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Editor’s Note

Contents
2 5 12 15 17

North Pennines Archaeology Online Magazine is a free online publication produced Eyots Evaluation at Corby Castle in-house by North Pennines Archaeology Limited, the commercial The Smallcleugh Project archaeology arm of the North Pennines Heritage Trust. The publication in no Dearham Pottery Excavation way represents the total work undertaken by NPA during the period The Angel Inn, Corbridge the magazine volumes cover; rather the publication represents those articles Work at Carlisle Airport which NPA have received permission from the prospective clients to publish for public consumption. NPAOM Volume I contains articles originally designed for the NPA website between 2006-2007, edited and illustrated with more imagery. We hope you enjoy this first volume, and keep a lookout for further volumes appearing down download in the near future. Tony Liddell - Editor

Contributors
The articles contained in this volume were written by Gareth Davies, Matthew Town, Tony Liddell, Martin Railton and Nicola Gaskell. The content was edited for this volume by Tony Liddell.

Feedback
We appreciate your feedback! If you have any comments or constructive criticism about NPAOM volumes, please email Tony Liddell at: t.liddell@nparchaeology.co.uk ...or write to him at the address provided on the back sheet of this volume. Thanks for your support!
All material © North Pennines Archaeology Limited 2009 North Pennines Archaeology Ltd is a wholly owned company of North Pennines Heritage Trust NPA Company Registration No. 4847034 VAT Registration No. 8172284 1

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SEPTEMBER 2005, North Pennines Archaeology Ltd undertook an archaeological evaluation at The Salmon Coops, Corby Castle, near Carlisle (NY 4687 5371). This work was requested following a land drainage consent application for repairs of the area due to flood damage. Because the Salmon Coops are a Grade I listed structure, English Heritage have requested, as a condition of listed building consent, that a scheme of archaeological work be undertaken before repairs commence. It was considered necessary to investigate two possibly artificial islands (eyots) in the River Eden to determine their structure and function with a view to possibly having them designated as a scheduled Above: The condition of the salmon coops today monument.

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Initially, a desk-based assessment was carried out. The work involved the consultation of the County Historic Environment Record in Kendal, and the County Record Office and Library in Carlisle, in order to assess the existing information regarding the site’s historic, archaeological, topographical and geographical context prior to the commencement of fieldwork. This involved the collection of all readily available information regarding the archaeological landscape of the study area, including the locations and settings of Scheduled Ancient Monuments, Listed Buildings, Parks and Gardens and other, non-designated archaeological remains. This was followed by a visual site inspection in the form of an annotated survey, and the excavation of a series of four test-pits in order to assess the presence/absence, nature, extent and state of preservation of the archaeological remains. The desk-based research has shown that there was certainly a fishery and/or fishpool associated with Wetheral Priory in existence at Corby by the late eleventh century. It is probable that even at this early date a fixed sluice was in use. By the twelfth century, there was a fixed fishpool, tank and weir at a location closely corresponding to the present coops/eyot location. By the thirteenth century, the word ‘coops’ is used for the first time in relation to Corby, and in the fourteenth century there were weirs made of stone and timber at Corby. At the start of the eighteenth century, Thomas Howard extensively remodelled the grounds of Corby Castle. A presently unlocated engraving dating to 1729 may have shown that Thomas Howard planted the northern eyot
Left: An early 1832 Engraving of the Salmon

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with trees as part of this remodelling. This suggests that the northern eyot dates to at least the late 1600’s, and is probably earlier. The first located depiction of the coops and the northern eyot is on an estate map commissioned by Phillip Howard, and dated 1752. The southern eyot is depicted for the first time on a tithe map of 1843. An annotated survey of the eyots has demonstrated that all the observed features on both the southern and northern eyots are man-made. In places, the eyots appear to be constructed on top of a natural sandstone island. It has been impossible to say whether the earliest phases of the northern and southern eyots are man-made, but the earliest observed deposits in the evaluation test pits were man-made make-up layers probably dating to no later than the very beginning of the eighteenth century or earlier.

Above: A test pit excavated on the southern eyot showing the timber revetment of this artificial island.

