Alcohol Policy Report_WHO | Alcoholism | World Health Organization

Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy

World Health Organization Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Geneva

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data World Health Organization. Global status report : alcohol policy. 1.Alcoholic beverages - supply and distribution 2.Alcohol drinking - prevention and control 3.Alcohol drinking - legislation 4.Alcohol-related disorders - prevention and control 5.Public policy I.Title. ISBN 92 4 158035 6 (NLM Classification: WM 274)

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Foreword
I am pleased to present this timely publication on Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy. The report is a first attempt by WHO to provide a comprehensive overview highlighting the current state of alcohol policies world-wide. This report is part of the continuous work coming out of the WHO Global Alcohol Database, the world's largest single source of information on alcohol which was initiated in 1996. Earlier reports from the database are the Global Status Report on Alcohol (1999) and the Global Status Report on Alcohol and Young People (2001). The report presents in a comprehensive way the current status of alcohol policies in much of the world and provides an objective first baseline on which to monitor and build relevant alcohol polices globally. The growing recognition that alcohol consumption is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease means that alcohol requires greater attention by the public health community than it is receiving at present. Appropriate policy responses are needed to address the various health and social problems associated with use of and dependence on alcohol. This global report on alcohol policy will serve as a resource for Member States that are seeking ways to formulate and implement evidence-based and cost-effective measures to reduce the burden associated with alcohol consumption that are culturally and legally appropriate. With growing awareness of alcohol consumption as one of the major risk factors to public health, countries and communities should search for policies that protect and promote health, prevent harm and address the many social problems associated with alcohol use. Ideally, scientific evidence should inform both policymaking and public debate. One of the issues to debate is the extent to which successful public health measures are transferable between different cultures, and the different situations in developed and developing countries. I am grateful to the many professionals and officials in countries and WHO offices who contributed to this report. I am confident that the report will help countries to influence both levels of alcohol consumption and drinking patterns, and consequently reduce alcohol-related harm.

Dr Catherine Le Galès-Camus Assistant Director-General Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health

Acknowledgements
WHO gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the focal points in the WHO Member States who provided data and information both for this document and the Global Alcohol Database in general. The co-operation of WHO Regional Offices in helping to locate the focal points and disseminate the alcohol policy questionnaire, is also gratefully acknowledged. WHO also wishes to acknowledge the generous financial support of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, which made this report possible. This document was prepared under the direction of Maristela Monteiro, Coordinator of the Management of Substance Abuse team, and later under the direction of Vladimir Poznyak, both of whom also provided invaluable input. Nina Rehn is the principal author of this report. Excellent research assistance was received from Kelvin Chuan Heng Khow and Andrea Zumbrunn. Gerhard Gmel, Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems provided comments on the report as a whole. Thanks are also due to Isidore Obot of the Management of Substance Abuse unit for his contributions to data collection and comments on the report. Heidemarie Vaucher, Elisabeth Grisel, and Lucienne Boujon, Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems, and Mylene Schreiber and Tess Narciso, Management of Substance Abuse, WHO, all provided much needed secretarial and editorial assistance. This report has been produced within the framework of alcohol research and policy initiatives implemented by the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse under the direction of Benedetto Saraceno. Thanks are also due to those members of the WHO Alcohol Policy Strategic Advisory Committee who provided comments on an early draft of the report, and in addition, to Robin Room and Thomas Babor for very useful final comments. Final layout was provided by Momcilo Orlovic from WHO.

.......................... 13 Restrictions on the availability of alcoholic beverages ............................................. 5............................... 24 2.......................................... Relative price of alcoholic beverages ....................... 42 4............3....... Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions .........................................2 Restrictions on off-premise retail sale ........ 4......1........................ Price of local beverages..... 30 Drink driving legislation ... 45 4.................................................................................................................................................. 134 SEAR-Profiles.......................................................................................62 Alcohol-free environments .......................................................................................... ANNEX 2: GLOBAL QUESTIONNAIRE: ALCOHOL CONTROL POLICIES .................. 1 ALCOHOL POLICY: BACKGROUND AND DEFINITION ..................................................... Definition of an alcoholic beverage................................................................................. Restrictions on sponsorships .......................1............................................................... 2................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Price and taxation ......................................................... 131 EUR-Profiles ................................................................................................... 61 5....................................................................................................................2 Taxation..............................1 State monopolies and licensing systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 1......... 41 4.......................................................2............................................................................................................................................. 7 REGIONAL OVERVIEWS OF DATA AVAILABILITY ........................................ 78 AFR-Profiles ................ soft drink (beer-cola ratio)...............................Contents INTRODUCTION ..............................1 Price of alcoholic beverages .................................................................................................3............1.............................. 45 4...................................................................................................... 49 4.............................. 177 WPR-Profiles ................... 6...................................................................................... 58 5.......................... 6 DATA SOURCES AND METHODS................................................................... 15 2.................. 79 AMR-Profiles.............................. 16 2.......................................................................................... 75 COUNTRY PROFILES ....................................................................... 201 LIST OF FOCAL POINTS FOR THE ALCOHOL POLICY QUESTIONNAIRE ....................................................................................3 Age requirements for purchase and consumption of alcoholic beverages ........2............................. 70 3............................................ 51 Advertising and sponsorship.................................................................. 182 REFERENCES .................................. DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................. 2 WHO GLOBAL ALCOHOL DATABASE ......1..............1................................................................................................... 61 5............................ 106 EMR-Profiles.............................................................. 205 ............... 197 ANNEX 1........................................ Health warnings.................. 10 AREAS OF ALCOHOL POLICY .................................................................................. Price of beer vs..........................

