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CONSULTANT MEDICAL INTERVIEWS
A comprehensive guide to Consultant interviews
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or redistributed without the express written permission of the author. The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the content, however accuracy of the content cannot be guaranteed and all information is provided "as is" without representations or warranties of any kind, either express or implied. The information provided is to help prepare doctors for their medical interview. It is not intended, nor should it be used, as a medical reference for the management of the patients or their clinical condition. Performance at interview cannot be guaranteed and the author cannot be held responsible for the outcome of medical interviews. Users by using the material, views or opinions agree to do so at their own risk and the author cannot be held liable/responsible for the user’s performance clinically or at any interview. Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of any material reproduced within this book. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the author will be pleased to make restitution at the earliest opportunity. 2010 www.consultantmedicalinterview.com All rights reserved ISBN 978-1-4461-3353-8
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 PREPARING TO APPLY NHS JOB APPLICATION STRUCTURE OF CV CV EXAMPLE 1 CV EXAMPLE 2 CV EXAMPLE 3 PRE INTERVIEW VISIT INTERVIEW PROCESS INTERVIEW TIPS INTERVIEW PRESENTATION BACKGROUND AND CV PERSONAL QUALITIES, MOTIVATION AND DRIVE COMMUNICATION AND TEAM PLAYING RESEARCH AND AUDIT TEACHING AND TRAINING ETHICAL ISSUES AND DIFFICULT SCENARIOS MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS CLINICAL GOVERNANCE NHS ISSUES
CALDICOTT PRINCIPLES CARE QUALITY COMMISSION CHOOSE AND BOOK COUNCIL FOR HEALTHCARE REGULATORY EXCELLENCE COMPLAINT PROCEDURES CQUIN EUROPEAN WORKING TIME DIRECTIVE FOUNDATION HOSPITALS FOUNDATION PROGRAMME HEALTHCARE ACQUIRED INFCTIONS HOSPITAL AT NIGHT INDEPENDENT SECTOR TREATMENT CENTRES IT IN NHS
CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 14 CHAPTER 14 CHAPTER 15
3 6 12 15 26 27 39 42 44 49 50 55 68 83 93 105 117 132 145
145 147 149 151 153 154 156 160 164 166 168 170 171
MEDICAL EDUCATION ENGLAND MHRA AND HPA MISCELLANEOUS NHS ISSUES MMC NATIONAL CLINICAL ASSESSMENT SERVICE NON-CONSULTANT CAREER GRADES NCEPOD NHS CONSTITUTION NHS PLAN 2010-2015 NHS STRUCTURE AND CASH FLOW NICE NATIONAL PATIENT SAFETY AGENCY NATIONAL SERVICE FRAMEWORK PAYMENT BY RESULTS PRACTICE BASED COMMISSIONING REVALIDATION AND APPRAISALS ALDER HEY INQUIRY BRISTOL INQUIRY DARZI REVIEW DEREK WANLESS REPORT SHIPMAN INQUIRY TEMPLE REPORT TOOKE REPORT
173 174 176 181 184 186 188 190 193 198 202 205 208 209 212 214 218 220 223 227 229 233 236
CHAPETR 17 CHAPTER 18
END OF INTERVIEW IMPORTANT LINKS
Dedicated to the memory of my father who gave me more than I realised.
The author is a consultant physician in NHS and wish to remain anonymous.
Good luck! 2 . The information is useful for any medical interview but concentrates on the consultant interview. Interview courses can only fine tune your preparation. They aren't designed to organise your preparative thinking from the bottom up. This concise book is to ensure that you do not have to reinvent the wheel. All the answers are indicative only. This book aims to kick start your preparations for the interview. The information presented here will help you achieve that.Consultant Medical Interview When I started preparing for consultant interviews. It will aim to provide concise information and content for your interview preparation. most of which was not really needed. Do I read up all about the hundreds of NHS issues? Do I just attend an interview course? Do I get my consultants to grill me? How do I find the required information? I did extensive reading. I didn’t know where or how to start preparing. I am convinced that interview courses can only help. if you have done your preparations first.
Be careful about a job in the hospital where you have worked as a senior trainee. Look at all the information available with the application form. This may help in your decision making. Also visit BMJ careers website weekly. Register with www. You can find out more about the hospital from www.jobs.nhs. Think about: Where would you like to work? Who would know about retirements and consultant expansion in your specialty? Visit individual trust sites of interest Discuss with your programme director When can you apply? You can apply 6 months before your CCT date. The jobs of interest will be emailed to you as soon as available.uk early.co.org.drfosterhealth. Annual health check reports will 3 . You will always be a trainee in the eyes of your consultant colleagues. Choosing the hospital to apply You may wish to consider the following before short listing a hospital for your application Remember to choose your hospital carefully. It is generally a job for life.cqc.uk. This will give you sufficient time to improve your CV depending on the job you want.uk/hospital-guide or from the Care Quality Commission annual health check ratings www. at least 12 months before your CCT date.Preparing to apply for the Consultant Job When should you start looking for the consultant job? Start early.
schools. Remember it is not all about the hospital. o Check out the people and vibes. talk to juniors secretaries etc o Check out the facilities o Consider taking partner to check out area – an unhappy partner will make for a miserable job Reality check. but it improves your chances of short listing. o Who do you meet at pre application visit? Meet potential colleagues—your specialty consultant colleagues and related specialty consultant like surgeons. At this visit. pathologists. radiologists.Is there a ‘local’ candidate? Local trainees usually have an advantage. What do you do once you have decided to apply for a job? Phone the contact in the advert Enquire about what they want. what are colleagues like. Pre application visit is not obligatory. houses and their cost (can you afford it?). even if it is in the advertso that you can emphasise in the CV Ask if you can visit. Pre application visit: o It helps you decide whether to apply and help you get short listed.provide you with an idea of the state of the hospital and the areas needing improvement. 4 . The geography is important too! You may want to look at recreational facilities. what opportunities are there? What problems exist? Is it what you want? You could also discuss with specialist trainees to get some more information or feel for the place. you could assess the position.
surgeons Mix of acute medicine to your specialty 5 . so that you can tailor your CV DGH ‘v’ Teaching hospital Large ‘v’ small (generalist / super-specialist) Type of facilities etc Region / amenities Researching the job Advert. pathology. job description. local knowledge. inside info Consider Potential to support / develop your interests Colleagues (particular young ones) Support services – radiology.So to summarise What job do you want? Ideally decide early.
the forms are anonymised.NHS job application Most of the current jobs need an online application using the generic NHS application form. Try and complete at least one audit cycle. Describe your relevant teaching experience. before clicking submit Remember. Write a line or two detailing the key outcomes and any changes you initiated as a result of these outcomes. Top Tips Write your application with the person specification in front of you Print out the form to see how it looks. This demonstrates that you believe in principles of audit and that it was not a tick box exercise. It is thus important that you maximise your strengths in the application using facts. There is word limit for each section. Hence your personal details will not be visible to the person short listing. (max 150 words) I have undertaken and presented eight audit projects during my registrar training: List your audit projects. I am a recognised teacher for the MBBS degree programme at the Balamory University. Example Describe your experience of clinical audit. I am involved in teaching and assessing medical students from University of Balamory. (Max 150 words) I have been an avid teacher ever since my postgraduate days I have done the Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Education. This involves both non 6 .
This teaching incorporates objective structured clinical examination and communication skills practice. I have initiated and organised a departmental teaching programme for junior doctors in (specialty) at Balamory hospital. teaching the teachers course etc to demonstrate your passion for teaching. a. My research projects include. I have attended the Teaching the Teachers for Specialist registrars. I was the Principal Investigator for the study. (Tips. I was responsible for recruiting and coordinating the care of patients admitted with [details]. I initiated. Project submitted to and accepted by the Balamory University for the award of MD degree. I regularly teach junior doctors preparing for the membership examination. I was responsible for the Ethics and Research & Development approval.[Enumerate your research projects and your role in it]. (max 500 words) I have been involved in clinical research throughout my postgraduate career. You could mention a student survey and the feedback received to demonstrate that you are a good teacher) Details of your most relevant research work and publications in peer-reviewed journals. This was a single centre study and recruited 18 patients. Study I. b. I was the Principal Investigator for the study.Again you mention facts like PG Cert. All the patients recruited were investigated with a defined study protocol. wrote and managed the study. Study II. 7 .clinical tutorial sessions and also ward based clinical teaching during the student’s attachment to the (specialty) department.
Presently I organise a regular departmental teaching programme for junior doctors at Balamory hospital. (max 150 words) (Tip. This was a valuable lesson in initiating and leading a change by consensus using evidence based approach. As principal investigator for my research project. (max 150 words) I have done 360 degree appraisal twice and both have been very positive about my team working spirit. Put your name in bold. (Tip. pharmacists and ward nurses. biochemist. I successfully led a team of scientists. planning. Papers currently submitted for peer review You could use a separate heading for papers currently under consideration for publication Give examples of your approach to working in a team. I realised the value of prioritisation. I raised the issue at the local clinical governance meeting.Peer reviewed publications List your peer reviewed publications chronologically in Vancouver style. in luminal 8 . hepatology and nutrition. My participation in the National audit revealed poor practice in the use of (drug). doctors and nurses to finish the project.Again mention facts rather than a long waffle about how great a team player you are!) Please explain your areas of clinical skill and competence relevant to this post. I subsequently produced a local guideline for the use of (drug) after collaborating with all the stakeholders like physicians. On reflection. mutual respect and communication in the successful completion of the research on time.Sit down with the person specification form) I have gained extensive experience gastroenterology.
(max 500 words) (Tip. I am fully competent in all general medical practical procedures. My post involves assisting with the provision of the clinical services for elective and emergency medical admissions and endoscopic procedures. Please provide any other supporting information that you think may be helpful. removal of sessile polyps and terminal ileoscopy. I am competent at reporting capsule endoscopies and have double reported twenty five capsule endoscopies with excellent agreement. clinical governance. During this period. (4000 characters) I have been working as a Specialist Registrar in the Balamory deanery since 2004. endoscopic therapy of variceal and non variceal bleeds and insertion of PEG tubes. including coronary. I have done in excess of 500 colonoscopies with extensive experience of snare polypectomy. teaching. This has involved responsibility for all acute admissions. respiratory and intensive care patients under the care of the physicians. I am competent in the therapeutic procedures of oesophageal dilatation and stenting. I have taken every opportunity to gain further knowledge and training in the fields of clinical work. I have had 4 years of resident general acute medicine experience as a registrar.Sit down with the person specification form) Brief description of your duties and responsibilities. management activities and administration. I have performed in excess of 1000 gastroscopies. I participate in resident general acute 9 . audits. My caecal intubation rate is more than 90% with an adenoma detection rate of 21%. or that is requested in the Person Specification. Please ensure that this does not contain any duplicate information already provided elsewhere in the application form or any personal details.
I had regular competency based endoscopy training and assessments as per JAG guidelines. peptic ulcer disease. regular review of patients with home TPN and reviewing in-patients needing nutrition support. My weekly commitment includes 2-3 outpatient clinics. joint HIV hepatitis clinic and liver transplant assessment and review clinics. transplant physicians. I have had a varied experience in general gastroenterology including the in. I co-operate and communicate with colleagues and recognise these as essential skills in being an efficient team player. Participation in monthly liver MDT involving transplant surgeons. I regularly participate in the gastroenterology radiology and pathology meetings besides the cancer MDT. I have been doing independent colonoscopy lists and have taken an increasing role in the provision of emergency endoscopies. My training as a SpR has given me a thorough systematic exposure to general gastroenterology. 10 .5 years) when I have been asked to give specialist nutrition advice to other specialties besides assessing patients for PEG. assistance or advice appropriate to clinical need is available at all times.patient management of oesophageal diseases. pathologists and the radiologists provided me with valuable experience in dealing with difficult management issues in hepatology. My training has been enhanced by my role as part of the nutrition team (for the last 1. My training in hepatology was augmented by regular monthly liver clinic. During the final two years of my training. I take up the leadership position in the management of complex cases.and out. I supervise the SHO and the junior registrar. I have been taking up increasing responsibilities in the clinical area. Supervision. hepatology. 3 independent endoscopy lists and 2-3 ward rounds. inflammatory bowel disease and pancreatic diseases.medicine on-call on a 1:12 rota with prospective cover. nutrition and endoscopy.
These meetings involve discussions about service organization and delivery. Management experience I have gained a useful understanding of how things are run. there are regular formal training days across the sites in both gastroenterology and general medicine. I organised and co-ordinated the clinical part of the MRCP exam at the Northern University hospital I developed the trust guidelines for the use of (drug) in (clinical condition). 11 . I am the SpR representative for the development of Emergency care pathway at Balamory Hospital. I have initiated and organise a departmental teaching programme for junior doctors in (specialty) at Balamory hospital.Continuing Education and Professional Development Meetings I regularly attend departmental audit. As well as one to one teaching in the endoscopy suite. I am however determined to do my best for the patients while actively working with the management. Teaching and Training All hospitals within our training region provide a varied weekly teaching programme. The management development course has provided me with valuable practical skills and has put me on a steep learning curve. waiting lists etc. morbidity and mortality meetings and journal clubs. individual workloads. I have also attended several regional and national meetings. I realise that the partnership between doctors and managers is inevitably tricky in a resource limited NHS. This was a valuable experience in clinical governance. and how to influence that change. how change occurs. I regularly participate in the directorate meetings.
date of birth. Qualifications & job application details Personal details (Name.Structure of Curriculum vitae A top CV should be Clear Open and honest Layout is paramount and must be logical and easy to follow Highlight good jobs and experience Concise.no waffle Use domains and bullet points Tailor your CV based on the person specification Always remember that quality is more important than quantity Structure of a CV Page 0 Page1 Name. contact details. CCT completion date) and Qualifications Career details. GMC status.List all the jobs chronologically Specialty experience Research experience Audits Teaching experience Management experience Prizes and awards Computer and Language skills Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 12 .
Alternatively you can use professional presentation folders. Use a single staple in the left corner.5cm margins all around. Don’t use them if you are not confident. 13 . Do not fill your CV with unnecessary words just to make it longer. Bold or increased size is more professional Use a footer to display your name and page number Use good quality white/cream A4 paper (100gsm) 2. They do not always apply to medical CV Be thorough but concise in your descriptions. Use tables appropriately. It will reflect badly on your ability to express yourself in a clear and concise manner. Get feedback from at least 2 consultants Consultant CV generally has 12-16 pages Spell check! Be wary of non-medical website advice on CV writing.Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Tips Personal interests Courses and meetings attended Society and Professional memberships Publications Future aspirations/career intentions Referees Use the same font throughout. Arial/Verdana 14 bold for headings and size 12 for content Don’t use CAPITALS for heading.
uk/Files/writecv. Don Sims www.com/careers/advice/view-article.html?id=223 Writing a CV and consultant interview.donsims.com/careers/advice/view-article. Sam McErin http://careers.ppt Sample Respiratory CV.bmj.pm-recruitment.co. http://careers.bmj.Further reading Writing a winning CV.html?id=222 Growing your CV. Elitham Turya. www.doc 14 .btinternet.de/downloads/CVexample-genmed.
Name MBBS. MRCP Curriculum Vitae Application for the post of Consultant Acute Medicine at Balamory Hospital June 2010 15 . MD.CV Example 1 Dr.
Balamory University.Personal Details Name: Date of birth: Contact details: Address: Email: Home tel: Mobile tel: GMC number: CCT date: Qualifications Jun 2009 May 2008 Fellow of the Higher Education Academy Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Education. UK May 2004 Dec 1999 MD Balamory University MBBS Balamory University of Jun 2006 16 . UK MRCP Royal College Physicians.
Experience Present Appointment Apr 2007 to present Specialist Registrar in General Medicine and (specialty) Name and Hospital address of Supervising consultants Previous Appointments Apr 2006 to Mar 2007 Specialist Registrar in General Medicine and (Specialty) Name and hospital Supervising List all your jobs from PRHO onwards Overseas Appointments Write overseas experience if any under a separate heading address of consultants 17 .
I have developed a keen interest in nutrition. Participation in monthly liver MDT involving transplant surgeons. and in hepatology the management of acute and chronic liver disease with their associated complications. reviewing the indications and looking out for potential complications and treating any that may arise early and efficiently. My training in hepatology was augmented by regular liver clinics. My training in functional bowel diseases was consolidated by a weekly IBS clinic led by a consultant and supported by a specialist nurse. peptic ulcer disease. Experience in general gastroenterology includes the in.and out. pathologists and the radiologists provided me with valuable experience in dealing with difficult issues in hepatology. The team regularly reviews all patients on TPN. The team reviews and assesses all patients undergoing a gastrostomy tube insertion (PEG or RIG) and this has significantly reduced the mortality and morbidity of this procedure when compared with the national average. I have been a part of the multidisciplinary nutrition support team for the last year and a half.Professional Training Gastroenterology Training Clinical I have gained extensive experience in gastroenterology over the last five years. The team plays a vital role in to giving specialist nutrition advice to colleagues with patients who have difficult nutritional problems. transplant physicians.patient management of oesophageal diseases. inflammatory bowel disease and pancreatic diseases. 18 . joint HIV hepatitis clinic and liver transplant assessment and review clinics.
19 . achalasia and malignant disease Insertion of self endoprostheses expanding metal oesophageal Insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tubes Insertion of naso-jejunal tubes Endoscopic therapy for bleeding peptic ulcers including clips and APC Endoscopic therapy for oesophageal and gastric varices including band ligation. Use of laser for oesophageal tumours. hot biopsy. I have performed in excess of 1000 gastroscopies. sclerotherapy and the use of other injectates. I have extensive experience of rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy and also diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy including snare polypectomy. techniques for the removal of sessile polyps. Video Capsule Endoscopy I am competent at reporting capsule endoscopies and have double reported twenty six capsule endoscopies so far with excellent agreement in the detection of both positive and negative findings including the therapeutic suggestions. Therapeutic experience includes: Oesophageal dilatation for benign strictures. Lower GI endoscopy I have performed in excess of 500 colonoscopies. argon plasma coagulation of angiodysplasia / irradiation telangiectasia and terminal ileoscopy.Endoscopy Training Upper GI endoscopy I have extensive experience of both diagnostic and therapeutic upper gastrointestinal procedures. My caecal intubation rate was more than 90% in the last year with an adenoma detection rate of 20%.
nephrology. I initiated. coronary care unit. This was a single centre study and recruited 18 patients.General Medical Training I have had 4 years of resident general acute medicine experience as a registrar on a 1:7 to 1:12 rota with an average number of admissions varying from 20 to 60.diagnostic and therapeutic Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tubes Research Experience Study 1 Name of the hospital 2005-2007 I was the Principal Investigator for the study. In addition I am fully competent in a variety of practical procedures including: Insertion of central venous catheters Insertion of peripheral venous ‘long lines’ Pleural aspiration and biopsy Insertion of chest drains Lumbar puncture Insertion of temporary pacing wires Percutaneous liver biopsy Ascitic paracentesis. neurology and respiratory medicine as an SHO. During my overseas training. Previous appointments have afforded widespread experience in general internal medical practice with specialised experience in cardiology. medical high dependency unit. wrote and managed the study. I gained experience in the management of various tropical and infectious diseases. This has involved responsibility for all ‘unselected’ acute medical admissions. Brief background and results of the study (5-6 lines maximum) 20 . I was responsible for the Ethics and Research & Development approval. including coronary and intensive care patients under the care of the physicians.
Study 2 Audits I recognise the value and importance of audit in medical practice.Name of hospital 2007 Key outcomes of the audit and actions taken (for e.g. Each unit was assessed by a written assignment or practical exercise on specific aspects of the course material. Teaching and Learning. your role. I produced local trust guidelines) Audit 2.Name of the hospital 2006 Teaching Experience I have always enjoyed teaching. These teaching sessions follow a set syllabus and utilise various methods that I am familiar with such as ward based teaching and problem based learning. The course has helped me in becoming a more effective teacher. Short summary of each audit with reason behind it. Projects that I have carried out include: List the title and date of audits. I have participated in audit throughout my career.I am a recognised teacher for the MBBS degree programme at the University of Balamory and am involved in teaching and assessing medical students. Assessment. The course involved 20 units with the 9 core units dealing with the key issues of Curriculum Development. key outcomes and actions taken as a result (2-3 lines) Audit 1. Mentoring and Student Support and Quality Assurance and eleven other optional units. I did the postgraduate certificate in medical education by distance learning recently to further enhance my teaching skills. 21 . Undergraduate. This involves both non clinical tutorial sessions and also ward based clinical teaching during the student’s attachment to the Gastroenterology department.
and how to influence that change. I realise that the partnership between doctors and managers is inevitably tricky in a resource limited NHS. Access and PowerPoint to carry out various non clinical duties. Excel. objective structured clinical examination and communication skills practice. Computer and Language Skills I am fully conversant in the use of the computer and I am proficient in the use of Word. I organised and co-ordinated the clinical part of the MRCP exam at the Balamory hospital I developed the trust guidelines for the management of (clinical condition). The management development course has provided me with valuable practical skills and has put me on a steep learning curve. I am however determined to do my best for the patients while actively working with the management. I am fluent in the use of English and French languages. Management Experience I have gained a useful understanding of how things are run. waiting lists etc. I regularly participate in the directorate meetings. individual workloads. I have initiated and lead a current teaching programme for junior doctors attached to the (specialty) firm. This teaching incorporates multiple choice question practice. 22 . These meetings involve discussions about service organization and delivery. how change occurs. This was a valuable experience in clinical governance. I have initiated and organise a departmental teaching programme for junior doctors in (specialty) at Name hospital.Postgraduate-On a postgraduate level I regularly teach junior doctors preparing for the membership examination.
music and reading thrillers. I also enjoy the cinema.Personal Interests I enjoy playing cricket. London Foundation course Endoscopy. table tennis and chess although I don’t get a lot of time to indulge myself. Mar 200X Problem Based Learning Training.0 tools in medical education. London Teaching London Foundation Assessment London the Teachers. London 23 . London Intermediate skills Colonoscopy. London in The European Capsule Endoscopy Castle Course The Leeds Course Clinical Nutrition Foundation course Colonoscopy. Courses and Meetings Attended Gastroenterology Sep 200X Feb 200X Nov 200X Sep 200X Sep 200X Jun 200X Therapeutic GI Endoscopy course. Programme Training. I enjoy spending time with her. I have a lovely three year old daughter. London in in in General (internal) Medicine Jun 200X Dec 200X Oct 200X Management Development Programme. I have a keen interest in the development and use of web 2.
Newcastle Advanced Newcastle Life Support Good Clinical Practice & the EU Trials Directive Society and Professional Membership British Society of Gastroenterology American Gastroenterological Association British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition British Medical Association Medical Defence Union Collegiate Member of Royal college of Physicians of London Fellow of the Higher Education Academy Publications Peer reviewed Please provide the references in Vancouver style Papers currently submitted for peer review Please provide the references in Vancouver style Abstracts arising from presentations to learned societies Please provide the references in Vancouver style Abstracts currently submitted 24 .Jan 200X Oct 200X Sep 200X Introduction to Research methods.
I am passionate about (special attribute required in the job e. Add a line or two in line with the job specification.g. Referees 25 .Future Aspirations I believe in excellence. innovation and reliability. education. endoscopy etc).
pm-recruitment. www.CV Example 2 Sample Respiratory CV.doc 26 .de/downloads/CVexample-genmed.
) 27 . Name MBBS. MRCPCH Curriculum Vitae Application for the post of Consultant in Paediatrics with a special interest in diabetes At (Application Reference .. DCH...CV Example 3 Dr...
19XX Awards II nd Certificate of Honour in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Gold Medal Examination (19XX). 20XX Australian Hospital. 28 . 20XX Oct 20XX Sept.C number: Date of CCT completion: Medical Qualifications MRCPCH M.B.M. Aug. 20XX Royal Infirmary.Personal Details Name: Address: Address Email: Home tel: Mobile: Date of birth: G.S Other Qualifications APLS (provider): (provider): NLS (Selected as instructor): (provider): Balamory Hospital. Oct. 20XX South Hospital.B.
present General Paediatrics. Endocrinology & General Paediatrics (6m) Hospital Mar’XX .R.H.Mar’XX Sept’XX .Positions Held Specialist Registrar Mar XX.Mar’XX Paediatric Diabetes Endocrinology (6m) Hospital Mar ’XX.Mar’XX Neonatology.Paediatrics (6m) Hospital Mar’XX – Sep’XX Sep’XX – Mar’XX Neonatology. Diabetes & Endocrinology Hospital Sept’XX . tertiary level Hospital Community Paediatrics.Sep’XX (LAT) Senior SHO (SpR responsibility) List your senior SHO jobs if any Senior House Officer List all your SHO jobs P.O List your PRHO jobs 29 and PICU (3m) and General Paediatrics (3m) Hospital . tertiary level Hospital General and Respiratory Paediatrics (6m) Hospital Mar’XX. on call.Sep’XX Diabetes.
pleural fluid aspiration. Child protection Competent in child protection procedures and medical examination. lumbar puncture.Details of Clinical Experience General Paediatrics Competent in resuscitation of seriously ill children using APLS guidelines. Gained experience in asthma and cystic fibrosis clinics. intraosseous cannulation. Six months experience as registrar with special interest in Respiratory Paediatrics. bone marrow aspiration. Three-month experience of working in PICU Competent in management of children with wide range of common childhood diseases. Very good experience in procedures including chest drain insertion. chemotherapeutic drug administration via intravenous and intrathecal routes and liver biopsy Regular experience of children outpatient clinic in general paediatrics and sub specialty. Experience in planning discharge of complex long stay patients. Competent in management of children who require high dependency care and stabilisation of children prior to transfer to PICU. Regular unsupervised teaching ward round with SHOs Supervision of SHOs and junior Registrars in their clinical duties including technical paediatric procedures Competent in common paediatric procedures including long line insertion. 30 .
umbilical catheterisation. Competent in the use of conventional ventilation. Competent in cranial ultrasound scanning. 31 . Participated in separate on-call rota for child protection at the University Hospital of North Staffordshire and at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital. Successfully completed 4 module course in cranial ultrasound scan. Teach SHOs and nurse practitioners these skills. Competent in antenatal counselling of parents of premature babies. Competent in neonatal intensive care skills such as endotracheal intubation. Supervise SHOs and nurse practitioners at resuscitation. Competent in transportation of sick newborns. high frequency oscillation ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide therapy. NLS Instructor. Gained very good experience in the process of withdrawal of intensive care from dying babies. Competent in resuscitation of very premature and sick neonates. insertion of long lines and chest drain. Attended child protection courses and case conferences. Neonates Competent in all aspects of modern neonatal care. Competent in the management of babies with congenital anomalies.
Paediatric Diabetes: About to complete two year experience in paediatric diabetes including six month experience at tertiary level. Gained good experience in managing children with type II diabetes and diabetes in children with cystic fibrosis. Paediatric Endocrinology: About to complete two year experience in paediatric endocrinology including six months at tertiary level. Competent in assessment and management of DKA. experience of audit in relation to diabetes. puberty. Participation in teaching of nurses in relation to diabetes. 32 . Competent in managing emergencies like hypoglycaemia. Competent in management of children with Type 1 diabetes in different age groups and in the use of different insulin regimens. missed or incorrect insulin dose. Competent in conducting and interpreting various endocrine investigations. Competent in assessment and management of common paediatric endocrine disorders involving growth. Regular support of specialist nurses with these emergencies. Gained good experience in the process of transition and attended joint clinics with consultant in adult diabetes. Competent in the process of annual review of children with diabetes. Journal club presentation. Competent in management of diabetes at the time of surgery and other illness. thyroid gland and adrenal gland disorders.
Feb 20XX. Attended outreach clinics and special school clinics. place. Participated in the multi-disciplinary assessment of children at the child development centre. Hospital Clinical Governance and Patients Safety training. Place 33 . Attendance and presentations at regional endocrine group meetings. Advanced Course in Paediatrics & Adolescent Diabetes. Istanbul. Regular educational statement assessments. April 20XX. Hospital Advanced course in Paediatric Bone and calcium metabolism. Community Paediatrics Experience in developmental assessment and ADHD clinics. date Stepping up to your consultant role (Management Awareness) course. Sep 2008 Teaching the Teachers for Consultant Paediatricians and Senior SpRs (appraisal and assessment). obesity and disorder of calcium metabolism. Courses and Training Programmes Attended Managing Poor performance in Junior Doctors. Annual meeting. Hospital and date European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology. May 20XX. Gained good experience in management of other endocrine disorders including ambiguous genitalia. Running of school clinics and child health clinics. Oct 20XX.
Date. Date. Hospital An Overview of Communication skills. Date. Hospital Child Protection Training course. Date. Date. Hospital Child Protection Training for Senior Clinicians. Date. Generic Instructor Course for NLS. Date. Date. Date. Hospital Endocrinology for the General Paediatrician. date. hospital Neonatal Cranial Ultrasound Course. Date. Date. Date. Date. Hospital Child Protection Training course. Hospital Cranial ultrasound in the Newborn. level II. Hospital Evidence based medicine and critical appraisal of literature. Date. Hospital Paediatric Oncology Workshop. Hospital Workshop on Diagnostic Methods. Date. Hospital Dermatology Course for Paediatricians. Hospital Neonatal and Paediatric Ventilation Course. level I. Hospital Paediatric and infant critical care transport course. Date. Hospital Specialist Registrar Teacher’s Training. Hospital National Paediatric Pulmonology workshop. Hospital Cardiology in Neonates and Infants. Date. Hospital Day meeting on cystic fibrosis. Hospital Management awareness course for specialist registrars. Date. Date. Hospital conference and 34 . Hospital Dealing with Problem Colleagues.
PMETB Member. BSPED: British Endocrinology and Diabetes Partner. Diabetes UK Member. Regular bedside teaching and problem based teaching for medical students on the wards. Teaching at regional training programme for clinical biochemists and for paediatric nurses. Examiner for final year Paediatric OSCE Teaching at regional training programme for paediatric SpRs.Professional Affiliations: Member. Royal college of Paediatrics and Child Health Member. My teaching experience includes: Instructor on NLS course. 35 . Instructor on DCH clinical examination course. Teaching at regional training programme for senior house officers. Teaching at hospital induction for senior house officers. Mention the key finding and the actions you took to change practice as a result of the audit Teaching Experience I have been involved with teaching at all levels and comfortably use the different methods of teaching. Teaching for MRCPCH clinical exam. Personal tutor for undergraduate medical students. Medical Protection Society Society for Paediatric Audits List your audits.