The earliest structural features observed during this archaeological evaluation may be 17 east-west aligned timbers at the eastern extent of the southern eyot. Test Pits and measured sketches on both eyots all observed structural deposits. No secure dating evidence was obtained, but two broad phases of eyot-associated building could be observed. It is tempting to match the earliest structural phase of eyot-related building to the start of the eighteenth century, when Thomas Howard extensively remodelled the grounds of Corby Castle and, due to the similarity in some of the heavy tooled worked red sandstone, it is tempting to match the later phase of building on the northern eyot to the start of the nineteenth century when Corby Castle itself was extensively re-modelled for Henry Howard in 1812-14. In reality, however, we are most likely looking at repeated builds and repairs that date broadly to the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, or possibly even earlier.
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The Corby Castle eyots may well be a monument without obvious parallel, It is believed that they were constructed in the river eden on a natural island to provide a channel that salmon would travel up and the be caught in the coops. It is hoped that further funding might be found in order to bring this piece of work to publication; perhaps as an article in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society.

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The Smallcleugh mines lie within the Nent Valley, to the south-east of the main Smelt Mill complex, and form part of the upper mine workings at Nenthead. The area was of sufficient importance to be granted SSSI status in 1994; the survey area incorporates two mine levels or adits (Smallcleugh Level and Hodgson’s High Level), three extant buildings, at least three demolished buildings, and, just south of the main area, the Smallcleugh Washing Floor.

The Smallcleugh Level
The Smallcleugh Level was the third of the principle underground haulageways in the 19th century, and extends for a distance of 6.8km. The origin of the workings probably lies around 1770, when Errington and Wilkinson began prospecting for lead veins in the area. In 1787, work was continued by the London Lead Company, and developed from this point with the discovery of large quantities of ore that made the level of immense importance to the company. Between 1848 and 1882, 4,999 tons of ore were Above: Students of the 2006 Field School at work. extracted. A photograph from the late nineteenth century show a series of buildings around the mine entrance; immediately north-west of the entrance was a large two storey miners lodging shop, and south-east of the entrance was a further small building, probably a store. In the centre of the photograph, the building shown is thought to have been a smithy, possibly powered by a water wheel. The tramway shown leads from the mine entrance (to the rear of the shop) down to the Smallcleugh Washing Floor. The level entrance has recently been rebuilt; photographs from the late 1960s show the tramway still running from the mine, but the tracks have now long gone, either buried or robbed from the site. The mine shop and store on each side of the entrance now only survive as ruins, with the interiors obscured by rubble. In both cases, the back wall survives. The smithy now only survives as a rectangular pile of rubble. Part of the 2006 project involved the full recording of the buildings in plan, and, where it was possible, elevations of the walls, providing a record of the surviving remains; it is hoped in the future to fully excavate these buildings, so this phase marked an important first step in the process. The leat that originally drained the water from the mine has also failed, and is causing erosion to the site. A trench was therefore excavated from the level entrance out to the river, to discover and reinstate the leat, and excavation also uncovered remains of earlier tramways leading from the mine. Extensive survey was also carried out of the surviving remains of the tramways, supporting walls, exposed timbers etc which exist along the edge of the river.

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Hodgson’s High Level Shop

Above: Hodgson’s High Level Shop in 2006.