by country 43 Relative price of alcoholic beverages. excise taxes on beer. middle and high maximum legal BAC 39 Prices of alcoholic beverages in US$. by country 32 Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) levels and use of Random Breath Testing (RBT).List of tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Table 22: Table 23: Table 24: Geographic coverage of the survey data List of countries included in the report Legal definition of an alcoholic beverage Definition of alcoholic beverage. by beverage type 59 . wine and spirits. beer-cola ratio and reported five year trend in alcohol beverage prices. by country 19 21 24 26 Level of enforcement of off-premise sales restrictions in countries with existing restrictions (in % by WHO Region) 30 Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages. middle and high alcohol-specific tax on beer.and off-premise. by country 36 Distribution of the maximum legal BAC when driving a car The frequency of use of RBT for countries with a legal BAC level. by country 8 10 14 14 Existing state monopolies and licensing systems on off-premise retail sale in responding countries (in % by WHO Region) 17 Countries with state monopolies on off-premise retail sale of alcoholic beverages 17 Countries with no state monopolies that require licences for off-premise sale of alcoholic beverages 18 Countries with state monopolies on the production of alcoholic beverages Control of off-premise retail sale and production. wine and spirits (% of retail price) 52 Sales taxes on alcoholic beverages. by country 53 Restrictions on advertising in selected media. by WHO Region 38 39 The average use of RBT of drivers. by country Restrictions on off-premise retail sale Off-premise sales restrictions and level of enforcement. on. and use of excise stamps on beverage containers. by beverage type and country Regional means of the relative prices of alcoholic beverages Price of local alcoholic beverages in US$ 46 49 50 Frequency of low. for countries with low.

radio. by country 67 Restrictions on drinking in public domains Restrictions on alcohol consumption in parks and streets Restrictions on alcohol consumption in different public domains. by WHO Region Countries categorized by maximum BAC level and use of RBT Median values of the relative cost of alcoholic beverages worldwide Countries categorized by relative price of beer and excise tax Countries categorized by relative price of spirits and excise tax 31 34 40 48 56 56 Regional distribution of countries with bans or partial legal restrictions on beer advertising in selected media 59 Level of enforcement of existing advertising and sponsorship restrictions. % of countries with restrictions 29 Age requirement for the on-premise and off-premise purchase of beer Legal age limit for the off-premise sale of beer. print media or billboards 60 Restrictions on alcohol beverage industry sponsorship of sports and youth events. by country 64 Restrictions on sponsorships. for beer 61 Restrictions on advertising of alcoholic beverages in four media.Table 25: Table 26: Table 27: Table 28: Table 29: Table 30: Table 31: Countries with no restrictions on beer advertising on television. by country 70 71 72 List of figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Regional differences in restrictions on off-premise retail sale of beer. health warnings and enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions. bans and partial legal restrictions (n=64) 62 .

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such as level of production. across time. and demographics. alcohol consumption was responsible for over 55 000 deaths among young people aged 15 to 29 years in 1999 (Rehm & Gmel.3 million with diagnosed alcohol use disorders. At the same time there are other factors influencing consumption and harm. marketing. for the largest share of alcohol’s burden on society. alcohol-related harm is not confined to the relatively small number of heavy drinkers or people diagnosed with alcohol use disorders. alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.3 million). there are causal relationships between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of disease and injury. In the past twenty years. This report presents data collected from Member countries to strengthen the WHO Global Alcohol Database in the field of alcohol policy with data which are as comparable as possible. employed a great diversity of strategies. Light and moderate drinkers. and the third largest risk factor in developed countries (for more data please refer to WHO. both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Ideally. The report includes two parts: • • Global overview of each alcohol policy area Country profiles on alcohol policy This report is intended to inform WHO Member States of the status of existing alcohol policies and to provide them with a baseline for monitoring the situation. as absenteeism or abuse in workplaces and in relationships.2% of deaths (1. are collectively responsible. These are reflected. minimize alcohol-related harm and promote public health. To alleviate this burden of alcohol consumption. political liberalization. In Europe alone. who occasionally drink at high risk levels. which are mostly outside of government control. Besides the numerous chronic and acute health effects. while being individually responsible for fewer harms than heavy drinkers. the majority of the population in many countries. is among the most important strategies. Globally. the global burden related to alcohol consumption. considerable progress has been made in the scientific understanding of the relationship between alcohol policies. prevent disability and address the social problems associated with alcohol consumption. Even non-drinkers can become victims of alcohol-related aggression. On a population level.e. alcohol consumption causes 3. is considerable in most parts of the world. this cumulative research evidence should provide a scientific basis for public debate and governmental policymaking in search of policies that protect health. 2002). 2002).0% of the Disability-Adjusted Life Years lost (58. Alcohol policy. for example. many countries have. Overall. Research evidence shows that it is possible to develop and implement comprehensive and effective alcohol policies. It is hopefully also useful as an advocacy tool for identifying existing gaps and raising awareness about the need for alcohol policies. mental and emotional consequences. alcohol control measures affect alcohol consumption levels and drinking habits. From a public health perspective. due to their greater numbers. i.e. In short. for example. which in turn have an effect on alcoholrelated social and health problems. Alcohol consumption is the leading risk factor for disease burden in low mortality developing countries.Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are about 2 billion people worldwide consuming alcoholic beverages and 76. i. alcohol consumption is also associated with widespread social.8 million) and 4. . measures by government to control supply and demand.

