CONTENTS

FOREWORD PREFACE CHAPTER NINE RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Introduction Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors Refraction Total Internal Reflection Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses Refraction through a Prism Dispersion by a Prism Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight Optical Instruments

v vii

309 310 316 319 323 330 332 333 335

CHAPTER TEN WAVE OPTICS 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Introduction Huygens Principle Refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens Principle Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment Diffraction Polarisation 351 353 355 360 362 367 376

CHAPTER ELEVEN DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9

AND

MATTER 386 387 388 389 393 393 395 398 403

Introduction Electron Emission Photoelectric Effect Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation Particle Nature of Light: The Photon Wave Nature of Matter Davisson and Germer Experiment

CHAPTER TWELVE ATOMS 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Introduction Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom Atomic Spectra Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation 414 415 420 422 428 430

CHAPTER THIRTEEN NUCLEI 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.5 13.6 13.7 Introduction Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus Size of the Nucleus Nuclear Force Radioactivity Nuclear Energy 438 438 441 445 446 451

CHAPTER FOURTEEN LECTRONIC ICS SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 Introduction Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors Intrinsic Semiconductor Extrinsic Semiconductor p-n Junction Semiconductor diode Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes Junction Transistor Digital Electronics and Logic Gates Integrated Circuits 467 468 472 474 478 479 483 485 490 501 505

CHAPTER FIFTEEN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Elements of a Communication System 15.3 Basic Terminology Used in Electronic Communication Systems 15.4 Bandwidth of Signals 15.5 Bandwidth of Transmission Medium 15.6 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

513 513 515 517 518 519

xiv

15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10

Modulation and its Necessity Amplitude Modulation Production of Amplitude Modulated Wave Detection of Amplitude Modulated Wave

522 524 525 526 528 532 534 552 554

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION APPENDICES ANSWERS BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

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