I am also actively involved with assessment of junior colleagues and providing them with appropriate feedback. I have been responsible for organising own outreach clinics during attachment in community paediatrics. I have participated in interview process for ST posts in the West Midlands Deanery. I have attended PMETB deanery-wide visit as a Panel member (trainee representative) for the purpose of quality assurance of training and made important contributions towards producing the final report. I have received award for the winning business case presentation on ‘stepping up to your consultant role course’ I am experienced in organising tasks for junior medical staff on a day-to-day basis. Management and Administrative Skills I am attached to PMETB as a Partner. I have organised and chaired junior doctor’s communication forum for the department of Paediatrics. I am responsible for organising various endocrine tests for the department. I have participated in departmental directorate meetings and diabetes team meeting. I have organised various teaching programmes including that for MRCPCH clinical examination. I have organised rota for SpR and I am currently coordinating rota for 20 SHOs. I have experience in managing neonatal intensive care costs for the purpose of accepting retrievals and 36 . I am currently in the process of producing annual report for the neonatal unit.
37 . I have obtained ethical approval for this study and so far we have recruited seven children. Clinical Guidelines I have produced following clinical guidelines for the Paediatric department: Guidelines for use of Pneumococcal vaccine in Neonatal Unit. Information for parents. Hospital-as part of a group. written and managed the following single centre randomised controlled trial at (name) Hospital. I have managed antenatal folder. while continuing with my clinical duties: “A comparison of venous versus capillary measurements of tobramycin serum concentration in children with cystic fibrosis.intrauterine transport from other hospitals. Evaluation of children with suspected immunodeficiency. Parent Information Leaflet I have produced the following information leaflets for parents: Parent information booklet on NNU at. Evaluation of the Child with Global developmental delay. Research I have developed. Pneumococcal vaccine in Children.” Children participating in this study also complete a questionnaire indicating their preference for either venous or capillary sample. Protocol for admission of Asthma directly to Paediatric ward from A&E.
Career Intentions I would like a job as consultant in general paediatrics whilst pursuing subspecialty interest in diabetes and neonatology. I would also like to maintain my skills in paediatric endocrinology where possible.Publications List your publications in Vancouver style Presentations International: List your presentations Regional: List any regional presentations Computing Skills I am computer literate and regularly use Microsoft office packages like power point. watching films and travelling. Personal Interests I enjoy playing tennis and skiing. I am also experienced in use of Hiss and PACS system in Hospitals. Referees 38 . excel and word. I am competent in the use of Internet for literature search to enhance my knowledge. I also enjoy music.
anaesthesia.g.g. Take your CV when visiting and put your NHS job application number on it? The NHS job applications are anonymised. surgery.Pre interview visit If short-listed a pre interview visit is essential for success. Is there any acute GI bleed services? Any plans for community clinic provision? Is there opportunity for research in the department? 39 . So remember to put your NHS job application number on your CV. The person short listing would not know your name or other personal details. gastroenterology etc to see what they feel about the new appointment Clinical Director Medical Director Chief Executive of the trust What will you talk about? Questions for the consultant colleagues What are you looking for in a new consultant? How do you envisage things will change? Are there any deficiencies in the service you want addressing? Are there plans for specialist nursing roles? How is ‘X’ currently provided? For e. nephrology. Who to visit? Colleagues in the same specialty Consultant Colleagues in an allied specialty e. radiology.
How does GIM work impact on specialty? What junior support do you have? Questions for the chief executive What are you looking for in a new consultant? Any major service reforms being planned? What is the financial position of the trust? What are likelihoods of investment in the (specialty) service? Are there any key nursing/ recruitment issues? Any local political influences? What are relations like with the PCT’s? Are there any specific targets the trust wants to focus on? You might ask chief executive about trust strategy for the next 510 years. what plans exist for short term developments. what is the role of the clinician in management. are there any threats to the service. Foundation Trust status and annual health check reports. Questions for medical director What are you looking for in a new consultant? Any major service reforms planned? What is framework for trust clinical governance? What is the role of the specialty in acute medicine? What is the role for acute physicians in GIM? What are the teaching opportunities? What are the links with the medical school? What are relations between clinicians and management like? 40 . PFI issues.
progress towards Foundation Trust. financial status etc. when they will ask you ‘What will you bring to the department?’ Your answers must be what they want to hear! 41 . what services it lacks. You need to be 100% certain about the job before you go to the interview .you can ask what you wish of whoever. what changes are ongoing? Next time you meet will be at the interview. It's more about whether this is really the job that you want (unlike the interview). what are the challenges. what needs improving. local schools etc Don't try to impress. and you need to sell yourself. why locum—will there be a substantive post here? And if so have you got someone under consideration for that substantive job? Don’t be afraid to ask about resources. you'll impress more than if you go in trying to impress. how it works. Is there a scope for service development? Ask medical director about strategies for R & D. Tips If applying for a locum job? You are within your rights to ask. facilities. and if you go in there with that attitude. place for R & D in business plans.so think of all the things you want to know and then consider who could answer the questions best By end of visit you must know all about the department. This is a two way process. They need to sell the trust to you. quality of relationship with commissioners. Worth remembering that the pre-interview visits are your opportunity to see if you really want the job .
Interview Process Who will interview you? The make-up of an Appointments Advisory Committee (AAC) is laid down in a Statutory Instrument (The National Health Service Regulations 1996 No 701). He/she is there to see if you are appointable. He/she will also ask about research interests. The core membership of the committee is as follows: A lay member (non-executive director) College assessor Clinical Director Chief executive and/or Medical Director At least one consultant from the employing trust If the job includes a substantial research or teaching commitment a further representative of the local university may also be present. University Representative: is only present if there is a major teaching commitment so you will be asked about teaching. They could ask about your specific training for the post for which you are applying. The questioning usually follows a set pattern and in the following order: College Representative University Representative Hospital Consultants (usually 2) Medical Director Chief Executive Lay Chair College Representative: is usually from the same specialty but from outside the region. publications. 42 . why/why not academic post.
In the final stage you will be given the opportunity to ask questions (don’t – you will have asked these in the pre-interview) and the Chair will inform you of how the result will be conveyed. appointment advisory committee’s take a formal structured approach where the interviewers take turns to ask questions reflecting their particular interests. Commonly. They will run the interview. 43 . how you will improve their department. He may ask you about audit.Hospital Consultants: You should know them already from preinterview visits. how you will fit in their team. Chief Executive: How will you benefit the trust? He/she will ask about your management experience and your understanding of NHS policies. complaints. They will ask what you will bring to the post. The interviewers will have clarified their objectives in general and decided on a format and a set of questions for each interviewee. etc. The interview will last around 45 minutes or more. The lay chair will want to know a bit about you outside medicine. They are the most interested parties there. Medical Director: is concerned with clinical governance and safety. safety concerns etc. Where do you see yourself in 10 years time? Lay Chairperson: Usually a non-executive member of trust board.
Therefore consider what have you got that makes you special and what makes you fit in. 44 .Interview Tips The emphasis of the interview is What is good about you? What you have achieved? Where your potential lies? How you can integrate? Why you are better than the other candidates? What are your objectives? To gain the initiative To present yourself in the best possible light To make known your talents and expertise What are the interviewer’s objectives? Find the most suitable person Encourage you to express yourself fully Look for specific skills and achievements Sell the job and the organisation Assess your initial impact and social fit Tips You want to convince the panel that you will bring enhanced benefits to the organisation. have something interesting to say and can make a unique contribution. Candidates will be remembered if they are distinctive.
sit squarely in the chair Keep to the point. respond to offered handshakes. However. Use positive body language e. one.'Three aspects to this. controlled and steady voice that can be easily understood. Watch you are not seen as overconfident. Give a framework . getting distracted. Review the job description and identify how you would fulfill each of the key tasks outlined.fidgeting. Your initial impact is vital. When you enter the interview room. give a full answer and do not waffle. Remember to dress smartly and appear well groomed. crossing arms. The overall demeanor should be "confident humility". tapping feet. wait until you are asked to sit and remain quiet but alert for the opening question. Address the person who asked the question. When answering questions: Listen carefully to question. clasping chair. Adopt a relaxed posture. Use a range of tones. rest hands on your lap: be comfortable and relaxed.' Structure your answer. Don’t make them ask it more than once Make eye contact with the interviewer before speaking. It is fine to say ‘I don’t know’ 45 . make constant eye contact and smile. etc. Avoid negative body language. glance around to engage the whole panel. it should be logical and clearly understood. pause before speaking and speak slightly slower than normal. keep head raised and listening. walk forward confidently. remember to close the door behind you. aim to be precise.g.. biting nails. Remember to project yourself confidently in a clear..
46 . difficult colleague etc) and brainstorm them. Take four or five questions from each theme (Teaching. This would help recall on the day of the interview. but they all boil down to 10-15 themes (discussed later). interviews are no exception. There is a real risk that you will sound rehearsed and worse may forget the content of your answers. There are hundreds of possible questions. Do not add any afterthoughts and thank the panel for their time through the Chairman. Then see how you can structure your answer using 3 or 4 bullet points. Give plenty of work related examples At the end of the interview take your leave as smoothly and politely as possible. Don’t try and write down all your answers word by word.use your track record of success . performance and ultimately your success. Practice develops performance in all things. Take time to practice. Get a colleague to give you a mock interview Preparing for the interview: Be prepared to do at 10-20 hours of reading. Don’t try to memorise answers. Be enthusiastic and positive Give evidence of what you say . It is vitally important that you spend some time brainstorming your ideas on each of these topics. is a result of thorough preparation. Top tips Remember.don't be too modest but don’t make it up. Avoid using jargon Speak confidently so that you can be heard Do not speak too quickly or slowly. research.
Small groups would allow you to discuss good and bad answers and obtain personal feedback on your own technique. Provide your message at the beginning of the answer.g. A good answer should be your bullet points and then expansion statements.5-2 minutes long A good answer generally has 3-4 keys points. So you should aim for 1. This is very important. interviewers generally allow up to 2-3 minutes per question. An appropriate answer would be I am a good team player. if possible. I am a really valued member of the team because…. In my last 360 degree appraisal I was rated very highly as a team player. look for the opportunity to show the panel just how much wider reading you have done Are interview courses any good? Attending a course helps in as much that it allows mock interview. Remember. You can achieve the same objective if a consultant or senior colleague is willing to help you with mock interviews. If you were to attend an interview curse. it is no good saying that you are a team player unless you provide examples to back up your statement. Provide objective examples to substantiate your statements.5-2 minutes for your answers allowing time for the question to be asked and supplementary questions. You can substantiate the message in the later part of your answer.g. Formulating your answers: Answers should be 1. In every answer you give. Further my consultants often praise me for being such a great team player. For e. 47 .attend a course with small group. For e.
Women could wear a simple black dress (skirt/trousers) Hair should be clean and dry. attend it only after you have done the basic preparations yourself. Interview courses can only fine tune your preparation. Glasses should be freshly polished 48 . If you are attending a course. They aren't designed to organise your preparative thinking from the bottom up. Fingernails should be clean or painted with a pale colour. Dressing the part Men could wear a conventional pinstripe suit and white shirt.
This is common at consultant interviews.Presentation at interview You may be asked to give a presentation to the interview panel. You will be informed of this in advance and how long the presentation should be. Common topics for presentation Discuss the impact of current NHS changes on your specialty? Discuss the issues affecting your specialty? How would you set up a new service for a particular condition? Expensive new therapies and affordability? How can you improve a particular service in the trust? Discuss what can you offer the trust? Convince the panel you are qualified and experienced Outline your possible contributions on a strategic and detailed level Establish good relationship with the panel Professionalism A degree of formality Controlled enthusiasm Pace and drive 49 Your presentation needs to achieve the following: Be sure to inject: . Plan your presentation thoroughly: practice your delivery and use audio-visual aids which you feel comfortable with (and check what equipment will be available on the day). keep to time and anticipate questions (even suggest a few in the presentation). This is normally for 10 minutes or less. Prepare no more than 6-7 slides for a 10 minute presentation.
leadership skills) Social (family. dwell briefly on the various aspects of your experience including: Clinical (Your training so far and the skills acquired) Academic (Teaching. Research and audit) Generic skills (communication.Background and CV Tell me about yourself? Talk us through your CV/Application form? Tell us about your background? These questions are essentially similar and often are the first questions asked at the interview. Remember. hobbies etc. It is a good opportunity to utilise the vagueness of the question to make a good impression.) Finish your answer on an enthusiastic note by spending a few seconds on your career plans. you and your CV is a lot more than just Medicine. team player. Use this question to emphasise your positive points. Summarise your specialty experience over the last five years? What has been the extent of specialty training to date? Focus on the relevant bits from the first answer above So do you think you are independent at all endoscopic procedures? So you think 5 years is enough to acquire competence in your specialty and GIM? Have you had experience dealing with all major medical emergencies? Yes 50 . So in answering the question.
This has helped you identify the gaps and lacunae in your training/knowledge/skills. What you are saying that although you are competent and positively excited at taking the next step up to become a consultant. It could be Research experience Teaching experience Management experience Any other skill If you could change one thing on your CV. This would convey that you are a go getter. So you could talk about More research experience/more publication/writing your MD More teaching experience/formal teaching qualification More management experience More overseas experience Anything else What is the most difficult aspect of your current post and why? 51 . you do appreciate and believe in lifelong learning Reflective learner. Give me a summary of your general medical training to date? What is exceptional about your CV? What part of your CV are you most proud of? Why? Here is your chance to demonstrate your enthusiasm for a particular aspect of your CV.what would it be? This should ideally be in line with your future plans. leading you to take steps to develop yourself further. Focused and competency based training Learning does not stop with the end of training.
expanded role in management or overseas experience etc. What are your ultimate career intentions? To be a good doctor Increasing role in education/research Increased role in management to influence change 52 . If you were to start your career again what would you change? You could say spend more time on research. attain formal educational qualifications.don’t sound too enthusiastic about GIM. Quote example like attendance at a particular course subsequent to your reflection and identification of a training need. if you wish If you were given the opportunity to withdraw from GIM would you like to do this? This depends on the plans at the hospital you are being interviewed. You could buttress your point with the Royal College guidance of having 4+3 nights on call. So. You should elaborate by saying that being a reflective trainee has helped you in identifying what you don’t know. if your future colleagues intend to withdraw from the GIM rota.You need to mention something with a positive spin. Alternatively you could say that you enjoy GIM but would like a better balance between GIM and your specialty Are there any gaps in your training to date? No. Talk about patient safety/quality care. Something like a week of night on call. This has ensured that you have identified gaps and taken corrective measures.
the only way to change (and improve) the world is by changing the human being. endurance sports are seen as a sign of determination. I am fluent in the use of MS office. You could say that it helps relaxes you. Education helps you achieve the goal. 24 hour on call allowed for better continuity of care but were very tiring Shift pattern allows for more senior input and helps patient care. If you were able to do one thing that could improve the wellbeing of the world/mankind.swimming. chess and the like) demonstrate analytical skills. what would you do? Education. do they have any impact on how you practice medicine? What are your hobbies? How do they influence your medical practice? Relate your hobbies or sports interest to your practice of medicine. keep fit and maintain a work life balance. running and cycling are all OK.What are your interests outside of medicine. Would you rather work in a shift pattern or a traditional 24 hour on-call pattern? Mention the pros and cons of each and then say you prefer a shift pattern (as that is what most hospitals have in line with EWTD). Apart from team sports. Database and internet. Games of skill (bridge. What information technology skills do you possess? My information technology skills are commensurate with my requirements. PowerPoint. The downside of continuity of care can be overcome to a large extent by good handover practices. I really enjoy most team sports. I can conduct a literature search and am 53 . Don’t get a lot of time to indulge myself.
54 . So you could mention the birth of your son/daughter. Mention audits. courses attended to improve your education and training. Why is there no separate Clinical Governance section in your CV? Discuss clinical governance and your commitment to it. Then elaborate that your CV contains all the components of clinical governance (so a separate section was not needed). climb to the Mt Everest etc. The question is about the content of your life. any guidelines you wrote (demonstrates your commitment to evidence based medicine and clinical effectiveness) etc. What was the most important event in your life? You could be personal here.particularly interested in the use of Web 2.0 tools to improve education and training.
but interested in people and social issues too and more and more medicine seemed like the suitable choice. It gives me pleasure to help people. motivation and drive What made you go into Medicine? I enjoy working with people.Personal qualities. expansion of skills and interests etc Colleagues. It’s satisfying when people are pleasant. practical procedures and one that would involve a good mix of inpatient and outpatient care.foster good working relationships Others – interests/IT/research/NHS/leadership Teaching and training Why do you want to do this specialty? For example for Gastro Good combination of interesting medicine. What is your career ambition? Where do you see yourself in 5/10 years' time? Your career ambition Consultant in University Hospital/DGH Patient care and communication – maintenance and increased skill. but I also enjoy the challenge of working with difficult people. I have always been very strong on the sciences. 55 . The technology in endoscopy is rapidly advancing and there are always new things on the horizon to keep you stimulated. There is a wide choice of sub-specialties. it’s one of the things that attracted me to medicine. all of which are readily encountered in every region.
taking the example of gastro Likes Lots of hands on work Multidisciplinary working Choice of sub specialties Lack of GI bleed rota in many hospitals No NSF for GI diseases Dislikes How would you dissuade somebody from entering this specialty? I suppose more than dissuading. They appear to be very happy with their choice! What do you like about this specialty and what do you dislike? Again. I have never met a disillusioned gastroenterologist. Lastly. Quoting Gastro as an example 56 . There are wide ranging options for research in basic science and clinical areas and funding appears to be healthy as many of the NHS targets come under the umbrella of gastroenterology. I will present the strengths and the weakness (if any!) of the specialty and let them make a decision for themselves What are the challenges facing this specialty over the next ten years? Show your forward vision as to how things may change and how you are going to adapt.
IBD clinics). Most gastroenterologists continue practise with a commitment to general internal medicine. There certainly will be increasing use of nurse specialists/endoscopists in bread and butter endoscopy. Nursing roles in outpatients too will expand in particular with guideline run clinics (e.prepare well) Why this Hospital? Why should we recruit you rather than any other candidate? 57 . I have made the right career choice. rectal bleeding) and follow up specialist clinics (e. with the more complex therapeutic procedures performed by the specialists. Why do you want to join our Trust? (Imp questions.g. How do you know you are making the right career choice? Career to me is a way of life and not something that pays the bills. the place of endoscopy in gastroenterology will remain pre-eminent owing to the need for samples and for the ultimate in minimally invasive therapeutic procedures. So I suppose if I am happy doing what I am. The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme continues to roll out with an accelerating pace of JAG accreditation visits. Despite the advent of sophisticated imaging. with the possibility that the non GI medical load may devolve to specialists in acute general medicine. The future may see a clash between the ever burgeoning internal medicine demands and heavy sessional commitments to gastroenterology.g. These visits will result in considerable and often long overdue investment in endoscopic facilities up and down the country and this is very welcome for all concerned.
What would you want from the Hospital? Tell them about your special skills and how you plan to use them to develop the department and the hospital further. what three words would they use? If I was to phone your Junior Staff and say what are you really like what would they say? What would your friends say about you? 58 . Explain your education/research/management or any other special skills. Next outline your key strengths in education. Give us three adjectives that describe you best. Try and give examples of good points even if it is good connections with major centre’s or good schools or family etc. Just tell them what they want to hear. research. What do you have to offer us? Tell them what makes you special. If I asked the people who know you well to describe you. Apart from the hospital and how great it is. For e. I think I am the ideal person for the job because I believe I have the skill and experience to do the job reliably and efficiently. Marry up your skills to their requirement. You will need to highlight this skill.What have you done that is different to anyone else? What makes you a good candidate for the job? This is where all research from trust websites. if the trust was planning on increasing the intake of medical students. you can say that you have looked around the area and like what you see. your educational qualifications and experience will be highly desirable. management or any particular skill in your specialty. Again your answer will be guided by your research prior to the interview. annual health check report and the information you gathered at your pre interview visit will be useful.g.
Good communicator Good interpersonal skills Enthusiasm Keeping calm under pressure I believe I have demonstrated this in the past—give examples. Good team player What kind of feedback would I obtain from your patients if I asked them? Compassionate. Committed and enthusiastic. patience and competent A good doctor! What would you like written in your obituary? When he came he cried and the world rejoiced When he went he rejoiced and the world cried Describe yourself in as few sentences as possible? What are your main strengths? Give 3-4 strengths appropriate for the job. Easy to get on with and quite outgoing. What is your main weakness? Admit a minor weakness. Good sense of humour and generally cheerful. It'll take a few dry runs before you sound succinct and articulate. Practice responding to this question. But present your weakness with a positive spin. Options: 59 .
My biggest weakness? I would say chocolate. Flexibility is needed to balance best practice and limited resources and the interface between two independent services Sense of humour It is not possible to have all the above qualities. He should be competent with good teaching and training skills.I know I could improve my patience when working with people who don't work at the same pace as I do. Tendency to take your work home (which you can resolve with the help of your family and personal will) Impatience. so consultants need to strive for continuous development and improvement 60 . We work in complex environment.but you can still say I can critique a research paper and teach my juniors to do the same. What skills have you gained that will make you a good doctor/consultant? What are the qualities of a good consultant? Qualities of a good consultant: He should be a good doctor. He should be flexible. especially milk chocolate. I can move the project forward instead of being frustrated and doing nothing. He should have some leadership qualities and good management skills. What I have found is that by helping such members. My family would probably accuse me of being a workaholic because I can’t relax while there’s something that needs doing. He should endeavor to support research and audit. No research background.
I) . Would you be happy being an average consultant? 61 . is the capacity to read others by just observing nonverbal behaviour and to be able to act appropriately on the information to the benefit of the person and the service.my main measure of success is feedback from patients and colleagues.What is the difference between a SpR and an SHO? You’ve done a locum appointment in training post—what was the most important step up you had to deal with compared with being a senior house officer? As a senior person.I. Yes there were jobs (if any!) which were not ideal but on discussions with the local supervisor we arrived at a mutually acceptable solution. What skills do you need to develop most? Emotional intelligence (E. Teaching/research/managerial skills What job have you particularly liked/disliked? As a trainee I have tried to derive most from my jobs. you need to have more of the soft skills Managing a team Delegation Negotiating skills Leadership Name two skills that you would like to improve over the next two years. You need to convey an impression that you are a problem solver! How do you measure success? Success at work. Give an example.E.
I believe the Clinical Director plays a vital role in performance management of other consultant colleagues as well as providing a vision for the department. Would you like to become a Clinical Director? Yes. While I feel confident that I am ready for independent practice. I find this very positively exciting. any guidelines you have produced). persistence and team work. I do appreciate that learning do not stop here What concerns you about this job? What do you think will be your biggest challenge in this post? Mention something (like developing a new service or any particular problem the department may be facing) which would be difficult. do you feel prepared? Absolutely! I think 5 years is a reasonable time for training as long as you are focused. Always mention your enthusiasm for teaching and training and your belief that no service can operate successfully without the integration of teaching and research in daily activities of service providing. I have been a reflective learner and this has helped me identifying the gaps in knowledge or skills. 62 . I believe I have a lot to contribute and would like to consider the role actively in the future Having trained under the Calman system.I have always strove for excellence. Similarly as a consultant I would strive to improve the department by improving the services where I can and bringing in new services to provide world class care. If you look at my CV I have been an active participant in improving things (quote your audits. the job can be done. Say in the same breadth however that you are positive that with enthusiasm. Besides I believe that learning is a lifelong process of education and continuous improvement.
if dealing with patients/people is your forte. Mention something like not approachable or poor trainer. I am proud of my involvement in (quote any example) I made my contribution as part of that team and learnt a lot in the process.What are you hoping to gain from this post? I am looking for the opportunity to accomplish my best work. You also realized that appealing to the good side of people always brings out the best. What sort of hospital would you rather work in and why? Teaching hospitals as you have more opportunities to develop DGH. Tell us about your worst consultant/colleague. 63 ..like leading a team of trainee doctors to a disaster hit area. stimulating and supportive environment for its employees and their achievements. How would your consultant/seniors motivate you? Tell us about your best consultant/colleague. We did it with hard work and dedication. So I suppose I would say that what I am looking for is a progressive trust that will provide a challenging. mention a consultant who was compassionate.. I mean I did not like certain qualities. What experiences outside medicine have you found useful in your medical career? Mention something you are proud of. What are your biggest accomplishments? Although I feel my biggest achievements are still ahead of me. When I say worst. You could say that it developed your interpersonal skills. A caring and compassionate doctor who believes in teaching and training and with a positive attitude. competent and approachable besides being a good teacher.
I always wished I’d learnt Spanish/violin/ to play tennis properly. Discuss the importance of relaxation and de stressing etc Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10? Say 8 or 9. but that. If you play a sport for example tell them who you play for or how often. What skills are required for good leadership? What leadership skills have you acquired during your training? 64 Effective communication and interpersonal skills Competence Leading by example . How would you balance extra-curricular activities with being a consultant? Good question to discuss work life balance. What would you change about yourself if you could? I would find it easier if I could get down to the gym three evenings a week. I still intend to get around to it one day.How do you relax? There are numerous ways in which to relax. I have found that to be a good manager it pays to be as versatile as possible. you always increase your skills and therefore always see room for improvement. However. depending on the situation. So try and be a bit more specific. in doing so. Good leaders are people who can keep a team enthusiastic and committed to success despite difficult and challenging conditions. saying that you always give your best. What makes a good leader? I believe a good leader is a matter of motivation.
My colleagues in the past will acknowledge that I only say no when I really do have a good reason and not just to avoid work or to be unhelpful. without considering too much how the new direction is going to be achieved. It is better than agreeing to do something and then finding that you can’t deliver. The difference between leadership and management can be illustrated by considering what happens when you have one without the other. whereas to me leadership is more about coming up with new ideas and above all being able to take people with you. whether this is motivating people to tackle something new or keeping morale and communication going through troubled times.sets a direction or vision that others follow. Can you say ‘no’? Yes. I think it is important to see things through. as well as having innovative ideas. 65 . I see managing more as organizing work and controlling resources.behave in ways that are consistent with professed values and help others to achieve small gains that keep them motivated.pleasant/approachable/easy to talk to/receptive to new ideas Encouraging others-recognize each contributions to the success of a project. especially when a goal will not be achieved quickly.. Keeping cool under pressure individual's What does leading by example mean to you? It means.. What is the difference between a manager and a leader? I suppose. Leadership without management . if I am being asked to do something that is beyond my remit or in the time frame that is expected.socially. Nurturing the team.
Leadership requires. I make sure that my team has clear goals and targets. I believe leadership is not just a set of exceptional skills and attributes possessed by only a few very special people. As a result my juniors are I believe. Rather.controls resources to maintain the status quo or ensure things happen according to already-established plans.. E.g. All the members are kept informed about developments and. leadership is a process and a set of skills that can be learned. They know why their role is important and how it fits in with the rest of the organisation. first of all. the desire. involved in discussions and contribute to the decision making process.Management without leadership . but does not usually provide "leadership" How would you motivate others? I think good motivational skills are essential.. Getting the team to work towards a common goal with enthusiasm and purpose is vital for performance. where appropriate. a referee manages a sports game. well motivated and work well both individually and as a team. I also make an effort to understand the personal motivations of my team members. then it is a lifetime learning process. What is the difference between leadership and management? Management means: Getting things done with and through others Achieving goals through efficient use of resources 66 . and understand how those contribute to the overall aims of the trust. Do you consider yourself a natural leader or a born follower? I would be reluctant to regard anyone as a natural leader.
Achieving objectives within a series of constraints on time. money and other resources. using a range of techniques and processes The ability to envisage a new path forward and inspire others to make the vision a reality The skill of influencing and motivating others to work together to achieve goals The art of remaining true to values. no matter how difficult that may be. ideals and achieving goals. Leadership is: Leaders do the right things and the manager does things in a right way. 67 . overcoming hurdles and constraints.
supportive of the other members. rapport with patients etc.Say. I have acquired good listening skills. You can improve them by either observing your senior colleagues or attending the relevant training courses What are the attributes of a good team player? Good team members are communicative. unselfish (they put the needs of the other 68 . You may also discuss breaking bad news. Tell me about a situation where your communication skills did not succeed in getting something done? What skills have you acquired that make you a good communicator? How can you improve your communication skills as a leader? These questions have the same theme. Rate your communications skills as good or effective. ability to explain complex details in simple terms. Skills acquired. Try and make it specific to the specialty you are applying for: for example in gastroenterology you may wish to focus on relationships with other colleagues like surgeons. You may also wish to discuss other skills like negotiation skills. You have to back up your answer with some specific examples where your communication skills made a difference.Communication and Team Playing How would you rate your communication skills? Give us an example of a situation where your communication skills made a difference to the care of a patient. flexible (they can fit in with others and adapt to changing demands). You can always improve your communication skills. Give us an example of a situation where you failed to communicate appropriately. This has helped me to build rapport with my patients. helped me understand them better and overall provide improved care.