The date that Hodgson’s level was excavated is not known, though Errington and Wilkinson’s agent, Robert Hodgson, gave his name to Hodgson’s Low Level (located to the north-west) in the mid to late 18th century. The level was driven to work Cowslitts Cross Vein and Hangingshaw West of Nent Vein, and the waste from the level was tipped northwestwards, now forming the massive spoil tips visible on the aerial photographs. Remnants of a wooden tramway survive on the flattened upper reaches of the tip, and the North Powder House was built directly on the spoil tip. Adjacent to the level entrance is Hodgson’s High Level Shop, probably built by the London Lead Company and dating to the 19th century; this building is thought to be of a similar period to those around the Smallcleugh Level entrance. The building survives as a two-storey structure: the ground and first floor are entered by their own doors (the building terraces into the slope and the latter door leads on from the slope side). There was originally a fireplace per floor. Adjacent to the east ground floor door and the level entrance is a small shelter, covered in flags, which has been suggested as either a tool store or a shelter for a gatekeeper. A survey of the mine buildings of the upper Nent Valley was undertaken in the late 1960s, and the building at this date still survived largely intact. The roof was still intact and covered with stone slates, the interior wooden floor and doors survived, and the ground floor consisted of stone flags. By the end of the twentieth century, the roof and floor had collapsed in, though the roof trusses and floor joists still
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survive to this date. The local villagers had made some attempt to stabilise the structure through the addition of a concrete cap to the walls, and the insertion of concrete lintels to some of the windows and doors. However, before the 2006 season the structure remained a threat; a site visit noted that the south corners of the building had begun to collapse. Urgent work was therefore required to stop the building from collapsing completely, to the state now visible in the mine buildings around the Smallcleugh level. The building was in need of stabilisation and repair, but before this was undertaken, archaeological work was required by English Heritage. The 2006 project focused on this building as a priority. Full scale drawings of both the interior and exterior elevations were recorded, and the surviving roof trusses and floor joists were recorded and removed for preservation. This work enabled the exterior shell to be stabilised by the Trust’s team of experienced craftsmen. In addition, a plan of the current state of the interior of the building was also made. Following the completion of this, up to four test-pits were excavated to identify the survival of the flagged surface; when this was found to survive, the interior was excavated down to this surface. As the ground level within the interior was lower following the excavation, the immediate exterior of the building was also excavated. Additional excavations were carried out near the upper door, and through a midden to the rear of the shop to examine the refuse from the miners’ everyday lives. As for Smallcleugh mine, the leat from the level entrance has failed; a trench was also excavated here, to discover and reinstate the leat, and excavation also uncovered remains of earlier tramways leading from the mine. This resolved the issue of the boggy ground at the exterior of Hodgson’s High Level Shop, and prevented the building flooding. An as-built record was also made of the level entrance and the small shelter. On completion of the works, the building will be reused as part of the Heritage Centre, either as a display on miners’ lives, or perhaps as a rural retreat.

The North Powder House
The North Powder House is thought to have been built by the London Lead Company in the nineteenth century. The store probably served the Smallcleugh Level, to which it was presumably connected by tramway, before being cut off by the substantial spoil tips from Hodgson’s High Level at a later date. The building was used as a magazine for storing gunpowder, and is located well away from other mine buildings, as is typical for such structures. The South Dynamite Store presumably replaced it at a later date. The North Powder House was also recorded as part of the 1960s survey, and at this time still survived as a Above: Recording the Powder House. largely intact structure. The roof maintained its stone slates, and the double doors (one in wood and one in metal, to control any blast and to keep the gunpowder secure and dry) were still in position. The survey also noted the original timber battens that ran around the top, middle, and bottom of the interior walls; these were original

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parts of the structure, and supported the timber cladding which covered the interior of the walls to prevent sparks, and to keep the powder dry. By the end of the twentieth century, the building was largely ruinous; the doors had gone, and the roof was entirely collapsed and robbed. In addition, the exposure of the wall-tops had caused the building to begin to collapse; this situation was exacerbated by the decay of the battens, which had caused voids into which the walls were collapsing. The situation came to a head in 2005, when the north wall nearly collapsed, and it was noted that the other walls were also close to collapse. Emergency repairs were required: the north wall was fully recorded, and the remaining walls shored prior to further work. As part of the 2006 season, the interior was cleared of rubble, and all the elevations drawn in full. A plan was also drawn up of the building. Limited and targeted excavations were also carried out around the building to expose surviving paving.

The South Dynamite Store
The South Dynamite Store is the younger cousin of the North Powder House, and was built the Belgian Vielle Montagne Zinc Company between 1896 and 1921. The building was recorded as part of the 1960s survey, and at this time was largely intact. The building shared many characteristics with the North Powder House; it had a stone slate roof, identical double doors and timber battens around the interior walls. The building also had a lightning conductor on its south gable, and was rendered with cement mortar. The building has survived better Above: The South Dynamite Store during excavation and recording. than the North Powder House, but is still in a ruinous state today. The slates and roof trusses have collapsed, and the interior floor is buried beneath the rubble. The doors survive, but need urgent restoration. The exposure of the wall tops has also caused them to begin collapsing. As part of the 2006 season, the interior and exterior elevations of the walls were fully recorded prior to restoration. A full plan was also made of the building. Following the building recording programme, the interior and selected exterior areas were targeted for excavation, to assess whether any floor or paving survived. The building will later be fully restored, and used by the Trust as exhibition space.

