1/achievement (n) achieve verb [T] to succeed in finishing something or reaching an aim, especially after a lot of work or effort: - She finally

achieved her ambition to visit South America. - I've been working all day, but I feel as if I've achieved nothing. achievable adjective describes a task, etc. that is possible to achieve: - Before you set your targets, make sure that they are achievable. achiever noun high/low achiever a person who achieves more/less than the average: Not enough attention is given to the low achievers in the class. under achiever someone who is less successful than they should be at school or at work achievement noun [C or U] something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing: Whichever way you look at it, an Olympic silver medal is a remarkable achievement for one so young. The Tale of Genji has been described as the greatest achievement of Japanese literature. It gives you a sense of achievement if you actually make it to the end of a very long book. 2/ agriculture (n) agriculture noun [u] farming: Agriculture is still largely based on traditional methods in some countries. The area depends on agriculture for most of its income. Seventy percent of the country's population practises subsistence agriculture. agricultural adjective The world's supply of agricultural land is shrinking fast. She's studying agricultural science. The country's economy is mainly agricultural (= based on farming) and depends on crops like coffee. 3/ carry out carry sth out phrasal verb to do or complete something, especially that you have said you would do or that you have been told to do: Nigel is carrying out research on early Christian art.

The hospital is carrying out tests to find out what's wrong with her. Our soldiers carried out a successful attack last night. It is hoped that the kidnappers will not carry out their threat to kill the hostages. Don't blame me, I'm only carrying out my orders/instructions. 4/ commitment (n) commit verb [I or T] to promise or give your loyalty, time or money to a particular principle, person or plan of action: Like so many men, he has problems committing himself to a relationship. The government must commit itself to improving health care. Once we have committed to this course of action there is no going back. commit yourself to express an opinion or to make a decision that you tell people about: I think I can come but I won't commit myself till I know for sure. committed adjective loyal and willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in: a committed socialist/Christian/teacher [after verb] having promised to be involved in a plan of action: We are committed to withdrawing our troops by the end of the year. commitment noun [C or U] when you are willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in, or a promise or firm decision to do something: her commitment to left-wing politics/the cause of feminism/the company She is known chiefly for her commitment to nuclear disarmament. I'd like to thank the staff for having shown such commitment. Try the product out in the comfort of your own home with absolutely no commitment to buy! [C] something that you must do or deal with that takes your time: family/work commitments I've got too many commitments at the moment to do an evening class. Children are such a commitment. 5/ dissolve (v) dissolve (END) verb [T often passive] to end an official organization or a legal arrangement: Parliament has been dissolved. Their marriage was dissolved in 1968. [i]to disappear: The tension in the office just dissolves when she walks out. dissolution noun [u] the dissolution of parliament

6/ domestic (adj) domestic adjective relating to a person's own country: domestic airlines/flights Domestic opinion had turned against the war. domestically adverb Such a policy would be unacceptable both domestically and internationally. 7/ drug (n) drug (ILLEGAL SUBSTANCE) noun [C] any natural or artificially made chemical which is taken for pleasure, to improve someone's performance of an activity, or because a person cannot stop using it: illegal drugs a drug addict drug addiction/abuse She began to suspect that her son was on/taking/doing drugs. She was suspected of being a drug dealer/UK ALSO drugs dealer (= someone who sells drugs). His son died of a drug/UK ALSO drugs overdose. any activity that you cannot stop doing: Work is a drug for him. druggie noun [C] INFORMAL a person who frequently uses illegal drugs 8/ eliminate (v) eliminate verb [T] to remove or take away: A move towards healthy eating could help eliminate heart disease. We eliminated the possibility that it could have been an accident. The police eliminated him from their enquiries. [T often passive] to defeat someone so that they cannot continue in a competition: He was eliminated in the third round of the competition. [T] SLANG to murder: A police officer was accused of helping a drug gang eliminate rivals. elimination noun [u] the removal of something: the elimination of disease/pain their elimination from the competition eliminator noun [C] UK