However I am quite happy working alone when necessary. I believe it’s my role as the team leader to ensure that the team is more than just a collection of people working on the same ward/hospital but a real team pulling together with a strong sense of cohesion. I liaise with the OT/physio/family/nurses/social care workers to ensure a thorough management plan is in place to ensure optimum care.team members on a level with their own) and are interested in the success of the team as a whole. flexible and unselfish and I try to demonstrate these qualities when working with others. not just their own performance Are you a Team Player? More and more we work in teams so the answer should be ‘Yes’ but give examples as to how you know e. I believe a good team member should be competent. supportive. I ensure this in my team by ensuring that everyone 69 .g. Give us a recent example of a time where you worked a member of an MDT. communicative. feedback from your consultant at appraisal.I don’t need constant advice and reassurance. You could say something like that more and more we are dealing with elderly patients with complex care needs. 360 degree appraisal Do you work better as part of a team or on your own? I would say from past experience that I enjoy being part of a team. What makes a good team? I believe a good team is one where the members are committed to each other and to the successful achievement of a goal.but I prefer to work in a team as so much more is achieved when people pull together. Give an example where you worked well in a teamdemonstrating at least one key attribute of a team player. I like the camaraderie and that feeling of all working together towards a common goal.
so that risks can be appreciated.even the silent members of the team . I make sure that individual skill and input are valued and appreciated not just by me but by everyone concerned. how it is innovating. which reduces stress and may lead to better care Good leadership shows excellent internal and external A good team communication. Internal communication is naturally less formal and more constant than external. A number of studies have revealed the following characteristics of successful teams: A meaningful. problems aired.knows what their role is within the team and how important it is to the overall outcome. External communication means keeping the team in touch with what is happening in the wider organisation. I also support team unity by organising social and bonding activities. This will usually be an important part of the leader's role. and the best care given. etc. clearly defined task Clear team objectives and individual targets Regular meetings Regular feedback to individuals and the team’s success in achieving objectives The right balance of people Reflexivity – the ability to reflect on team performance and adapt and change The experience of full participation. I encourage team members to support each other to complete tasks rather than focusing on their own responsibilities. and letting the organisation know about the team . It involves making sure everyone has a voice . what resources it needs. Sometimes 70 . It is maintaining these external links which keeps the team in line with the organisational goals and which lets the rest of the organisation know about the role of the team.how it's meeting its goals.
(E. providing feedback as appropriate. organising team meetings etc. Focus feedback on behaviour rather than personality. Give feedback about something that can be changed. Tell us about your experience of managing a team of people. As registrars most of us look after a team of junior doctors on the wards and when on call. ensured that their study and annual leave were sorted.g.what do you think?) Make feedback specific rather than general. ensuring their training needs. You could mention you ensured that they were well supported. The person should know that he is receiving feedback. Quote any situation but remember the general principles of giving feedback. Feedback should be descriptive rather than judgemental or evaluative. Feedback is part of the learning cycle and is thus an integral part of any learning experience. How to give feedback. Collect relevant data from others Make notes prior to the meeting 71 . understood their roles. Focus feedback on sharing information rather than giving advice. this is what I saw. Describe a situation where you had to give negative feedback to somebody.this will involve including the patient or the carer in the team as an honorary member so that they are given the same chance to contribute to any decisions made.
If a trainee rejects any negative feedback given. A good leader Leads by example Takes initiative Communicates well with the team Has clear objectives and ensures that the team understands them Develops team members by encouraging active participation. explore with them why they feel like this. valuing opinions and giving feedback Quote any example where you showed any of the above qualities. So mention any situation and explain how you used your good communication skills to bring the person on board. Tell us about a situation where you showed leadership. They may be getting contradictory feedback from elsewhere which will prevent them from acting on your feedback and suggestions. Basic problem here is generally lack of communication. Tell us about a situation where you had to bring a difficult person on board.decided to audit it. Reinforce good practice with specific examples (so give positive feedback first. analyse and explore potential solutions for any deficits in practice Encourage the trainee to self assess their performance prior to giving feedback NB.presented it. You can use any of the audits you did or you initiated a teaching 72 .and subsequently helped bring the change to improve the quality of care. The trainee is likely to be more receptive of the negative feedback) Identify. You can quote the example: You noticed a less than perfect clinical care.
presented it. You could quote you noticed a less than perfect clinical care. You can quote a specific teaching episode. I regularly teach juniors and can tell from the feedback I have received that they really feel motivated to improve them and provide safe and effective care to patients. You can use any of the audits you did Or you could say that you took charge of organising holidays for junior doctors on the ward after noticing poor organisation of junior doctor’s leaves Tell me about a time when you had to use your spoken communication skills in order to get a point across that was important to you? Can you tell me about a job experience in which you had to speak up in order to be sure that other people knew what you thought or felt? You can say something like you noticed a lack of educational programme or MRCP teaching at your hospital.and subsequently helped bring the change to improve the quality of care. just not getting the job done? Give an example? 73 . Tell us about a situation where you showed initiative.programme for juniors to help better train them to avoid a repeat of the bad practice.decided to audit it. What do you do when one of your junior is performing badly. Give me an example of a time when you felt you were able to motivate your colleagues? You can quote any of the leadership or team playing qualities or teaching qualities to illustrate the point. You ensured that you raised your concerns with the appropriate people and devised a teaching rota involving all the consultants and senior registrars.
hard work and dedication. poverty. However. Describe a situation in which you felt it necessary to be very attentive to your environment? All exams especially OSCE kind! Give me an example of an important goal which you have set in the past and tell me about your success in reaching it? Quote any example either medical or non medical. there’s always something you have to deal with. It could be learning swimming or setting up a website. Go through the steps of planning. Steps to deal with it: Ensure that the person understands his role and what is expected of him Tell him what is expected of him Explain the difference between his current level of performance and the expected level of performance (performance gap) Agree as to how the gap can be bridged in a timely manner. The issue is not to ignore it and deal with it promptly. Everyday irritations don’t affect me that much. I take patient safety 74 . cruelty to animals.This is basically an issue of performance gap. I have learnt that dealing with other people calmly and politely is less stressful for me as well as for them so that now its second nature. but I don’t find everyday irritations affect me. Do you ever lose your temper? I can’t remember the last time I actually lost my temper. What makes you angry? I suppose like most people I get angry about inequalities in the world. The principles of giving feedback apply here.
I put disappointment behind me and am ready with renewed vigour and understanding to face the new day’s problems. I was really glad I had taken the initiative.we really needed to with us working together. it’s essential if I want to continue to improve my performance. We had a pretty frank discussion and although I can’t say we ended up the best of friends. I remember earlier in my career (describe the event and how it 75 . (Example your colleague SpR not pulling his weight-not doing enough) In the end I took the initiative and persuaded him that we should have a talk and try to work out an effective strategy for us to work together. Give an example of a situation where your work was criticized? A good way is to give an anecdote from your early career that shows you accepting suggestions calmly and reasonably and learning from them.very seriously. quote an example like poor handovers and how you spoke to all the juniors to ensure proper handovers Have you ever been in a situation where you have had a conflict with a colleague? Yes.g. That way. In fact. How have you benefited from your disappointment? Disappointments are a learning experience for me. we did gain more respect for one another’s roles and we certainly worked more productively together. How would you cope with criticism or a complaint being made against you? I don’t take it personally if that’s what you mean. why it happened and how I would do things differently. give a situation. I look at what happened. if things were to be happen again in future. I believe I am mature enough to handle constructive criticism.. For e.
I listened to what they said and I could see that they had a point. endoscopy sessions etc Do you like change? Look at my CV.arose and who did the criticising?). 3 house moves in 5 years. If you could teach a medical student only one thing to make them a better doctor.take him to see referrals. what would it be and why? Compassion and empathy. Describe the lesson you learnt and how it was useful. How would you handle a situation where you had a disagreement with a nurse over the management of a patient? What would you do if a patient disagreed with your treatment approach? I would try and understand why he/she disagreed with my opinion and try and reach a mutually acceptable decision while ensuring that the patient is not put at risk What kinds of decisions are most difficult for you? 76 . How do you respond? Find out what else is happening What is demotivating him? Discuss things and suggest remedies or direct him to appropriate resources Stimulate/challenge him. came from Sudan. One of your SHOs says he is getting bored in his job. Change does not scare me. I believe this makes more difference in patient care than virtually anything else.
however careful planning ensures that the team has enough doctors at all times.or anything you do to manage your time). I wouldn’t want to be on holidays when the team is depleted. Everyone is entitled to it.It’s not that I have difficulty making decisions. So I work closely with charge nurse to triage patients effectively. So by carefully considering things far enough in advance I don’t procrastinate and make sure my plans fit in with my team. it’s what we feel when we think we’ve lost control of events]. A small example might be holiday time. How do you handle stress? How do you normally cope with pressure? I have always been good with stress. I think very carefully at the beginning of my jobs when I‘d like to take my holidays and then think of alternative dates. For e. This could be very stressful However.some just require more consideration than others. [The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. I discuss this with my colleagues and the consultant and tell them what I hope to do and see if there is any conflict. I (describe some of the things you do to organize your workload. Often you have to deal with multiple emergencies. I was always the one who stayed calm during exams. How do you recognize when you are stressed? My wife tells me! 77 . I believe it’s because I am good at planning and prioritizing. I take a step back and look at the whole situation and involve my whole team. delegate simpler tasks to junior members of the team and keeping an eye on progress regularly.g.” In short. on calls are generally very busy.
irritable or forgetful. holidays etc) How would you deal with a 10% cut in your budget? By increasing productivity and improving efficiency! You will have to quote examples like seeing an extra patient in the clinic. How did your boss get the best out of you? My last boss got superior effort and performance by treating me like a human being and giving me the same personal respect with which s/he liked for her/himself. How do you cope if project/things go wrong? First I assess the steps we need to take to optimize damage limitation and deal with the immediate problem.Tiredness. I analyze what went wrong and I include colleagues in 78 . vetting endoscopy requests to screen inappropriate requests. asking for help and anything that relaxes you (hobbies. I have got a huge amount of self belief and I do believe that I am good. I am ruthless with time but gracious with people. Are you ruthless? I can be ruthless when required. Basically you will have to involve the whole team in the effort to ensure patient care is not compromised. inefficiency (taking too long for simple tasks) etc are general markers of stress and you can quote any alone or in combination. planning and prioritising work. Once the crisis is over. How do you resolve stress? Delegating/sharing workload. organizing professional leave more efficiently to ensure minimal disruption of clinical work etc.
this discussion, so that we can pinpoint how we might avoid the same thing happening again. Have you done the best work you are capable of doing? I am proud of my professional achievements to date, especially (give an example). However, I believe the best is yet to come. I am always motivated to give of my best. What are your views on health and safety in your job? The interviewer needs to know that you are: Aware of the importance of health and safety, Know about health and safety issues relevant to your job. Understands and follows regulations. Has any health and safety training.
Have you ever had to bend health and safety rules to get a job done? I have never found it necessary to bend the rules, and I wouldn’t expect to be asked to. Would you say you are confident? Yes I would say that I am a confident person. I do everything I can, though, to support my natural sense of confidence- keeping myself up-to-date, preparing carefully for the presentation/meetings etc. I‘ve always been outgoing and self assured, and my confidence in dealing with the people has developed naturally with experience and watching senior colleagues at work. What difficult decisions have you made in a clinical setting?
Discuss any difficult decisions you had to make in managing a patient and explain why it was difficult. It could be an ethical issue or lack of resources. It may be worthwhile mentioning how you would deal with it in future or anything you did to remedy the situation. How do you go about making important/difficult decisions? There are 4 steps I follow to ensure that I choose the best possible options. Firstly I get together all the facts I can. Secondly, I talk to the people involved in the matter and get their input as well. Thirdly, I examine all aspects and try to predict the possible outcomes. Lastly, I try to foresee any contingencies that might affect my decision along with any problems that might arise from it. When I have all the information, in my experience a clear option usually stand out. Taking into consideration factors such as timing, budget and so forth, it’s usually possible to make an appropriate decision. For example (quote an example) Explain what do you understand by an equal opportunities policy? My understanding is that every employee and everyone with whom we deal will be treated fairly, regardless of age, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic and cultural background, disability or social background. You don’t get on with a colleague - how do you deal with it? Try hard to get on with all colleagues Came across one, did not get on well, basic problem was lack of communication Uneasy about situation Working in same department Went to see him, cleared up the misunderstanding and worked together afterwards
What is your approach to resolving conflict? Conflict is an inevitable part of all relationships and is not in itself an indicator of a poor team. It causes a team to function badly only when it is not addressed. The conflict needs to be addressed at once. Often when the problem is pointed out early, and discussed, resolution follows. If this is not possible, then dispassionate fact-finding may be necessary. In resolving conflict, be tough on problems, not on people. Here are some possible conflicts and suggested solutions for each. If these issues occurred in your team what do you think the response could be? Is one member being blamed for all the team’s problems? This is often the sign of a dysfunctional team, so look at what else is going wrong before you act. Is one individual behaving badly? Talk to them personally. Is team leadership at fault? Think about what you could do differently and let the team know how things might change. Has the team become divided? Re-establish the overriding team goal and bring everyone in on how to achieve it best. Can the conflict be used constructively? Take the problem seriously and explore all possibilities.
Think of an example of conflict in your own team. What was your role, if any, in keeping the conflict going and in ending it? How could you best have contributed to its resolution? Think of a conflict. Here is a step by step guide to resolving conflict: Identify the problem. Make sure everyone involved knows exactly what the issue is and talk it out until everyone understands what the key issues are.
Allow everyone an opportunity to express their opinion/perspective. Ensure all participants feel safe and supported. Identify the ideal end result from each person’s point of view. It might surprise everyone to discover that their visions are not so far apart after all. Figure out what can realistically be done to resolve conflict Find an area of compromise. Is there some part of the issue on which everyone agrees? If not, try to identify long-term goals that mean something to everyone, and start from there.
How can you minimise/prevent conflict? Bring issues out in the open before they become problems. Have a process for resolving conflicts — bring up the subject at a meeting, and get agreement on what people should do in cases of differing viewpoints. Make sure everyone understands their roles. Regular feedback
Research and Audit
Tell me about your research experience? Tell them about the research experience you have covering the following areas: Type of research you have done and your involvement in it. Whether you were responsible for ethics committee approval and R and D approval. Who initiated the idea and who wrote the protocol, patient information leaflet etc? Whether you were the principle investigator Tell them briefly about the research- type of research (RCT, multicentre study etc), methods and the outcomes. Tell them if you have published it and that you are the first author (if you are!) Explain what you gained out of research
Is a higher degree important in modern medicine? Do you think all SpRs should do research? Same answer to both questions The government has made a strong commitment to research. Research is (thus) one of the key components of clinical governance. However, it does not mean that all doctors should be involved in research. Research is expensive. Research for the sake of CV will only lead to waste of resources, which can be more appropriately utilised involving people interested in research. You can always involve yourself in research without undertaking a higher degree. You can always support research by helping recruit patients to clinical trials from your practice. However, it is important for all physicians to understand the principles of research as it underpins evidence based medicine. So for example it is important to be able to critically appraise a research paper and form a judgement as to whether the conclusions presented can be implemented in your own practice.
the aims. Whatever may have been you involvement. Tell them. Why is research important? Research is important for the advancement of medical sciences. Try and relate it to the aims of the charity (if provided) How much of your research is your own design and how much was guided by your supervisor? How did you organize your research project? Did you supervisor write your grant application? Same answer to both questions.These skills are best acquired through exposure to a degree of research but can be gained through journal clubs too or attending appropriate courses. Assume that you are talking to a group of charity workers from your funding organization. I am worried about your lack of research experience. you do understand the importance of research. 84 . Essentially tell them about your research in lay terms. it is still a plus point that you were involved in a research project. Tell me about your research. Quote whatever research experience you have (even if minimal). Tell them you are interested in clinical work and thus may not have produced the best research. Go on to say that you do understand the principles behind research and research governance and have acquired valuable research skills like critically appraising a research paper by attending training sessions and journal clubs. Be honest. Tell them about the extent of your involvement in the research project. the methods and how it may benefit the intended group. You may have just collected the data or consented the patients for recruitment.
use of appropriate statistics. Of particular importance in methods are Process of randomization Whether the investigator and subjects were blinded Process of recruitment Whether ethics and R and D approval were sought Power of the study Statistics used and its appropriateness Baseline characteristics of the study and control group and whether they are adequately matched 85 .in the following order RCT. observational studies. blinding of the subject/investigator. non randomized controlled trial. whether the study was adequately powered. whether the study and control groups were well matched.assessing the study for randomization process. The quality of the research depends on Hierarchy of study design. which section will you read? Why? Methods section is the most important to me because unless appropriate methods are used to answer the relevant research question. whether all the study subjects were accounted for in the results etc Generalisability.When will you say a research a good research? Clearly all research is not well conducted. expert opinion Study quality.whether you can implement the conclusions of your study to your practice (this will depend whether the study group is in any way similar to your practice patients) If you are asked to read one section in an article.the results and conclusions may be flawed. case reports.
uk When doing Research.How will you statistically correct for the unaccounted people in a clinical trial? By using Intention to treat statistics Basically by using this statistic you include all the patients recruited (disregarding any drop outs) in calculating the results. A pilot run is also important to ensure that everything is working according to plan. feasible and answers an important question) needs thorough planning. Alternatively you may wish to talk to a unit/person with an established research track record and check whether they have any interesting projects for you Arranging funding Further steps like Ethics and R and D approval You can read more about research on the trainees in gastroenterology website www.tig. what is the one most important factor to get right? Planning. Would you like to participate in research if you were appointed? 86 . focusing on research in the last 2-3 years. Finding a person/expert interested in the research question. Once you have decided on a topic. Decide what specific area you wish to research. What you want to research and where. How do you go about setting up a research project? Steps Asking the right research question. a project that is practical. do a literature review of the topic.org. Planning a good project (i.e.
use of thrombolytic therapy in thrombotic stroke Pros and cons of Evidence Based Practice Pros EBM is essential for the application of best research evidence for the benefit of the patients. Besides. Should all research be carried in tertiary centers or do DGHs have a role? Majority of doctor’s work in DGH and the majority of patients are treated in the DGH. What is Evidence Based Medicine (EBM)? EBM essentially means application of the best evidence from the best medical research to treat patients.g. David Sackett et al defines EBM as ‘integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values’ E. you do not see yourself as principal or chief investigator but you understand the role of research and will help in consenting and recruiting patients for research. You could say that your prior research experience have kindled a strong interest and you wish to build on your experience by getting involved in further projects Alternatively you could say. So DGH are vital in any research conducted within the NHS. of EBM. Cons 87 . research is a vital part of clinical governance framework and as such involves all NHS hospitals What are the current research developments in your field of interest? Topical question Mention one or two research developments.
It makes certain that the interests of research participants come first. Publication bias. ‘Cookbook’ medicine. This covers scientific quality and standards of ethics.Guidelines and recommendations may be too prescriptive and thus suppress clinical freedom. Research Governance is about ensuring the highest standards of quality in clinical research. What is your understanding of the term ‘Research Governance’? Research governance is about ethos of best practice and ethical methods when researching.Negative studies may not always be published as journals tend to publish new and positive studies. and all related management aspects in the setting up. The DoH has published ‘The Research Governance Framework 2005’.g. It is impossible to practice EBM with every clinical decision as there may be no good evidence to support clinical judgement. conduct. Ethics and R&D approval is a must before any research begins Researchers bear day to day responsibility for the conduct of research adhering to the principles of good practice Appropriate management of financial and other resources by the researchers Safeguard participants in research Protect researchers/investigators (by providing a clear framework to work within) Enhance ethical and scientific quality Minimise risk Research Governance is needed to: 88 . reporting and progression to healthcare improvements. This includes for e.
II or III evidence Grading of recommendations Do you think Evidence Based Medicine is applicable to all specialties? Yes What is a systematic review and meta-analyses? 89 . Monitor practice and performance Promote good practice and ensure lessons are learned What are the different levels of Evidence available? Grading of evidence Ia: systematic review or meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Ib: at least one randomised controlled trial IIa: at least one well-designed controlled study without randomisation IIb: at least one well-designed quasi-experimental study. such as comparative studies. such as a cohort study III: well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies. correlation studies. case– control studies and case series IV: expert committee reports. opinions and/or clinical experience of respected authorities A: based on hierarchy I evidence B: based on hierarchy II evidence or extrapolated from hierarchy I evidence C: based on hierarchy III evidence or extrapolated from hierarchy I or II evidence D: directly based on hierarchy IV evidence or extrapolated from hierarchy I.
A systematic review is a literature review focused on a single question that tries to identify. How to read a paper: Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). BMJ 1997. and policymakers Conclusions are more reliable and accurate because of methods used Results of different studies can be formally compared to establish generalisability of findings and consistency (lack of heterogeneity) of results A meta-analysis is a mathematical synthesis of the results of two or more primary studies that addressed the same hypothesis in the same way.Greenhalgh T. researchers. It can increase the precision of a result. Tell me about your Audit experience? Discuss your audits (what audit did you do. appraise. Ref. did you complete the audit cycle etc) What is the difference between Audit & Research? 90 . Audits help identify and promote good practice and can lead to improvement in service delivery and patient outcomes. The advantages of systematic review are: Large amounts of information can be assimilated quickly by healthcare providers. what change was implemented. Clinical audit is principally the measurement of practice against agreed standards and implementing change to ensure that all patients receive care to the same standard. Meta-analysis is essentially a quantitative systematic review. why you did that particular audit. 315:672-675 What is an audit? Audit is a vital component of clinical governance. It underpins EBM. what deficiencies did the audit reveal. It also helps ensure efficiency by ensuring better use of resources. select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.
Addresses clearly defined questions / hypotheses using systematic and rigorous processes. Hence. Results are specific and local. This may lead to changes in practice. Audit cycle or spiral is the process of setting standards. In some cases.ekclinicalauditservice.Audit Aims to review current practice against best practice and to implement change to improve current practice Will never involve a completely new treatment or practice. an audit cycle is sometimes referred to as audit spiral. changing practice to improve the care or service and then re-evaluating the resultant care or service.http://www.uk Tell me about the Audit cycle? As clinical audit is not a one-off exercise. Research Aims to derive new knowledge which is potentially generalisable or transferable. it is a continuous cycle of quality improvement. systematically evaluating the care of service with respect to the standards. May involve a completely new treatment or practice. May lead to development of new services or practices. Generates evidence to demonstrate level of compliance with agreed standards.nhs. usually asking whether a specific standard has been met. the standard will have changed between the audit and re audit. Addresses clearly defined audit questions using a robust methodology. Ref. Designed so that it can be replicated and results can be generalised to other groups Generates evidence to refute. What problems are there with the way SHO audit projects are carried out? 91 . support or develop a hypothesis.
air pollution etc 92 .audit questions are not clearly defined. methods are not robust Not completed Audit cycle not completed Audits not presented Audits done for the sake of CV.hence do not lead to change or improved services What research project would you develop first in the post? This will depend on your research interests and the research set up at the trust you are applying for a job What area of research is important for the future? You could relate an area in your specialty or alternatively you could mention research in killer diseases like malaria (need for vaccine). improved sanitation. Very often not done properly (inappropriate audit methods).
you could say that you regularly arrange feedback from your students or occasionally get your teaching session peer reviewed. You could also mention that your teachings skills were specially commended in your 360 degree appraisal What specific skills have you learnt which make you a good teacher? I have learned a lot through experience. Show your enthusiasm for teaching Discuss who you have taught and how often you teach and whether it is formal or informal teaching.Teaching and Training Tell us about your teaching experience? Be descriptive. Introduce my teaching by exploring or referring to the background knowledge (schema activation) needed for the session. This is rather obvious as the purpose of teaching is to foster learning. You can quote some interesting topics or episodes Mention any teaching courses or qualifications Discuss how you know you are a good teacher. Subsequent teaching would be organised and structured (schema building) so that key concepts are presented in a hierarchic order. schema 93 . I would summarize at the end to reinforce key concepts (schema refining). This is based on the cognitive theory principles that learning is a constructive process of schema activation. A few of the specific skills which I have learned and regularly employ are Plan my teachings in terms of learning outcomes. The purpose of my teaching is to make students think and learn rather than being a source of information and factual knowledge. Discuss some of the teaching methods you use. observing good teachers and the course.
This suggests that existing knowledge acts as a scaffold on which new knowledge structures are built. Another powerful underlying principle is one of behaviourist theory that independent learners learn best. committed and responsive to the needs and aspirations of the learners. Very often learners fail to transfer class room teaching to the real world. The new schema could be further refined and reinforced by summarising the key concepts at the end. I would provide key concepts and encourage students to search for other relevant material on the issue to develop an understanding. Positive feedback is important not only from the reinforcement principle of stimulus. Also the new knowledge would be assimilated better if it is presented in a structured and organized way. The teaching should thus be in a real world context and further multiple perspectives should be debated so that the learner can adopt the perspective that is most suitable to them in the particular context. Also for the teaching to be effective the learning of content should 94 . Students learn best when they take responsibility of their own learning. Provide teaching in a real world context i. Actively encourage students to take charge of their learning and foster deep learning principles. relationship and mutual respect by being non-threatening. The learning is likely to be much more effective if prior knowledge is activated before presenting the new concepts. Provide regular feedbacks and encourage them if they are doing well and guide them in the deficient areas.e. Create an environment of trust. Encourage students to construct multiple perspectives on an issue either by suitable examples or by collaborative learning. create a context in which the problem is relevant.construction and schema refinement.response theory but also the learning is likely to more effective and efficient if the learners are informed as to how well they are doing(cognitive feedback principle).
So the advantages of PBL are It is student centered.schema activation. small group teaching (clinical teaching or teaching ward rounds) I prefer problem based learning. building and refinement So I introduce my teaching by exploring or referring to the background knowledge needed for the session.g. principle or concept and then generalise their learning to other contexts or settings. I would summarize at the end to reinforce key concepts.be embedded in the use of that content. one to one teaching (for e. PBL approach contributes to the acquisition of generic skills and attitudes essential for future practice. but rather learning opportunities where solving problems is the focus or starting point for students learning. learning endoscopy). This would avoid the difficulties of putting the theory in practice (constructivist cognition). The students move from the problem towards the rule. It promotes active learning and thus improves understanding and retention and development of lifelong learning skills. seminars/tutorials. The basic principle is that the students are not passive learners but actively learn for themselves using the problem as a focus of their learning. What methods of teaching do you know? Which do you prefer and why? Lectures. What one technique has had the biggest impact on your teaching methods? Constructivist cognitive theory of education. Subsequent teaching would be organised and structured so that key concepts are presented in a hierarchic order. problem based learning (PBL). 95 . So it is not simply the opportunity to solve problems.
PBL encourages a deep approach to learning. a specific task and reflective learning. The students interact with the learning material. It thus promotes lifelong learning. ward based clinical teaching in groups. 96 . Small group learning has many advantages: It fosters active learning. Small group learning is not defined by the number of learners although admittedly meaningful interaction occurs more readily with fewer people. Small group work is more interactive and hence increases learner’s involvement and thus motivates them to learn and learn more effectively. You could also say that you prefer small group teaching for e. When generating learning issues. Small group work allows for deep learning approach because students understand and make personal sense of the material rather than just memorising and reproducing (superficial learning). It motivates students by freeing them from rote learning and use of clinical setting for the scenarios. relate concepts to everyday experience and evidence is related to conclusions. Group discussion activates prior knowledge helping identify any deficits and facilitating new understanding. PBL facilitates a constructivist approach to learning. Small group teaching is an important educational strategy. PBL is fun and rated enjoyable by both students and staff. Small group work allows students to self direct their own learning. Small group learning is defined by its three key characteristics: active participation. Small group discussion allows application and development of ideas by allowing students to explore different possibilities.g. students activate prior knowledge and build on existing conceptual knowledge frameworks.
You are given a group of six SHOs to teach in a week's time on a subject to be chosen by you. I would communicate with the nurses so that they are aware of the teaching plan and thus should minimise interference in clinical care or teaching. You could conduct in on the hospital wards around patient’s bedside. They would be given opportunity to refuse. seminars. psychomotor and affective objectives. I would first of all familiarise myself of the students need. I would consent them and brief them adequately so that they know what will be expected of them during the session. clinical teaching or ward based teaching. Development of these transferable skills is important in the management of all patients.g. How do you go about preparing for it? You decide on the method of teaching for e. Further I understand that clinical care of the patient is paramount. It promotes an adult style of learning by encouraging students to take charge of their own learning. There are various methods that can be used with small groups like tutorial. It provides real life experience of real patients and hence medical students enjoy it the most. problem solving abilities and communication skills. You can demonstrate your passion and commitment for teaching by answering this question appropriately. I suggest you use clinical teaching method. problem based learning. Clinical teaching allows the integration of cognitive. I would chose patients who are sufficiently well to be seen by the students. communication and interpersonal skills. Small group work fosters team working spirit. It provides good opportunity for the observation (and correction if needed) of clinical. their stage of the course and the requirements of this teaching session. clinical teaching etc. 97 .
I would recommend use of a log book or a portfolio to help with this process. I would also seek feedback from the students. I would involve all the students by encouraging the more reserved to participate and limiting the contribution of more vocal members. I would encourage students to reflect on their recent clinical interaction in the light of previous experiences. I would use the ward side room for debriefing after the session. When prior knowledge is lacking I would offer a conceptual scaffolding and context for learning. I would also use it to discuss the sensitive issues raised earlier in the discussion. I would use an interactive style of teaching. Finally I would reflect on the session myself as to how well I was able to link the experience to the students other clinical experiences. I would also provide constructive feedback and suggest useful further readings. I would brief the students on the learning outcomes of the session I would articulate a few selected teaching points per case and communicate these points through questions and discussions. I would use appropriate questions to draw upon the prior knowledge of the students. I would stimulate interest by being challenging and buttressing the relevance of the teaching to a variety of clinical situations I would thank the patients and the health care team for their contribution in the clinical session. What would you teach a group of junior SHOs in 30 minutes? Professionalism. good attitudes and reflective thinking 98 . I would try and link the facts of the case to the general principles of medicine. In my debriefing I would clarify any misconceptions or misunderstandings to reinforce student learning.
99 . In PBL the teacher serves as a facilitator rather than acting as a role model. and summarizing what has been learnt. demonstrate physical examination. self study. applying newly gained knowledge to the problem. Pros of PBL (discussed earlier) Cons PBL makes it very difficult for students to identify with a good teacher. particularly if they need to identify educational resources for themselves.You could also do a case based discussion. The basic outline of the PBL process is: encountering the problem first. Staff are denied the fun of sharing their processes of understanding with their students and of ‘getting a buzz’ out of teaching PBL require competencies many teachers do not possess PBL may be time consuming for students. This may deprive students of the benefits of learning from an inspirational teacher PBL does not motivate staff to share knowledge with the students. The use of study guides will minimize this potential drawback. What is Problem Based Learning (PBL)? What are its pros and cons? The term PBL is employed to convey different concepts. The principle idea behind PBL is that the starting point for learning is a problem that the learner wishes to solve. problem solving with clinical skills and identifying learning needs in an interactive process. Basically you could choose anything as long as you explain the importance of it How would you convince a junior colleague of the importance of teaching? Ask him about an inspiring teacher and then ask him how it influenced him.