physical environment. 1975) highlighted the fact that alcohol problems could be prevented and that national governments and international agencies and organizations should take a firm role in shaping effective and rational alcohol policies. quite complex and one would be hardpressed to find a universal definition or common agreement that would encompass the many facets and uses of the term. alcohol policy. More recently. included policy responses such as alcohol taxation. The first group. are policies aimed at altering levels of alcohol consumption among the population.. health education and informal social control. The implementation of public policies seeking to address the links between alcohol consumption. 1994). deliberate. availability controls including 2 . 2003). in this case. legislative restrictions on alcoholic beverage availability. problem-directed policies and direct interventions. and decision-makers are now better equipped to make informed policy choices in light of the current scientific evidence on alcohol policy. The publication of a seminal monograph entitled Alcohol Control Policies in Public Health Perspective (Bruun et al. Looking at the history of alcohol policy. Bruun and his colleagues defined alcohol control policies as all relevant strategies initiated by the state to influence alcoholic beverage availability. It is worth noting that the term alcohol policy is. The term ‘alcohol policy’ in itself had its roots in the Nordic countries and has progressively spread in use and importance since the 1960s. bearing in mind the main purpose of alcohol policies in the first place: to serve the interests of public health and social well-being through their impact on health and social determinants. However. In the monograph Alcohol Policy and the Public Good (Edwards et al. alcohol control and harm-reduction strategies (Babor. They include policies on taxation.. advertising. health and social welfare would thus be considered as alcohol policies. such as drinking patterns.. including education and treatment programs.. economic. and the health services available to treat problem drinkers (Babor et al. alcohol education and media information campaigns. and accepting of adults drinking in moderation (Babor et al. there has been a growing interest in the scientific study of alcohol policy as a useful ally in combating the ill-effects of alcohol-related problems. one tends to find a lack of overall consistency or coherence in the usage of the term alcohol policy (sometimes called alcohol control policy). alcohol policy began to be viewed as a potential instrument for improving public health. political and social contexts. excluding the following: attitude change. Alcohol policy then could be roughly defined as being measures put in place to control the supply and/or affect the demand for alcoholic beverages in a population.Alcohol policy: background and definition When perusing the alcohol literature. in itself. measures affecting drinking within specific contexts and measures targeted at specific alcohol-related problems like drink driving. 2003). seeing it as a public health response dictated in part by national and historical influences. age restrictions on alcoholic beverage purchasing. Here. the drinking environment. As a result. with the advent of modern medicine and the rise of the global Temperance Movement in the nineteenth century. 2002). Edwards and his colleagues took a more inclusive view of alcohol policy. This definition is thus born out of a recognition of the fact that alcoholrelated problems are the result of a complex interplay between individual use of alcoholic beverages and the surrounding cultural. or population-based policies. it would be unwise to simply view alcohol policies from the narrow perspective of prohibition – one should not forget that a great part of policy formation during the past century has been incremental. Godfrey & Maynard (1995) have classified the wide range of policy options available to reduce the public health burden of alcohol consumption into three main groups: populationbased policies.

However. Such strategies are usually seen as relatively ‘blunt’ instruments. they affect all drinkers. rationing and state monopolies. in the past. health promotion campaigns and school-based education. treatment and rehabilitation programs. except for school-based education and health promotion campaigns. suggesting that alcoholic beverage demand is responsive to price movements. economic and commercial interests and their political ability to influence policy also play an important role. Often. The third group of policies involves interventions directed at individual drinkers. Except for brief interventions. Holder & Gutzwiller..g. efforts focused more on population-based policies aimed at reducing the overall per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages. on the one hand. it is worth noting that. and the public health values of demand reduction. These include brief interventions. so that as price increases. Ludbrook et al. 1995). many such ‘treatments’ are administered only to those individuals with the most severe problems. decision-makers are now better placed to make informed public policy choices. Babor. 2002. With the wealth of scientific evidence currently available. promoting widespread random breath testing) or alcohol-related offences. hours and days of sale. there seems to be a fundamental incompatibility between the economic and political values of free trade. 1998). demand declines and vice versa. because. Whereas. 1993. 1995). there has now been a general international trend away from attempts to merely reduce alcoholic beverage consumption in the general population and towards efforts to address harmful drinking in certain groups or particular settings (Sewel.prohibition. According to Babor. in turn. and increasingly on a global basis. Holder & Edwards. there is a risk that focusing on achieving reductions in one problem only might. it should be recognized that alcohol policy as a concept may not even exist in the official terminology in many countries. In many countries. cause others to go unnoticed and maybe even worsen in magnitude (Godfrey & Maynard. alcohol is largely defined within agricultural and industrial policy and. but would have to encompass a sizable population of this particular group in order to have a noticeable impact on the macro level of problems (Godfrey & Maynard. rather than being directed at only those people with drinking problems. The second group of policies are those aimed at specific alcohol-related problems such as drink driving (e. the greatest amount of evidence with regard to public policy has been accumulated on the price-sensitivity of alcoholic beverage sales. 3 . harm reduction and primary prevention on the other hand. and minimum drinking age. and open access to alcoholic beverages. in his review of international collaborative alcohol research (2002). Successful interventions have potentially a major impact in improving the individual’s quality of life. 1995. drinking locations. In fact. The following basic conclusions can be drawn from a review of the research (Klingemann. these are generally the policies where effectiveness has been most clearly demonstrated. These policies are more focused and. hence. more rarely as health and social policy (adapted from Holder et al. However. promotion of beverages with low or no alcohol content.. 2002). unfettered marketing. 2002): • • alcohol problems are highly correlated with per capita consumption and reductions in per capita consumption produce decreases in alcohol problems. are less likely to affect the non-problem drinker. regulation of density of outlets.