a part of a competition in any game or sport where one person or team plays against another to decide which of them will continue to the next stage and which will be removed from the competition 9/ eventually (adv) eventual adjective [before noun] happening or existing at a later time or at the end, especially after a lot of effort, problems, etc: The Dukes were the eventual winners of the competition. Although the original budget for the project was $1 billion, the eventual cost is likely to be 50% higher. eventually adverb in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc: Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a shock when she eventually died. It might take him ages but he'll do it eventually. 10/ expand (v) expand verb [I or T] to increase in size, number or importance, or to make something increase in this way: The air in the balloon expands when heated. They expanded their retail operations significantly during the 1980s. expandable adjective able to increase in size: pregnancy trousers with expandable waists expansion noun [C or U] when something increases in size, number or importance: the rapid expansion of the software industry Expansion into new areas of research is possible. an expansion of industry expansionism noun [u] DISAPPROVING increasing the amount of land ruled by a country, or the business performed by a company: As a consequence of expansionism by some European countries, many ancient cultures have suffered. expansionist noun [C], adjective 11/ guideline (n) guidelines plural noun

information intended to advise people on how something should be done or what something should be: The EU has issued guidelines on appropriate levels of pay for part-time manual workers. 12/ illegal (adj) illegal adjective against the law; not allowed by law: a campaign to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to children under 16 Prostitution is illegal in some countries. It is illegal to drive a car that is not taxed and insured. Cocaine, LSD and heroin are all illegal drugs/substances. illegally adverb They entered the country illegally. an illegally parked car 13/ inflation (n) inflation noun [u] a general, continuous increase in prices: high/low inflation the rate of inflation Your salary will be increased in line with the 3% inflation expected this autumn. inflationary adjective causing price increases and inflation: inflationary policies/pressures/trends 14/ inhabitant (n) inhabit verb [T often passive] to live in a place: These remote islands are inhabited only by birds and small animals. inhabitant noun [C] a person or animal that lives in a particular place: a city of 5 million inhabitants inhabitable adjective able to be lived in or on NOTE: The opposite is uninhabitable. 15/ intervention (n) intervene (GET INVOLVED) [i]verb to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or

prevent it from getting worse: The Central Bank intervened in the currency markets today to try to stabilize the exchange rate. [+ to infinitive] The Minister intervened personally to stop the museum being closed. intervention noun [C or U] Half the people questioned said they were opposed to military intervention (in the civil war). Repeated interventions on the currency markets have failed to prevent the value of the currency falling. interventionist adjective (of a government or their actions) tending to become involved, either in the problems of another country, or in the economy of one's own country: an interventionist role interventionist economic policy 16/ investment (n) invest verb [I or T] to put money, effort, time etc. into something to make a profit or get an advantage: The institute will invest 5 million in the project. He's not certain whether to invest in the property market. You have all invested significant amounts of time and energy in making this project the success that it is. investment noun [C or U] Stocks are regarded as good long-term investments. an investment banker investor noun [C] A New York investor offered to acquire the company's shares for $13 each. Small investors (= people who invest only a small amount of money) are hoping that the markets will improve. 17/ islander (n) island noun [C] a piece of land completely surrounded by water: a desert island a Pacific island They live on the large Japanese island of Hokkaido. an island of peace/calm/sanity/etc. a particular place which is peaceful/calm/etc, when other surrounding places are the opposite islander noun [C] someone who lives on an island:

Scottish islanders 18/ measure (n) measure noun [C usually plural] a way of achieving something, or a method for dealing with a situation: What further measures can we take to avoid terrorism? These measures were designed to improve car safety. [+ to infinitive] Emergency measures to help the refugees are badly needed. 19/ promote (v) promote verb [T] to encourage the popularity, sale, development or existence of something: Advertising companies are always having to think up new ways to promote products. The Institute is intended to promote an understanding of the politics and culture of the Arab world. Greenpeace works to promote awareness of the dangers that threaten our planet today. It has long been known that regular exercise promotes all-round good health. promoter noun [C] someone who tries to encourage something to happen or develop: a promoter of peace/sexual equality a person who organizes and arranges finance for sports and musical events: a boxing/rock concert promoter promotion noun [C or U] activities to advertise something: a sales promotion There was a promotion in the supermarket and they were giving away free glasses of wine. Obviously as sales manager he'll be very involved in the promotion and marketing of the product. [u] when something is encouraged to happen or develop: the promotion of a healthy lifestyle promotional adjective intended to advertise something: a promotional campaign/video The writer recently went on a promotional tour of his homeland. 20/ priority (n) priority noun [C or U] something that is very important and must be dealt with before other things: The management did not seem to consider office safety to be a priority. My first/top priority is to find somewhere to live.