Direct observation by the trainer and 100 . You will next need to think about how or what needs to be undertaken to successfully achieve the identified learning needs.document the insights gained from taking an honest look at myself.sort out what I have learned from these experiences Record. skills and attitudes and each of this need to be assessed to assess competence. How do you know what you don't know? How do you identify your training needs? What measures do you take to improve your training? By reflecting on my practice The medical professional is now expected to reflect upon their practice. I am also a self directed learner and keep myself up to date by regularly reading journals and attending conferences/meetings. This will help you identify the learning resources needed and a reasonable time scale. Concerns have also been raised about the cost of implementing a PBL programme. So I Review. These steps would lead to identification of learning needs. plan and undertake the learning and then evaluate the process. MSF. identify their learning needs. Tell me about a memorable case where you have learnt something new? Quote a case relevant to your specialty How do you assess surgical competence in a trainee? Competence is knowledge.look at my own life experiences Reflect. A combination of methods like Mini CEX. DOPS. and OSCE are used to assess surgical competence.
How do you think trainees should contribute to their own training? Trainees have responsibility to take charge of their own training. What you are saying that although you are competent and positively excited at taking the next step up to become a consultant.assessment of log book provide further evidence. They need to reflect on their practice. because registrars are directly supervising SHO and are thus in a position to identify and fulfill the learning needs of SHOs With the introduction of the European Working Time Directive and the reduction in the number of hours leading to CCT. Feedback from colleagues and allied health professional is also crucial Do registrars have a role in teaching SHOs? Absolutely. What do you get out of teaching others? 101 . you do appreciate and believe in lifelong learning Reflective learner. do you feel you will be fully trained by the end of your Registrar post? Yes Focused and competency based training Learning does not stop with the end of training. They need to liaise with their supervisors and plan their learning outcomes for each stage of their training. leading you to take steps to develop yourself further. identify the learning needs and use appropriate resources to fulfill them. This has helped you identify the gaps and lacunae in your training/knowledge/skills.
what lessons did you learn from it? These questions are all the same Discuss a case relevant to your specialty. How do you keep your skills up to date? I constantly update myself by attending meetings. It gives me no end of satisfaction when a trainee comes up and tells me that my teaching session helped him manage his pts better. ethics.I get a ‘buzz’ out of teaching by sharing my processes of understanding with the students. empathy. I also attended one clinic and one theatre session a week. management skills etc. What is the most interesting case you have managed? What is the worst case you have managed? When did you last call your consultant? What is the biggest mistake that you have made in a clinical setting? Tell me about a clinical situation where you’ve needed to seek advice. reading journals etc How did you keep your skills up to date during you research/career break? By attending local educational meetings as well deanery organized ones besides reading journals. Teaching also helps me consolidate my own knowledge. Tell me about the most recent paper you’ve read which will change your day to day clinical practice? 102 . Try and focus on a non clinical issue like communication skill. This is what you would need as a consultant.
Imp steps Took steps to ensure patient safety Involved your consultant immediately Explained everything to the patient as soon as possible Reflected on it and identified learning points If you could improve the specialty training scheme in one way. You could say that you would like learning outcomes to be set for each stage of training. What is the role of the deanery? The deaneries are responsible for the management and delivery of postgraduate medical education and for the continuing professional development of all doctors and dentists. What is important in answering the question is how you dealt with it. what would you do? Be honest and narrate your reasons for it. This includes ensuring that all training posts provide the necessary opportunities for doctors and dentists in training to realise their 103 . that when put together.Tell me about an interesting paper you’ve read in the past three months? Topical question relevant to your specialty What invasive procedures have you performed and what complications have you encountered? Most of us would have encountered complications. The portfolios purpose is to demonstrate learning and not to chronicle a series of experiences. demonstrates that learning has taken place. What do you understand by personal portfolio? Portfolio is a purposeful collection of work.
The deaneries are also responsible for trainers. However going through formal qualification requires a degree of study in the subject and usually results in learning a lot. (NB. their training needs and educational development. Experience alone can be an uncertain indicator of quality.You can emphasise the importance of experience and track record if you do not have formal qualification. Does formal qualification on medical law/education/management make you more effective as NHS consultant? If so how? There are two issues here: formal qualifications and experience. most presidents and prime ministers do not formal management qualifications and managing the country is probably one of the biggest jobs out there. in the end it’s the capability that matters. After all. experience. Similarly. Obviously. However. having a formal qualification does not guarantee competence. you can quite rightly mention you would not fly if the pilot of the plane does not have formal qualifications) 104 . if you do have formal qualification.full potential and provide high quality patient care. Clearly. track record and formal qualifications are the only real evidence that can be looked at to judge whether someone is effective and capable. educational supervisors and educational leaders.
Although the patient is not aware that such behavior was inappropriate in that context. Patient safety. However I have a duty of care to my colleague and the hospital too. I will review all the patients seen by him and complete the ward round. How do you respond? You observe your consultant making inappropriate sexual remarks to one of your patients. What do you do? These questions are the same dealing with significant concerns.I will talk to my colleague/consultant and send him home. I will also recall all the patients discharged by 105 . You also know that some drugs have disappeared from the cabinet. one of your colleagues examined her breasts.Ethical Issues and Difficult Work Scenarios How would you handle a problem doctor . There are no other witnesses and the consultant is not aware that you were there. you are.for example if you suspected that your consultant had a drink problem? What would you do if you found a colleague taking illicit drugs? How would you react if one of your junior colleagues turned up drunk on the ward first thing in the morning? What if it was your consultant? (NCAS advice below) A patient mentions to you that on two occasions they have smelt alcohol on your consultant's breath during clinic in the past few weeks. (if difficult enlist help of another consultant or clinical director). How do you react? You have suspicions that one of your peers has been stealing an important amount of hospital property (including stationary and needles). during an examination. What do you do? A patient mentions that. Dealing with a drunk colleague My first concern would be the safety of the patient. How do you react? You have heard rumours that one of your colleagues is taking drugs.
so that the concerns are investigated and patients protected where necessary. I will ensure that appropriate cover is arranged for him. Duty of care to colleague. performance or health. THINK ABOUT: The individual’s health and other factors 106 Does the individual have a physical or mental illness? Is the individual depressed or suffering other mental illness? Might alcohol or substance misuse be involved? . you must take appropriate steps without delay. You have a few options: You can report your concerns to your clinical or medical director You can discuss your concerns with National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS). contact the GMC. Acting on concerns about a colleague is never easy but all NHS staff has a professional duty to do so in order to protect patient safety and help the practitioner involved. to consider why this has happened.him. The safety of patients must come first at all times. You could suggest occupational health referral. Report your concerns to the GMC If you think the action taken has been insufficient. Background You must protect patients from risk of harm posed by another colleague's conduct. at any stage of the process. Insist that his behavior was not appropriate.I will arrange a taxi for him to go home and check on later to ensure he has reached home safely. If you have concerns that a colleague may not be fit to practice. Duty of care to the hospital. I will discuss with him (if consultant. if needed.will pass on the incident to clinical director) and try and help. Where concerns about performance have arisen it may be helpful.Keep accurate records and inform your consultant or clinical director.
skills and behavior The job What is meant by a significant concern? Significant concerns about a practitioner may relate to any of the following areas: poor clinical performance 107 . Has there been a recent major life event? Is there a difficulty with clinical knowledge and skills? Might a deficiency in education. supervision or continuing professional education be contributing to the problem? Was the practitioner’s induction appropriate or sufficient? Does the individual have difficulty understanding the limits of their competence? Is the problem predominantly one of the practitioner’s behaviour or attitude? Is this new behaviour or is it an exacerbation of longstanding problems? Have work factors changed? Is there a problem with technological advances or techniques? The work environment Are there team difficulties? Have there been major organisational changes? Could issues relating to equality and diversity be a problem? Could bullying or harassment be a problem? Are there any systems issues that contributed to the performance difficulty? Knowledge.
you should take all available steps to minimize the risk before providing treatment or making suitable alternative arrangements for treatment. If a patient poses a risk to your health or safety. All patients are entitled to care and treatment to meet their clinical needs. and this conflict might affect the treatment or advice you provide. You must not refuse to treat a patient because their medical condition may put you at risk. How would you react if one of your female junior colleagues refused to treat a patient who is a known rapist? GMC guidance-If carrying out a particular procedure or giving advice about it conflicts with your religious or moral beliefs. you must ensure that arrangements are made for another suitably qualified colleague to take over your role. You must be satisfied that the patient has sufficient information to enable them to exercise that right. ill-treating patients unacceptable behaviour such as harassing or unlawfully discriminating against staff or patients breaching sexual or other boundaries with patients or staff poor teamwork that compromises patient care personal health problems leading to poor practice not complying with professional codes of conduct poor management or administration that compromises patient care suspected fraud or criminal offence This list is not exhaustive and there may be other areas of concern that you should consider reporting. If it is not practical for a patient to arrange to see another doctor. How would you react if a patient refused to be treated by one of your junior doctors because he is foreign? 108 . you must explain this to the patient and tell them they have the right to see another doctor.
Continued behavior after a formal warning will lead to immediate exclusion from the trust premises by the security staff/police. his care should not be hampered and the responsible clinician should make adequate arrangements for transfer of his care. If the behaviour continues.You see a patient verbally abuse a nurse. If the patient persists he should be given a formal warning. Tell us about an ethical dilemma you have been involved in? Remember. warn the patient that the behavior is unacceptable. If it is willful. Such an exclusion from trust premises would not mean that he would not receive care. Such behavior is considered an assault on a member of staff under many trust policies. he may be removed from the trust premises by the hospital security. Most trusts have policy regarding dealing with violent/abusive/racist patients. However. the responsible clinician will give an informal warning about the possible consequences of any further repetition. Medical ethics rests upon four key principles: The principle of autonomy – individuals have a right to be self-governing 109 . which must be observed in the future. If the behavior is repetitive. What is your response? Firstly ensure that the patient’s behavior is not due to his/her underlying medical condition. Most trust policies would recommend Explain to the patient that their behaviour is unacceptable and explain the expected standards of behaviour. Most trusts have a zero tolerance policy towards abusive patients and care may be withdrawn for persistent offenders. as his clinician would make alternative arrangements for him to receive treatment.
an advance directive must be written by a person who has mental capacity. the legal characterisation of this ‘terminal regime’ as acting in the 110 . The principle of non-maleficence – the patient should not be harmed The principle of beneficence – the benefit of the patient should be promoted The principle of justice – equals should be considered equally Two representative examples of ethical dilemma: Mary is clinically depressed and takes a lethal overdose. The idea of this question is to discuss an ethical dilemma. We do not know if Mary had psychotic depression. The most important bit of the answer is how you dealt with it. The legal defence of 'necessity' would cover any treatment (including resuscitation) which was necessary to protect Mary's life. would you resuscitate her? Living wills (advance directives) are valid in English Law. Although the withdrawal of life support is factually the cause of death. The clinician should treat Mary until she is sufficiently competent to make her own decision about further treatment. you could have discussed with the psychiatrist to get further guidance. Mike is legally alive (spontaneous respirations and heart beat) but a decision to withdraw nutrients and antibiotics with the intention of ending his life would not necessarily be unlawful. So in the above question. However. She leaves written instructions asking not to be resuscitated. and which could not reasonably be delayed. Nor do we know if she understood the consequences of her refusal of future treatment. There is no legal duty to provide treatment that is no longer considered in the patient’s best interests. If you arrived at Mary’s side in time to do so. (so define the dilemma and then discuss how you resolved it) Another example Mike is in a persistent vegetative state.
Visit the interactive case studies at www. If you find it difficult discuss it with your supervisor or the clinical director. Even if an informal approach is taken.gmc-uk.org/guidance/case_studies/index. The GMC has launched a series of challenging online tutorials that tackle tricky ethical scenarios. How you do you tackle it? How would you approach the consultant? Your consultant mentions something to a patient that you believe to be wrong. Your consultant does something that goes against protocol. What do you do? For minor concerns (coming late) about performance an informal approach may be all that is needed.asp One of your peers arrives constantly late for work in the morning. aimed at improving their performance or conduct. 111 .best interests of the patient. Discuss with him that you found his decision interesting and would like to learn the thinking behind it. the outcome of the discussion and agreement reached should be communicated to the practitioner in writing and notes kept of all meetings held. If you are not satisfied and think that less than perfect care has been provided. Here. How do you react? Don’t assume that your consultant is wrong. Dealing with the matter informally provides the opportunity for both parties to agree the way forward without the use of formal disciplinary or other procedures. a discussion with the individual concerned. you are duty bound to raise your concerns with your consultant. may be sufficient to resolve the issue. means that the causative action has no legal consequences.
Your consultant does not provide adequate training and adopts a condescending attitude towards you because of your apparent lack of knowledge. How do you react? Your SHO mentions that another SHO is complaining about the fact that their consultant does not provide adequate teaching. How do you respond? There may be reasons for the consultant’s behavior for e.g. health or work related reasons. Discuss it with him and see whether you could arrive at an acceptable training solution. The problem may be with the trainee too. If there are still concerns discuss it with the college tutor or the clinical director. One of your colleagues seems to be suffering from stress. What do you do? Discuss it with your colleague if you can and suggest self referral to occupational health. If they are not willing to cooperate and if you suspect it is compromising patient care- then discuss further with your clinical director. What is your opinion about accepting gifts? All codes of practice for healthcare professionals have a similar rule. Note that accepting gifts is not prohibited, provided that the gift is not seen as an inducement. In practice this can be difficult to demonstrate, so it is probably unwise to accept any gift of significant value. ‘Significant’ is also a matter of judgement, of course, but it is unlikely that the code was intended to apply to the nurse who receives a box of chocolates from a grateful patient. What do you think about euthanasia? An ethical justification for euthanasia is that it permits the ultimate expression of the patient’s right of autonomy. However, in the UK at the current time ending a patient’s life may constitute murder.
However, it can be ethically acceptable to withdraw or withhold treatments even if the patient dies as a result (a practice sometimes known as passive euthanasia). When treatment may indirectly hasten death (e.g. pain relief) the intent of treatment must be to relieve distress, not to shorten life. The law forbids active euthanasia and assisted suicide for several reasons: Medical knowledge is limited and it is presumptuous for a doctor to determine the moment a person dies. This loses some force, however, if it is the patient who chooses the time to die The pressure for active euthanasia can often be met adequately by suitable and sympathetic terminal care There is a danger in making the intent to actively hasten death part of medical ethos
What do you think about choice in NHS? The NHS was set up principally as a public service, aiming to meet common needs rather than consumerist demand. There is no way logically for choice to be the dominating principle of healthcare provision unless there is an infinity of healthcare provision and one single consumer…you can choose a doctor you like but if the clinics are full choice is limited What do you think about presumed consent for organ donation? Although 90% of the UK population is in favour of organ donation, only 24% has signed the Organ Donation Register. Currently, when a person’s wishes are not known relatives are asked to decide about donation, in the most difficult circumstances, when they are recently bereaved. Not surprisingly, a large number of families—around 40%—opt for the default position, which is not to donate.
BMA have supported a system of presumed consent. The system of presumed consent may increase the organ availability but would still retain a role for relatives, opting out would be easy and accessible. One of the major concerns people have with a presumed consent system is that individuals will lose control over what will happen to their body after death, and the state will take over. This is not the case. Like the current system, under presumed consent people would retain the choice over whether or not to donate after death. Mechanisms must be in place to ensure all members of the public are informed of their choices and can register an objection quickly and easily—for example, through their general practitioner, post office, or electoral registration forms. As an added safeguard, the system would retain a role for relatives. After death, relatives would be informed that the deceased person had not opted out of donation and, unless they object—either because they know of an unregistered objection by the person or because it would cause major distress to the close relatives—the donation would proceed. The opt out proposal will not mean that those who do not wish to donate their organs will have to do so, or that families will not have a choice. What it will mean is that everyone will be prompted to think about that choice, to make a decision and discuss it with their loved ones, rather than avoiding the issue and thinking, as is all too easy to do…
Author’s opinion However, I believe presumed consent is not consent at all. The Human tissue act rightly puts consent at the heart of the act for the removal and use of human organs. To increase the organ supply we should mandate all adults to make a choice regarding organ donation. A mandated choice will help quickly resolve the issue.
How would you handle a non-performing junior/consultant colleague? A poorly performing doctor is someone whose competence, conduct or behaviour poses a potential risk to patient safety or to the effective running of a clinical team A "problem" junior is someone who does not meet expectations due to deficiency in one of three areas: knowledge, attitudes, or skills Knowledge- deficiencies in basic or clinical sciences. Attitude problems (usually manifested as behaviours) difficulties related to motivation, insight, doctor-patient relationships and self assessment; Skill deficiencies- include problems with interpersonal or technical skills, or clinical judgment and organisation of work.
Steps in resolving/handling a non performing colleague Diagnosis Assess the full details of the problem- how long and how bad. Identify the problem with the junior- is it knowledge, skills or attitudes. Discuss with the learner to find out whether he has insight into the problems and whether there are any external factors like life stresses (divorce, immigration etc), substance misuse, psychiatric illness etc which may be causing the problem. Assess whether there are any system problems like excess workload, inadequate teaching and training or lack of feedback.
Confirming the diagnosis This is done by careful collection of data by Direct observation of the problem doctor in a variety of situations Feedback from other colleagues
Feedback from other rotations in other specialty and hospitals
Intervention Once the problem is diagnosed, we need to determine how we will intervene, who should be involved, and when to evaluate outcome. The intervention will vary depending on the problem diagnosed. Common interventions include; Communicate clear expectations Provide enhanced teaching and learning opportunities Arrange for peer or mentor support Reduce the clinical workload, with more protected time Recommend counselling and/or therapy
Bottom line is that you must deal with the problem positively by involving more senior people. If they cover it up then involve even more senior people. Remember if you know about something and do nothing you are in just as much trouble if an inquiry takes place. One of your junior colleagues is placing patients at risk. How do you react? The patient’s safety is paramount. So notify immediately his supervising consultant. The other steps are as in the answer above to dealing with a non performing colleague.
Decisions on setting the budget should be based on reality and real trends rather than historic data. The process of managing the budget can be broken down into 4 stages. use of bank and agency staff will create potential overspending. A budget is essentially a financial plan for the short term. How will you go about this? Describe how you would manage the diverse demands on the service given the resources available to you? How would you manage the budget? All these questions are essentially about setting a budget and managing it. It is important to focus on the future position to control the budget.this depends on forecasting the number of patients. The calculation of out-turn (Amount of spend to date/number of months to date X12 equals projected out-turn) formula will provide the year end position for pay and non pay expenditure. 117 . thus careful monitoring is essential. the budget can be divided into monthly blocks.g. nursing resources needed. other costs of supplies and personnel etc. allocated to each department. Establish actual position.Management Questions from the chief executive You will be required to balance both outpatients and inpatients demands taking into account government targets.In general. Compare actual expenditure with budget totals. patient days. usually one year. The budget is divided between pay or fixed (staff related expenditure) and non-pay or variable expenditure (goods and services) to cover all the running costs of the department for the duration of the budget. Setting a budget. For e.this will indicate whether the budget is over or under spent and help you identify the spending pattern.
118 . Don’t forget to mention you will talk to all stakeholders so that they have ownership of the service. Most changes usually happen as a result of audits. The budget must be checked for every transaction and corrected where necessary. Discuss the need for the service.Variance could be due to mistakes.e. The reasons for variance must be sought. talking to colleagues. waiting targets or trust’ strategic direction. the benefits it will bring (try and marry it to NICE guidance. It could be due to an anticipated increase or decrease in workload and therefore be of no particular concern. Items may have been wrongly attributed to a budget or miscoded and end up in the wrong division of the budget.Variance is the difference between the budgeted amount for the month and the actual amount spent. 50 K). How will you spend 50 K on service improvement in the department? Your pre interview visit will give you a good insight as to the need for new services or any improvement needed in the services provided.g. Establish reasons for variance. variance may be completely unexpected and in such cases the reasons must be found Take action. Discuss also how the change was implemented and how it led to improved services. if possible) and the costs involved (i.e. These problems can be corrected with the help of the finance manager. bringing a difficult person on board. arriving at a consensus etc. Tell me about changes in practice that you have helped initiate in your posts so far? Discuss any changes you made in your training post. Discuss your experience of change management e. You may also discuss any hospital guidelines authored by you or changes to the rota initiated by yourself. regular audit to ensure the service is meeting expectations. However. Also need to mention clinical governance issues i.
whether that is staff. buildings or equipment. listening to pts and staff.review.Agree. recommendations.project analysis.project management.intervene.gain consensus.Demonstrate. plan next objectives Tell me how you would bring this new technique into the trust? You may be required to set up services not presently in existence how would you go about this? How will you make sure those patients playing a part in the set up of the service? The steps to setting up a new service/technique are: defining the need. expect and deal with resistance D. shape the future build teams.where are we now? Gathering information. priorities. funding. motivate and support staff. formulate I. You will need to demonstrate that the demand on your service exceeds its capacity. looking at audit. Activity data is a powerful tool and most trusts will have an Information Team who would be able to provide you with a range of activity information linked to you or your service 119 . costs and benefits of the service. identify lessons.Change management RAID is a 4 step process to manage change: R. show the differences. writing a business case and implementation Defining the need Why new services are needed? Will the service alleviate a significant risk to the trust? Will the service help the trust and/or PCT meet government targets? Does the service fit in with the trusts strategic direction? Demand and capacity theory is at the forefront of a lot of modernisation work. dealing with transition. documentation and process A.
This type of scheme will usually have a proforma which will tell you the information that will be considered in the bidding process . Be clear about both costs and benefits for your department. You will need to discuss the funding with potential sponsors. Implementation 120 . short and long term implications. Business case Write up a business case.can provide useful funding opportunities. PCT or SHA. Where would the funding come from? Trust Capital. Funding What type of funding might I access? There are two types of funding: revenue (this funding is added to your budget year on year. for example.it will also be explicit in what it requires to be delivered in return for the investment. Various incentive schemes . They are there to support you in delivering your clinical service.the need for the services (detail your research) and the cost and benefits of the services. Your service or general manager will help you write up the business case. the wider community and include immediate. particularly around waiting times and access.stating basically. the organization. staff salaries have a revenue implication) and capital (this funding is a one-off resource allocation and is usually linked to equipment or buildings). It is often the financial implications of proposals that carry the most weight and so make the financial case for the changes you are proposing as powerfully as possible. The service manager and/or a member of the financial team can help convert your ideas into the required business case.assess the resources required including staff.Costs and benefits of the services Costs. Sponsors could be your own trust or the PCT.
long waiting list and perhaps an NSF requirement Solution: introduction of a clinical nurse specialist to work alongside consultant teams in clinic and undertake a telephone follow-up clinic. In your business case you will need to: establish the case for need 121 . operational policy changes) estimate costs of the proposal .capital or revenue .The Clinical Nurse Specialist Problem: busy clinics.Medical Equipment Problem: equipment at the end of its asset life and/or opportunities for advances in equipment to support service provision Solution: replacement of equipment with a revised specification. In your business case you will need to: establish the case for need provide an analysis of current and predicted demand assess how the proposal will resolve future service demands (activity flow changes. I would ensure patients involvement in services by involving the public and patient forum as well as regular patient surveys.g.g.Implement the changes gradually with strict monitoring. perhaps an increase in diagnostics. Case Study 1 . salary. equipment. Audit the service to ensure that the objectives set in the business plan are achieved. accommodation etc. provide the associated support costs e. Services need to be responsive to the needs of the patients and public as they are end users of all services.e. Public and patient involvement is vital in the development and improvement of any services. Case Study 2 .
Every trust has a major incident policy. ambulance trusts or primary care organisations.total purchase or lease. provide options for purchase including changes in practice and operational requirements cost assessment . specific instructions and resources To ensure that incident responses are structured. consumable costs. What is a major incident plan? To describe how the Trust operates in the event of a major incident (internal or external) To assist staff. disruption to the service or causes (or is likely to cause) such numbers or types of casualties as to require special arrangements to be implemented by hospitals. How do you handle it? You are the consultant in casualty. coordinated and managed effectively from the outset To enable the Trust’s response to be co-ordinated with others 122 . A major incident occurs and you are the consultant on call. A police officer informs you on a weekend that there are 100 Casualty in a football ground? How will you deal with it? These two question deal with the same theme. I would promptly assess the situation and discuss the situation with the Clinical/Medical director or Chief executive and initiate the Major incident policy of the trust. by providing a framework for action. A major incident is any occurrence that presents serious threat to the health of the community. staff changes and maintenance requirements clinical risk assessment and quality advantages the implications of ‘do nothing’.
Mention any particularly busy on call and tell them how you marshaled your team to effectively manage the team.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/P ublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/Browsable/DH_5441600 Staff moral can sometimes be low-what do you intend to do to help this? Treating them as human beings Valuing their contribution Feedback Involving them in decision making Understanding their aspirations Providing effective leadership Give an example of where you’ve prioritised clinical need? As registrars on call we all prioritize clinical needs. Ref: To ensure appropriate communication channels To enable effectiveness of actions to be evaluated http://www. Requested the charge nurse to triage the patients Minor cases allocated to junior members Serious cases seen by SHO with my support Kept my consultant informed Regular feedback to the team members What is your take on litigation? 123 .dh.gov.
Ask the SHO to start isoprenaline drip and the registrar deal with the bleed with SB tube as needed or call in GI colleagues if available. The consultant should debrief the juniors. skills and attitudes will lead to a certificate of completion of training that confirms readiness for independent practice in that specialty at consultant level. but towards people management and governance.Well I am a good doctor.as it comes with the territory because of the complexity of the cases and interpersonal relationships. but also that he knows the problem does not end there. It would be better for the consultant to say that he would form a plan with his registrar and phone his consultant colleagues. and discuss it in the clinical governance meeting. He has to take reasonable steps to prevent the recurrence of the situation. So for example a plan may be that he seeks anaesthetic help to deal with the respiratory failure. You have been informed that an inpatient with varices is re-bleeding and there have been two admissions in the last few minutes with complete heart block and respiratory failure needing BiPAP? The registrar is panicking. What do you do? Clinical scenarios are common at interviews. 124 . It is vital that training and the level of a certificate of completion of training is maintained for public and patient confidence. discuss what happened with the clinical director. What is your opinion of a sub-consultant grade? Successful completion of higher specialist training as confirmed by assessments of knowledge. But I expect to be involved in litigation because it is likely to happen. The answer needs to show how the candidate would take charge there and then. however at consultant interview the focus is not on clinical medicine. You will need to go in and help out. You are the consultant on call.
As expansion slows with respect to our consultant workforce. A great deal of devolved decision making is already under way. and other departmental agencies have substantial discretion . So when we argue about whether a drug for Alzheimer's should or should not be prescribed on the NHS. NHS independence. who are accountable through contracts with local commissioners. Running of NHS involves much more than efficient management. Already ministers have no significant role in relation to foundation trusts. Creating a new grade will only create a new bottleneck. The final years of higher specialty training should be used to prepare for consultant practice and not to bring in a new grade. It is riddled with value judgements. So NHS is highly political. which is made up of a diverse range of providers.for example. or whether more money should be invested in health visitors in a deprived area. The centre no longer controls the supply side. The proposed new grade looks to the past with rose tinted glasses at the old senior registrar grade rather than forward to the future and how high quality healthcare can be provided by fully trained doctors. the current pyramidal structure may no longer be sustainable. They may currently be taken by officials or clinicians. those are political decisions. not a solution to poor workforce planning.efficient delivery of service and for the international reputation of UK medicine. but the framework under which they are taken is ultimately set by an accountable politician. is it good? An important question to ask is what an independent NHS body would actually do. 125 . the NICE assesses technologies and the Care Quality Commission sets standards and inspects. It involves balancing competing priorities and interests. The Appointments Commission has taken over the recruitment of non-executive directors.
which makes a strong case both for transparency and political accountability. but they will need to set and be answerable for strategic direction and for the much more transparent value based judgments that shape the system. most accept that government should determine in broad terms what it expects the healthcare system to achieve. Its main task would be to translate the government's broad objectives into goals for the commissioners. There are four main elements to the reforms: Incentives to reward activity and efficiency (PbR) Diverse providers with greater freedom to innovate 126 . What do you think about the impact of NHS reforms? Since 2000. everyone agrees that they must continue to determine the overall resources. There is less agreement as to who should decide allocations.So what responsibilities would ministers retain under an independent NHS? First. So. Second. Allocations are broadly based on value judgments. It could provide a national voice. We may be able to take politicians further away from day-to-day decisions. the government’s ‘system reform’ agenda for the NHS in England has aimed to create a self-improving NHS that is more responsive to patients. and set standards that would be expected in every area and monitor locally established ones. An independent board for NHS could have limited functions like. for the healthcare system and would be held to account for its overall performance. It could monitor the performance of strategic health authorities and commissioning bodies. NHS independence will have minimal impact. independent of government.
waiting lists etc? Advantages 127 . It is hoped that highquality commissioning will reduce health inequalities. equity and value for money. Providers The government is encouraging a greater diversity of organisations to supply health care services. Incentives Payment by results (PbR) reward activity and efficiency. They can keep a percentage of any surpluses they accrue. such as reducing costly avoidable admissions Regulation Underpinning all these elements of reform is the need for effective regulation to ensure the quality and safety of both individuals and institutions. Commissioning Under ‘practice-based commissioning’. Together with patient choice of provider. by creating NHS foundation trusts and introducing new providers. The individual reforms are discussed in details under NHS issues module. Increased patient choice and commissioning by practices and primary care trusts Regulation and system management to ensure quality. PbR ensures that money follows patients and is intended to reward hospitals for high levels of activity and quality. preventing ill health and managing chronic conditions more effectively. including those from the private sector and social enterprise organisations. cleanliness. What do you think of league tables – tables with hospitals and trusts. clinics and other health care facilities which have been assessed according to certain criteria. providing incentives for efficiency. PCTs give GP practices notional budgets with which to commission care for their patients.