Smallcleugh Washing Floor
A limited programme of recording was also undertaken on the Smallcleugh Washing Floor to the north. The washing floor may have its origins in the eighteenth century, and was present in the nineteenth century when the London Lead Company installed a crushing mill on the site. The washing floor

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became vital in 1905, when the original dressing mill in the village burnt down, and was used solely by the Vielle Montagne Company until 1910, when they built the Krupp Gravity Mill in the village. The washing floor may have gone out of use around this time. As part of the 2006 season, a full record of the existing remains was undertaken. It is known that the washing floor contained at least three buildings, as well as water-management systems, which include a wheel-pit. The programme of recording formed the basis for the 2007 season; it is hoped in the future to fully excavate these buildings, so this will mark an important first step in this process.

The Smelt Mill and Spine Wall
Colonel George Liddell built the first smelt mill at Nenthead in 1737; when it was finished, the mill had four ore-hearths and four refining furnaces. The smelt mill itself was continuously improved by the London Lead Company and in 1821 it had four roasting furnaces, two refining furnaces, one reducing furnace, four ore-hearths and a slag-hearth. In 1843 Joseph Stagg built a condenser into the line of the long flue taking waste gases from the smelt mill; the waste gases were forced through a number of water filled chambers containing brushwood by powerful bellows driven by a large waterwheel, causing the lead oxide to precipitate out of the gases into the water. The smelt mill was closed down in 1902 as the lead smelting process was replaced with zinc smelting across the site and could not be carried out in the same furnace. The smeltmill fell into a slow decline following the First World War, with most of the buildings functioning as workshops. Following the Second World War this decline accelerated with large portions of the site ruinous by the mid 1960s. The site was systematically robbed over the next decade until it was declared a Scheduled Ancient Monument in 1982, for its importance as a site of industrial innovation and national significance. From this point on the site has been subject to steady conservation

Above: The Spine Wall, August 2007.

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work and research, which led to the opening of the visitor centre in 1992. In 2007 the Trust will be starting works to stabilise the wall and flu remains to the south-east of the spine wall, along with archaeological excavations of the spine wall. The 2007 Field School excavated the remains of the spine wall of the Smelt Mill, allowing for re-consolidation for greater structural stability.

Smallcleugh Mine Shop
The Smallcleugh mine shop and store on each side of the entrance to the old mine survived as ruins, with the interiors obscured by rubble. In both cases, the back wall survives. The 2007 Field School excavated the rubble from the Mine Shop and recorded all standing walls and the floor, allowing the structure to be consolidated and left open to public view.

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Above: Alan James excavating a pottery midden.

In November 2006, North Pennines Archaeology completed excavations at Pottery Park, Dearham, Cumbria, after four weeks work. An initial desk-based assessment by NPA identified that the site had been the location of a 19th century pottery, which had definitely run from the early 1800s through to the early 1900s; more recent research suggests that the site may have been in use from as early as the mid 1700s. Dearham Parish Council enlisted the help of NPA to carry out a targeted evaluation of the site, in order to discover what remained below ground, with a view to perhaps presenting the remains as a visitor attraction. The site lies in the corner of a football field, and was originally very overgrown and weed-strewn; little evidence of the pottery was visible, though a few walls could be identified within the nettles. The undergrowth was cleared, and NPA began excavating the trenches by hand to see what survived. Almost immediately, very large quantities of earthenware pottery were uncovered, particularly in the northern corner of the field where a midden or rubbish tip was identified, almost entirely made up of dumped pottery sherds. The midden effectively lay in the back yard of the pottery, and yard surfaces made up of crushed ceramic waste were found. The buildings themselves formed an L-shaped block, extending across the middle of the development area. Both ends of the block, which survived as upstanding walls, were investigated, and were found to survive in excellent condition. The floors were flagged originally, but appear to have been replaced in
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brick as they wore out, as this was the cheapest useable material; some of the bricks had stamps, which identified that they had been made locally, at Broughton Moor and at Dearham Colliery. Saggers, ceramic boxes used for protecting the pots as they were fired, were found across the site, and also built into the walls as a useful building material. No evidence of the kiln was uncovered, despite extending a number of the trenches. To the south-east of the buildings, a lane originally led into the front yard; both were made of pottery and saggers, and an arrangement of ponds was located, where the clay was weathered before use. The site was visited by a large number of members of the public, many of who were related to the families that had owned or worked in the pottery, such as the Tunstalls and Ostles. A number of intact pots were also brought to the site, which gave a valuable insight into the type of pottery that was being uncovered. Dearham Primary School were also actively involved; the whole school were given guided tours by the site director, Matthew Town, and a number of the children also got to wash some of the pottery themselves. At the end of the excavation, the trenches were backfilled. The pottery (several tonnes of it!) is now being cleaned and catalogued prior to in-depth research of the products being made. The site is now in the process of being written up as a report for Dearham Parish Council, and further work may occur on the site in the future.
Below: Examples of Dearham pottery. Next Page: Dearham excavation Trench 7.