You have to learn to get your priorities right/straight (= decide which are the most important jobs or problems and deal with them first). Mending the lights is a priority task (= more important than other jobs). Banks normally give priority to large businesses when deciding on loans (= They deal with them first because they consider them most important). Official business requirements obviously take/have priority over personal requests (= Official business matters will be dealt with first). prioritize, UK USUALLY prioritise verb [I or T] to decide which of a group of things are the most important so that you can deal with them first: You must learn to prioritize your work. 21/ reaffirm (v) reaffirm verb [T] to give your support to a person, plan, idea, etc. for a second time; to strengthen: The government yesterday reaffirmed its commitment to the current peace process. These events reaffirm my belief in the need for better information. 22/ renovation (n) renovate verb [T] to repair and improve something, especially a building: He renovates old houses and sells them at a profit. renovation noun [C or U] The museum is closed for renovation. Extensive renovations were carried out on the property. 23/ stagnant (adj) stagnant adjective not growing or developing: a stagnant economy stagnate [i]verb to stay the same and not grow or develop: The electronics industry is showing signs of stagnating after 15 years of tremendous growth. stagnation noun [u] 24/ subsidy (n) subsidy noun [C] money given as part of the cost of something, to help or encourage it to happen: The company received a substantial government subsidy. The government is planning to abolish subsidies to farmers.

subsidize, UK USUALLY subsidise verb [T] to pay part of the cost of something: £50 would help to subsidize the training of an unemployed teenager. The refugees live in subsidized housing provided by the authorities. subsidization, UK USUALLY subsidisation noun [u] subsidizer, UK USUALLY subsidiser noun [C] European countries are quite aggressive subsidizers of grain exports. 25/ substantial (adj) substantial (LARGE) adjective large in size, value or importance: The findings show a substantial difference between the opinions of men and women. She inherited a substantial fortune from her grandmother. The first draft of his novel needed a substantial amount of rewriting. substantially adverb The new rules will substantially (= to a large degree) change how we do things. 1.pessimistic pessimism noun [u] the tendency to emphasize or think of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things: - There is now a mood of deepening pessimism about/over the economy. - An underlying pessimism infuses all her novels. NOTE: The opposite is optimism. pessimist noun [C] someone who always believes that bad things will happen: - Don't be such a pessimist! pessimistic adjective - The tone of the meeting was very pessimistic. - The doctors are pessimistic (= not hopeful) about his chances of recovery. pessimistically adverb 2.optimistic optimism noun [u] the tendency to be hopeful and to emphasize the good part of a situation rather than the bad part; the belief that good things will happen in the future:

- There was a note of optimism in his voice as he spoke about the company's future. - Judging from your examination results, I think you have cause/grounds/reason for cautious optimism about getting a university place. NOTE: The opposite is pessimism. optimist noun [C] someone who always believes that good things will happen: - She's a born optimist (= someone who has always been optimistic). optimistic adjective - She is optimistic about her chances of winning a gold medal. optimistically adverb 3.depression depression (NO ACTIVITY) noun [C] a period in which there is very little business activity and not many jobs: - The stock market crash marked the start of a severe depression. 4.corporation corporation (BUSINESS) group noun [C] (WRITTEN ABBREVIATION Corp.) a large company or group of companies that is controlled together as a single organization: - a multinational corporation - the British Broadcasting Corporation - She didn't want to work for a big corporation where everything was so impersonal. 5.wipe wipe sth out (DESTROY) phrasal verb [M] to destroy something completely: - Whole villages were wiped out in the fighting. - One bad harvest could wipe out all of a grower's profits for the previous two years. 6.terrorism terrorism noun [u] (threats of) violent action for political purposes: - Governments must cooperate if they are to fight/combat international terrorism. - The bomb explosion was one of the worst acts of terrorism that Italy has experienced in recent years. terrorist noun [C] - Several terrorists have been killed by their own bombs. - There has been an increase in terrorist attacks. - The government has said that it will not be intimidated by terrorist threats. 7.domestic