Reduced moral in poorly performing especially best staff Disadvantages The governments plan outlined in “Care closer to home” is to move more patient care into the community. There is also criticism that fast track referral prioritises the worried well at the expense of the target population. It is thus a laudable concept provided that high levels of quality and service are maintained Do you think the 2 week rule referral system is effective? The idea behind the two week referral is good. How can we persuade the public that doctors can be trusted? Strong clinical governance framework 128 . a lot of 2 week referrals do not follow the DoH guidance. Inappropriate referrals have extended already lengthy outpatient waiting times in many specialties. So in summary we need better predictors of cancer and better pathways. Allow public and professionals to see how well or otherwise they have performed versus targets May help with choice in the future Rewards the good Recognises poorly performing places Patient preference may lead to closure of poorly performing services. Do you think this is a good thing? Care closer to home provides more convenient and accessible services. These guidelines may increase diagnostic precision if adhered to rigidly. Further the studies have shown that the cancer pick up rates is no higher in the 2 week pathway. Reduction in NHS waiting times and implementation of 18 week pathway are steps in the right direction. However.
Patient and public involvement in designing clinical services. Promoting an open culture in healthcare. So tasks traditionally undertaken by doctors will need to be done by other allied health professionals. Identify their service needs and relate it to your special skill or experience. if you are successful in being appointed? How you can contribute to service (more than another candidate)? Your pre interview visit will come in handy here. I fully support this provided that: Tasks are only be undertaken by individuals who are competent to perform them Such individuals are permitted to make decisions within the scope of their professional practice but otherwise need to operate under clear protocols and accountability. How would you develop the current clinical service? What do you hope to achieve in the first year.to ensure mistakes and near misses are reported and discussed. Structured and streamlined training of doctors Appraisals and revalidation to ensure the public could be confident that poorly performing doctors were being identified and early action taken in order to protect patients. Impeccable integrity and good role models Increased involvement of public in the regulatory bodies like GMC Is the expanding role of nurses a benefit or a danger to the medical profession? What is your view of nurse specialists? A greater use of skill mix is needed with the implementation of EWTD. 129 .
What could you do to improve the organisation and running of your current workplace environment? Again at your pre interview visit.g. Potential resentment between groups and between hospitals. you may have identified a few things that need improvement. E.g. Disadvantages What do you think about NHS association with industry – links between NHS and industry? Advantages Increase quality of care for patients Mirror the use of some techniques in industry to motivate staff Increased new research Size of company – their influence may be “pervasive” Disadvantages 130 . consultants/managers get inducements for ops. ODA’s and theatre support staff. throughput of patients/reduction in waiting lists/improvement in quality of patient care etc. What is your opinion of performance related pay? Performance related pay means extra financial inducement for personnel who achieve certain targets e. Advantages Inducements that can allow targets to be met Popular with workers Not evenly spread. Discuss them without criticising. but not nurses.
Efficient use of resources and good quality services go hand-in-hand. Improving the quality of care and providing more responsive services for patients can only be achieved by strong involvement of local clinicians in the management of the service. Without clinical involvement. it is clinicians who are responsible for the way in which services are delivered to individual patients and it is they who commit the necessary resources. This is not about focusing on cost and cost alone. Ultimately. Failure to do so results in less care and of a lower quality. This includes having the understanding. Potential conflicts of interest when clinicians are funded for study leave research grants Other financial payments Potential to influence PCTs What do you think about management issues? Do you think it’s something you should be getting involved in as a clinician? Clinicians serve the public and the patients by using their skills to provide the best possible advice. It is about how money can best be used to improve the quality of care. the progress will be much slower and the outcomes poorer. the tools and the ability to manage resources effectively and use them well to the benefit of patients. treatment and care. This will empower them to lead change and improve services. Money will only be used well if clinicians are fully engaged in managing it. But we can only do this if the money available to the NHS is used well. 131 . combining operational and clinical effectiveness.
Clinical effectiveness has been promoted through the development of guidelines and protocols for particular diseases. Clinical audit. Ultimately. the refining of clinical practice as a result and the measurement against agreed standards. and a constant dynamic of improvement. This definition is intended to embody three key attributes: recognizably high standards of care. In NHS trusts.by use of evidence based medicine. 132 . it is not concerned with the other business processes of the organization except in so far as they affect the delivery of care. medical director etc. Clinical effectiveness. each healthcare professional has a role to play in its implementation. There are 7 pillars of clinical governance: Education and training.it covers the support available to enable staff to be competent and up to date.a cyclical process of improving the quality of clinical care. transparent responsibility and accountability for those standards. Clinical Governance relates to only those aspects of such organizations that relate to the delivery of care to patients and their carers. the continuing professional development of clinicians has been the responsibility of the trust. The chief executive is responsible for its implementation. It has also been the professional duty of clinicians to remain up-to-date. Professional development need to continue through lifelong learning. It is fundamentally about the ability to produce effective change so that high-quality care is achieved.Clinical Governance What do you know about Clinical Governance (CG)? Clinical Governance is the framework that helps organisations provides safe and high quality care. He delegates most of the tasks to other colleagues like director of nursing.is the review of clinical performance.
nurses and allied health professionals? Definitely not! Clinical governance is for everyone. It relates to all people who are involved in the treatment and care of patients.This means listening to what the public thinks of the services provided. and learning from their experiences. good food and excellent communication through to the skills required to produce firstclass results in complex operations. Risk management. deals with problem doctors openly. Clinical governance is the appropriate governance (or control) of clinical (patient health) care. NSF and NICE are supporting this further.it involves having robust systems in place to understand. The time lag for introducing such change can be very long. This means that it ranges from issues of cleanliness. Processes which are open to public scrutiny are an essential part of quality assurance. encourages doctors to admit their own mistakes as part of a blame free culture etc. staff and the organisation and to learn from mistakes and past experience. Techniques such as development of guidelines. As part of openness. comfortable environments.Good professional practice has always sought to change in the light of evidence from research. Open proceedings and discussion about clinical governance issues should be a feature of the framework.The development of NSFs and NICE are further attempts to improve the responsiveness of the service to evidence of effectiveness. Isn't clinical governance only for doctors. 133 .Poor performance and poor practice can too often thrive behind closed doors. Research and development. protocols and implementation strategies are all tools for promoting implementation of research evidence. and therefore encompasses everything that has any impact on the quality and patient experience of that care. the NHS publicises complaints procedures to patients. Patient and public involvement. Openness . monitor and minimise the risks to patients.
but they have a responsibility for making certain that all aspects of their work take account of the quality and safety of care to patients.g. such as office based managers and secretaries also contribute to high standards of care. in promoting a blame free culture.Quote any implementation of change you have noticed for e. there is still room for further improvements for e. as well as helping to control infection.g. Other NHS staff. How does Clinical Governance affect patient safety? Discuss the seven pillars above Do you think the current system of clinical governance is effective? Although the current system has made effective improvements. whatever their role. What does Clinical Governance mean to you? Clinical Governance to me means providing the best care possible to the patient sitting in front of me. How does Clinical Governance impact on your daily work? 134 . So all NHS staff. are responsible for making sure that their own contribution to the massive jigsaw that makes up health care provision is delivered to the highest possible standard for patients – and that’s what clinical governance is all about.Similarly the domestic worker on a hospital ward has a key role to play in ensuring a clean and pleasant environment for patients. Apply seven pillars of clinical governance to your particular situation. after an audit. They may never see a patient during their working day. Have you seen Clinical Governance in action? Yes.
is responsible for Clinical Most trusts have a clinical governance committee headed by usually the Chief executive or the Medical director. 135 .Clinical Governance: Provide a better experience for staff Provide a better experience for patients and carers Improve the quality of care for patients Make the changes you want to make happen Does Clinical Governance work? Clinical Governance works as long as it is: an active pursuit driven by. quality recognises the complex nature of health care systems is not strangled by paper and procedure Do you think Clinical Governance is useful or is it just another layer of bureaucracy? It is essential for improvements in patient care Clinical Governance brings together all the activity that contributes to the clinical service provided to patients. It builds on the basic concept of duty of care to provide high quality healthcare protecting patients and staff. and focused on. Who. What is Clinical Risk Management? Clinical risk management means identifying the risks to patients and what needs to change to improve safety. in your Governance? Hospital. Clinical care pathways or protocols have been widely developed in some disciplines and may minimise the chances of adverse incidents occurring.
the operating instructions are poor. e. In the syringe pump example. illness. What happens to Critical Incidents Forms once they have been submitted? It is essential to recognise that clinical incident reporting is not part of a disciplinary mechanism. What factors do you think may have resulted in this error? Having reviewed the incident it is vital to learn from what happened and implement preventative measures or a safety net. clinical risks can be reduced or managed. and is an event that led to harm. it may become obvious that it is not the most suitable apparatus: the pump design makes it complicated to use. . Avoid the trap of minimising the problem: we can often learn from near-misses (where less distress occurs) better than instances where patient care is affected.g. An outcome may be to notify all potential users of the hazard and to recommend a change in the type of pump used.What is a Near-Miss situation? A near miss is an unplanned event that did not result in injury. A robust clinical incident reporting procedure in line with education and training acts as a foundation to the directorates’ clinical governance framework.A nurse programmes a computerised syringe pump incorrectly and it gives a patient too much drug too quickly. or damage . A clinical incident is defined as anything associated with the patient and his or her clinical treatment or care. but is part of a reflective system that supports an improvement in the quality of service that the directorate provides. or could have led to harm if it had been allowed 136 .but had the potential to do so. and extensive training is required to achieve the required competency for use. By reporting and subsequently assessing any clinical incidents. and the overall quality of patient care improved. A critical incident is defined as one which led or could have led to harm if it was allowed to progress. It should be preventable by a change of practice.
identify lessons.project analysis.review. expect and deal with resistance D. dealing with transition. It should be preventable by a change of practice. priorities. GMC good medical practice (2006) guidelines Make the care of your patient your first concern Protect and promote the health of patients and the public Provide a good standard of practice and care o Keep your professional knowledge and skills up to date 137 . It does not relate to any incidents involving staff.uk/en/Publichealth/Patientsafety/Clinicalgove rnance/DH_114 How would you introduce change? RAID is a 4 step process to introduce any change: R. looking at audit.to progress.gov.Demonstrate. and shape the future teams. plan next objectives What are the GMC good medical practice guidelines? What do you think the most important aspects of the GMC’s ‘Good medical practice’ guidelines are? Good Medical Practice sets out the principles and values on which good practice is founded.dh. relatives or visitors to the Trust. formulate I-intervene. builds recommendations. show the differences. listening to pts and staff. these principles together describe medical professionalism in action.where are we now? Gathering information.project management. documentation and process A-agree-gain consensus. motivate and support staff. Further reading http://www.
whereas with a guideline the recommendations need to be considered in the light of the particular patient and settings as well as the strength of the evidence base. You are personally accountable for your professional practice and must always be prepared to justify your decisions and actions. Respect patients' right to confidentiality) Work in partnership with patients o Listen to patients and respond to their concerns and preferences o Give patients the information they want or need in a way they can understand o Respect patients' right to reach decisions with you about their treatment & care o Support patients in caring for themselves to improve and maintain their health Be honest and open and act with integrity o Act without delay if you have good reason to believe that you or a colleague may be putting patients at risk o Never discriminate unfairly against patients or colleagues o Never abuse your patients' trust in you or the public's trust in the profession. What is the difference between a protocol and a guideline? A protocol is a step-by-step outline for undertaking a specific task. They normally have to be followed exactly. 138 .o Recognise and work within the limits of your competence o Work with colleagues in the ways that best serve patients' interests Treat patients as individuals and respect their dignity (Treat patients politely and considerately.
and the seriousness of any potential side effects.Good doctors make the care of their patients their first concern: they are competent. I explain to them their condition and treatment options in a way they can understand. Who is a good doctor? GMC. More recently the courts have said they will depart from this approach if they see fit. (GMC guidance) What do you consider to be sufficient level of information for the patient? In practice the law has tended to regard the level of information required to be that acceptable to ‘a responsible body of medical opinion’ (the Bolam test). complications or other risks.A guideline is 'a systematically developed statement to assist decisions about appropriate healthcare for specific circumstances. and act with integrity. keep their knowledge and skills up to date. the complexity of the proposed investigation or treatment. The details of information I share with them depend on their wishes. The information I share is in proportion to the nature of their condition. I consider consent as an important part of the process of discussion and decision making. of course. The difficulty for the clinician. establish and maintain good relationships with patients and colleagues. rather than an isolated process.' Clinical guidelines are based on the best available evidence and provide recommendations for practice about specific clinical interventions for specific patient populations. are honest and trustworthy. lies in 139 . I respect their right to make decisions about their care. How do you seek informed consent for the procedures that you do? I work in close partnership with my patients. The ultimate legal test being what the court itself thinks is a reasonable amount of information.
It may be unlawful to proceed with treatment of a child considered not to be Fraser ruling competent in the face of parenteral refusal. such as circumcision. Parenteral consent will be needed. The health professional should also consider the best interests of the child. The same holds true for contraceptive advice. if the health professional feel that they are capable of understanding the nature and possible consequences of the medical/surgical procedure (Fraser ruling).foreseeing what the court would regard as a reasonable amount of information in any given case. However. then the parents must be involved in the consent process. there is no legal requirement to obtain consent from a parent/guardian. In such cases. What is the legal position for consenting children less than 16 years of age? A child under 16 may consent. consent should be sought from both parents. Where a child is too young or is not considered to be Fraser ruling competent. Remember the recent MMR controversy. There is no lower age limit below which a health professional cannot give medical/surgical treatment. What is the legal age for consent? The legal age of consent for medical or surgical treatment is 16 years or over. the value of parenteral support should be discussed. What is the legal position to child or parenteral refusal to treatment? A Fraser competent child cannot refuse a treatment thought to be in his best interests in England and Wales. One parent is usually sufficient. However for sensitive issues where opinions may vary. 140 .
More importantly. I also encourage reflective practice. they can be disciplined. provide regular feedback and ensure participation of all team members in decision making. airline staff is rewarded for reporting mistakes and failures.Regular audits to review and improve clinical performance. Patient and public involvement.by supporting research as well as ensuring that the research is implemented in patient care with a minimal time lag. So I would ensure quality in my unit by: Education and Training – Supporting continuing professional development of all staff to ensure that they are competent and up to date. Research and development .promoting a blame free culture to ensure mistakes are reported/discussed and lessons learnt. if not sacked.to ensure services are responsive to the needs and aspirations of the patient and the public. monitor and minimise the risks to patients. Openness . That says something about the culture and the pride which airline workers have in their safety record. for not reporting. staff and the organisation and to learn from mistakes and past experience. Risk management – by ensuring robust systems are in place to understand. Clinical audit.How would you ensure quality in your unit? How would you ensure that your team is up to scratch? Use the seven pillars of clinical governance to answer the question. 141 . Clinical effectiveness – by use of evidence based medicine. How do you think a blame-free culture can be brought about in the NHS? In aviation.
It is a dynamic living document. But we feel that many of those barriers are psychological. Part of that process is helping NHS staff realise they don’t need to feel threatened or feel guilty about reporting after they’ve done so. which is populated through the organisation’s risk assessment and evaluation process. Example risk register N o Source Date in regist er 2/10 /200 9 Description Lead officer Rating Action summar y Increase theatre capacity Com pletio n rate Ong oing 1 Trust board Failure to meet waiting list targets Chief executi ve Extre me Jan 2008 2 All wards 11/0 6/20 10 Obsolete bed stock Direct or of nursin g High Capital bid for replacem ent 5 year progr amm e 142 . We’ve got to look after the staff and recognise the traumas that many staff experience from being involved in adverse events. the fear of what someone else could do to you.What will it take to instill that sense of pride about safety in NHS staff? We recognise that there may be many barriers to creating a ‘blame free’ culture. What is the trust risk register? A trust risk register is a management tool that enables an organisation to understand its comprehensive risk profile. It is simply a log of risks of all kinds that threaten an organisation’s success in achieving its declared aims and objectives.
Discuss with surgeon and call for help Inform theatre sister and consultant in charge Careful documentation – critical incident – afterwards debrief A nurse gives a substantially large dose of opioid to a patient? What do you do? Number 1 priority. involve your seniors. thorough documentation of the incident.retraining.Give me an example of an adverse clinical incident you were directly involved in and how you handled this? Quote a clinical incident which you were involved in or are aware of: Steps in dealing with an adverse clinical incident. Fill in an Incident report form. training deficits etc. extra supervision 143 . Discuss the likely reasonsmistake. What do you do? Number 1 priority – patient safety.Ensure the safety of the patient first.check patient safety Careful documentation of the incident in the notes. debrief or actions taken to prevent its recurrence in future. The general principles of dealing with an adverse clinical incident: What went wrong and why? What are the systems failures? What is the individual contribution in that failure? What lessons can be learnt? You think a surgical emergency in the theatres has been mismanaged. Explain the incident to the patient Inform the charge nurse. Possible action .
g. 144 . I will ensure delivery of national standards by Regular audits to review and improve my practice Evidence based medicine by appropriately using NICE and other national guidelines Ensuring optimum resource allocation to ensure delivery of national standards Regular liaison with departmental heads and PCT Having procedures in place to remedy situations where practice is not in line with national standards Ensuring the team is aware of the goals and their roles in achieving it What monitoring of standards would you undertake in your service? Audit compliance with clinical national standards for e. compliance with NICE guidance or guidance from relevant medical society Compliance with NSF Robust clinical governance mechanisms are in place Robust Risk management strategy Patient and public involvement in clinical services.How would you ensure local delivery of national standards? On an individual or team level.
o PII items should not be included unless it is essential for the specified purpose(s) of that flow. and they should only have access to the information items that they need to see. Access to patient identifiable information should be on a strict need to know basis. with continuing uses regularly reviewed. 145 . Use the minimum necessary patient . o Only those individuals who need access to PII should have access to it. The report highlighted six key principles. Everyone with access to patient identifiable information should be aware of their responsibilities. the inclusion of each individual item of information should be considered and justified so that the minimum amount of identifiable information is transferred or accessible as is necessary for a given function to be carried out. by an appropriate guardian. Caldicott Report: key principles Justify the purpose (s) o Every proposed use or transfer of patient identifiable information (PII) within or from an organisation should be clearly defined and scrutinized.Caldicott Principles Caldicott report (1997) was a consequence of increasing concern about the ways in which patient information is being used in the NHS and the need to ensure that confidentiality is not undermined.identifiable information. and made 16 specific recommendations. o Where use of PII is considered to be essential. Don't use patient identifiable information unless it is absolutely necessary.
uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/P ublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4068403 146 .clinical staff .are made fully aware of their responsibilities and obligations to respect patient confidentiality.o Action should be taken to ensure that those handling patient identifiable information . Ref http://www. The Guardian plays a key role in ensuring that the NHS satisfies the highest practicable standards for handling patient identifiable information. Understand and comply with the law. Someone in each organisation handling patient information should be responsible for ensuring that the organisation complies with legal requirements.dh.both clinical and non. o Every use of patient identifiable information must be lawful.gov. A Caldicott Guardian is a senior person responsible for protecting the confidentiality of patient and service-user information and enabling appropriate information-sharing.
pathways of care or themes where there are particular concerns about quality Reporting the outcomes of their work so that people who use services have information about the quality of their local health and adult social care services. The main activities of CQC are: Registration of health and social care providers to ensure they are meeting essential common quality standards Monitoring and inspection of all health and adult social care services Using their enforcement powers. private companies or voluntary organisations. if standards are not being met Improving health and social care services by undertaking regular reviews of how well those who arrange and provide services locally are performing and special reviews on particular care services. What is annual health check? Annual health check is a new way of assessing healthcare organisations in England. such as fines and public warnings or closures. local authorities. The annual health check aims to 147 . The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the new health and social care regulator for England CQC is the independent regulator of health (NHS and private) and adult social care services in England. It helps those who arrange and provide services to see where improvement is needed and learn from each other about what works best. whether they're provided by the NHS.Care Quality Commission What is the role of Care Quality Commission? The Healthcare Commission ceased to exist on 31 March 2009. They also protect the rights of people detained under the Mental Health Act.
and result in one of four rankings: fully met. almost met. good.uk 148 . promote and protect the health of local people? In each of these areas. They will face unannounced spot checks. two things are assessed. They are: Safety – is it safe for patients? Clinical and cost effectiveness – is it providing treatment in line with national guidelines and in the most effective way? Governance – is it well run? Patient focused – does it organise its services around the needs and preferences of patients? Accessible and responsive care – is it easy to get the care you need without unreasonable delays? Care environment and amenities – is the place where you are treated well designed and maintained? Public health – does it improve. The first is to make sure that healthcare organisations are meeting basic expected levels of performance. fair and weak. The second is to assess whether organisations are improving. CQC check the standards of care being provided by healthcare organisations across seven categories. Ref: http://www. partly met and not met.cqc.measure the things that matter to patients.org. Overall performance scores are on a four point scale: excellent. How are annual health checks done? Hospitals will need to make an annual "self-declaration" to state how well they are meeting core national standards and the new set of targets introduced by the government last year. Each component will be assessed against core NHS standards.
Choose and book (CAB) Choose and Book is a national service that combines electronic booking and a choice of place. removing the current need to contact the GP practice to follow up referrals Potentially shorter waiting times for appointments. date and time for first outpatient appointments. Reduction in the number of patient Did Not Attends (DNA) who don't turn up for appointments because For doctors and hospitals 149 . Patients experience more certainty when they receive their appointment quickly. What are the benefits of Choose and Book? For patients Choice of time and place.This will enable them to fit their treatment in with their life. Fewer inappropriate referrals and better quality referral information as clinics are carefully defined and GPs can seek advice prior to referral if in any doubt as to which clinic to refer to. Patients are given the choice between 4 or 5 hospitals or clinics to provide the required services. reducing anxiety Patients have the ability to manage the appointments themselves including out of hours and online. because of the availability of choice from a number of providers Referral letter cannot be misplaced and arrives in good time. The patients can book their appointment on the spot in the surgery or later on the phone or via the internet at a time that is more convenient to them.
So running the new and old systems in parallel is costly and administratively difficult.chooseandbook. There are concerns that CAB may lead to closure of some clinics/facilities. Vulnerable patients may find CAB difficult to operate. leaving patients to opt for their second or third choice.uk 150 .patient's agree the place. if they are not chosen enough by the patients CAB is not compulsory. More than 50% of first outpatient referral is being made using Choose and book Ref: www. this is less o a concern as it has now become the standard method of first outpatient referral and is used within every primary care trust and provider organisation across the NHS in England It may not provide real choice as appointments in more popular clinics will be booked as soon as they are made available. A genuine choice will not therefore be offered to patients until there is sufficient capacity in the NHS. 30. date and time of their appointment Better audit trail as information is electronically and systematically stored.nhs. However. Disadvantages Currently. Research has shown that the quality of care provided is more important to patients than a shorter waiting list. Reduction in the administrative burden of chasing hospital appointments on behalf of patients There are concerns that CAB provides convenience at the cost of clinical need. Hospital clinics will be shaped by patient availability rather than patient’s clinical need.000 referrals are being every day using Choose and book (March 2010).
Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence The Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence (CHRE) is an independent statutory body covering all of the United Kingdom. The reviews highlight good practice and identify issues that might benefit from a coordinated approach. Advising health ministers 151 . It was established by parliament in 2003 to ensure consistency and good practice in healthcare regulation. CHRE’s mission is to protect the public by: helping regulatory bodies become better regulators setting and driving up standards for professional regulation fostering greater harmonisation of regulatory practice and outcomes anticipating and influencing the future. If CHRE considers that a decision fails to protect the public interest. It does this by carrying out the following functions: Checking how the regulators carry out their functions Each year CHRE carries out a performance review which looks at how each regulator carries out its functions and their general performance against agreed standards. It does this for all cases except those where the health of the professional is under review. Referring cases to court CHRE looks at final stage decisions made by the regulators on professionals’ fitness to practise (FTP). if needed. it has the power to investigate that decision and can refer it to the High Court. It is answerable to the parliament. Promoting good practice CHRE works with the regulators to improve quality and share good practice.
Wales and Northern Ireland about anything connected with a healthcare profession. Why is CHRE necessary? It was created to help regulatory bodies become better regulators and to reassure the public that healthcare regulation is operating properly.CHRE can give advice to the Secretary of State and to the health ministers of Scotland. It was given strong powers to ensure consistency and good practice in the public interest.org. A number of high-profile cases of poor practice and misconduct by healthcare professionals damaged public confidence in healthcare. CHRE was set up by parliament in 2003 to oversee and co-ordinate the work of the regulators.uk 152 .chre. Ref: www.
and their views on the complaint will be taken into consideration.Complaints procedure Patient can contact Patient Advice Liaison Service i. The CQC can look at complaints from patients about their health care in foundation trusts. Investigation and panel reports on issues involving foundation trusts will also be copied to the regulator’s office. Patient and Public Involvement forums can raise issues of concern directly with the Trust. 153 . They have a statutory role to support patients and carers who wish to make a complaint about their NHS treatment or care. The patient can also raise the issue with the Trust’s Patient and Public Involvement Forum. ultimately.e. and are still unhappy. If resolution is still not possible. you can take your complaint to the NHS Ombudsman. All complaints about foundation trusts will be copied to MONITOR (the Independent Regulator of NHS Foundation Trusts). they can ask the Care Quality Commission (CQC) to investigate the complaint. PALS for help and advice or any complaints (PALS is part of NPSA). Every hospital has PALS Independent help and advice is also available from local Independent Complaints Advocacy Service. and are also involved in the annual inspection carried out by the CQC. If the patient has been through the formal complaints process and received a final decision from the NHS Trust.
as well as independent sector providers and Foundation Trusts on national standard contracts. Each CQUIN goal must be measurable. What are local CQUIN schemes? A CQUIN scheme is the agreed package of goals and indicators. effectiveness and patient experience – and innovation. In 2010/11. This means it will cover acute. with active clinical engagement. Does the CQUIN framework apply to independent sector providers? The CQUIN payment framework applies to all services covered by national standard contracts in 2010/11. enables the Provider to earn its full CQUIN payment (1. which in total.Commissioning for Quality and Innovation What is the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) payment framework? The CQUIN payment framework makes a proportion of provider income conditional on the achievement of ambitious quality improvement goals and innovations agreed between Commissioner and Provider. 154 . The goals should cover the three domains of quality – safety. ambulance and specialised services. The CQUIN framework is intended to encourage a culture of continuous quality improvement and innovation in all providers. community. using a defined indicator. What is a CQUIN goal? A CQUIN goal is a description of the intended objective which is being incentivised by the CQUIN scheme. when achieved. The framework was launched in April 2009. mental health. CQUIN schemes for acute providers must include two specified national goals on venous thromboembolism (VTE) and improving responsiveness to personal needs of patients.5% of contract value in 2010/11).
The CQUIN framework is only one driver for quality and quality should be at the heart of all commissioning decisions and strategic plans.uk/world_class_commissioning/pct_port al/cquin.html 155 . Ref: http://www.How does the CQUIN framework relate to pre-existing quality schemes and quality improvement plans? The CQUIN payment framework is not intended to replace preexisting local quality initiatives.institute.nhs.
It regulate working hours “in such a way that minimises the current dangers to the safety and health of workers who are obliged to work excessively long periods without adequate breaks and anti-social hours” (so improves work life balance) It should stop excessive hours and the culture of working long hours. A trainee doctor is considered to be working if he or she is required to be in the hospital. whether awake or asleep. It is important because. 156 . still need to undertake service work. and is also about people’s health The three key rules imposed by the EWTD which have the greatest impact are: A trainee doctor may not work continuously for more than 13h without a minimum period of 11 hours off between duty periods. but this will increasingly be driven by the needs of their learning objectives rather than service goals. the ratio of trained medical staff to trainees is approximately four to one in contrast to the present ratio of less than one to one. In a mature health service that is fully-staffed.European Working Time Directive (EWTD) What do you know about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD)? What are its effects on the medical profession in the UK? The EWTD is a directive of the European Union to protect the health and safety of workers in the EU. A trainee doctor may not work more than 48h per week averaged over a 26-week reference period. Problems with EWTD Current dependence on doctors in training to deliver serviceTrainees will of course. An inevitable consequence is that the proportion of routine service work delivered by doctors in training will have to fall if training targets are to be maintained.
would simply involve two hospitals in a split site trust. collecting together patients with low out-of-hours dependency so that for them. that emergencies were dealt with on both sites until an agreed time in the evening.hospital at night. . as opposed to reconfiguration. Such individuals are permitted to make decisions within the scope of their professional practice but otherwise need to operate under clear protocols and accountability Cross-cover More flexible cross-cover arrangements out-of-hours is one method of increasing the hours available from a limited number of medical staff. In many cases rationalisation. but then only one site would receive ambulances until 0800 the following morning. Reducing tiers of cover Where properly designed non-medical practitioner roles have been implemented they have been shown to reduce the 157 . Already specialist nurses are carrying out tasks traditionally undertaken by doctors and we would support this provided that: Tasks are only be undertaken by individuals who are competent to perform them. This may require hospitals within a locality to work collaboratively. out-of-hours medical cover is provided from home. as in private hospitals. Such a system has the potential to maintain training objectives whilst not catastrophically reducing service delivery for e.Possible solutions to the consequences of the EWTD The greater use of skill-mix Each specialty need to make a fundamental assessment of what exactly is required when and how this can be best delivered. Service Configuration and rationalisation Those hospitals with small numbers of trainee staff will be unable to provide 24 hour medical cover on site. The roles traditionally carried out by doctors may need to be done by other healthcare professional. for instance.g. A solution might be. of services.
00 .00pm Monday to Friday and 9. Please read the Temple report in NHS reports section for further details. In order to reduce the need for medical staff to be active out-ofhours.5.requirement for a full tier of cover at PRHO or SHO levels. 158 . Doctors in training may still need to provide out-of-hours cover at this level to meet their training needs but could do so alongside other practitioners. Changing the working patterns of senior service staff NCEPOD reports have repeatedly stressed the need to do as much work as possible during normal working hours. and. emergency work should be separated from elective care. What do you think about the European working time directive and consultants who do not stick to it? Don’t stick extra work. A report ‘Time for Training’ was published in June 2010 to assess the impact of EWTD on training. It should be noted that rapidly available diagnostic radiology has become central to patient management. This implies that such staff should have specific. if at all possible.00pm at the weekend and on Bank holidays. Support services are often forgotten in acute service planning. If radiology services are to support the out of hours medical treatment properly there will be a need for a consultant led service until 10. discuss it with the clinical lead. All diagnostic services should have sufficient spaces available for immediate booking of patients for specific tests on the day after the night of admission. daytime on-call sessions together with an expansion of the ‘twilight’ or evening session concept. dedicated. Every effort should be made to bring forward work from the evening into the day and from the night into the evening. there need to be staffing patterns that allow the management of cases as they arrive by senior grade service staff. all consultants and their teams should be freed of elective duties when they are on call.