advertising restrictions and public awareness campaigns. it is important that their outcome be subjected to scientific scrutiny. effective and sustainable alcohol policy can only be attained by ensuring the active and committed involvement of all relevant stakeholders. there is clearly no single policy measure that is able to combat and reduce all alcohol problems. It is the policy ‘mix’ or finding the right balance that is the key in reducing the overall public health burden of alcohol consumption. and. it is more effective to incorporate a range of measures in a comprehensive alcohol strategy. including price. availability and alcohol regulation. bring improvements in public health if there is a tradition of public support (Edwards et al. legislative interventions to reduce permitted blood alcohol levels for drivers. based on all the research evidence. Rather. alcohol-related problems. despite major advances in the understanding of drinking patterns. The existence of a wide range of alcohol policies is clear. And it is evident from research that measures are available that can significantly reduce alcohol-related problems and the resulting harm. supports drink driving countermeasures. Though a gap exists between the research and subsequent translation into policy action. These policies are enforced and combined differently in different countries to meet the needs of that particular country.. and policy interventions. is. 1994). Whether alcohol policies result from science alone or some combination of other factors. however. enforcement and maintenance of any restriction is jeopardized.g. in order to be effective. where modifications may be needed to improve the success of a policy. a comprehensive alcohol policy must not only incorporate measures to educate the public about the dangers of hazardous and harmful use of alcohol. individual approaches to prevention (e. school-based prevention programs) are shown to have a much smaller effect on drinking patterns and problems than do population-based approaches that affect the drinking environment and the availability of alcoholic beverages. 1994). to raise the legal drinking age and to control outlet density have been effective in lowering alcohol-related problems. • It has also been found that alcohol policy is rarely dictated by scientific evidence. Many types of restrictions will. and resistance and circumvention are likely to develop. which invests broadly in treatment of alcohol use disorders and particularly in primary care. Without sufficient popular support. It is only by doing so that one can determine where policies are successful in attaining a desired outcome and deserving of replication. alcohol policies that affect drinking patterns by limiting access and discouraging drinking under the legal purchasing age are likely to reduce the harm linked to specific drinking patterns. Alcohol strategies need a high degree of public awareness and support in order to be implemented successfully. but also 4 .. A policy mix which makes use of taxation and control of physical access. likely to achieve success in reducing the level of alcohol consumption problems (Edwards et al. or interventions that focus primarily on treating or punishing those who may be putting at risk their own or others’ health and safety.• • • heavy drinkers have been shown to be affected by policy measures. or where policies should be discarded (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). 1993). Thus. The goal of a comprehensive. it is worth noting that research can provide policy-makers with concrete evidence as to which policies are most likely to achieve their desired goals. However.

5 .must put in place regulatory and other environmental supports that promote the health of the population as a whole.

Based on the global alcohol database. this report is the third in a series of information products. wherever possible. The database brings together a large amount of information on the alcohol and health situation in individual countries and. more than 1300 published sources have been identified and consulted. Part of the database can be accessed on the WHO website (www. in order to improve the reliability of its global epidemiological surveillance and thereby increase the usefulness of this information in supporting efforts to reduce alcohol related problems worldwide. The earlier publications include the Global Status Report on Alcohol (WHO.WHO Global Alcohol Database In 1996 WHO started developing the world's largest single source that documents global patterns of alcoholic beverage use. CH-1211 Geneva 27. including details of policy responses in countries. by country. This monitoring system and database enable WHO to disseminate data and information on trends in alcohol consumption. Switzerland. comments or suggestions may be sent to: World Health Organization. 6 . 1999) and Global Status Report: Alcohol and Young People (Jernigan. and national policy responses. where data for example on per capita consumption. Any information. includes trends in alcoholic beverage use and related mortality since 1961. production and alcohol-related mortality. and health effects. WHO therefore encourages comments and additional information from readers of this report. trade. WHO has also collected information on alcoholic beverage production. and to respond to requests from Member States regarding comparative data and the status of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems within their borders. consumption. 20 Avenue Appia. Despite efforts made by WHO to obtain and validate data and information. 2001). trade.who. Management of Substance Abuse. drinking patterns and local beverages is shown. regionally and globally. policies and programmes.int/alcohol). many gaps in and uncertainties about the actual alcohol policy situation in WHO Member States remain. as well as on national alcohol measures. The system allows WHO to provide a stateof-the-art assessment of the trends in and health consequences of alcohol use worldwide. health consequences. In addition to large international databases maintained by other international governmental organizations.

