List of Experiments: 1)Numerical Solutions of Parabolic Equation using FDM. 2)Circular Grid Generation.

Supersonic Flow over an infinite wing using ANSYS-CFX. Subsonic Flow over an airfoil using ANSYSFLOTRAN.


Let us consider a parabolic equation in two independent variables x and y. The xy plane is sketched in Fig, as shown

Consider a given point P in this plane. Since we are dealing with a parabolic equation, there is only one characteristic direction through point P. Furthermore, in Fig. assume that initial conditions are given along the line ac and that boundary conditions are known along curves ab and cd. The characteristic direction is given by a vertical line through P. Then, information at P influences the entire region on one side of the vertical characteristic and contained within the two boundaries; i.e., if we jab P with a needle, the effect of this jab is felt throughout the shaded region shown in Fig. Parabolic equations lend themselves to marching solutions. Starting with the initial data line ac, the solution between the boundaries cd and ab is obtained by marching in the general x direction. The following types of flow-field models are governed by parabolic equations: 1) STEADY BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOWS 2) "PARABOLIZED" VISCOUS FLOWS 3) UNSTEADY THERMAL CONDUCTION. Considered Parabolic Equation is 1D Unsteady Thermal Conduction, which can be written as,

Here we will also present some of the basic aspects of discretization, i.e., how to replace the partial derivatives (or integrals) in the governing equations of motion with discrete numbers. Purpose of Discretization: Analytical solutions of partial differential equations involve closed-form expressions which give the variation of the dependent variables continuously throughout the domain. In contrast, numerical solutions can give answers at only discrete points in the domain, called grid points.

Most partial differential equations involve a number of partial derivative terms. When all the partial derivatives in a given partial differential equation are replaced by finite-difference quotients, the resulting algebraic equation is called a difference equation, which is an algebraic representation of the partial differential equation. Let us discretize the time & x derivative in above Eq. with a forward & central difference pattern,

After substituting the above finite difference quotients, we have

The above difference equation has two independent variables, x and t. We consider the grid as sketched below,

Here, ‘i’ is the running index in the ‘x’ direction and ‘n’ is the running index in the ‘t’ direction. When one of the independent variables in a partial differential equation is a marching variable, such as ‘t’, it is conventional in CFD to denote the running index for this marching variable by n and to display this index as a superscript in the finite-difference quotient. PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> float T[100][100],i,n; int x,t; void display() { printf("\t\tTemperature difference across the grid is:\n\n\4"); for(n=t-1;n>=0;n--) { for(i=0;i<=x-1;i++) printf("%-8.2f",T[n][i]); printf("\n\4"); } } void xit() {

printf("\n\n\t\t\tENTERED \"WRONG DATA\",\n\t\t\tPROGRAM IS TERMINATING."); delay(2000); exit(); } void main() { static float r=0.3,rbt,lbt,temp; clrscr(); printf("MAX x and t is 100.\n"); printf("MIN x is 3 and t is 2.\n"); printf("Enter values for,\n"); printf("x="); scanf("%d",&x); printf("t="); scanf("%d",&t); if(x<3 || t<2) xit(); printf("TEMPERATURE along LEFT & RIGHT BOUNDARY:\n"); scanf("%f%f",&lbt,&rbt); printf("TEMPERATURE at (n)th LEVEL i.e. at Intial Data Line:\n"); scanf("%f",&temp); for(n=0,i=0;n<=t-1;n++) T[n][i]=lbt; for(n=0,i=x-1;n<=t-1;n++) T[n][i]=rbt; for(n=0,i=1;i<x-1;i++) T[n][i]=temp; for(n=1;n<=t-1;n++) { for(i=1;i<x-1;i++) T[n][i]=T[n-1][i]+(r*(T[n-1][i-1]+T[n-1][i+1]-(2*T[n-1][i]))); }

display(); getch(); }

Finite-difference approach requires the calculations to be made over a collection of discrete grid points. The arrangement of these discrete points throughout the flow field is simply called a grid. The determination of a proper grid for the flow over or though a given geometric shape is a serious matter. The way that such a grid is determined is called grid generation. The matter of grid generation is a significant consideration in CFD; the type of grid you choose for a given problem can make or break the numerical solution. The generation of an appropriate grid or mesh is one thing; the solution of the governing flow equations over such a grid is quite another thing. Here we are considering to generate a circular grid. PROGRAM:
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> #define pf printf void main() {

int r,i; float x,y,t; clrscr(); pf("MAX RADIUS=20\nMIN RADIUS=0\n"); for(r=0;r<=20;r++) { getch(); pf("RADIUS=%d\n",r); for(i=1;i<=10;i++) { t=i*12; x=r*cos(t); y=r*sin(t); pf("%4.3f\t%4.3f\n",x,y); } } getch(); }

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