Medical indemnity may not offer cover for work done outside main contracted EWDT. Courts may well start to delve into exceeding maximum times greater than EWTD. Beware: courts and medical indemnity insurers may take a dim view. If so. Ref: http://www. Private practice and mistakes. individual doctors would be very exposed. Private work.gov.uk/en/Managingyourorganisation/Humanreso urcesandtraining/Modernisingworkforceplanninghome/European workingtimedirective/DH_415 159 .dh. Courts may decide it to be unlawful.voluntary work undertaken outside EWTD may become illegal.
Foundation Trusts (FTs) What is a Foundation Trust? They are autonomous organisations. based on need and not ability to pay. 160 . There are currently 130 foundation trusts (June 2010) in UK What are the pros and cons of FTs? Benefits to Patients NHS Foundation Trusts will be able to improve relevant care for their patients because they have been set free from central government control. They will be able to borrow in order to support this investment without needing to seek external approval. They establish strong connections with their local communities through local people becoming members and governors. They are able to decide for themselves what capital investment is needed in order to improve their services and are free to retain any surpluses they generate and to borrow in order to support this investment. free care. Foundation hospitals are firmly part of the NHS. providing healthcare according to core NHS principles. This form of public ownership and accountability will ensure that hospital services more accurately reflect the needs and expectations of local people. A membership body comprising local staff and service users will elect governors. This enables foundation hospitals to design their healthcare services around local needs and priorities. NHS Foundation Trusts will have the freedom to decide locally the capital investment needed in order to improve their services and increase their capacity. They are authorised and monitored by Monitor .Independent Regulator of NHS Foundation trusts. Crucially. free from central government control.
Foundation trusts will have greater powers to raise private funds and set wage levels and will therefore be able to exercise additional flexibility on pay. Once a year. leading to these hospitals drawing scarce staff away from Trusts that do not have Foundation status. The members are drawn from patients. and it must also include at least one staff member and one representative each from the hospital's main commissioning PCT and any universities responsible for undergraduate training at the hospital. What is the governance structure of foundation hospitals? Foundation hospitals have a new form of governance structure that involves members.Concerns regarding FTs FTs will lead to greater inequalities between hospitals by: Foundation trusts will be able to keep all operating surpluses and asset sale proceeds themselves. Because private sector borrowing by foundation hospitals will be counted against Government expenditure limits. A majority of the members of the Board of Governors must be members of the public. staff and local people. Foundation trusts will draw scarce staff away from nonfoundation trusts. a Board of Governors. this may leave less money for non-foundation hospitals robbing Peter to pay Paul. This will have the responsibility for approving the annual report and accounts. This will have a duty to consult the 161 . As well as the Board of Governors. the members of the foundation hospital elect representatives to its Board of Governors. and for ensuring that it does not breach the terms of its license. and a Management Board. each foundation hospital will have a Management Board. whereas under the current system surpluses go to a central NHS funding pool from where they are redistributed to wherever the need in the NHS is the greatest. for setting the foundation hospital's strategic direction.
If satisfied that certain criteria are met. and so it is difficult to ascribe this high performance to FT status per se. What is the role of MONITOR? Monitor is an independent corporate body. these were high performing organisations prior to becoming FTs. monitored and regulated by Monitor. In addition the Management Board must include a Chief Executive. However. Monitor authorises and regulates NHS foundation trusts making sure they are wellmanaged and financially strong so that they can deliver excellent healthcare for patients. foundation hospitals are not subject to the direction of the Secretary of State but instead will be licensed. A major advantage of FT status is the autonomy it gives trusts. The Management Board will be chaired by the chair of the Board of Governors and at least a third of the places excluding the chair must be filled by non-executive directors elected by the Board of Governors. a medical director and a finance director.Board of Governors concerning the development of the hospital's forward plans and regarding any significant changes to the business plan. Discuss how foundation hospitals have performed since introduced in 2004? A Health Committee reported into Foundation Trusts in 2008. however they are free to make 162 . Unlike current NHS hospitals. Monitor receives and considers applications from NHS Trusts seeking foundation status. it authorises them to operate as NHS Foundation Trusts. FTs do not appear to have yet exploited the full potential of their autonomy. It is clear that the majority of FTs are high performers in terms of finance and quality as measured by Care Quality Commission ratings. They are set free from central government control. who will be appointed by the chair and nonexecutive directors of the management board.
together with Payment by Results. It is not clear whether their high performance in terms of finance and quality is the result of their changed status. since the best trusts have become FTs. robust evidence is lacking. FTs have produced. The governance of FTs (i. would strengthen the acute sector to the detriment of primary care services. however it is felt these tensions exist between high performing and less well performing trusts regardless of their status because of the system of Payment by Results. Key aims of FTs were the promotion of innovation and greater public involvement. So in summary. if any. This seems to be the case. but. again. there is a lack of objective evidence about what improvements. who elect governors) was set up to promote better local engagement and thus hospital services to more accurately reflect the needs and expectations of local people. 163 . A major concern at the inception of FTs was that they. FTs may be generating tensions and resentment in some areas. this governance structure has been slow to deliver benefits and there is lack of robust evidence of their effectiveness.e. However. a membership body comprising local staff and service users. Before their establishment a number of fears were voiced about the impact FTs might have on wider health communities. but much is unknown. There is little evidence that FTs have poached staff from other trusts. and that this is making a ‘tangible’ difference to the dynamic of these organizations. In general.decisions more quickly. or simply a continuation of long term trends. FTs have some proven strengths. although it is probably more because of introduction of Payment by Results than the introduction of FTs.
doctors must achieve specific competences by the end of this year. communication and IT skills. Learning objectives for each stage will be specific and focused on demonstration of clinical competences.team work. Learning during the FP is trainee-led and evidence-based. Trainees will have the opportunity to gain experience in a series of placements in a variety of specialties and healthcare settings.Foundation Programme Tell me what you know about Foundation Programs (FP)? Do you think this new training structure is successful? The FP is a two-year general training programme which forms the bridge between medical school and specialist/general practice training. with a series of clinical supervisors providing supervision in each specific placement. Foundation Year 2 (F2) The second year of the FP builds on the first year of training. In order to attain full registration with the GMC. The F2 year’s main focus is on training in the assessment and management of the acutely ill patient. Foundation programs: The FP is challenging the historical approach to training. time management. skills and competences acquired in undergraduate training. The trainee must collect the evidence they need to demonstrate to their supervisors and the assessment panel 164 . It represents a shift from trainees being told what to do to a new learning environment driven by the trainees. or possibly even the whole two year programme. and supported by supervisors. Foundation Year 1 (F1) The first year of the FP builds upon the knowledge. Training also encompasses the generic professional skills applicable to all areas of medicine . The formal review process is based on a model where trainees will have one educational supervisor for an entire foundation training year.
There are a currently four types of assessment that a trainee is required to undertake MSF. Mini-CEX and CbD.mmcinquiry. similar to the mini-CEX that has been designed specifically for the assessment of practical skills. It also enables the discussion of the ethical and legal framework of practice. Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) is a method.mmc. It should not be taken as an opportunity to discuss the whole case in a viva style approach. DOPS. See Tooke report for further details on Foundation programme Ref www.uk http://www.that they have developed their learning against the competences set out in the Curriculum.nhs. it allows trainees to discuss why they acted as they did.uk/ 165 . and in all instances. CbD is designed to assess clinical decision-making and the application or use of medical knowledge in relation to patient care for which the trainee has been directly responsible.uk www.org. Mini-CEX is designed to provide feedback on skills essential to the provision of good clinical care by observing an actual clinical encounter.nhs.foundationprogramme.
and a failure of staff to comply with local policies.000 patients develop HCAIs and it is estimated that around 1 in 10 patients pick up an infection during their stay in a UK hospital. For e.Healthcare Acquired Infections What are Healthcare-Associated Infections (HCAI)? HCAI are those infections that develop as a direct result of any contact in a healthcare setting either in the hospitals or in the community. but they are most commonly caused by the contaminated hands of healthcare workers. not all HCAIs can be prevented. There are many causes of HCAI. contaminated medical devices. and can affect both patients and healthcare workers.g. It is estimated that as many as 5.000 patients die each year in the UK as a direct result of HCAIs and it is one of the factors in another 15. Common HCAIs are MRSA. HII for Clostridium difficile include: 166 . Clostridium difficile and Nora virus What is the extent of the problem? Every year at least 300. What do you mean by High impact interventions (HII)? HII are care bundles for different procedures to reduce infections. but with good practice and careful hygiene it has been estimated that around 15% to 30% could be avoided. procedures and guidelines. These infections costs NHS an estimated £1 billion a year and have a major impact on the availability of beds because infected patients spend an extra 11 days on an average in hospital. How can you prevent Healthcare-Associated Infection? Unfortunately.000 deaths.
hcainetwork.enhanced cleaning in areas with C.org/index.htm 167 . Prudent antibiotic prescribing Correct hand hygiene Environmental decontamination. Use of disposable gloves and apron Isolation/cohort nursing Ref: http://www. diff patients.
Efficiency as Pros 168 . This contrasts with the traditional model of junior doctors working in relative isolation and in specialty-based silos. Key elements underpinning this approach include multidisciplinary handovers. moving a significant proportion of nonurgent work from the night to the evening or daytime. other staff (usually a senior nurse) taking on some of the work traditionally done by junior doctors. Hospital at Night advocates supervised multi-specialty handover in the evenings. reducing the unnecessary duplication of work by better coordination and by reducing the multiple clerking and reviews. but have not been borne out in practice. The composition and competence of the team is determined by the needs of the patients being covered.Hospital at Night What is "Hospital at Night"? This programme was designed to reduce dependency on training grade doctors for providing cover at night in order to reduce their working hours (in compliance with EWTD) and eliminate sleep deprivation without damaging their training. bleep filtering (all bleeps go to the coordinator. The Hospital at Night model consists of: Providing cover at night through a multidisciplinary night team. Better sense of team work Competency levels are enhanced particularly in treating acutely ill. which has the competences to cover a wide range of interventions but has the capacity to call in specialist expertise when necessary. Fears that this would result in additional workload were real.a senior nurse) and extended roles.
uk/hospitalatnightresources. o Patients are seen by the most appropriate person because the coordinator can let the most appropriate doctor know about the sickest patients.dh.healthcareworkforce. Ref: http://www. Cons Ensuring adequate competency can be challenging.nhs. o Patients get more time with the doctor as doctors and nurses can spend more time with their patients as doctors are not distracted by bleeps. Small trusts struggle to have all competencies and experiences present at any one time.o Patients are treated more quickly as Hospital at Night prioritises acutely ill patients. Reduced exposure to night shifts may be detrimental to the training of junior doctors.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/P ublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4117968 169 .gov. html http://www.
ISTC thus provides NHS funded care in a private setting. ISTC are run either by the NHS or commissioned by primary care trusts (PCTs) from independent sector providers. ISTC can only employ doctors who are registered with the GMC What are the pros and cons of Independent sector treatment centers? Benefits of ISTCs Provides extra clinical capacity to deliver swift access to treatment for NHS patients Provides diversity and choice in clinical services for NHS patients Stimulate innovative models of service delivery Drive up productivity There are doubts whether ISTCs provide value for money.Independent sector treatment centers (ISTC) What are Independent sector treatment centers? ISTC are private companies set up to reduce waiting lists for patients awaiting elective procedures. They operate under the banner of NHS and use NHS branding and logo. Only provide profitable services (for example hernias and varicose veins) by "Cherry-picking" suitable patients that is. those with minimal co-morbidity Issues caused by ISTCs 170 . This results in an increased cost to the NHS. ISTCs are given 5 year contracts that guarantee payment regardless of whether they carry out the specified number of operations or not. ISTCs deal with simple elective procedures and therefore take away training opportunities from the NHS.
email for secure transfer of patient information Choose and book. convenience. NHS CFH is responsible for: New IT systems and services. It also supports complex modern care. It works with both local NHS organizations and suppliers in introducing new IT systems and services to improve the way health information is stored and shared.the secure broadband National Network for the NHS NHS care records service (NHS CRS).electronic booking service Electronic booking service (EPS).electronic patient record transfer between GP practices etc Core programmes within the NPfIT are NPfIT helps the NHS to meet patient expectations about choice. quality and responsiveness. where treatment is delivered by a team of healthcare staff based in different buildings or organizations 171 .enabling prescription messages to be sent electronically from prescriber to dispenser Support for GP IT.a secure service linking patient information electronically. with detailed records shared locally between NHS organizations caring for the patient and summary care records available across England to support emergency and out of hours care Picture Archiving Communications Systems (PACS)digital X-rays and scans for faster diagnosis NHS mail.known as National programme for IT (NPfIT) Existing business-critical national NHS IT systems Legislative and digital policy advice on information systems for the NHS N3.IT in the NHS NHS connecting for health (NHS CFH) supports IT systems for the NHS in England.
computer systems support this function.uk 172 . In fact. Moving sensitive data around in physical form.nhs. The complexity of this care requires information to be shared effectively. Arguments against NHS CFH are essentially that the government cannot be trusted not to lose the confidential information. Transferring information through a secure digital network is always going to be a much safer bet.connectingforhealth. if anything. Ref: A Junior Doctor’s guide to the NHS (McCay L and Jonas S) www. or out in the community.across primary and secondary care. is more risky. this very fact is a good argument for NHS IT.
and advice on. and advice on. professional scrutiny of.mee. Ref http://www. professional high level scrutiny of. MEE is accountable for England issues only. The authority and influence of MEE comes from the quality and clarity of advice that it provides to Ministers.uk/default.Medical Education England (MEE) The concept for MEE was first put forward by Professor Sir John Tooke in his report ‘Aspiring to Excellence’. but it can directly influence policy decisions in its advisory role. training integration of service and professional perspectives in curricula development. The formal recommendation for its creation was made during the NHS Next Stage Review by Lord Darzi.nhs. MEE is an independent advisory non-departmental public body. It doesn’t make decisions. the quality of workforce planning at national level. and Liaison with other healthcare professional education national oversight bodies and relevant bodies in the Devolved Administrations.aspx 173 . MEE’s core functions will be: to bring a coherent professional voice on matters relating to education and training and advising the Department of Health on policy. co-ordination of changes to postgraduate pathways at a national level. the education training and commissioning plans developed at Strategic Health Authority (SHA) level.
No product is risk-free. investigating and monitoring adverse reactions to medicines and adverse incidents involving medical devices regulating clinical trials of medicines and medical devices The aims of MHRA are: Activities of MHRA include: 174 . with acceptable risk: benefit profiles for medicines (including blood) and devices.The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) MHRA is the government agency which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work. and the timely introduction of innovative treatments and technologies that benefit patients and the public. and take any necessary action to protect the public promptly if there is a problem. and are acceptably safe. MHRA enable greater access to products. MHRA make robust and factbased judgements to ensure that the benefits to patients and the public justify the risks. Improving public health by encouraging and facilitating developments in products that will benefit people. Protecting public health through regulation. quality and efficacy of medicines. Promoting public health by helping people who use these products to understand their risks and benefits. MHRA keep watch over medicines and devices. assessing the safety. and authorising their sale or supply in the UK for human use operating post-marketing surveillance and other systems for reporting.
education and training. poisons and radiation hazards. development. It is dedicated to protecting people’s health and reducing the impact of infectious diseases. poisons. delivering services and supporting the NHS and other agencies to protect people from infectious diseases. providing a rapid response to health protection emergencies. chemical.Health Protection Agency (HPA) HPA is an independent UK organisation set up by the government in 2003. providing an impartial and authoritative source of information and advice to professionals and the public. chemical and radiological hazards. Ref: www. responding to new threats to public health. Its role involves: advising government on public health protection policies and programmes. poison or radioactive substances.mhra. including the deliberate release of biological.uk 175 . through research. and Improving knowledge of health protection. chemical hazards.gov.
with its ambitious hospital building programme allowed a massive and needed expansion of the NHS capital programme. The main purpose of NHS Direct is to provide 24 hour healthcare information and advice. online and interactive digital TV health advice and information service provided by the NHS. confidential telephone. and pegged to increase at the rate of the Retail Price Index. Nurses also give advice on how to manage an episode of illness at home. it will be necessary to achieve savings of 4-5% in the rest of the budget. and there was a huge backlog in maintenance. the current PFI model is moribund and will need to be replaced by something else. Facilities management costs in PFI contracts are fixed. PFI.Miscellaneous NHS issues What are Private finance initiatives (PFI)? The Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is use of private sector funds for the design and building of new health care buildings. However. 176 . whereas now the drive is to take care closer to the community. By the 1990s. PFI has saddled the NHS with high bills for decades to come. Thus. many of the new hospitals are now part of the problem not the solution. What are the benefits of NHS direct? NHS Direct is the name of a 24 hour. This means to achieve nominal overall 3% efficiency savings. In summary. It is very difficult to move services around within a PFI contract. The PFI building programme was based on a policy of increasing acute care. the physical fabric of many buildings was in poor condition. For PFI schemes high costs are locked into hospitals and there is a lack of asset flexibility to meet changing service needs and innovations. Telephone service aims to triage symptomatic callers to provide guidance on which healthcare provider the caller should access.
Critics are concerned that NHS Direct is generating increased levels of demand for NHS services from a society whose expectations of 24 hour accessibility are changing markedly. to provide care in. What is Agenda for change? Agenda for Change is the system of pay put in place in 2004 for most NHS-employed staff. NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework support personal development and career progression. 177 . to promote closer working relationships between different parts of the health and social care system. What is the Modernizing Agenda? The main themes for modernization. to involve service users closely in the design and operation of new services. and closer to. It applies to over one million NHS staff across the UK staff with the exception of doctors. as set out in the ‘NHS Plan 2000’ are: to redesign care pathways to put children and families at the centre of the system. patients’ homes. It is simpler and more flexible than the old system. Advantages Ensures fair pay and a clearer system for career progression Staff will be paid on the basis of the jobs they are doing and the skills and knowledge they apply to these jobs. to develop consultant-delivered services. and is directly linked to work rather than job titles. to set up multidisciplinary teams that overcome traditional barriers between staff groups. dentists and the most senior managers.
The notion of 18 weeks comes from patient feedback surveys which suggested that 18 weeks is what patients would regard as an acceptable wait.aspx Discuss waiting time targets? 18 week target ‘18 week’ patient pathway refers to the NHS initiative to reduce the length of the patient journey from GP referral to the start of treatment (RTT). The new system has also introduced standard arrangements for hours. 62 day target: Maximum 2 month wait from an urgent GP referral to first treatment for all cancers.org/PayAndContracts/AgendaForChange/Pa ges/Afc-Homepage. Other targets 31 day target: Maximum 1 month wait from decision to treat to first treatment for all cancers. 178 . The target aims to ensure that no patient waits for more than 18 weeks from RTT. annual leave and overtime.nhsemployers.18weeks.nhs. Ref: www.uk Discuss Clinical Tutor? A Clinical Tutor is a hospital consultant with responsibility for postgraduate medical education within their Trust and there is a Clinical Tutor in each of the main hospitals in the United Kingdom. Ref: www. 18 weeks is different because it signals the end of NHS waiting lists. They are also involved with the organisation of continuing medical education (CME) for hospital doctors and general practitioners.
from health hazards arising from their work or environment. plant and tools provided are safe and maintained in a safe condition. and co-operates with management in the implementation of health and safety matters.The role of the Clinical Tutor is wide. To ensure that all equipment. takes reasonable care of the health and safety of him/her and others who may be affected by his or her acts or omissions. To ensure that all Trust personnel are safeguarded. The team consists of Foundation Programme Directors. To ensure that all employees work in a manner which follows all accepted rules and procedures. by means of 179 . Clinical Skills Tutors. overall management of the education of doctors in training provision of appropriate career counseling and pastoral support management of the postgraduate centre and the centre staff providing leadership and strategy for medical education in the Trust Due to the recent changes in doctors training the requirements from the Trust. Career & Personal counselors. Discuss Health and Safety? A safe working environment at all levels of the Trust contributes to overall efficiency and success. so far as is reasonably practicable. educationalists and managers. Deanery and other national bodies have increased such that the role is no longer done by one individual but by a team which is lead by either a Lead Clinical Tutor or a Director of Medical Education and various models have been developed around the UK.
Medical staff and other health care professionals are bound by a duty of care to be responsible for their own safety and the safety of those who are affected by what they may or may not do. Maintain all tools and equipment in good condition. Dress sensibly and safely for their particular working environment. To educate multi-disciplinary and multi-agency health care professionals in all aspects of infection control To advise and assist managers on Fire Safety matters in order to ensure compliance with current and proposed fire safety legislation. This is in addition to their responsibilities for patient care. environmental control.accident prevention. and report any defects to their Supervisor/Manager as they occur. Individual Responsibilities Avoid improvisation. & be familiar with the position of their departmental fire equipment. fire routes & designated fire assembly points. To ensure that Trust employees are physically and mentally suited for the job they are undertaking by offering an occupational health service which provides pre-employment screening and routine medical assessments. health monitoring and the prevention of infection and illness. which could create an unnecessary risk to their personal safety or to the safety of others. using the safety equipment and personal protective equipment provided for the task being undertaken. fire exits. 180 . Attend as requested. any training courses designed to further the needs of Health and Safety Observe the Fire Evacuation Procedures.
Thus. There were marked variations in the amount of service SHO’s provided in different posts and inconsistency in the quality of supervision and training they received. There were also deficiencies in the selection and appointment procedures. Basic specialist training: Typically 2 years. There was no defined end point to SHO training due to competitive entry to the SpR grade. There were no robust mechanisms for regularly appraising performance or for formal assessment at the SHO grade. Thus the length of time spent in SHO grade varied enormously. which would focus on generic competencies and management of acute illness. MMC was introduced in a UK wide strategy to reform postgraduate medical education by delivering a modernised and focused training and career structure for doctors.Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) What do you know about the Modernization of Medical Careers (MMC)? What impact do you think MMC will have on your practice as consultant? Issues with the old system Progression (from PRHO to SHO. Poor performance was not reliably recognised or addressed. This is an initiation to the chosen specialty i. SpR and consultant) was based on the number of years of experience and passing relevant exams. medical. The new training structure constitutes: Foundation Programme: After graduating the doctors would undertake a two year Foundation programme.e. surgical or acute care 181 .
with more specialisation later. Higher Specialist Training. Assessment of Competence: Since assessment drives learning. Professional development and life-long learning Benefits of MMC MMC promote fairness and equality by standardising the selection and appointment procedures. This is the in depth specialty training It aims to develop demonstrably competent doctors who are skilled at communicating and working as effective members of a team. and through a process in which no time is wasted. Defined Competence: These outcomes define in broad terms what the doctor can be expected to offer as a professional upon completion of the training programme. MMC is a move away from experiential training in a series of posts to a structured programme of training which is also experientially based. but managed within a coherent framework of training. Streamlined training (with defined end points) and explicit standards of assessed competence will lead to a better work-life balance and prevent aimless drifting within a grade. core competences are assessed at all stages of postgraduate medical education. MMC delivers training through structured programmes that are broad based at first. It will allow patients to be certain that the doctors treating them have demonstrated their competence against a set of explicitly defined criteria. There are four key underlying educational principles to MMC: Outcome based: Trainees must achieve explicit incremental standards at each stage of training in order to progress. MMC aims to improve the quality of patient care through better education and training for doctors.typically 5 years. 182 .
Doctors will need to choose a specialty after only 2 years experience. but this may not be adequate.Disadvantages of MMC There are concerns that standardised workplace based assessments will encourage a new breed of identikit doctors who rise through the ranks by ticking boxes but aren't good clinicians. How has MMC affected me? MMC and EWTD have led to the reduced involvement of trainees in the provision of services because of the reduced training time.uk 183 . This may be a difficult decision particularly if they have not encountered the specialty in their foundation programme. One week taster programmes have been introduced to enable doctors to make adequate choices. Ref: www.nhs. Thus the role and clinical responsibility of the consultants have increased.mmc. This affects not only international medical graduates (IMGs) but also UK doctors training overseas. There will be difficulty in recognizing training undertaken overseas as there will be a need to work out the competencies acquired overseas and how it fits with the UK system.
concerns could be referred to the GMC even when not serious enough to justify regulatory action. understand what is leading to them. 184 . the employer.National clinical assessment service (NCAS) What is the National clinical assessment service (NCAS)? NCAS is a Division of the National Patient Safety Agency. contracting body or practitioner can contact NCAS for help. Before NCAS existed. a behavioral assessment and a clinical assessment (by a team of clinical and lay assessors). Managers or practitioners themselves can contact NCAS for advice. NCAS will to work with all parties to clarify the concerns. NCAS process If a concern comes to light. but also more detailed and ongoing support. NCAS will then work with the practitioner and the referring body to agree an action plan to resolve the concerns. conclusions and recommendations is produced by the whole NCAS assessment team. a practitioner may be asked to undergo an NCAS assessment. Where the performance problem is sufficiently serious or repetitious. and make recommendations on how they may be resolved. The NCAS promotes patient safety by providing confidential advice and support to the NHS in situations where the performance of doctors and dentists is giving cause for concern. A report containing the findings. This comprises three main components: an occupational health assessment. There was concern that tackling problems with medical performance needed specialist skills which were not always available in individual NHS trusts. The support NCAS provides is wide ranging and includes not only advice over the telephone. and attempts to resolve the problem at local level have failed.
In all other circumstances – such as immediate concerns that might require exclusion or suspension – general concern about a practitioner’s performance. NCAS is an advisory body only. is so serious as to call into question the doctor or dentist’s license to practice.nhs.uk 185 . On the other hand. Where a concern about a practitioner’s performance arises and the employer or contractor feels they need help. or where the organisation is unsure whether the treatment of a specific group of patients has met accepted standards. and in any situation where the local organisation is unsure how to proceed.ncas. approaches to three different organisations are often considered: the GMC. the regulator’s advice should be taken. the colleges are often contacted for advice.npsa. whether of performance. NCAS or the medical royal college covering the relevant clinical specialty. NCAS should be contacted. conduct or competence. What then guides the approach taken is broadly as follows: If the concern. if the concern is more broadly based about a whole clinical service rather than about one or more individuals within a team. all of those organisations work closely together and have published memoranda of understanding outlining how they work together. This approach will therefore only be used in the most serious circumstances. health or conduct. It does not function as a regulator. Contact with any of them will enable a discussion of how a concern is best handled and which agencies should be involved. In any event. Ref: www.
The nature of the work undertaken by non consultant career grades varies widely and there is little scope to recognise formally the significant competencies often deployed by them. accepted way of documenting progress and it is therefore difficult to recognise the acquisition of competencies. the way they relate to other doctors and health professionals and how they work in teams. Many doctors like being non consultant career grades but do not always like the way they are regarded by others.consultant career grade doctors? The grades are not seen as existing in their own right. have failed elsewhere. Underlying all these problems is the perception that the doctors employed in these grades. rather than making a positive career choice. There is no clear structure for enabling recognised career progress. The routes into the grade and the qualifications for entry are poorly defined. There is no formal. 186 . More senior and experienced doctors have little formal credentialing that would help to define their standing. Many non consultant career grades jobs exist because doctors like them. Lack of a consistent definition affects the roles which they are allowed to fulfill.Non-Consultant Career Grades (NCCG) What are the problems with non. Support for continuing professional development (CPD) and further training in the non consultant career grades is inconsistent across the NHS.
A system of limited accreditation of competencies is required through which non consultant career grades with formally recognised skills can work independently at the appropriate level. Individual doctors could be referred to by their functional role – for example. training and qualifications. A new career structure and competencies will need new pay and terms and conditions of service which are appropriate for it. ophthalmologist.How NCCG can be reformed? (Based on Tooke’s report) Entry to a career grade post should only be available to those who have met clear educational standards and can demonstrate specialty-specific competencies. The new structure should no longer be called the nonconsultant career grades. Non consultant career grade can apply to enter specialist register through the recognition by the PMETB (merged with GMC now) of an applicant’s experience. Local employers and postgraduate deans should ensure that resources and infrastructures are available for the CPD needs of non consultant career grades. simplified structure with no more than two recognised levels of practice. 187 . urologist. cardiologist or psychiatrist. They should be appraised annually and have a personal development plan Workforce planners in co-operation with postgraduate deans should ensure that a meaningful number of training slots for senior entrants are available in specialist training programmes. The existing non consultant career grades should be integrated into a single.
Proposals should be relevant to the current clinical environment and have the potential to contribute original work to the subject. However.National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) NCEPOD review medical clinical practice and make recommendations to improve the quality and safety of patient care. NCEPOD invites organisations or individuals to submit original study proposals for consideration as possible forthcoming studies. it does not audit individual clinician's performance and it therefore has no direct involvement in individual patient care and is not able to provide medical opinions or recommendations to specialists. Primarily NCEPOD exists to alert clinicians and hospital management to practice which may not have been of the best quality and to recommend improvements. How does NCEPOD select studies? Each year. Consultants involved with the case are also notified. The DoH in their guidance on clinical governance state that trusts must take part 188 . NCEPOD operates under NPSA. What happens if NCEPOD find a case that gives them cause for concern? Cases that cause NCEPOD concern are referred back to the medical director of the trust concerned in order that appropriate action may be taken. They do this by undertaking confidential surveys covering many different aspects of medical care and making recommendations for clinicians and management to implement. Is it mandatory to participate in the work of NCEPOD? Yes it is.
189 . The acute problem. The corners autopsy etc. Who operates when.Give an example of a NCEPOD report? Quote a report relevant to your specialty (if there is one) Examples of NCEPOD reports are Scoping our practice.
