"You See the World of the Other and You Look at Your Own": The Evolution of the Video

in the Villages Project Author(s): PAT AUFDERHEIDE Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Film and Video, Vol. 60, No. 2 (SUMMER 2008), pp. 26-34 Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of the University Film & Video Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20688592 . Accessed: 09/05/2012 22:14
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more than intheory. Theyhave grappledwith the film. 2007). divorced from theoretical concerns about scientific accuracy. concerned most recently tor Social Media. Evenwhen traditional filmmaker makers.Teachers regularly use work was designed consideringthe imperatives that of commercialor quasi-commercial television markets. so longas there isa cross-cultural aspect to the subjectmatter.Much work produced forthe educational marketplace observes the same conventions. A Very Short Introduction 26 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60.have struggledfrom to define thefirst generationof anthropology an arenawithinanthropologicalpractice. although documentarianshave oftencapital izedon claims to science (Winston).World of theOther and You Look at Your Own": "You See the The Evolutionof theVideo intheVillages Project PAT AUFDERHEIDE what purpose does ethnographic film serve?1 Whom is itfor? Is itfor scientists.docu mentarypractice has evolved. althoughanthropolo maintained gists such as Jay Rubyhave sturdily thattheyshould. filmand visual anthropology Ethnographic have areas ofoverlap but also occupy different domains. relationships workwithoutmuch reflec public. natureof social scientific claimsmade fortheir observations and their moral obligations to pat Aufderheide. implications and video. and role in choices. Communication professor in the School of at American University and direc anthropologists.Some of those people are and reflective about theirformal thoughtful with subjects. it is not necessarily integrated with anthropology.inpartbecause of the have economics of filmmaking. NativeVoices isa communicationsdepartment Most filmmakers producingoutside a purely are typically academic environment chained to production modes that respond to televi sionmarkets. as well as with the politicsof representation the challenge of communicating the livedexpe rienceof distinctcultures. many filmmak erswith no formal whatsoever claim training themantle of the term"ethnographicfilm. Anthropologists not foundfunding either to build filmmaking or to establish a rigorous set of into fieldwork professionalstandards. Visual their subjects. At the same time. Set in project. The linebetween the scribe their work of social scientistsand the work of professional filmmakersisblurryinthe eyes of theviewing TheStoryof the public. is of its Centerfor author of Documentary: (Oxford. An example is the film Mongolia. Meanwhile. Inevitably.Many of them tionon the natureof the relationshipsthey will establish between filmmaker and subject and and audience. the Weeping Camel (2003). Some of those people have also been filmmakers. as intheUniversity subjects turninto of Washington's NativeVoices program.They have asked questions about the ethics and of formal choices inphotography. tele vision audiences. thisensures thatthey will adopt formal strategies thatstaywithin theaccept able rangeforbroadcast.2 / SUMMER 20 8 OF ILLINOIS OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY ?2008 BYTHEBOARD . itssubjects? Can therebe overlaps or commongoals? This is the prickly much ethnographicfilm question underlying is It addressed inpractice routinely production. both anthropologists (in visual anthropology cluding those trained in and those not) and professionalfilmmakers have used the term"ethnographicfilm"tode work.