a number of exercises to collect information in this field were made over the years. Consequently. Also. 1995. some alcoholic beverage companies and market research firms have undertaken studies relating to alcohol consumption and policies (e. 1998) and in 2002 (Österberg & Karlsson. 1974). In developing the questionnaire. Other actors have also produced overviews or funded research of differing magnitude. a larger study was published jointly by WHO and Addiction Research Foundation involving 80 countries: “Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems: An International Review of Preventive Measures. and Productschap voor Gedistilleerde Dranken: World Drink Trends). 1999). A list of the focal points is attached as Annex 2. 2001). The data on alcohol policies for the Global Alcohol Database and for this report were collected from WHO Member States by means of a questionnaire. In 1974. Policies and Programmes” (Moser. Besides English.g.. the questionnaire was translated into French. treatment and control (WHO Expert Committee on Mental Health. the European Region (EUR) and the Western Pacific Region (WPR). the Regional Offices sent the questionnaire to 161 countries. In the remaining 32 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) and South-East Asian (SEAR) Regions. an effort was made to directly locate country experts and send them the questionnaire. The regional distribution of the responses received appear in Table 1. e. In the European Region the official counterparts network of the EAAP (European Alcohol Action Plan) was consulted. Harkin et al. 1992. 2002).Data sources and methods In 1967. 1980). In 1980. The World Health Organization designed a four-page questionnaire to capture data related to the main areas of alcohol policy. 1967). for example with ministerial conferences on alcohol (Moser. Between July and September 2002.Alcoholic Beverage Taxation and Control Policies.the African Region (AFR). On a regional level. the questionnaire came to include questions mainly on price and taxation. sent out the questionnaire either to the official WHO Representatives in the countries or to other contact people working in the field of alcohol. problems. which shows the coverage of the survey per WHO Region and as a percentage of the population reached. In total. drink driving and advertising (see copy of questionnaire in Annex 1). The data collected were intended to reflect the status of alcohol policies as of 1 May 2002. the European Commission in 1998 (Oberlé. Rehn. including countries with roughly 86 percent of the world’s population. Russian and Spanish. WHO published a report on “Problems and Programmes Related to Alcohol and Drug Dependence in 33 Countries” (Moser. Craplet & Therre. In total. the WHO Regional Offices in four of the six regions . restrictions on availability.g. Within the confines of keeping the questionnaire short. 7 . the Region of the Americas (AMR). Room & Edwards. the expert committee on mental health recommended that WHO should promote interdisciplinary investigations and international exchange of information on alcohol consumption. comments on the draft were solicited from WHO Regional Offices and a group of focal points. the European Region of WHO has published several studies about existing alcohol policies in connection. The overall global coverage was good. the questionnaire was sent out to 175 countries (in many of the EMR countries no focal points could be located) and a reply was received from 118 countries (a response rate of 67%). Most of the focal points are individuals working in their respective Ministries of Health. Brewers of Canada: International Survey . and partly on research evidence on effectiveness of different policies. The next major effort was the publication of the Global Status Report on Alcohol in 1999 (WHO. The choice of policies to be included was based partly on earlier data collection experiences.

int/alcohol. basic validation of the data took place and also elimination of apparent errors and conflicting information.. vending machines. treatment or health promotion in general. but whose data are presented under the Western Pacific Region. United States of America is represented by the state of California and Canada by the province of Ontario. and the length of the questionnaire did not allow for all possible areas of alcohol policy to be included. The lack of space and the generality of the 8 . unlicensed outlets.who. The full set of data and data for countries received later are available upon request from the Database and will be displayed on the web at www. brief interventions. e. some of the types of media in the advertising section and the geographical distribution of Random Breath Testing were not included. which is not a Member State of WHO. Among the limitations of the report the following five main issues have been identified: • • • • • Coverage of data Cross-sectionality of data Federalism and regional data Reliability of data Limited ability to measure policy enforcement The coverage of the data which the report is based on were somewhat limited. for Uruguay and Venezuela the data represent their respective capital cities. Many important policy areas that do warrant attention could not be included: prevention or education efforts and campaigns in schools or mass media. community projects. packaging etc. During data entry into Global Alcohol Database. i. codes of practice of self-regulation on marketing. The Regional Offices were also consulted about the data regarding their respective Member States.Table 1: Geographic coverage of the survey data WHO Region AFR AMR EMR EUR SEAR WPR Total Replies/total number of countries 27 / 46 25 / 35 3 / 21 43 / 52 5 / 11 15 / 27 117* / 192 % population covered 70 99 29 94 86 98 86 * the 118th country in the report is French Polynesia. to under-age or intoxicated people). An attempt was made to check for the accuracy of the data by returning the individual country profiles to those focal points or WHO Representatives who could be reached by electronic means. a French overseas territory. Not all the information collected in the questionnaires is presented in this report.g. Not all countries were reached by the survey. accurate product information. alcohol content/concentration printed on beverages.e. United Kingdom refers to England and Wales. Obviously there are some shortcomings related to the report. Note: The data for India and Nigeria refer to certain regions only.g. penalties or sanctions for irresponsible serving of alcoholic beverages (e. server or product liability. to the sources of data and the methodology. both geographically and policy-wise. research and funding. responsible server training. and regulating alcopops or designer drinks. This report includes country data received by the beginning of April 2003.