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Above: Excavations underway at the Angel Inn.

In January 2007, North Pennines Archaeology completed excavations at The Angel of Corbridge (the Angel Inn), Main Street, Corbridge, Northumberland. The plot of land in question, located to the back of the property, used to be the inn's beer garden. With plans for a new bistro on site, a watching brief was set in place as the JCB moved in due to the site’s proximity to Corbridge’s medieval heart. The watching brief consequently turned into a two week excavation, funded by the Angel's owner, John Gibson, when the remains of walls, a plethora of medieval pottery, and two human skeletons were unearthed. As frosts and snow moved into Northumberland, the NPA team began a detailed excavation of the area that revealed three phases of medieval buildings. The area was only excavated to the depth required for the foundations of the new bistro, but the cut already in place from the old demolished toilet block showed the potential for up to a metre of further archaeology beneath the final excavated ground surface. Finds from within the area of the medieval buildings included hundreds of sherds of medieval pottery, mostly reduced green glaze, as well as a number of small bronze waste fragments and a handle from an old cauldron, the latter found 'down the back' of a stone bench. Also found was a medieval hearth complete with edging stones and the remains of the swept out burning ashes. Reused masonry was also found indicating that at least one of the buildings on site was in use in
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the late medieval. It was the presence of the two bodies, however, that caught the attention and imagination of the local media and townsfolk. Two skeletons were present within the confines of the old beer garden, one lying a traditional east-west and the other lying, surprisingly, north-south. The east-west burial had been cut across one of the medieval walls, indicating the wall was already beneath turf and forgotten about at the time of the skeleton's inhumation. The north-south burial had been badly disturbed in the past, but was clearly buried upon a number of sherds of thirteenth century pottery, meaning a medieval burial in a northsouth alignment. Neither of the skeletons showed any indication of the ceremony surrounding properly inhumed medieval Christian burials.

Phasing
The evidence shown on the site indicates that initially, the development area was probably used as an iron and bronze manufacturing site during the early-medieval period. In the c.12th century, two buildings were constructed on the site, and in the 12th-13th centuries, two further buildings were then constructed, set up along the edge of the north-south road through Corbridge, which were divided into two workshops. There was evidence for an entrance/exit to the road in the northernmost workshop, though there was no such evidence for the southernmost. To the south of these workshops was a small horticultural plot. These buildings worked iron and bronze, and in the grassy plot grain was dried. Sometime perhaps in the 13th century these buildings began to degrade, with the northernmost one falling into disuse and eventually being demolished: this area was then put to grass. Sometime during this period a body was buried under the small horticultural plot, perhaps the result of murder. A second body was also buried over the easternmost wall of the degraded building (under grass), indicated by the cut for the grave removing stone from the wall. In the 14th-15th century, another building was constructed at the north-eastern edge of the development area, the westernmost wall being all that is visible now. In the 17th century, the structure standing in the southernmost area was altered and strengthened, before falling into disuse soon afterwards. Whether this meant that part of the building was initially still standing, or merely the foundation was found and reused is uncertain. This also ties to the same approximate date for the construction of the Inn itself, so this activity can be seen as belonging to the arrival of the Inn, and ultimately the levelling of the remaining medieval remains.
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In Spring 2007, North Pennines Archaeology Ltd were commissioned by WA Developments Ltd to undertake the largest ever geophysical survey in Cumbria, as part of the archaeological work required for the proposed redevelopment of Carlisle Airport, Crosby-on-Eden. The work was required prior to their planning application for the construction of a new terminal building and runway, as part of the £25 million redevelopment of the site. The airport will serve as the main gateway for holiday-makers into the Lake District and southern Scotland.