was craftedfrom film a fictionalscriptdevised byMongolian and Italiancoproducers. Elder aesthetic ideological imposing was described. contact"disasters Widely publicized "first with theopening of new roads intheAmazon gave indigenouspeoples nationalvisibility. always highly politicized agency.FUNAI. was born TheVideo intheVillages project out of the involvement of itsfounder. The project strove to teach theNa without vajo people techniquesof filmmaking or filters. and activists joined orworked thropologists to with FUNAI protect indigenous groups. This question has nothaunted theBrazilian was projectVideo intheVillages.social. as an enabler ofgovernment development intheAmazon.for when film engage the subjects projects directly as coproducersand co-filmmakers.alongwith John Adair.to protectthe who legally of Indians. when the project asked. form Anydocumentary grappleswith the core problemof truthfulness?not whether only notonly factiscorrect. theyreplied. the Funda??o Nacional do indio. which surviveson international privatefounda tionsupportand on sales of itsproducts. text.for funders and for general audiences."Then why make movies?" Worth wrote. interaction as indicators of exclusion.and as boundarypolice around thedefinition ofwho could be considered an Indian. The project. Vincent causes was the with in Indian This Carelli. Activists Speaking For. Making theethicaland epistemologicalquestions even more pointed isthecommonsituation in which aremem film thesubjects of an ethnographic rolesand representing the nomadic community as far more isolated than the salt trade it par was widely ticipates inpermits itto be. but indigenouscultural issues largely escaped Some an military censorshipand repression.or FUNAI(The National IndianFoundation).After a two the coup. Directors of theorganization. The project in1987 and has over theyears facilitatedthe productionof dozens of films by and with low landsBrazilian indigenousgroups. afterFUNAI announced 8 27 . inRubyv). conducted theNavajo FilmProject in the 1970s.2 because it foregrounded from the start. Sam Yazzie. giving claim toprovidea privileged gaze heightensthe usual ethicalquestions ofdocumentary. chargedwithget pro tingthe Indiansout of itspath and creating tected reserves. functioned simultaneouslyas official overseerof the acculturation of Indians into Braziliansociety (typically towardthestatus of landless peasant).starring non-actors who were nonetheless cast in their bers of cultural groupswith less power insociety and media than thefilmmaker. no. The question of the function of ethnographic film?townom ittells itstruths.2 / SUMMER 20 OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ?2O08 BYTHEBOARD with Brazilians) tuguese language.. "Sam Yazzie's liandaily life. stage right-wing government military inthe late 1960s created a new Indianagency. Por and Adair. The answer. some as "pro known worked independently.nonindigenousBrazilians. filmraises thisquestion acutely Ethnographic because the termitself otherness?that implies a film is from outside a cul look ethnographic a the This audience ture. how overtimewith political.FUNAI and thegeneralswanted as few as people possible to fallunder thatdefinition and tried to use "acculturation" (clothing. of a film Thiswas vividlyraised ina familiar storythat Sol Worthoftentold anthropologist-filmmaker about Sam Yazzie. within what what purpose?is boldly showcased context. 1969.. a of of intense beginning period politicization of Indianrightsissues inBrazil. had thestatus rights a of children.has shifted JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. Worth. whether any particular a portrayal one and set properlyincon isa fair butalso towhom and why itis relevant. glimpse inside it. Groups Indiancommissions" sprangup after1978 to defend Indianrights. Yazzie asked. "Will makingmovies do the sheep any harm?" When thefilmmakers assured him.has evolution in itsself undergonean illustrative definition. but it as an authentic rendering ofMongo reported was started and personal changes. question keeps hauntingus" (Worth qtd. "Will makingmovies do the sheep good?" Well. have also made filmsexplaining theproject. ever.

a plan so-called to "emancipate" acculturated (i. photographer.Environmen talDefense Fund. the productionand thema own image.and at the same nipulationof their timeto see to itthatthese extremelyisolated communitiescould get to knowothergroups.rights to land. The filmmakers. 19 March 2007). as a in with Indians teenager working began an Indian village at the 1969. indigenous.e. TheVideo intheVillages projectalso took when internationally. liaand New Zealand (Michaels). Thiswas at a time when were becoming accustomed to bringing Indians video into with Brazilians." project's goal was to "make accessible to Indiansthevision.Their first were project fundraising which tools as films.who oftenhad minimal contactevenwith othergroups outside a lan guage group. (Centro Activists Speaking With. Hewas drivenby the po contagion litical groups goal of culturalsurvivalforIndian (Aufderheide 274-88).A Festa assert theirright da Mo?a (1987).The coproduction leaderwanted to be sure thathis groupwas and competentto defend representedas fierce itsterritory and culture.personal communication. "Iwould neverhave imagined we would train indigenous at thattimethat hewrote (Correaet al. He moved into in love with the age of twenty. and fostering comparisons of theirtraditions with national society" experiences of contact de Traballio Indigenista). Indian many lowlands identity?anew concept for Amazonian groups. romantically wanted to be Indian. both indigenous of indigenous and not.. of as the course. much less Brazilians?became a keypolitical tool."I simply wanted a friend laterrecalled. as tools for Indian self-awareness.which showed how theNam more traditional bikwara Indians reintroduced own elements to a ritual after watching their on video. began documenting Indian life with the help of Indians. 