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802.

11n Wi-Fi Basics

Objectives • • •
Understand 802.11n technology Identify WiFi network elements Common issues in implementing an outdoor WiFi network

Proprietary Information.
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Agenda

Physical layer:

• • • • •

Network Layer:

Channels MIMO Beamforming Modes Data Rates

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Access Method Beacons VAP 802.11n modes

RF links Common issues in WIFI

Proprietary Information.
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11a/b/g/n 40 MHz 802.11n Multiple Data Streams 20 MHz and 40 MHz channels • • Beamforming MAC enhancements. 4 .802. more data Proprietary Information.11n Main Features • Multiple antennas on Tx and Rx • • • • • • • • • Range Increase Throughput Increase As opposed to only 20 MHz in 11b/g On Rx On Tx (optional) Frame aggregation Block ACK 20 MHz 802.less overhead.

11n – 2.4Ghz band Proprietary Information.WiFi Channels 802. 5 .

Typical 802.11 typical channels Proprietary Information.11n channels – 5Ghz band • • • • • • • • • • • Channel 148: 5740 MHz Channel 149: 5745 MHz (*) Channel 150: 5750 MHz Channel 151: 5755 MHz Channel 152: 5760 MHz Channel 153: 5765 MHz (*) Channel 154: 5770 MHz Channel 155: 5775 MHz Channel 156: 5780 MHz Channel 157: 5785 MHz (*) Channel 158: 5790 MHz • • • • • • • • • Channel 159: 5795 MHz Channel 160: 5800 MHz Channel 161: 5805 MHz (*) Channel 162: 5810 MHz Channel 163: 5815 MHz Channel 164: 5820 MHz Channel 165: 5825 MHz (*) Channel 166: 5830 MHz Channel 167: 5835 MHz (*) 802. 6 .

7 .MIMO communication • • • • Data is spited into multiple streams Each stream is transmitted by a different antenna Each receive antenna receives all the streams The modem reconstructs the original streams to a single data stream Proprietary Information.

8 .MIMO .Multiple in Multiple Out • • • DOUBLES the Capacity Not Improving coverage Different Data streams over the air 11011 010 00000 0101000101 Proprietary Information.

MIMO Terminology • • Multiple antennas at both AP and client 11n device is characterized by 3 number: • • • Number of Tx antenna (Tx) Number of RX antenna (Rx) Number of streams (St) Tx x Rx: St 3 x 3:3 Proprietary Information. 9 .

What is Beam Forming ? • General signal processing technique • • Controls the directionality Transducer array Proprietary Information. 10 .

Beamforming (TxBF) • TxBF gain can range from 4.7 dB (array gain) up to 7-8 dB (array + diversity gain) TxBF works with one-stream rates only TxBF works when the CPE supports sounding • • Proprietary Information. 11 .

12 .Beam Forming limitations • No MIMO enabled • • • Either MIMO or BF Loss for “Sounding” Reduce UL capacity Proprietary Information.

Beam Forming “Sounding” CPE sends “Sounding” “Sounding” is received with different strength on different antenna Proprietary Information. 13 .

Beam Forming – Beam creation CPE Receives higher SNR BS calculates signal and builds the beam Proprietary Information. 14 .

11a/b/g devices is critical This is accomplished using HT (High Throughput) Protection and Coexistence mechanisms.802. 15 . There are three 802.11b/g mode HT Mixed: provides backwards compatibility while maintaining a better performance for 802.11b/g “only” mode.11n “only”.11n stations will work in 802.11n modes • • • Enabling coexistence with legacy 802. Proprietary Information.11n stations. 802.11n operating modes: • • • HT: (Greenfield mode) 802. Legacy stations cannot communicate with the 802. Legacy stations can communicate with the AP.11n AP Non-HT: 802.

the coder generates totally n bits of data. 16 .is the proportion of the data-stream that is useful (non-redundant).one spatial stream R . of which n-k are redundant.MCS set. if the code rate is k/n. for every k bits of useful information. Proprietary Information. That is.

two spatial streams Proprietary Information. 17 .MCS set.