Above: Aerial photograph showing the evaluation underway.

The area around Carlisle Airport has evidence of archaeological remains from the prehistoric period onwards, including finds of Neolithic and Bronze Age date, and the presence of a probably Neolithic

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settlement on the western edge of the airport. The most significant remains date to the Roman period; the airport lies within close proximity to Hadrian’s Wall and Vallum, and includes within its boundary Watchclose Roman camp and the Stanegate Roman Road. Regular ploughing since the late-eighteenth century has removed earthworks within the area of the airport, but there may be other below-ground remains, as yet unknown, which still survive. Geomagnetic (gradiometer) surveys were undertaken over three areas within the boundary of Carlisle Airport, in the locations of the proposed new airport terminal compound, new terminal building and realigned runway. The purpose of these surveys was to determine the presence/absence, nature and extent of any archaeological anomalies within the proposed development areas, and the presence/absence of any known modern anomalies, which may affect the results. The results of the geophysical surveys were used to inform the layout of evaluation trenches within the proposed development areas. In addition a trial area of earth resistance survey was undertaken over the area of the proposed new terminal building, to test whether this technique could provide any further information. The geomagnetic surveys detected a number of features, which were directly associated with the second World War airfield, including former areas of hard standing, probable building Above: Gradiometer survey underway foundations, a former airfield road, and an extensive network of land drains, constructed to drain the runways. A series of former field boundaries were also detected, which attest to the former agricultural use of the site, prior to the construction of the airfield. Together these form a rectilinear field system of probable post-medieval date. The earth resistance surveys detected a similar range of features to the geomagnetic surveys, and did not add any significant information. No evidence for the Stanegate Roman Road was detected, despite the fact that the projected route of the road passed through the area of the proposed realigned runway. It is possible that any evidence for this feature was removed during the creation of the airfield. It is likely, however, that other Roman remains survive within Carlisle Airport, including Watchclose Roman Camp, which is situated immediately to the south of the present runway. The walkover survey demonstrated the survival of a very limited number of earthworks within the study area. These relate to post-medieval land management and at least two roadways, which were taken out during the construction of the airport during the Second World War. A number of concrete and brick built structures were also examined which directly relate to the airport, however their main functions remain unknown due to the limit of survey. The distinct lack of surviving earthworks can be attributed to a number of factors. It is clear from aerial photography that the land within the airport has been
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extensively ploughed both before and after the construction of the airport. Also the vegetation coverage was extensive, which partly concealed the ground surface. Within that area is the projected line of the Stanegate; archaeological excavations undertaken in the 1930s confirmed the presence of the road, revealing a metalled surface in a deliberate man-made cut through a raised feature known as Buckjumping. The trial trenching comprised the excavation of 225 trenches within Development Area, each measuring 30m x 2m; the area contained large quantities of re-deposited clay natural from the bulldozing associated with the construction of the runways in WWII, meaning that some trenches were up to 1.2m deep. Further electricity cables were identified running parallel and east of the runway, and two cables ran parallel with the taxiing routes on both sides of the road. Trenches were duly moved, shortened or sections left unexcavated to mitigate against any damage. Land drains relating to the 1940s drainage associated with the runways were encountered and occasionally breached but all were repaired with the reinstatement of the trenches. Several field boundary ditches, not corresponding with field boundaries identified in cartographic regressions, were identified, and tested through excavation, and proved likely to be post-medieval, due to the nature of their fills, though they were undated. Several burnt tree-boles or tree-throws were also identified, indicating some tree clearance activity in the area. Only one trench contained any significant archaeological features, coupled with the recovery of a single flint flake. Trench 196 was positioned almost immediately to the south-west of the present main terminal building and was extended to investigate a series of 11 features, some of which were prehistoric pits and postholes. From the fill of one of these pits the flint fragment was recovered, tentatively identified as late Neolithic in date, in the light of the archaeological discoveries made to the west of the airport boundary in 1998, which also included prehistoric pit features, pottery and flint flakes, with radiocarbon dating from those pits returning a Neolithic date.

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