Respect consent and confidentiality: Service users should be treated with dignity and respect. ‘Patients and the public’ and ‘Staff’. The Constitution will be renewed every 10 years. expect privacy and confidentiality and be given information about treatments that are 190 . pledges and responsibilities for staff and patients. and to receive vaccinations provided through national programs. patients and staff. Nationally approved treatments and drug programmes: The right to receive drugs and treatments recommended by NICE if deemed clinically appropriate. and to expect your local NHS to meet the needs of the local community. All NHS bodies and private and third sector providers supplying NHS services will be required by law to take account of this Constitution in their decisions and actions. and highlights a number of rights. patients and public can expect from the NHS. as well as the responsibilities that these two groups have to the health service. and to identify and share best practice with each other. and for organisations to monitor and try to improve the standards of care that they provide. with the involvement of the public. It outlines the purpose. Quality of care and environment: The right to receive a professional standard of care. Patients and the public Access: The right to receive free (in most cases) equitable. principles and values of the NHS. The Constitution brings together what staff. Each part provides a ‘concise statement of what the two groups of people can expect from the NHS’. in a clean and fit for purpose environment.NHS constitution The Constitution was developed as part of the NHS Next Stage Review led by Lord Darzi. The constitution is made up of two parts. timely access to treatment. The NHS Constitution was published on 21 January 2009 and applies to NHS services in England.
as well as with Local Authorities. What it means is that. free from harassment. increasingly. Staff Rights Ability to work flexibly in a manner ‘consistent with the way that people lead their lives’ Have a healthy and safe working environment.being given. bullying or violence Be represented in the workplace 191 . Patients have the right to refuse treatment. NHS organisations should commit to admitting to mistakes where they occur. as well as the responsibilities of staff to their organisations. The constitution states that NHS organisations should work in partnership with service users. Complaint and redress: The right to complain. STAFF There are four main themes to delivering the constitution: Having the resources to deliver quality care Having the support necessary to do a good job Feeling that their job is worthwhile with chances to develop The opportunity to improve the way they work The constitution then outlines the rights and pledges that staff should expect. carers and the public. explain what went wrong and put things right quickly and effectively. Involvement in your healthcare and in the NHS: The right to be informed and have a say in one’s own healthcare. but also to be involved in the planning of healthcare services. more information on the quality of services will be made available to the public. Informed choice: right to make choices about NHS care and to information to support these choices. This includes sharing any letters that are sent between clinicians. and have that complaint dealt with efficiently and be informed about the outcome.
The proponents of NHS constitution argue that it would help to make patients aware of rights . it is a declaratory document. Others propose that the constitution have a real potential to enhance patient care . However. In conclusion. Fair pay and contract framework Be treated fairly and equally and be free from discrimination The right to raise a grievance where rights have not been upheld.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/ documents/digitalasset/dh_093442. personal development and line management Support to maintain health and well-being Engage staff in decisions that affect them Staff Pledges Would the NHS constitution have any impact? The NHS constitution for the first time. lays down the objectives of the NHS. Ensuring staff have clear roles and responsibilities Access to training. the rights and responsibilities of the staff. patients and public and the guiding principles which govern the service.pdf 192 .by informing patients about their rights and responsibilities. in one document.such as access to drugs approved by NICE . it is unlikely that the constitution will change the everyday experiences of patients and staff.of which they might not currently be aware. Ref: http://www. At present there is no process in place by which NHS trusts can be audited on the constitution itself.dh. and is therefore not expected to produce radical change. They believe that this will help eradicate the "postcode lottery" in drugs and treatment.
7 billion o Tighter control of the pay bill Reference is made to six challenges. Key aspects of the plan are: Implementing our vision: a preventative. the changing nature of disease. productive NHS It is stated that change will be on an unprecedented scale for patients and staff and hard choices about resources and priorities will have to be made. delivering £15-20 billion efficiency savings over three years from April 2011 (£10billion by 2012/13). back office support and procurement . There is emphasis on reform and that this can only be achieved through clinical leadership and a change in current roles for NHS staff. ever higher patient expectations. advances in treatments and a changing workforce. The deal for patient and the public 193 .The NHS five year plan 2010-2015 NHS 2010-2015: from good to great. people-centred.£2. Preventative. Savings are identified in the following areas: o Productive NHS workforce . productive This sets out the NHS five year plan in the context of a new financial era and it is intended to give people working in the NHS a clear sense of direction and time to plan for the challenges ahead.£3. the dawn of the information.£1. There is commitment to support staff to make the changes necessary to shape services around the needs of patients – more care closer to people’s homes that are better integrated around people’s needs. peoplecentred.5 billion o Reduced management cost.8 billion o Care closer to home and self care for people with long term conditions . an ageing society.
Focus on a wider set of safety challenges. For the three interdependent areas of quality. patients and the public are now set out in the NHS Constitution. The introduction of NHS health checks is set to save thousands of lives by preventing stroke and heart attacks. zero tolerance of preventable infections 194 . as per Lord Darzi’s vision organisations will be required to: o Safety. The legally binding entitlements to staff. NHS Stop Smoking Service and Total Place pilots. Changing behaviours will continue through schemes such as Change4Life. safer care for patients. There are 25 rights in the Constitution and a further 2 have been proposed: o You have the right to access services within maximum waiting times. There is acknowledgement that there should now be a shift from ‘diagnose and treat’ to ‘predict and prevent’ and that personalised care can only be realised by tailoring provision with services and organisations working together across traditional boundaries. The following priority areas for achieving High Quality Services have been identified: o further reductions in MRSA o cancer care o care for stroke patients o care for those at risk of heart disease o care for pregnant women. o You have the right to an NHS Health Check every five years if you are eligible for one. More screening and earlier diagnosis of cancers is planned through increased GP access and modern laboratory medicine.
A sustained pay restraint is required. Reduce the number of patients who die from VTE and increase prevention of pressure ulcers. Organisations will be supported nationally but locally led. collaborative working. cancer as a chronic disease and dementia. o Patient experience. The Trust will be able to drive this through NETS and Service Improvement. More local care is seen to be delivered by GPs and community services rather than having to be seen in an urgent or emergency setting. future pay awards will need to strike the balance between rewarding existing staff for increased quality and productivity and the need to maintain security of employment by retraining and redeploying staff to meet additional demand. An evidence base of around 70 examples of best available evidence will be used to escalate improvements. Change needs to be fast moving as good practice cannot be allowed to spread at its own pace.o Effective. There will also be a greater proportion of provider income linked to patient experience and satisfaction – potentially up to 10%) There is clear requirement to have more choice for patients and to transform the care for groups of people with the following long term conditions. heart failure. It is recommended that consultants and very senior managers receive no increase in 2010/11 and GP The deal for staff 195 . diabetes. With regards to pay. The focus is clinical leadership. managers and politicians and staff flexibility. respiratory disease (including COPD). Expand the measurement of patient satisfaction and for those to be included in Quality Accounts. reuniting doctors and nurses.
stronger commissioners o Freedoms and incentives to high performing commissioners o Poor performers to demonstrate clear and rapid improvement 196 . This may involve staff working in a different place or even a different organisation. The Trust will need to align training plans to support delivery of local clinical visions and new ways of working in support of retraining and redeployment of staff. mobility and sustained pay restraint. dealing with failure Creating leaner. Work is ongoing exploring the pros and cons of offering frontline staff an employment guarantee locally or regionally in return for flexibility. How the system will support NHS staff and organisations to deliver The key levers include: Payment systems support improved quality and efficiency o 0% maximum uplift for next four years (hospitals) o Increases in payment linked to quality goals o Incentivising the shift of care out of hospital settings o Withdrawal of payments when care does not meet minimum standards Helping staff through change o Empower and enable NHS staff to lead change o NHS will be given the first opportunity to improve o Commissioners will have a legal duty to secure best services.practice income increases are restricted and they need to make at least 1% cash releasing efficiency savings. Strengthening regulation. utilising the new Staff Passport.
Driving innovation o £220 million Regional Innovation Fund o Development of NHS Evidence o NHS Life Sciences Innovation Delivery Board to support adoption of clinically and cost effective innovations Ref: http://www. organisations supporting high performing o Reduce variation in quality among primary care providers and practice based commissioners.o Improve information on management costs o Significantly reduce management costs in PCTs and SHAs (30% over next four years) o Permit reconfiguration where it leads to greater coterminosity between PCTs and LAs Integrating services.gov.uk/en/publicationsandstatistics/publications/p ublicationspolicyandguidance/dh_109876 197 . o Increase integration of services o Alignment of incentives so organisations work better together o Reform of provider services o Reduce overheads and transaction costs o Offer rewards and freedoms for high performers o High performing FTs to expand their services o Make it easier for high performing trusts to take over poorly performing organisations. Streamlining the reconfiguration process o Further simplification o Better engagement.dh.
However. SHAs also assess and monitor the performance of Primary care trusts (PCTs) on behalf of the Department of Health. NHS Foundation Trusts are accountable through a number of arrangements: 198 . Below the Department of Health are ten Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs). Discuss the accountability framework for Foundation hospitals? The Secretary of State for Health in theory does not have the power to direct NHS Foundation Trusts. PCTs are allocated funds each year by the Department of Health to do this and are accountable to their local SHA. the government minister in charge of the Department of Health.NHS structure and Cash flows Discuss the NHS management structure? At the top is the Secretary of State for Health. responsible for the NHS in England and answerable to Parliament. SHA manage the NHS locally (with the exception of Foundation Trusts) and are the key link between the Department of Health (DH) and the NHS. There are some 150 PCTs across the country and on average they cover a population size of a quarter of a million. PCTs commission all primary and secondary care services (including Foundation trusts) with the allocated funds. PCTs are responsible for planning and securing health services and for improving the health of the local population. The role of the SHA is to support the efforts of the local health service in improving performance and integrating national priorities into local health delivery plans.
dentists. Secondary care includes not only hospitals but also ambulances and specialised health services for the mentally ill and the learning disabled. Monitor. hospitals (including Foundation Trusts). population screening. the people they serve have access to the health care they need when they need it. mental healthcare. mortality. need a minimum number of patients under the care of each centre providing the particular service. 'Specialised services' are treatments for relatively rare conditions which. pharmacies and opticians. if they are to be provided safely and effectively. opticians. in the main. labour costs and other factors. Discuss the cash flow in NHS? The NHS is funded largely through taxes levied by the Government. dentists. They commission GPs (including out of hour services). They receive a budget based on the size and need of their populations which. How would you commission specialist services? 'Commissioning' describes the processes by which health care is planned and paid for. PCTs are allocated funds directly from the Department of Health. PCTs are the main route for the funding of primary and secondary care and directly control most of the NHS budget. This is the responsibility of Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). pharmacists. as far as possible. district nursing and numerous other services. Thus they are not provided in 199 . Walkin Centres. NHS Direct.the independent regulator accountable to Parliament Inspection by the Care Quality Commission Contracts with PCTs NB: Primary care services include GPs. The money is divided up geographically based on morbidity. they will spend on general practitioner and hospital services to ensure that. patient transport (including accident and emergency).
heart transplant).g. Each Non-Executive Director also brings individual skills and personal experience of their community and the NHS to guide the work of the Trust. He/she ensures that the Board provides efficient and effective healthcare. The Executive Directors of the Trust Board are: Medical director. The Clinical Business units are Surgery. children’s cancer). The Chairman of a Trust Board is a non-executive appointment. severe burn care) or national level (e. PCTs group together at different levels from local up to national to ensure that such services are planned and paid for at the level appropriate to the condition. 'Specialised' means that the service needs to be commissioned for a large population. So unlike normal services which are commissioned at PCT (local) level. The clinical services are usually divided in 4 units (variously called Clinical business unit or Directorates). Human resources director etc. supra regional (e.g. specialised services need to be commissioned at regional (e.g. and is chaired by a non-executive director. Finance director. The Executive Directors are experts led by a Chief Executive. Each of them is managed by a Clinical director (usually a senior doctor) supported by the Services manager. Diagnostics and Women’s and Child health. 200 . Discuss the management structure of NHS hospitals? Each NHS trust is headed by a board consisting of executive and non-executive directors. maintains financial viability and meets legal and contractual obligations.every hospital and tend to be found only in larger ones based in big towns and cities. Nursing director. Every Board must have a majority of lay people on the Board. They are appointed from the local community served by the Trust. Medicine. Each Executive has their functional responsibilities as well as being a corporate member of the Board. Thus. including the Chairman and Non-Executive Directors.
The Management Board is chaired by the chair of the Board of Governors and at least a third of the places excluding the chair must be filled by non-executive directors elected by the Board of Governors. a Board of Governors. In addition the Management Board must include a Chief Executive. staff and local people. who are drawn from patients. The Board of Governors must elect a chair. and procedures. As well as the Board of Governors.The Divisions are responsible for the day-to-day management and delivery of services within their areas in line with Trust strategies. 201 . This involves members. The Board of Governors approves the annual report and accounts. and a Management Board. sets the foundation trust’s strategic direction. a medical director and a finance director. policies. The members of the foundation trust elect representatives to its Board of Governors. Foundation trusts are owned by their members. Discuss the management structure in Foundation trusts? Foundation trusts have a governance structure that differs from other NHS trusts. The Management Board has a duty to consult the Board of Governors concerning the development of the trust’s forward plans and regarding any significant changes to the business plan. who is appointed by the chair and non-executive directors of the management board. each foundation trust has a Management Board. and ensures that it does not breach the terms of its licence.
Or it may be because there is confusion or uncertainty over how well a technology works. NICE produces four types of guidance: technology appraisal guidance.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence What is National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)? What do they do? How does NICE help you to look after your patients better? Tell us about a NICE guideline relating to your specialty and how it helps you. This may be because of different prescribing or funding policies in different areas. treatments and procedures within the NHS Technology appraisal guidance 202 . The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is the independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on the promotion of good health and the prevention and treatment of ill health. healthcare professionals. Clinical guidelines. clinical guidelines. Public health guidance. local authorities and the wider public and voluntary sector Interventional procedure guidance. and how much value for money it offers to the NHS and patients. NICE is asked to look at particular technologies when people’s access to them varies across the country. interventional procedure guidance and public health guidance.guidance on the promotion of good health and the prevention of ill health for those working in the NHS. NICE provides authoritative advice on the effectiveness of interventions to improve health and reduce health inequalities and on treatments and the best clinical practice.guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions within the NHS.guidance on the use of new and existing medicines. industry and the academic world. patients and carers. NICE guidance is developed using the expertise of the NHS and the wider healthcare community including NHS staff.
they can take the complaint to the NHS Ombudsman.if NICE recommended treatment not available Patient can contact PALS for help and advice Independent help and advice is also available from local Independent Complaints Advocacy Service. I will fill the relevant forms. Hospital managers inform you that this treatment cannot be given as it is too costly. ultimately. 203 . I will inform the patient of the same as well as inform him how he can take the issue forwards. Patient’s perspective. they can ask the Healthcare Commission (now called Care Quality Commission) to investigate the complaint. The trust form basically asks you to justify the need for the treatment and evidence to support that the recommended treatment will be useful. What do you do then? How would you inform the patient? What if the course of action you recommended was actually contained in a NICE guideline? Every trust has a procedure for requesting treatment on a named patient basis for treatments which are not yet available in the trust. If resolution is still not possible. If the patient have been through the formal complaints process and received a final decision from your Trust. normally within 3 months of the guidance being issued. the NHS must ensure it is available to those people it could help.How does NICE help me? When NICE recommends a technology. approach the relevant committee and discuss it with my managers. and are still unhappy. This normally resolves the issue. They have a statutory role to support patients and carers who wish to make a complaint about their NHS treatment or care. You are working as a consultant and you are recommending that one of your patients should be given a particular treatment based on the best evidence available. If not.
uk 204 . The patient can also raise the issue with the Trust’s Patient and Public Involvement Forum.nice.org. Ref: www. Patient and Public Involvement forums can raise issues of concern directly with the trust. and are also involved in the annual inspection carried out by the Care Quality Commission.
National Reporting and Learning Service. by ensuring that where risks are identified. and more importantly to learn from. NPSA has three divisions: National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS) . patients and carers.National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) The NPSA is a Special Health Authority created to co-ordinate the efforts of all those involved in healthcare. NHS staff. safety. work is undertaken on producing solutions to prevent harm. patient safety incidents occurring in the NHS on a national level.please listen to the NCAS module for details. National Research Ethics Service: Protects the rights. dignity and well-being of research participants that are part of clinical trials and other research within the NHS. and to specify national goals and establish mechanisms to track progress NPSA also commission and monitor: Role of NPSA is to improve patient safety: 205 . The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health (CEMACH) The National Confidential Enquiry into Suicide and Homicide by people with mental illness (NCISH) By collecting and analysing information on patient safety incidents from local NHS organisations. By taking into account other safety-related information from a variety of existing reporting systems. By learning lessons and ensuring that they are fed back into health care.
They can also do so via their trust’s local risk management system. many of the barriers are psychological. is it realistic to think that staff will be encouraged to point out their own mistakes. the fear of what someone else could do to the complainant. the NRLS is confidential and anonymous and does not store anything that identifies either the reporter or patients/staff involved in a patient safety incident. let alone those of a superior? There are many barriers to creating a ‘blame free’ culture. We’ve got to look after the staff and recognise the traumas that many staff experience from being involved in adverse events. However. The NPSA does not investigate specific incidents. By working with the organisations involved NPSA seek to understand and tackle the "root causes" behind incidents and by sharing that learning help prevent the same incidents and errors occurring again. Current status: NRLS has undoubtedly led to greater reporting of safety incidents. regulatory or investigative body. The NRLS and NPSA is not a performance management. Through the NRLS the NPSA will be able to develop an accurate picture of the extent of adverse incidents taking place in healthcare and have a baseline against which to measure improvements in patient safety. and this will remain the responsibility of the appropriate NHS bodies. Today it is one of the most comprehensive such systems in the world Given the hierarchical and blaming nature of healthcare. What is a patient safety incident? 206 .National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) NHS staff can report incidents to the NRLS through a specially designed electronic reporting form (known as the eForm) via NHS Net or the internet. Blame free culture can only come about by helping NHS staff realise they don’t need to feel threatened or feel guilty about reporting after they’ve done so. As a result. from which incident data will be extracted and sent electronically to the NRLS. and are interested only in the ‘how’ and not the ‘who’. and is improving at feeding this information back to the NHS in a timely and useful way.
nhs.npsa. The NPSA also has a dedicated Patient Advice & Liaison Service team (PALS) currently taking calls from the public about their health care experiences.uk 207 . Ref: www.A patient safety incident is defined as any unintended or unexpected incident which could have or did lead to harm for one or more patients receiving NHS-funded care.
and other advocates. NSFs set clear quality requirements for care. NSFs: Set national standards and identify key interventions for a defined service or care group Put in place strategies to support implementation Establish ways to ensure progress within an agreed time scale Form one of a range of measures to raise quality and decrease variations in service in the NHS. Currently there is NSF for cancer. The Department of Health supports the ERGs and manages the overall process. They set measurable goals within set time frames. renal services. External reference groups adopt an inclusive process to engage the full range of views. health service managers. service users and carers.nhs. treatment and management of cancer. coronary heart disease. These are based on the best available evidence of what treatments and services work most effectively for patients. how is its implementation being measured? National service frameworks (NSFs) are long term strategies for improving specific areas of care. partner agencies. COPD. mental health. Ref: http://www. National service frameworks (NSFs) cover some of the highest priority conditions.National service framework (NSF) How has the recent national service framework (NSF) affected your hospital’s practice. diabetes. Each NSF is developed with the assistance of an external reference group (ERG) which brings together health professionals. children. diabetes. heart diseases.uk/NHSEngland/NSF/Pages/Nationalservicefram eworks.aspx 208 . COPD etc. older people and long term conditions (neurological). Thus NSF has helped raise standards for the detection.
in line with their actual costs to hospitals. Hospitals that operate in parts of the country where staff costs are unavoidably high. The Department of Health has drawn up a long list of procedures. such as hip operations. It set up incentives for NHS hospitals to behave more like businesses. the money hospitals receive is linked to the amount of work they do. such as London. hospitals were paid in locally negotiated block contracts. Prior to PbR. These allowed for considerable variations in prices for operations across the country. There are more than 1. failing to carry out number of operations required of them. Most importantly. based on its average cost across the NHS. Payment by results aimed to increase the amount of work done by hospitals. fixed by a national tariff.000 HRG codes. such as hip replacements or treatment for heart attacks. In addition hospitals were often paid even when they under-performed. What changes will it bring? 209 . are reimbursed directly by the Department of Health. each with its own Healthcare Resource Groups (HRG) code. How does payment by results work? Under PbR.Payment by results (PbR) What do you understand of Payment by results (PbR) and national tariffs? Under payment by results. It also opened up the way for money to begin to follow patient choice. the price of each HRG procedure or treatment is fixed in relation to a national tariff. especially in areas with long waiting times. designed to capture all the treatments and procedures that a patient might have while in hospital for a particular condition or operation. hospitals are paid only if an operation or treatment is carried out.
Under the new system.Payment by results means a hospital will be paid the fixed price for every treatment it undertakes. or increase the amount of Cons 210 . On the other hand. by enabling funds to go he services chosen by patients. If the treatment costs more. to use as it sees fit. However. Hospitals can make money if they bring costs down. Make the system more transparent about the work that hospitals actually do. on top of their existing legal obligation to balance the books. or try to do more operations to generate extra money. PbR rewards volume. Concerns exist in GP surgeries and other community services that payment by results might create incentives for hospitals to treat as many patients as possible. the hospital will have to find ways of bringing those costs down. even when it would be more appropriate for treatment to take place elsewhere. it may also encourage local primary care trusts to work with general practices to improve care and reduce the risk of costly hospital admissions. hospitals will not get paid for unrecorded or badly recorded activity. not quality. by attracting larger numbers of patients. they will have to retain existing patients and attract new ones. To do this. This includes diverting patients away from other hospitals or places of treatment. it can also make money. Facilitate choice. If a hospital is able to increase its volume of treatments or operations. if it costs a hospital less than the national tariff price to perform a treatment. It can either cut costs. The assumption underlying this new system is that hospitals will want to make a surplus. undertaking more operations and treatments. by being 'more responsive' to their needs. then it can keep the extra money. just as businesses retain their profits. Pros PbR aims to make the NHS more efficient and productive.
give unnecessary treatment) in order to make more money. Procedures that have a clear treatment and roughly predictable length of stay – such as hip replacements – are relatively easy to cost. and that the best practice tariff should therefore cover only the optimal amount.775 for treatment of patients without medical complications. However. For instance. the NHS tariff pays two prices for different kinds of heart attack treatment: £1. PbR is being continually improved and there is a drive to link payment to quality by creating best practice tariffs. But cutting costs might be at the expense of better-quality equipment or staff numbers. PbR has also possibly having a positive effect on activity and efficiency in elective care. Another is that hospitals can start to cheat on coding.676 for those with complications. PbR has not been in place long enough for any conclusions about its effectiveness to be drawn. For example. £3. PbR has improved the fairness and transparency of the payment system. the PbR team states that unnecessary follow up appointments take place in cataract pathways. The risk is that hospitals will falsify the code (or. 211 . However. worse still. but it is much harder to set a fixed rate for treatments with fewer agreed definitions or end points. Some services and high cost drugs are currently excluded from PbR In summary. It is not easy to set tariffs for all health care activities.work they do.
the bulk of NHS money is allocated to primary care trusts (PCTs) who then commission and reimburse hospitals (and other health care providers) for the services used by their local populations. and drugs. including attendances at accident and emergency departments. This will encourage practices (or groups of practices) to come up with new ways of using the money to design services that might be more cost effective and more convenient for patients. if the GP under spends. PBC may also act as a mechanism to stimulate services to provide some of the ‘preventive’ care which aims to keep people healthier and offer better care for chronic conditions. Although universal coverage is a target. The notional budgets reflect any NHS services their patients receive. Savings made through prevented admissions can be used to fund better primary care services. GPs have incentives to improve care in the community. GP practices cannot be forced to take part: the scheme remains technically voluntary. PBC.means that GP practice operate as individual businesses with a ‘notional’ budget with which to buy health services (from NHS or private providers) for their patients. Under PBC. Benefits of PBC PBC provides incentives to the GP i.e.This builds on an existing initiative known as ‘GPs with Special Interests’. then he can retain the profits to reinvest into patient services. where GPs gain extra training and can take on 212 . and pay GP practices for the services they deliver to patients.Practice based commissioning (PBC) What is Practice based commissioning (PBC)? Traditional model. Setting up alternative sources of expertise. in order to prevent clinical deterioration and emergency admissions.At the moment. all referrals to hospital for outpatient and inpatient treatments.
conditions such as congestive heart failure can be diagnosed using in-house echocardiography equipment. Purchasing new diagnostic equipment can also enable GPs to manage people in the community. limited public involvement or accountability.gov. For example.dh. instead of being referred and then waiting for the tests to be done in hospital before a diagnosis (or not) is confirmed. insufficient support from management. GPs have a greater say in the type of services that should be made available in their area and how these should be run. However. The main reasons are: include a lack of clinical engagement. organisational immaturity. Ref http://www. This can potentially mean that only those with a high probability of the illness are referred on to a hospital consultant. Any provider who does not provide services as required by GPs and their patients may find themselves with fewer referrals. Practice based commissioning is clearly not about to be dismantled with the renewed support of the new coalition government.some of the work that hospital consultants have done in the past. and lack of information on which to base commissioning decisions.uk/en/Managingyourorganisation/Commissio ning/Practice-basedcommissioning/DH_076565 213 . PBC has not made sufficiently fast progress. The NHS Next Stage Review by Lord Darzi reiterated the pivotal role of PBC in empowering clinicians to shape the health and healthcare of local populations.
They will also be required to collect feedback from colleagues and patients .The information collected in their portfolio will provide the basis for discussion at their annual appraisal. Doctors will need to maintain a folder or portfolio of information drawn from their practice to show how they are meeting the required standards. Revalidation is the process by which doctors will have to demonstrate to the GMC. that they are up to date and fit to practise and complying with the relevant professional standards. Licences will require periodic renewal by revalidation. To practise medicine in the UK all doctors are required by law to hold both registration and a licence to practise. normally every five years. Licensing is the first step towards the introduction of revalidation. In most cases. this revalidation recommendation will come to the GMC via the local Responsible Officer (new statutory post). How will revalidation work? Revalidation will be based on a local evaluation of doctors' performance against national standards approved by the GMC based on Good Medical Practice. Revalidation will be introduced in a phased manner and will not start before 2011.Appraisals and Revalidation What do you know about Revalidation? On 16 November 2009 the GMC introduced the licence to practise. The Responsible 214 . Doctors will be expected to participate in a process of annual appraisal and assessment in the workplace which will include an evaluation of each doctor's performance against the relevant standards. To revalidate a doctor the GMC will require assurance that he or she is meeting the required standards and that there are no known concerns about the doctor's practice.
together with information derived from local clinical governance processes. public and employers regular assurance that their doctors are up to date and fit to practise. normally every five years. The trust need to provide training to its appraisers and 215 . licensed doctor like the medical director in the healthcare organisation where the doctor works. The principles of revalidation are sound. Some people think that revalidation/appraisals are a waste of time and just a paperwork/box-ticking exercise. In these ways. The process is likely to be effective as long as the trusts and doctors engage in the process. Do you feel it is a useful process? The revalidation process requires the hospital and the consultant to reflect on their practice and the organisation and to identify possible improvements. As such it is a desirable process. revalidation will contribute to improving the quality of patient care. Revalidation will provide a focus for doctors' efforts to maintain and improve their practice. The Responsible Officer will make a recommendation to the GMC about a doctor's revalidation. This will be based on the doctor's appraisals over this period. it will be for the GMC to decide whether the doctor concerned should be revalidated. However. Although the Responsible Officer will make the recommendation. it requires commitment from both the trust and the consultant. facilitate the organisations in which doctor’s work to support them in keeping their practice up to date.Officer will usually be a senior. and encourage patients and the public to provide feedback about the medical care they receive from doctors. Do you feel Revalidation will resolve the issues they are meant to address? Revalidation aims to: This new approach to medical regulation will give patients.
What is the difference between Assessment and Appraisal? 216 . The framework can be used by doctors to: The doctor and appraiser will agree a written overview of the appraisal. skills and performance Safety and Quality Communication. actions expected of the organisation. a standard summary of the appraisal and a joint declaration that the appraisal has been carried out properly.appraisees and provide adequate time for it in the job plan. which should include a summary of achievement in the previous year. Personal development plan (PDP) . The key principles of professionalism set out in Good Medical Practice will be used to create a framework for annual appraisals. Obviously. It also needs to support the consultant in achieving the objectives set in the PDP. to chart their continuing progress and to identify education and development needs.This is an outcome of the appraisal process listing the key development objectives of the appraisee for the following year as agreed with the appraiser. The evidence for appraisal will be collected under 4 domains: Knowledge. What can you tell me about appraisals? Appraisal is a formal process aimed to give doctors regular feedback on past performance. objectives for the next year. key elements of a personal development plan. the consultant needs to be committed to the process for it to be effective. Partnership and team work Maintaining trust Reflect on their practice and their approach to medicine Identify areas of practice where they could make improvements. It is part of a doctor's career development.
chart their continuing professional development. In other words.asp 217 .org/doctors/licensing/index. Revalidation will include both appraisal and assessment. and identify their developmental needs.gmc-uk. Assessment is a formal process which examines performance.Appraisal is a formal process to provide feedback on doctors’ performance. Ref: http://www. Who is the main beneficiary in an Appraisal or revalidation? It increases public confidence in doctors by reassuring the public that doctors are up to date and fit to practice. assessment is ticking boxes set by others. whereas appraisal is ticking boxes that you have helped to set yourself. and are subject to assessment and development review. What about appraisal of doctors in training? Specialist registrar training and progress through the grade are noted in the Record of In Training Assessment (RITA) or ARCP. It leads to the personal and professional development of the individual and the NHS benefit as a whole.