23). and intheUnitedStates (Worth among otherplaces. ended up being a of it performance with a Nambikwara leader."but the Indians who could give themthekeys to understand what went on around them. Issues included as Indian. and Adair). political negotiations and theytherefore associated the storytelling with culturaldefense. Such Austra and Larkin 41-44. in Abu-Lughod. plainlyposition thefilmmaker one in charge. Even Indians who were alto with filmmaking getherunfamiliar recognized that representation had power and wanted to to some ofthat power. a briefand eye Bloch. After he joined advocacy with FUNAI. opening stint A he began to organizations.to help them ing thediseases thataf defend themselves from flictedthevillage" (author's translation."he culture. Roth). place at a time or Fourth World peoples were beginningto In1987 Carelli started theVideo intheVil lages project. anthropologist. Themeaning of thisnew a was widely debated?was it media production and Faustianbargainor a new tool for political social engagement? (Ginsburg. Correa.a first-generation Brazilian. demand access tomedia and to recognizethe ofmedia ina strugglein political importance which theysearched for allies. well featured such standard stylistic elements as stand-up interviews and voice-over. Va Carelliand his now late wife.under the auspices of an activ ist indigenous-rights group that iteventually work understood this Carelli outgrew.The growth production was markedworldwide?in Canada. and Carelli 21).. Turner) VincentCarelli. on his first covered that Indiansdemanded some control of the process. and voice-over establishes the 28 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. AlthoughCarelli had set out to dedicate his film he dis skills to Indiancauses. an archive collect historicalphotographs for that Indianscould consult. which pro-Indian groups facilitated(Stephan Schwartzman. often who died inthe inevitable insearch of relatives of contact. in Scandinavia. originally to be puttinghis professional capacities as a and videographerat thedisposal photographer of Indiancauses.and theydid. disenfranchise) Indians. where ulti established an entiretelevision mately the Inuit network for a new autonomous area (Ginsburg. to identify the right and access to government services.2 / SUMMER 20 8 OF ILLINOIS OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY ?2008 BYTHEBOARD . interviews.Virginia an lad?o..

1993). The contrast. routinely hewas speaking forthe Indiansas director. who often were activ anti ists in defense of Indian culture and were of the story.MeetingAncestors (1993) was a notable success notonly with the Indian who made the film?oneof whichwas groups more familiar with Brazilianculture and could counsel with the more newly contacted?but audiences. rather thanallowingan indigenousaesthetic to surface. direct-cinema and approaches. had access But most Amazonian to mainstream groups already by Brazilian media videomightpollutea pristine culture. the Wai?pi believe thatthe video imagebringsthepresence of theperson. pure. He accepted the gender always nianvillages. who Valad?o feared that access capturing of Indianculturebybringing pollutingthe purity television. the on-the-ground Some accused realities of the of him. He also.theVideo groups of their was taking intheVillages project advantage of the festival showcase inorderto display its own fundraising videos. The films themselvesdi rectly answered the concerns of well-intentioned to funders and viewers.Theyalso have a strict of reciprocity and show principle videos onlyto peoplewhom theyhave their must negotiatedirectly chiefs with each other over screenings(Centro de Traballio Indigenista). in one film. they developed libraries workon the termsthe Indians Theycreated this chose. also international faced theaccusation in 1987. Carelli noted.2 / SUMMER 20 OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ?2 8 BYTHEBOARD the Indiansarguingaboutwhether theyought to let white people see themdrunk(Vincent 21 July Carelli. the clash between audience staff began to circulate at national and inter "met" by video. were audiences did not see thevideos that to a festivalframework. Indians' He ad reduc debates opted more ing voice-over as people with a vital culture worthdefend one was that with the ing. with anthropologistsconvinced Working on his formal Carelli to reflect strategiesas vehicles of the power of representation. festival and university or factionthat chose toworkwith the individual appeared most capable ofmaking use of this tool politically(as opposed to someone who wanted a videomakingcareer). At thesame time. Carelli regularly women's stories settingsof slighting university because Carelliand Valad?o workedwith (uni male leadershipofAmazonian tribes formly) and allowed themto dictate the terms of the He also faced the charge that project. Carelli funders as proof of the project's success. Audiences intheglobal north wanted reinforcement of a romantic notion of a way of life. TheworkofVideo intheVillages revealed.by and the Indians JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. However. wanted viewers to understand them FUNAI. on their own cultural reflect productively produc tionand reproduction. He revealed Indiansdrinking and cere was partof a ritual when drinking drunk mony. TheVideo intheVillages projecthad firmly takena positionon thepurpose and audience 8 29 . Carelli tragically who coproducedwith him. noble-savage expectations and doomed and worthy of regret. audiences about issues of identity after viewingfilms. and so they exercisespecial precautions when thesubjects ofvideo see themselves. primitive. Frequently.Rather. included a scene of inequalities of power inmany Amazo his primary goal. for instance. Forexample. changing constantly as anyone timesbut thathad as much integrity else's. designed for potential Festivalaudiences also typically failed to grasp the political realitiesbehind theVideo intheVillages project.all stemmingfrom the of and goal supporting strengthening primary thepoliticalpositionof Indians vis-?-visthe Brazilian state. were usingvideo to that Indians indisputably. The films made by theVideo intheVillages As theydid.they workedwith Indians toproduce less filmic documentations of ritual and videos made for with others. ina series. For instance. Carelliand began documenting encounters be tweenculturally and linguistically related Indian groups. static. including inappropriate the extensivedocumentation made by Indian own rituals. focused this frustration Carellibelieved thataudiences usually failed to realize Amazon. Carellisaw national film festivals.and exchange insome thirty villages.personal communication. Among the Xikrin and Xavante.omniscient narrator's version Video intheVillages projectquicklyattracted Brazilian anthropologists. on him.