MCS set. 18 .three spatial streams Proprietary Information.

Rate Adaptation Throughput Green – 3 antenna 11n client. 2SS Dual-stream rates Blue – Red – 2 antenna 11n client. 2SS single antenna 11g client Single-stream rates The range of dual-stream is bigger for 3-antenna client! Proprietary Information. Range 19 .

Multiple Access: multiple stations send and receive on the medium. • • Collision Avoidance: If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel Proprietary Information. 20 .Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance • Carrier Sense: device tries to detect the presence of an encoded signal from another station before attempting to transmit.Access Method • Access protocol : CSMA/CA. Transmissions by one node are generally received by all other stations using the medium. the station waits for the transmission in progress to finish before initiating its own transmission. If a carrier is sensed.

Beacon • Beacon is a message from the AP. 21 . which carries the parameters an STA should support in order to connect to a specific VAP An AP can transmit multiple beacons for multiple VAP • Proprietary Information.

22 . not for channels STA (generally) can associate to only one VAP The “access” to an VAP can be open or through authentication ( WEP. WPA. A STA must know the parameters of a hidden VAP in order to associate to it (it cannot be “discovered”) Proprietary Information. WPA2) The authentication can be performed locally or through a RADIUS server VAPs can be broadcasted through beacons or not (hidden VAP).VAP • • • • • • VAP (Virtual Access Point) is the name of the network STA listen for VAP.

the AP has a more powerful Tx Power. . this creates a situation where the STA “hears” the AP but not the opposite Then. the link will be limited by the Tx power of the STA 23 Proprietary Information.RF link • Received signal: • • • Tx Power+Tx Antenna Gain-Link Attenuation+Rx Antenna gain Signal strength decreases proportionally to the square of the distance between two points The link attenuation is the same uplink or downlink between two designated points • • Generally.

Noise Level • Noise Floor of WBS: • • • Thermal Floor: -174 dBm/Hz Bandwidth of channel :22MHz Noise level in channel: -174dBm+22MHz[dB]=-174dBm+73dB=-101dBm • • WBS Noise Figure=5dB Noise floor of channel in WBS: noise level in channel + WBS noise figure: -101dBm+5dB= -96dBm Other RF transmitter “rise” the noise floor • Proprietary Information. 24 .

25 .SNR • • • SNR = received signal strength (dBm)-Noise Level (dBm) The ability to decode a signal modulated to a specific rate depends on its SNR rather than on its level (RSSI) High noise levels will limit the distance allowed for signal fading to reach a specific SNR Received Signal Level SNR -80 <High Noise Level< -70 -95 <Low Noise Level< -80 Proprietary Information.

26 . the data rate is dropped The transmission data rate is set by the transmitter!! Proprietary Information.Data Transmission • • • If STA A does not receive ACK it assumes packet loss due to collision or receive error and retransmits After many retransmissions.

Common issues in Wi-Fi .

28 .Interference • High air activity: Consumes air-time • • • • Reduces system capacity Regardless of RF values “Embedded” in CSMA/CA “Protocol Noise” Proprietary Information.

Hidden Node • CPE-A fails to sense the presence of a potential competitor for medium because the competitor is far from it • collision occurs.Hidden node problem • No Collision detection in wireless node. Proprietary Information. 29 .

sender begins transmission. The receiver replies with CTS (Clear To Send) frame.The solution: RTS/CTS • • • • Transmitter first sends a RTS (Request To Send) frame to the receiver that typically contains the sender's address and the size of the packet it wishes to transmit. The CTS frame contains the data length (copied from the RTS frame). The hidden node problem is solved here as a hidden node also receives a CTS and becomes aware of the impending transmission. Hence it defers its own transmission. 30 . Upon receipt of the CTS frame. RTS/CTS is a CPE parameter!!! Proprietary Information.

adding overhead but gaining free air-time Without using RTS/CTS Need to set the minimal Tx-PDU which will trigger an RTS message in the CPE Collisions Using RTS/CTS Proprietary Information.Using RTS/CTS With RTS/CTS the system works in CSMA/CD. 31 .

Thank you .