000 organs. Few Recommendations of the report were. lungs. It also emerged that the Birmingham and Liverpool hospitals had also given thymus glands. This caused a problem for the prosecution. Crown Prosecution Service decided that there should be no prosecution of Dick Van Velzen for criminal offences. who were required to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the organs were indeed illegitimately obtained.Alder Hey Inquiry The Alder Hey inquiry was launched in October 1999 following revelations that three children's hospitals had been harvesting hearts. removed during heart surgery from live children. brains and other organs from dead babies without their parents' informed consent. The official Alder Hey report was published in 2001. This was ordered even for the children of parents who specifically stated that they did not want a full postmortem. but were unable to do so. The Human Tissue Act 1961 shall be amended to provide a test of fully informed consent for the lawful post 218 . Alder Hey also stored 1.500 foetuses that were miscarried. to a pharmaceutical company for research in return for financial donations. body parts and entire bodies of foetuses and still-born babies were retained at hospitals and medical schools across England. The report also revealed that over 104. The GMC ruled in 2005 that Dutch pathologist Dick van Velzen would be permanently banned from practicing medicine in the UK. The reason given for this decision was that there could be no guarantee that organs which remained in the containers were those originally taken at post mortem examination. The police attempted to find a solution to this problem. stillborn or aborted without consent. The report revealed that Dutch pathologist Dick van Velzen systematically ordered the "unethical and illegal stripping of every organ from every child who had a postmortem" during his time at the hospital.
dismissal or financial penalty. Guidelines relating to the requirements of the Human Tissue Act 1961 and the obtaining of fully informed consent shall be drawn up and provision made for breach to result in disciplinary proceedings which could lead to suspension.rlcinquiry.org. New law on informed consent Review of coroner's system Trusts to employ bereavement advisors Ref: http://www.uk 219 . The Human Tissue Act 1961 shall be amended to impose a criminal penalty by way of fine for breach of its provisions in order to encourage future compliance.mortem examination and retention of parts of the bodies of deceased persons.
The Bristol Inquiry was set up to investigate the deaths of 29 babies undergoing heart surgery at the Bristol Royal infirmary in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Its terms of reference were to inquire into the management of the care of children receiving complex cardiac surgical services at the Bristol Royal Infirmary between 1984 and 1995 and relevant related issues. The Inquiry’s final report was published in July 2001. The panel was asked to make findings as to the adequacy of the services provided to establish what action was taken both within and outside the hospital to deal with concerns raised about the surgery and to identify any failure to take appropriate action promptly to reach conclusions from these events and to make recommendations which could help to secure high quality care across the NHS. Paediatric cardiac surgery services at Bristol, which led to the deaths of 29 children between 1994 and 1995, were "simply not up to the task": there were shortages of key surgeons and nurses, and a lack of leadership, accountability, and teamwork. The Bristol inquiry report lays the blame primarily on general NHS failings rather than on individuals: it found some doctors' behaviour was "flawed" yet there was no suggestion that they willfully harmed patients. The sense is gained that informing parents and gaining their consent to treatment was regarded as something of a chore by the surgeons. It should not be a question of the healthcare professional judging what the parent needs to know: it is the parent who should make that decision. At the time, however, the prevailing view was that parents
Some of the findings and recommendations were:
should be protected from too much information. The report recommended that the NHS must learn the lessons of Bristol by putting the patients back at the centre of care, and sweeping away the existing secretive, paternalistic and defensive health service culture. Patients should be involved in decisions about their or their children's treatment and care, and they should be kept informed about the progress of their care: while the public should be fully involved in health care decision making. There should be an overhaul of children's services across the NHS, starting with the appointments of a national director for children's health care services charged with making child-centered health care a priority. The arrangements for caring for very sick children in Bristol at that time were not safe. There was too little recognition that the state of buildings and of equipment, and the training of the staff, could cause actual harm to the children. For the future, the NHS must root out unsafe practices, promote open discussion of clinical performance and be willing to acknowledge errors in order that it can learn from its mistakes. Clinical negligence litigation, which acts as a barrier to openness about medical errors and, consequently, prevents lessons from being learned, should be abolished. The clinicians in Bristol had no one to satisfy but themselves that the service which they provided was of appropriate quality. There was no systematic mechanism for monitoring the clinical performance of healthcare professionals or of hospitals. For the future there must be effective systems within hospitals to ensure that clinical performance is monitored. There must also be a system of independent external surveillance to review patterns of performance over time and to identify good and failing performance. Patients should be able to gain access to information about the relative performance of a hospital, or a particular service or consultant unit.
All health care professionals - including GPs - must undergo regular skills updates and checks to ensure that they are fully competent to treat patients. It is an account of a time when there was no agreed means of assessing the quality of care. There were no standards for evaluating performance. The report recommended the establishment of national standards of care. Independent external regulation to monitor the performance of those providing healthcare (CHRE came into existence as a result of the recommendation)
Health Minister Lord Darzi's next stage review of the NHS, "High Quality Care for All” was published in June 2008. While the past 10 years of NHS reform were designed to increase capacity, the next task is to increase quality and personalisation and give more power to clinicians and patients. Darzi sets a new foundation for a health service that empowers staff and gives patients choice. It ensures that health care will be personalised and fair, include the most effective treatments within a safe system, and help patients to stay healthy. Darzi review envisages a NHS that is: Fair – equally available to all Personalised – tailored to the needs and wants of each individual, providing access to services at the time and place of their choice Effective – focused on delivering outcomes for patients that are among the best in the world Safe – as safe as it possibly can be. The review suggested the following immediate steps: A. Create an NHS that helps people to stay healthy. Every PCT will commission comprehensive wellbeing and prevention services with efforts focused on six key goals: tackling obesity, reducing alcohol harm, treating drug addiction, reducing smoking rates, improving sexual health and improving mental health. A Coalition for Better Health (between the Government, private and third sector organizations) to ensure healthier food, to get more people more physically active, and to encourage companies to invest more in the health of their workforce. Raised awareness of vascular risk assessment through a new ‘Reduce Your Risk’ campaign.
Support for people to stay healthy at work. Support GPs to help individuals and their families stay healthy by improving the Quality and Outcomes Framework to provide better incentives for maintaining good health as well as good care.
B. Give patients more rights and control over their own health and care. Extend choice of GP practice. Introduce a new right to choice in the first NHS Constitution. Ensure everyone with a long-term condition has a personalised care plan. Pilot personal health budget- giving individuals and families greater control over their own care, with clear safeguards. Guarantee patients access to the most clinically and cost effective drugs and treatments. NICE appraisals processes will be speeded up. Getting the basics right first time, every time by continuous improvements in safety and reductions in healthcare associated infections. Independent quality standards and clinical priority setting by expanding NICE. Systematically measure and publish information about the quality of care from the frontline up. Measures will include patients’ own views on the success of their treatment and the quality of their experiences. Making funding for hospitals that treat NHS patients reflect the quality of care that patients receive. For the first time, patients’ own assessments of the success of their treatment and the quality of their experiences will have a direct impact on the way hospitals are funded.
C. Improved standards
Empower frontline staff to lead change that improves quality of care for patients. E. Increased involvement of clinicians in decision making at every level of the NHS. with clinicians encouraged to be practitioners. the current Clinical Excellence Awards Scheme will be strengthened. to reinforce quality improvement. These will complement the arrangements at PCT level that are developing as part of the World Class Commissioning programme. Developing new best practice tariffs focused on areas for improvement. Enhancing professionalism. meaning NHS organisations will need to improve to keep up. For senior doctors. D. There will be investment in new programmes of clinical and board leadership. Implementing wide ranging programme to support the development of vibrant. Medical directors and quality boards feature at regional and national level. Measures to ensure continuous improvement in the quality of primary and community care. A new ‘Quality Observatory’ will be established in every NHS region to inform local quality improvement efforts. successful community health services. These will pay for best practice rather than average cost. Easy access for NHS staff to information (NHS Evidence service) about high quality care. There is clear local support for quality improvement. F. partners and leaders in the NHS. Value the work of NHS staff. Placing a new emphasis on enabling NHS staff to lead and manage the organisations in which they work. 225 .
New pledges to staff. The NHS Constitution makes pledges on work and wellbeing, learning and development, and involvement and partnership. All NHS organisations will have a statutory duty to have regard to the Constitution. A clear focus on improving the quality of NHS education and training. A threefold increase in investment in nurse and midwife preceptorships. These offer protected time for newly qualified nurses and midwives to learn from their more senior colleagues during their first year. Doubling investment in apprenticeships. Strengthened arrangements to ensure staff have consistent and equitable opportunities to update and develop their skills.
The first NHS Constitution Lord Darzi feels that a NHS constitution will be a powerful way to secure the defining features of the service for the next generation. Whilst changes must be made to improve quality, the best of the NHS, the values and core principles which underpin it, must be protected and enshrined. An NHS Constitution will help patients by setting out, for the first time, the extensive set of legal rights they already have in relation to the NHS. It will ensure that decision-making is local where possible and more accountable than it is today, providing clarity and transparency about who takes what decisions on our behalf. The NHS constitution was published on 21st January 2009 as a consequence of the Darzi report. Ref: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/P ublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085825
Derek Wanless report
‘Securing Our Future Health: Taking a Long-Term View’ - an independent review by Derek Wanless - was the first ever evidence-based assessment of the long-term resource requirements for the NHS. The report was published in April 2002 It concludes that in order to meet people’s expectations and to deliver the highest quality over the next 20 years, the UK will need to devote a significantly larger share of its national income to health care and that this must be matched by reform to ensure that these resources are used effectively. It has projected the likely costs of reversing the significant cumulative underinvestment over past decades, to catch up with the standards of care seen in other countries and to deliver a wide-ranging, high quality service for the public and individual patients. The importance of rigorous independent audit has been stressed to ensure that money is being well spent, to enable policy to be periodically re-assessed and to allow the continuing trade-offs to be made and debated publicly. The Review welcomes the Government’s intention to extend the NSF approach to other disease areas. It recommends that NSFs should in future include estimates of the resources – in terms of the staff, equipment and other technologies and subsequent cash needs – necessary for their delivery. The Review recommends that the NICE has a major role to play in examining older technologies and practices which may no longer be appropriate or cost effective; it will also be important to ensure that recommendations from NICE are properly integrated with the development of NSFs. The Review recommends that the Government should examine the merits of employing financial incentives such as those used in Sweden to help reduce the problems of bed blocking; The Review has noted Sweden’s success
over the past decade in reducing bed blocking. The 1992 Adel reforms in Sweden introduced financial incentives to reduce the number of elderly patients waiting to be discharged from acute care hospitals. Under these arrangements, the local authorities (which are responsible for social care) are required to pay the county councils (which run the hospitals) for care delivered to patients in hospital once a patient has been deemed medically fit for discharge. The Review believes that the present structure of exemptions for prescription charges is not logical, nor rooted in the principles of the NHS. Currently 50 per cent of the population of England is exempt from prescription charges. As a result, 85 per cent of prescription items dispensed by community pharmacists and appliance contractors in England in 2000 were free to patients. Yet research showed that 1 in 20 had failed to get all of a prescription dispensed and a further 1 in 50 had failed to get part dispensed, because of the cost.
Recognising the political sensitivities and the limited amount of money which might be raised, this may not be a priority for attention. However, the present structure of exemptions for prescription charges is not logical, nor rooted in the principles of the NHS. If related issues are being considered in future, it is recommended that the opportunity should be taken to think through the rationale for the exemption policy. Ref: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/P ublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4074426
Shipman Inquiry reports
There are 6 reports in all, of which third and fifth reports are relevant for interviews. THIRD REPORT Death Certification and the Investigation of Deaths by the Coroners (published Jul 2003) In the Inquiry's Third Report, the Chairman, Dame Janet Smith DBE, considered the present system for death and cremation certification and for the investigation of deaths by coroners, together with the conduct of those who had operated those systems in the aftermath of the deaths of Shipman's victims. She has made recommendations for change based on her findings. The present systems of death and cremation certification failed to detect that Shipman had killed any of his 215 victims. Many of the deaths occurred suddenly and unexpectedly and, under the present procedures, should have been reported to the coroner. Yet Shipman managed to avoid any coronial investigation in all but two of the cases in which he had killed. He did this by claiming to be in a position to certify the cause of death and by persuading relatives that no autopsy (and therefore no referral to the coroner) was necessary. Faults with the current system: Completely dependent upon the professional integrity and competence of the medical profession. In general the profession can be relied upon, but not always. Certification of the cause of death by a single doctor without consulting or discussing the death with the relatives is no longer acceptable. Cremation certification, as presently practised, is ineffective. In future, the family of the deceased must play a full part in the processes of investigation and certification so that any concerns can be appropriately addressed. Poor coronial investigations of the cases referred to the coroner. Often the coroner does not have medical knowledge or ready access to medical advice.
The changes proposed in the report were: There should be one system of death certification applicable to all deaths, whether the death is to be followed by burial or cremation. The basis for the certification system would be the completion of two forms. The first (Form 1) would provide an official record of the fact and circumstances of death. It would be completed by the person who had confirmed the fact that death had occurred. The second form (Form 2) would be completed by the doctor who had treated the deceased person during the last illness or, if no doctor had treated the deceased in the recent past, by the deceased's usual medical practitioner. To be eligible to complete Form 2, a doctor should be registered in the UK and have been in practice for four years since qualification. A statutory duty to complete Form 2 should be imposed: in the case of a death occurring in hospital, upon the consultant responsible for the care of the deceased at the time of the death. The duty would be satisfied if the form were completed by a suitably qualified member of the consultant's clinical team or firm; All deaths should be reported to the Coroner Service, which would take responsibility for certification of the death and for deciding whether further investigation was necessary. Deaths where the doctor completing Form 2 had expressed an opinion as to the cause of death would be considered for certification by a coroner's investigator after consultation with the deceased's family. All other deaths would go for further investigation by the medical coroner. A proportion of all deaths certified by a coroner's investigator on the basis of the opinion of the Form 2 doctor should be selected randomly for fuller investigation at the discretion of the medical coroner. In addition, the Coroner Service should have the power to
This process will need strengthening. considered the handling of complaints against general practitioners (GPs).undertake targeted investigations. General Medical Council procedures and its proposal for revalidation of doctors. This is helpful. Fault: Imposition of sanctions. it provides a general idea of what kind of sanction is appropriate where certain features are present in a 231 .panellists need more help Solution: GMC has published Indicative Sanctions Guidance (ISG). The GMC standards published in ‘Good Medical Practice’ has a problem that that no one knows how serious a departure from ‘Good Medical Practice’ has to be before disciplinary action will be taken or action on registration will follow. Fault: Poorly defined standards in respect of many aspects of misconduct and clinical practice. But it does not go far enough and the FTP panellists are still left to apply their own personal standards. There is lack of agreement as to what amounts to serious professional misconduct (SPM). the raising of concerns about GPs.Proposals for the future (published Dec 2004) In the Inquiry’s Fifth Report. Dame Janet Smith DBE. both prospective and retrospective. FIFTH REPORT Safeguarding patients: Lessons from the Past. Faults and solutions suggested in the report: Fault: GMC perform both the investigation and adjudication function for FTP procedures (and thus acts as both the prosecutor and judge in the same case). She has made recommendations for change based upon her findings. the Chairman. Solution: The GMC has produced some draft guidance for case examiners and panellists at the investigation stage and for panellists at the adjudication stage. Solution: Some mechanism must be found for Fitness to practice (FTP) panellists to be appointed by a body that is independent of GMC.
the report recommended that although the ISG is helpful. However. The CHRE (Council for Healthcare Regulatory Excellence) may be expected to play an important role in the further development of the new FTP procedures. in some circumstances. the CHRE will intervene.the-shipman-inquiry. was ‘unduly lenient’.org. It can audit outcomes of cases. The CHRE is a new body. That would be impractical and inappropriate. the CHRE’s powers are not limited to referring individual decisions to the Court.uk 232 . The GMC will know that.case. if it fails to act in the best interests of patients and the public. It has the power to refer to the High Court cases in which a doctor has been ‘acquitted’ of SPM and it will in the future have the power. it came into existence in 2003 as the result of the Bristol Inquiry Report. The report also explained that the process GMC intends to use for revalidation does not entail an evaluation of fitness to practise and thus this process is not fit for the purpose for which it is intended. or its failure to find impairment of a degree justifying action on registration. That is not to say that the CHRE could or should attempt to ‘manage’ the GMC. But the fact that it exists will have an important effect on the GMC. panellists need more help. Ref: www. to refer cases in which a FTP panel’s failure to find that a doctor’s fitness to practise was impaired. It has wide powers of oversight of the GMC’s FTP function. However. it can examine processes and it can require rule changes.
The report was instigated in response to the concern raised by many specialties that after the introduction of the EWTD it was impossible to ensure doctors in training acquired a sufficient number of hours of supervised and hands-on experience to bring them up to an adequate standard.TEMPLE REPORT. instead the feeling amongst trainees is that shift patterns have decreased the quality of life. The move to resident shift systems to accommodate the 48-hour week means that more trainee doctors are required to cover the out of hours care if the structure of service cover remains the same. The report was published on June 9. Shift working has decreased training opportunities and impacted on trainee experience by reduction in trainer and trainee interaction and lack of continuity of patient care. Recruitment challenges due to 233 . Problems with EWTD implementation: The reduced hours have necessitated a move to shift patterns of work in many Specialties (any doctor working to a rota that requires them to work different duty times at certain points on the rota can be considered to be a shift worker). 2010 The report looked at the impact of the 48-hour week on the quality of the training that is necessary to ensure the continuing supply of a world class workforce which is able to deliver high quality services to patients. although shorter. are more frequent. less regular and more antisocial. Although with the reduction in hours there should be less sleep deprivation and better work–life balance for trainees. This increased requirement for doctors results in an increase in the number of rota gaps. as work periods.TIME FOR TRAINING A Review of the impact of the European Working Time Directive on the quality of training This report was commissioned by Medical Education England at the request of the former secretary of state for health Alan Johnson.
says the report.e. consultant delivered services. which shows that despite an increase in consultant numbers of more than 60% over the past ten years. hospitals remain too reliant on junior doctors to provide out of hours services. Rota gaps result in trainees being moved from their daytime. There is a total of over 15. It recommends the following to achieve high quality training within EWTD: Implement a consultant delivered service: Consultants must be more directly responsible for the delivery of 24/7 care. 234 . This results in the trainee missing out on the planned training that day and often the next due to compensatory rest. Rigid. poorly designed rotas result in trainees being unsupported and unsupervised. rotas have gaps.changes in immigration law have compounded the difficulty in fillings gaps. The roles of consultants need to be developed for them to be more directly involved in out of hours care i. These are usually out of hours where there is minimal supervision and therefore less training opportunity. The impact of EWTD is greatest in specialties with high emergency and/or out of hours workloads Recommendations The report recommends that high quality training can be delivered in 48 hours. Although many rotas are compliant with 48 hours on paper. but these are not all being used effectively for training. more elective training often at very short notice to fill service gaps. Any current problems will not be solved by either increasing hours or lengthening training programmes.000 hours available to trainees working a 48-hour week in a seven-year training programme.
uk/our_work/work_priorities/review_of_ewt d__impact_on_tra. preferably consultants The co-ordinated. develop and reward trainers Consultants formally and directly involved in training should be identified.nhs.mee. Training excellence monitoring requires regular planning and Commissioner levers should be strengthened to incentivise training. trained.aspx 235 . ensure accountability and reward high quality and innovation Ref: http://www. accredited and supported. controlled environment and accelerate learning Recognise.Service delivery must explicitly support training: Services must be designed and configured to deliver high quality patient care and training. integrated use of simulation and technology can provide a safe. Reconfiguration or redesign of elective and emergency services and an effective Hospital at Night programme are two of the ways in which healthcare can be changed to support training and safe services Make every moment count Training must be planned and focused for the trainees’ needs Trainers and trainees must use the learning opportunities in every clinical situation Handovers can be an effective learning experience when supervised by senior staff.
6 Training commissioning and management. The Panel proposed corrective action to resolve issues in these areas. or those pursuing a non-consultant career grade experience). Others viewed FY2 as ‘a gap year’ while others wished to see rotations map into a theme. A lot of FY2 did not feel that the year added value over and above further patient exposure.2year) . 7 Service implications. 4 Regulation.the report acknowledges that the FP possesses ‘inherent strengths designed to address perceived deficiencies in the PRHO and first year SHO experience’. offer appropriate flexibility to trainees. or meet the needs of particular groups (e. 5 Education and selection. the process used for selecting trainee doctors for specialist training. Postgraduate Medical Education The structure of postgraduate training proposed by MMC is unlikely to encourage or reward striving for excellence. 3 Workforce analysis. Current training structure Foundation Programme (FP. The review examined the framework and processes underlying MMC and made recommendations to inform any improvements for 2008 and beyond. The Inquiry systematically analysed areas of concern arising from MMC: 1 Policy. Deficiencies of FP: Limited evidence relating to the operation and value of FP.g. facilitate future workforce design.Tooke report This was an independent inquiry into MMC in the wake of debacle surrounding MTAS. those with academic aspirations. It risks creating another ‘lost tribe’ at FTSTA level. 2 Professional engagement. 236 .
not fully owned by the assessors and at worse regarded as a tick box process. Choice of Core programme during FY1 would exacerbate premature decision making. The Panel strongly believes that the issue should be addressed by enhancing the undergraduate curriculum (necessitating the better fusion of undergraduate experience with FY1 as proposed) with ‘pulling back’ of supervised FY1 experience into the final undergraduate year rather than perpetuating a preregistration style status for two years. say. 237 . the curriculum identifies few specific learning objectives in relation to this theme. a burgeoning issue in contemporary healthcare. four broad based common stems with transferability between Core at the end of the first or second year. The Panel believes there is a world of difference between choice of one of. The worrying statement by Foundation School Directors. and commitment to one of the 57 specialties. In the Panel’s view it is also unacceptable if GMC registration is to mean the same thing. However. The emphasis on competency in managing the acutely ill patient is a laudable objective but despite a statement in the Introduction to the Foundation Curriculum acknowledging the importance of chronic disease management. The need to avoid premature choice of particular specialty. A two year period of provisional registration would require an amendment to the Medical Act which could take several years. concerns remain that the assessments are non-standardised. that as a result of the working time directive and other factors the 12 month pre-registration year no longer guarantees that a doctor at the point of registration will have the same level of competence as the old PRHO. Its emphasis on self directed learning and workplace assessment is welcome. would perpetuate a sense of ‘student hood’ and is unlikely to be acceptable to the new graduate. implying that a two year programme is necessary to reach the standards worthy of full registration.
Tooke’s recommendations Abolish FY2. family medicine. For those who remain uncertain regarding career destination there will be opportunities for competitive transfer between the Core stems during years one and two. Selection into Higher Specialist Training Problems with MMC/MTAS It was insufficiently tailored to take account of the particular aptitudes required for particular specialisms and the specialist professional viewpoint. 4) number of broad based specialty stems: e. Inclusion of both would enhance face validity of such a high stakes exercise. medical disciplines. For a minority. etc. The selection system for Specialty Training needs to take greater account of clinical experience. common stem. Candidates will apply via Postgraduate Deaneries or Graduate Schools.5 to 4 years. over excellence. The single annual application date and the very large size of some Units of Application created problems both for organisations and for candidates. 238 . The report recommended Selection into Higher Specialist Training to the role of Specialist Registrar will be informed by the Royal Colleges working in partnership with the Regulator. therefore. CV and academic achievement.g. The selection system over weighted competence. surgical disciplines.g. At the end of FY1 doctors will be selected into one of a small (e. a concept with limited discriminatory function. Core training might thus extend to 3. Core Specialty Training will typically take three years and will evolve with time typically to encompass six six-month positions.
Satisfactory completion of Core will allow eligibility for selection into Higher Specialist Training or redefined Staff Grade positions that we termed ‘Trust Registrar’. ‘out of programme ’activity should be facilitated for those in post Core careers. They will use a common national form with specialty specific questions and will provide their standardised assessment score/ranking along with a structured CV. Graduate Schools linked to the 30 UK Medical Schools would reduce the size of Units of Application and address the family-unfriendly situations that arose there from. making it difficult to change specialty. nor necessarily spent sufficient time in postgraduate positions to be eligible for staff grade positions. FTSTA. Application will take place three times a year on agreed dates. This should be positively facilitated and 239 . The report recommends that subject to the fulfillment of relevant competency assessments all UK medical graduates should have the opportunity to complete Core postgraduate medical training. Flexibility To build on career enhancing opportunities during Core training and in the interests of flexibility. This will avoid the once a year appointment system with its inherent risks to service delivery. Entry into a narrow specialty area at ST1 is too early to decide on a career specialty for the majority of doctors and thus uncoupling of core training from higher specialist training should be considered. Shortlisted candidates will be subject to a structured interview for final selection. Compounding this problem is the inherent inflexibility in ‘runthrough’ training.The fate of those in Fixed Term Specialist Training Appointments is a particular cause for concern and could become the new ‘lost tribe’ as they may not all have accrued the same postgraduate experience as those completing Core training in the future. It has been pointed out that the current regulations do allow out of programme activity.
In this respect the distinction between NTN and NTN (Academic) is unhelpful. Professional engagement The medical profession’s effective involvement in training policy-making has been weak. Act as the professional interface between policy development and implementation on matters relating to PGMET. Some of the functions. Define the principles underpinning PGMET. There is no enthusiasm for research becoming a necessary hurdle between Core and higher specialist training however. Although coherent medical professional advice is crucial. NHS Medical Education England NHS: MEE (this body has subsequently come into existence). this body would fulfill are: Hold the ring-fenced budget for medical education and training for England. NHS Medical Education England NHS: MEE The Panel recommended the formation of a new body.encouraged. the difficulty of achieving this goal is recognised. as well as promoting R&D and the global health agenda. given that such out of programme activity enriches the skill base and professional life of doctors. The Panel recommended the formation of Medical Education England (NHS: MEE) to act as the locus for the development of coherent professional advice relating to Postgraduate medical education and training (PGMET). Develop a national perspective on training numbers for medicine working within the revised medical workforce advisory machinery Promote the national cohesion of Postgraduate Deanery activities 240 . but a clear desire that trainees can move seamlessly and without stigma between integrated academic training and a conventional clinical training track.
Scrutinise SHA medical education and training commissioning functions. Responsibility for the local delivery of postgraduate medical education and training should form part of the explicit remit of Medical Directors of Trusts. Despite most authorities acknowledging that medical education should be seamless from undergraduate days through to continuing professional development the regulation of medical education is divided between two bodies: the GMC is responsible for undergraduate education. and in England. apart from FY2 which is theoretically unregulated but in practice shared between the GMC and PMETB. PMETB should be assimilated in a regulatory structure within GMC that oversees the continuum of 241 Training Commissioning and management . certification and revalidation in the same body. CPD and revalidation. a weak contractual base. Training budgets remain vulnerable if not ring-fenced for the purpose. whilst PMETB is responsible for Postgraduate Training post FY1. a lack of cohesion. fails clearly to link registration. To incentivise Trusts to give education and training sufficient priority they should be integrated into the Care Quality Commission’s performance reporting regime. The management of postgraduate training is currently hampered by unclear principles. deficient relationships with academia and service. permits the development of different cultural approaches and promotes the separateness of the trainee mentality. Such a duplicated regulatory structure creates diseconomies. One body is therefore preferable. FY1. Furthermore the funding structure in England is flawed and there are insufficient incentives to become involved in postgraduate medical education. facilitating demand led solutions whilst ensuring maintenance of a national perspective is maintained.
continuing professional development.undergraduate and postgraduate medical education and training. to inform workforce planning. The Inquiry revealed inconsistent policy objectives regarding self sufficiency in relation to doctor supply and the absence of explicit plans to deal with a burgeoning production of UK doctors secondary to medical school expansion. quality assurance and enhancement. The merger took place in the light of the Tooke recommendation. This will provide an inventory of the contemporary skill base and number of trained specialists/subspecialists in the workforce.mmcinquiry. Update: On 1 April 2010 PMETB merged with the GMC. The merger creates a simpler and clearer framework for the regulation of medical education and training. The GMC is now responsible for the regulation of all stages of medical education and training.uk/ 242 . The content of higher specialty training and the numbers of positions will be informed by dialogue between the Colleges. Ref: http://www. employers. There is a policy vacuum regarding the potential massive increase in trainee numbers. The Panel recommends that DH should work with the GMC to create robust databases that hold information on the status of all doctors practicing in the UK. This is the first time a single organisation has been charged with overseeing all stages of a doctor's career.org. Deaneries and medical workforce advisory machinery to allow finer tuning of the nature of the specialist workforce to reflect rapidly evolving technical advances and the locus of care. Workforce analysis Medical workforce planning is hampered by lack of clarity regarding doctor’s roles and does not align with other aspects of health policy. as well as those in training for such positions.
Post interview If you don’t get the job. it is vital you should get feedback What was lacking in your CV? What else they wanted? Anything you could have done better at the interview? 243 . Say I am into forming a patient feedback group—a patient feedback form or whatever unique/special drives you Do you have any questions for us? Always say. However. prepare a short vignette---I am great because.you don’t get called in first.Is there anything we could have asked that would influence the selection of candidates? This is your moment.. Say that you have had ample opportunity to discuss the post in depth and you feel clear about the remit of.. no thank you.End of Interview The interview may end with the panel asking---.. and challenges in the post..
uk (2 very useful videos) http://www.html Useful interview questions for anaesthetists http://www.mmc.kingsfund.nhs.ac.uk 244 .org.donsims.nandu.uk/research_intro.youtube.org.medicalinterviewpreparation.uk The King's Fund seeks to understand how the health system in England can be improved.londondeanery.uk Another good general source of topical NHS politics www.org.html Useful information regarding Geriatrics interview http://www. www.uk//e-learning Useful site.uk Guidance about MMC www. full of helpful ideas.htm Useful information on research www.co.co.ac.tig.Important Links http://www.rcplondon. small group teaching etc http://www.uk/interview.co. http://www.faculty.dh.uk A useful source of information about NHS reforms.htm Orthopaedic trainee’s site.com/watch?v=gqxk1YzkuYs Useful video regarding the duties of the doctor http://www.trauma.uk/FAQ.Learning modules on a variety of topics like giving feedback.gov. training etc www.btinternet.org.bma.uk/unit/interviewskills.
asp?section=75&art icle=116 Orthopaedic interview 245 .nhs. for up to date information on reforms / initiatives www.uk/article.co.shoulderdoc.uk Patient orientated website.Department of health website. but quite clear description of current reforms http://www.
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