Jean anthropologist Rouch. it seeing themselves on a parwith Brazilians they watched on the news. shipwith his subjects?and Russian Dziga as it his passion forcapturinglife Vertov. of theenormouspoliticalsignificance of identify as themselves which Indians.He made more an anthropologist who had cometo Indians Making News Video intheVillages seized upon new cultural for legislationthatcreated theopportunity Indianstomake a regular program in1995-96 on regional Amazonian television. Carellifound Video intheVillages for himselfina perpetualbattle to convincefunders intheglobal northto supporta projectthat hadwith success lost itsnovelty but not found most important the Indians' backingfrom single resource.She hadworked at theAteliers Varan.a video library. For Amazonian Indians. B-roll. with announcers.2 / SUMMER 2008 OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY ?2008 BYTHEBOARD OF ILLINOIS .as well as their groups increatingthe politicalanalysis.Rouch and the role obligationsoffilmmaker. keep project with international going support. 1955) work {Les After about ritual practicesundercolonialismthat and African shocked both French viewers. Forthem. a year. and attention from beyond theboundaries of FUNAI. which includedtwo also affectedthe project. plore 30 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. Rims made overs. to keep theproductsuseful to theprimary politicalgoal. heart condition edly a tragedy forthe family. Her death. established in1981 by the celebrated and filmmaker Rouch. Cinema V?rit? in the Amazon about devel When Carellibegan brainstorming to a Brazil he turned a program. of cinema v?rit? (ordirectcinema. Indiansquickly grasped thestatusof having video capacity.The core functions of thevideowork were neither aca theproject produced through demic nor commercial. Progama an early Ma?tresFous. Italso lasted only was it however. who had longbeen a resident ian Mari Correa. given thatthe term means both "the Indianshow" and "a boringtime. unappealing entertainment) a standard magazine-format local TV news stand-ups. included with his subjects. ing by theycould act inconcert when pressuredby theBrazilian or byBrazilianbusinesses. rethought with how to ex He unceasingly experimented oftenturning to his subjects' subjectivity. and boosterism. whose circuithad been enabled petual international a new role facilitating looked for Valad?o. as inventors he eventuallychose to call it). Carelli orga nized a meeting of Indians in1997 from many of thevillageswhere he had worked and estab lished libraries.They own videos as training used their for films young as memorybooks. with relatedcultural established relationships groups indeveloping politicalcoalitions. were made intheserviceof byand with Indians both tribalidentity and awareness strengthening of the concept "Indian. Theygrappled and people with inevitable problemsof storageand equip ment breakdown. Others were not aware a shockingand exciting video project that is meant still watched. school-age children. but political. stylistically. as as one well of the modern ethnographic film. Virginia a of in1998. His inspirations Robert Flaherty?for his affectionate relation thediscipline afterhiswork as an engineer in was one of the founders of colonialWest Africa."or was.forits work. often incollaboration thana hundredfilms.turning again and again to answers. the Brazilian government. to discuss a new focus forthe Then Valad?o died unexpect project. do ?ndio (a pun. Carelli noted.for to edit that real was and thenseizing the right theviewer toacknowledge the and forcing ity presence of the filmmaker. training oping of France.They funding close relationship with Indian depended on their own work. Rims government made primarily byVincentand otherBrazilian intheproject?typically filmmakers anthro thus activists?were made for both pological to and economic the political goals." withwhich some of the groups were unfamiliar.Indians began to use thevideos as callingcards as they programs he had seen Inspired by training on his peripateticfestival travels. by thework ofothers. work as a filmmaker on a per Carelli. voice program.

