hall. A. from http://openlearn.wolfram. Retrieved August 4. Weisstein.d.d. (n. J.

APPENDICES 26 .

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