questionnaire also excluded the possibility of examining details which are important for effective policy implementation. while unfortunately the data are often scarce and the methods of monitoring enforcement often underdeveloped. enforcing those laws effectively is a prerequisite for a comprehensive alcohol policy. Countries with large differences between regions or states should ideally be treated separately. sales restrictions and advertising. two of the alcohol policy areas. the data rely heavily and exclusively on the focal points. both enforcement questions were subjective estimates of the focal points measured on a simple rating scale. and the complexity of analysing multiple data sets per country. only looking at currently existing alcohol policies. The data are cross-sectional. Having laws and regulations is only one part of alcohol policies. at least at this stage. 9 . included a question on the level of enforcement. In most cases. Some general caution should be exercised in interpreting all data. However. due to lack of availability and coverage of regional data and focal points. this was not possible. As it does not include any longitudinal data. It should be recognized that besides basic validation of inconsistencies the data have not been checked against the actual alcohol legislation in the countries. In this survey. as the reliability could be brought into question. it is not possible to draw any conclusions about the direction of possible changes in alcohol policies over time. Unfortunately. The question of enforcement is thus crucial (also for the whole legal system). Another limitation is the difficulty to analyse federal states or regional data in the realm of this report.

) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines (the) Republic of Korea (the) Singapore Viet Nam SEAR India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand EMR Egypt Isl. besides individual countries. The definite article (the) following the country names is generally not used in the report. Rep. please refer to Table 2. Table 2: WHO Region AFR List of countries included in the report Country Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. St.Regional overviews of data availability In analysing the data. For a complete list of countries that are included in this report. the official WHO Regions already mentioned above are used. (the) Comoros (the) Congo (the) Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia (the) Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger (the) Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania (the) Zambia EUR Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic (the) Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania WPR Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR (the) Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. of Iran Jordan WHO Region Country Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago the United States Uruguay Venezuela WHO Region Country Luxembourg Malta Netherlands (the) Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova (the) Romania Russian Federation (the) Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine the United Kingdom AMR Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic (the) Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana 10 .

1. the names of United States of America and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela will be abbreviated to United States and Venezuela respectively. The data for Nigeria are valid only for the southern part of the country. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) The Eastern Mediterranean Region is made up of 21 countries on the Arab peninsula. Republic of the Congo (also referred to as Congo-Brazzaville) will be abbreviated to Congo. 3. In countries with total prohibition most of the survey questions are not applicable.gov/). In federal countries. In addition. the names of Central African Republic and United Republic of Tanzania will be abbreviated to Central African Rep. For the purposes of this report.apolnet. The majority of these countries have predominantly Muslim populations and have total prohibitions on alcoholic beverages. 4. In the sections on policy measures. In the case of data for the United States of America. For this exercise. Rep.nih. most decisions on alcohol policy are taken at subnational level. the three countries will not be dealt with as representing the Eastern Mediterranean Region. and replies were received from 43 countries. For the purposes of this report. For the tables of this report. The Americas (AMR) The Region of the Americas consists of 35 countries on the American continent and island states in the Caribbean. the names the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland will be abbreviated to TFYR Macedonia and United Kingdom respectively. Caracas and Montevideo. For the tables in this report. the Islamic Republic of Iran and Jordan. 2. For Venezuela and Uruguay the data received are valid for the region around their respective capital cities. and UR Tanzania respectively. The countries reached were Egypt. eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. the most populous region in both countries was chosen as representing them nationally. such as Canada and United States of America. regions or provinces. No information could be obtained to verify whether the alcohol policy situation differs for the other parts of these two countries. Africa (AFR) The African Region of WHO consists of 46 countries on the African continent and nearby islands. as the northern part has a predominantly Muslim population and has a total prohibition on alcoholic beverages. and in Canada the province of Ontario with about 12 million people (one third of the Canadian population). tracks alcohol policies at state and federal level and provides summaries and text of all alcohol-related bills and regulations enacted or adopted since 2002 (http://alcoholpolicy. it is the state of California with almost 35 million people (about 13% of total population). from which 27 replies were received.niaaa. In the United States of America. the APIS – Alcohol Policy Information System. The data for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland refer to England and Wales. 11 . due to the small number of countries. the Alcohol Policy Network (Ontario Public Health Association) also keeps an index of current alcohol-related bills and legislation (http://www. and they might have as many alcohol policies as there are states. of Iran.org/). from which 25 replies were received. Europe (EUR) The European Region covers 52 countries from Western Europe to the Russian Federation and the Central Asian Republics. the name Islamic Republic of Iran will be abbreviated to Isl. In Canada.

Japan and Republic of Korea in the north. For the tables of this report. where it is geographically located. but in this case the data are presented under the Western Pacific Region. French Polynesia is a French overseas territory (territoire d'outré-mer) and. 6. Western Pacific (WPR) The Western Pacific Region includes 27 countries from Australia and New Zealand in the south to China. 12 . It is not a WHO Member State. Out of the eleven countries in SEAR. The data in this study are from the southern parts of India and is not representative of the entire country. replies were received from five. Because of the small number of countries in SEAR the data have been combined with the Western Pacific countries for the regional analysis of the data. as such. from which 15 replies were received. St.) respectively. part of France. the names of the following two countries: Lao People’s Democratic Republic and the Federated States of Micronesia will be abbreviated to Lao PDR and Micronesia (Fed. South-East Asia (SEAR) The WHO South-East Asia Region refers to the Indian subcontinent and the neighbouring countries.5. India is a federal state with large differences between the different states.