politicalobjectives. Individual cally ers are not necessarily filmsthatcould be seen?like thefilmsCarelli had made?in festivalsand thatcould serve sible to triballeaders fortheir work. particularly to learncrucialstorytelling skills inthedirect cinema style thatRouch embraced. These filmshave now begun a worldwide circulation infilmfestivals. seeing with the Indian's 'truereality. He also made them.who own in their participated shaping images. Rouen's profoundrespect forthe subjectivity of subjects. until thena projectof anotherorganization. This new success has also created a politi more diffuse filmmak mission. TheAteliers was established inParis as a training site for from the developingworld. discovering mini-stories indaily life. fantasy. another reason: "Film is theonly however. Indians theseworkshops workingthrough have produced a rangeoffilms. theanthropologist an entomologistobservinghis is no longer as were an insect (puttingit ifit down) subject were a stimulantfor as ifit but rather mutual He began to and role-playing. including approaches to both He said thathe made science and art infilm.officialscontacted Rouch to ask himand others to document the new society. Filmstudents began following selected subjects through daily routines. He wanted his filmsto challenge the status unreflective quo. particularly group inNew Caledonia. There. both among the Indians and among non-Indians. She wanted Indians to make a remarkable From the Ikpeng Childrento the World (2002) isa charming video letter made by children of an Amazonian tribe inresponse to a video letter about daily lifereceivedfrom Cuba. Correaassumed a leading role inrestructur ingthemission ofVideo intheVillages and also became Carelli'swife.After Mozambique's indepen dence in1975. inorder to serve differently the same goal that Carelli had: to create awareness. which he took revealsocial realities in looking at his own "tribe" further ofParisians in Chronicle ofa Summer (1961). they notonly learnedfilmmaking techniques but also grappledwith the ethical and philosophi cal dimensions of representation.and conflict. reflects thegrowingcomplexity of Brazilian to theBrazilian state and Indians' relationship responsive or respon ?2008 . 37). 33-39) The first challengeCorr?amet.was that as Indians identified rituals only traditional was appropriatesubjects for Daily life filming. On thebasis of her with an indigenous experiences. Theydeveloped in timaterelationships with their subjects.and the on focused primarily project'swork isno longer same At the work the time.2 / SUMMER 20 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 6 BYTHEBOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 8 31 . people. him. understanding(hence dignity)"(Eaton60-62).became a freestanding organization. Correawas commit ted to the notion thatpeople could and should develop notonlydocumentationbut also own cultural stories thatcould transcendtheir circumstances. filmsabout otherpeople forthreereasons.of theirhumanity cultural expres expressed through particular sions. The Moon Menstruated (2004) inter DayWhen the weaves the telling of an Amazonian myth with comments thatsuggest its different meanings to different members of theKuikurotribe. Most obviously. which have emotional and narrative grip.he made filmsfor himselfand for general audiences.for method Ihave to show another justhow Isee were participatory. as someone who was steeped indirectcinema. fiction. was happening.' butwith an in constituted at twopoints of least terpretation ofview: thatof the person filming and thatof who consents to be filmed'' (Corr?aet al. his principledbelief inthe capacity own stories.Corr?awanted when nothing to breakthroughthispreconception.This as aes as then had moral well relationship to thetic implications. In2000 theprojectVideo intheVillages. see thecamera as a provocation or catalystto as narratives an emerging Indiancultureas for well (Correaet al."And ifit film became a way of changingthe anthropologicalrelation ship: "Thanks to feedback. In chroni response he encouraged the search for Varan clerswithin Mozambique.and his ab of people to telltheir solute convictionthattheir storieswere worth the creationof the hearingand seeing informed AteliersVaran. Correa: "On according we are therefore not these faced films.