domestic (HOME) adjective belonging or relating to the home, house or family: - domestic chores/duties/arrangements domesticated adjective able or willing to do cleaning, cooking and other jobs in the home, and to look after children: - Since they had their baby they've both become quite domesticated. domestic noun [C] someone paid to do work, such as cleaning and cooking, in someone else's house domestically adverb domesticity noun [u] life at home looking after your house and family: - She married young and settled happily into domesticity. Cần phân biệt domestic ở bài 8 và ở bài 7, có sự khác nhau đó nha ! 8.incredible incredible (DIFFICULT TO BELIEVE) adjective impossible, or very difficult, to believe: - an incredible story - The latest missiles can be fired with incredible accuracy. - It seems incredible that no one foresaw the crisis. incredibly adverb - Incredibly, no one was hurt in the accident. 9.shuttle shuttle (VEHICLE) noun [C] a vehicle or aircraft that travels regularly between two places: - To get across town, you can take the shuttle from Times Square to Grand Central. - The American (space) shuttle can be used many times to put payloads in space. shuttle verb [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] to travel or take people regularly between the same two places: - A small train shuttles constantly between the concourse and the runways. 10. centenarian noun [C] someone who is a hundred years old or more 11. eradicated

eradicate verb [T] FORMAL to get rid of completely or destroy something bad: - The government claims to be doing all it can to eradicate corruption. - The disease which once claimed millions of lives has now been eradicated. eradication noun [u] 11.contribute contribute to sth phrasal verb to help to cause an event or situation: Smoking certainly contributed to his early death. 12.fatal fatal adjective 1 A fatal illness or accident, etc. causes death: - This illness is fatal in almost all cases. - the fatal shooting of an unarmed 15-year-old 2 very serious and having an important bad effect in the future: - He made the fatal mistake/error of believing what they told him. - It just shows how you should never say how well things are going for you - it's fatal (= it causes bad things to happen). fatally adverb - Several people were injured, two fatally (= they died as a result). fatality noun [C] a death caused by an accident or by violence, or someone who has died in either of these ways: - Britain has thousands of road fatalities (= deaths on roads) every year. The first fatalities of the war were civilians. 13.life expectancy life expectancy noun [C usually singular] the length of time that a living thing, especially a human being, is likely to live: - Life expectancy in Europe has increased greatly in the 20th century. 14.predict predict verb [T] to say that an event or action will happen in the future, especially as a result of knowledge or experience: - It's still not possible to accurately predict the occurrence of earthquakes. [+ that] Who could have predicted that within ten years he'd be in charge of the whole company? [+ to infinitive] The hurricane is predicted to reach the coast tomorrow morning. [+ question word] No one can predict when the disease will strike again.

predictable adjective 1 Something which is predictable happens in a way or at a time which you know about before it happens: - Comets appear at predictable times. NOTE: The opposite is unpredictable. 2 DISAPPROVING happening or behaving in a way that you expect and not unusual or interesting: - The ending to the film was just so predictable. predictably adverb as expected: - Predictably, after the initial media interest, the refugees now seem to have been forgotten. predictability noun [u] the state of knowing what something is like, when something will happen, etc: - Although her job is boring and monotonous, she likes the sense of predictability and security that it gives her. predictive adjective FORMAL relating to the ability to predict: - The predictive value of this new method of analysis has still to be proven. 15.eternal eternal adjective lasting forever or for a very long time: - The company is engaged in the eternal search for a product that will lead the market. - Will you two never stop your eternal arguing! eternally adverb - the eternally changing seasons - eternally weary/sad/cheerful - FORMAL I'd be eternally (= very or always) grateful if you could arrange it.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.