The areas covered are definition of alcoholic beverage.2%. Jordan. Honduras. For this report the limit for a high definition of alcohol was set at 4. the question was misunderstood. The definition is usually not considered as an area of alcohol policy. Romania. and thus the advertising ban is partly circumvented. In many cases.95% (median 1. i.e. the limit of alcohol by volume could be set at such a level that beer is not considered an alcoholic beverage. ensuring that the consumer makes the right association. due to the low number of countries available for analysis. under the legal limit. Except for the first area. i. which. advertising and sponsorship. Venezuela and Zambia. which was included as a background indicator. Niger.1 to 12. Definition of an alcoholic beverage An integral part of the legislation on alcohol is the definition of an alcoholic beverage. Beverages just below the legal limit are also not subject to an alcohol-specific tax.5% alcohol by volume and above. In Zambia. but it is allowed to advertise for beer with low levels of alcohol (up to 2. The consequence of a limit that is set very high is that some beverages with lower alcohol content are not subject to any regulation.93). the different policy area overviews also include short descriptions of their effectiveness as expressed in the research literature. The definitions ranged from 0. is not presented as a separate region. EMR. Nigeria. can be used for promoting beverages with lower alcohol content. as that definition sets the limit for when the laws apply and to what beverages they apply. as well as some home brewed beverages such as sorghum beer (on average 3. TFYR Macedonia. including some where.2% alcohol by volume). The example of Sweden can illustrate one of the ways the legal limit can be exploited in advertising. Algeria. 13 . Most alcohol advertising in Sweden is banned. for example. drink driving. but it can potentially have important repercussions. The questionnaire asked for the definition of an alcoholic beverage. A further ten countries. Uganda. apparently. Philippines. having data for only three countries. justifiably. Slovakia and United Republic of Tanzania. the definition states that any drink that can intoxicate is considered an alcoholic beverage.Areas of alcohol policy The following part of the report presents the data collected from the questionnaires separately for each alcohol policy area. price and taxation. definition of alcoholic beverage. with the exception of SEAR and WPR which have been combined into one. For easy reference the full set of data per country is presented within each corresponding section. Jamaica. SD=1. Peru. a different definition of an alcoholic beverage. how much alcohol by volume must a beverage contain to be considered as “alcoholic”.5% alcohol by volume) and unbottled palm wine (3%). In this section the number of missing answers was quite high (20). For example. with the mean being 1. Despite the legal limit. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Only seven countries stated that they do not have a definition of an alcoholic beverage: Comoros. have.0% alcohol by volume. and alcohol-free environments.e. it is still possible to circumvent legislation in different ways. The brand name and the appearance of the different strengths of beer are identical. the results are summarized by WHO Region. because this would leave a considerable part of average barley beer outside the definition. The data presented reflect the status of alcohol policies as of 1 May 2002. 1. instead of an alcohol by volume limit. restrictions on availability. leaving it outside of any sales or advertising restrictions.

1 .A 1 1 N.8 1 NO 6 . Rep.A 0. no major differences are found.0 Table 4: Definition of alcoholic beverage.A 4 0. the means vary from 1.2 .5 N.A NO 2 12 3. and Nicaragua (12%).25 0.5 . 1.8 1.5 3.2 2.7 6. /vol.5 2 0. . Table 4 presents the data for each country separately.5 22.5 9 2 2 0. 0. Suriname (6%). N. NO 4 . 2.5% > ----% of responding countries (n =88) 62.7% in SEAR/WPR. .5 0. but beer is legally not considered an alcoholic beverage.5 1. 5 . 2 0.49% 4. Regionally.5 . from the responding countries. 3 N.4% in AFR and 2. Countries with higher limits are Hungary (5%).1 – 2% 2.1 – 4. Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala WHO Region Country Guyana Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela EMR Egypt Isl. 5 2.5 Definition (in % alcohol by volume) .2 0.2 WHO Region AFR Country Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep.75 2.A 1 1 .2 2.8 8.Table 3 shows that.A 1 0. 4. 1. Dominican Republic (9%). N. Belarus (6%).5 0.5%.5 2.5 1 0. of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia EUR AMR 14 .6% in EUR to 2. Ukraine presents an interesting case: the definition of alcohol is set at 3% alcohol by volume. by country Definition (in % alcohol by volume) N.A NO N.5% in AMR.5 1 .A N.5 0.5 . Table 3: Legal definition of an alcoholic beverage Alcohol by volume Low Middle High No alc. definition 0.5 1 6 2 .5 2 0. Eritrea (5%). a clear majority (85%) have a legal definition that is below 4. 0.