the ques our village to participate in it... to the challenges of the unceasing undergo land.. Someone from outside notonly to the world of Brazilians and Indians but also to theviewpointsofothers inhis own tribe and tures. use video we strengthen are going option..first survival of Ashaninka culture: "It is important the larger project. theyused to lookupon as lazy. to keep a record. plydisgusted them. 19). still often see political. but it isus who are making this change" (Correa et al.w?B^^^-U^-U?U?U?^?-^^-uW^ Photo Two *! ? ^^^^^9 : film Trie ofthe e off/? culture and adaptation to survive. but it is more which we in the ways important to understand are defending our people and our Some have been made by people to see itself. to convince supporters Some of the films have been made international funders and other of the worthiness instance/l in order of Festa a changed overtime. da Mo?a?have Indians Some?for been made to allow to understand theAshaninka people. For Whom and for What? Video intheVillages. gave them a way to participate in and gain some control For instance. understanding customs of other sim tribal cultures whose previously Video intheVillages projectorganizershave always had an answer. Video for him is a road to understanding? understanding of Indians whom the customs of other indigenous cul may teach us how to use video.He Storytelling as Politics Indian filmmakers role as supremely Pinhanta. He referred to change tion isnot thatvideo isdifferent. Video intheVillages. but itentered thevillage anyway. he argued. him. it ishow to . opposed now wants the arrival of commercial to his village. the answer to the For whom and for what these films question of for are made has for Brazilians. 18). to memorialize 32 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60.2 / SUMMER 20 8 OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ?2008 BY THEBOARD . and of this new communications ter how much we language. However.for ofyoungerpeople who want understanding to understand traditionslongclosely held by elders. elders. "No mat our culture and . to record celebrations and significant them rituals." He piece is not worried about introducing Pinhanta had television a that Indian cultures must of Brazilian technology. "You see the world of the other and you look at your own" (Correa et al. their creative Isaac teacher.This understandingis for a political tool forthe and foremost. an Ashaninka filmmaker ofmakingvideo by celebrated the importance noting. forAshaninka.

This article is informed by research and analysis for the chapter on ethnographic film inmy book Docu mentary Film: A VeryShort Introduction. Reality. Berke ley: U of California . Minneapolis: U of Min nesota P. -.1 (1991): 92-112. Bloch. n. Minneapolis: sota P.selves to their descendants. Ginsburg. exposing a public where there was not one Video intheVillages isethnographic film the ques making tionof the function of ethnographic filmresults increativeefforts to change thebalance of notonly in reflected power that is traditionally the camera's gaze but also in the social and po liticalrelationshipsthat it(and otherexpressive thanchallenges.. and to be able to share their culture with relatedgroups. supporting.Media. S?o Paulo: Banco do Brasil. Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain.org). Corr?a. New York: Oxford UP. Mick.but not a partisanone.2 / SUMMER 20 BYTHEBOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 8 33 . Bad Aboriginal Art: Tradition. Pat. REFERENCES Aufderheide. Itispolitical ina sense thatshould be familiar to an Americanpublic because itisdesigned to create before. which share a common set of problems inthe faceof theBrazilianstate and society. The films of Video in the Villages are available in the United States fromDocumentary Educational Resources in Watertown. Lila Abu-Lughod. 1994. S?o Paulo. MA (http://der. Anthropology.This isa publicmobilized not to react on partisan linesbut to reactto configurations of power?corporate. Relat?rio MacArthur: Programa Vozes Indigenes 1992. 2. Eaton. and strength of NOTES . Roth. "Indigenous Media: Faustian Con tract or Global Village?" Visual Anthropology 6. a particularlinguistic and cultural group but also as members of a collectionof such groups. that menace at its clearest. Ginsburg. Projecto "Video ?as Aldeias. Here. Cinema: The Films of Jean Rouch. 1979. The Daily Planet: A Critic on the U of Minne Capitalist Culture Beat. [2005]. Centro de Traballio Indigenista. 2007. Something New in theAir: The Story of ?2008 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. and Vincent Carelli. political? a culture's quality of life. Documentary Film: A VeryShort Introduction. Itisa highly politicalproject. 2000. governmental. and Technological Horizons. Faye D. London: BFI. S. and Brian Larkin. 1993. Some have been made inorder to findthe stories within the culture ofdaily life and to explore the of thestorytelling responsibilities project itself. Mari.d. 2002. Lorna. Faye D." Unpublished manuscript. All of these goals are unitedby the common ofAmazonian Indiansas ening the identity Amazonian Indians?not only as members thread of expressing. Mostra V?deo ?as Aldeias: Um ohlhar ind?gena. tools) too often recordsrather Michaels. Eric.

Worth.First Peoples Television Broadcasting in Canada. Sol. Visual Anthropology Review Winston. Picturing Culture: Explorations of Film & Anthropology. 2000. 1997. Terrence.2:102-6. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P. and JohnAdair. Ruby. jay.2 / SUMMER 20 8 OF TRUSTEES ?2008 BYTHEBOARD OF THEUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS . 2005. London: BFI. Claiming the Real: The Griersonian Documentary and Its Legitimations. Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication and Anthropol ogy." 11. Brian. 34 JOURNAL OF FILM AND VIDEO 60. Collaboration and Mediation inContemporary Ethnographic and Indigenous Media. 1995. Chicago: U of Chicago P. "Representation. Turner. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP.

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