depending on the regulations of the country. . supermarkets.2 1. This section covers the physical availability. there is some form of legislation that deals with the production and sale of alcoholic beverages.A 1.5 NO 1. and restrictions on off-premise retail sale. in state monopoly stores.8 N. 15 .51 0. or when.WHO Region Country Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom Definition (in % alcohol by volume) 1 1. in this case the definition is not in per cent alcohol by volume.5 WHO Region Country SEAR India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed.25 0. 2. all of which can provide support for stringent restrictions (Österberg & Simpura. 1999).) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam Definition (in % alcohol by volume) .) indicate missing data.5 0. bars. for example. generally in pubs. On-premise retail sale refers to the selling of alcoholic beverages for consumption at the site of the sale. 2.5 2.5 NO 1 0. 3 0.5 . Restrictions on the availability of alcoholic beverages Restricting availability means putting obstacles and regulations on how easy it is to obtain alcoholic beverages. 1 4 . Off-premise retail sale refers to the selling of alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere and not on the site of sale. St. wine shops. and N. including level of enforcement and the legal age limits for buying alcoholic beverages.5 . Off-premise sale takes place.5 N. Restricting the availability of alcoholic beverages thus includes a variety of measures from sales monopolies to sales restrictions and age limits. The availability can be restricted by either physical or economic means. Generally. as they are usually regarded as a special commodity. in most countries.15 2. while the economic availability is examined under the section on price and taxation.01 2 0.A means not applicable. both on-premise and off-premise.5 3. WPR Note: For this and subsequent tables and country profiles in this report. The data were collected by asking a number of questions about the level of state control on the sale and production of alcoholic beverages.15 0.5 1. where and to whom it is sold and served. NO means that there is no legal definition. and petrol stations or kiosks.6 2 2 NO .A 0.2 2. cafes or restaurants. The rationale behind these regulations varies from quality control of products and public health considerations to elimination of the private–profit interest and religious considerations. dots (.5 2. 1. all measures that are generally considered to be quite effective.

on the suitability of the premises for sale or on an absence of nuisance for the neighbourhood. 2003). Canada. taverns. as the former is assumed to have a much greater impact on the availability of alcoholic beverages for the average consumer. on the seller having no criminal record.. A retail monopoly reduces both physical and economic availability by reducing private-profit opportunity and marketing and promotion efforts. Existing evidence is fairly strong that offpremise state monopolies limit both alcohol consumption and related problems. Generally. countries that monopolize or license off-premise sales also license on-premise sales (in restaurants. In summary. The alcohol sales licence can be conditioned. which in turn eliminate price competition and enable high retail prices (Holder et al.. However. however. Traditionally. etc. and not to general licences to conduct a business. A retail state monopoly usually means that a body run by the state is the main or only body allowed to sell alcoholic beverages off premises. this analysis concentrates on the retail sale restrictions and not production. 16 . for example. 2001). The licence can be suspended or removed in case any of the conditions or the alcohol sales regulations are breached.1 State monopolies and licensing systems One of the choices available to governments in relation to alcoholic beverages is to decide on the level of control over the sale and production of alcoholic beverages. The data shown are for off-premise sales of alcoholic beverages. and some of the central and eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union.). The questionnaire asked about the level of state control both on the production and retail sale of alcoholic beverages. have led to changes that have deregulated the market and opened up availability in some of these countries (Rehn. (except Denmark). 1998). partial control (licensing system) or no control (which could entail that anybody is allowed to sell or serve alcoholic beverages). for instance. Table 6 shows the countries that have state monopolies on the retail sale of alcoholic beverages. parts of the United States. and that abolishing monopolies can increase alcohol consumption (Babor et al. from Table 5 it can be seen that 15% of countries indicate having a state monopoly on the sale of beer. the state monopoly approach has been characteristic of the Nordic countries.2. A licensing system entails that anyone who wants to sell or produce alcoholic beverages has to apply for a licence granted by the municipality. Often a system of state monopoly stores also means a smaller number of outlets and limited hours of sale. wine or spirits. Recent political developments. Governments can elect full control (state monopoly). local government or the state. Room & Edwards. usually paying a fee. The report is thus referring to a specific system of licences to sell alcoholic beverages. and by lowering incentives and motivation for private entrepreneurship.

0 73.4 (n=18) (n=22) (n=24) (n=16) (n=80) No restrictions 4.Table 5: Existing state monopolies and licensing systems on off-premise retail sale in responding countries (in % by WHO region) Monopolies* 13.0 57. the exceptions being that two countries require a licence for the sale of beer and wine. some 73% of the responding countries require a licence for the sale of at least one alcoholic beverage. wine (which is also sold in winery stores).1 80. two countries for the sale of spirits.9 (n=1) (n=1) (n=10) (n=1) (n=13) WHO Region AFR AMR EUR SEAR/WPR Total * for at least one beverage ** for at least one beverage and not any monopoly Table 6: Countries with state monopolies on off-premise retail sale of alcoholic beverages Countries with state monopolies on all alcoholic beverages Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Canada 1 Malawi Mauritius Mongolia Sweden French Polynesia Iceland Countries with beverage-specific state monopolies Beer Gambia TFYR Macedonia Spirits Colombia Turkey Wine and spirits Finland Kyrgyzstan Norway Apart from the monopolies. 17 . Table 7 shows the countries that require licences for the sale of alcoholic beverages. Most beer.0 19.0 14. 1 In Canada.0 11.7 (n=3) (n=2) (n=8) (n=3) (n=16) Licences** 81.8 5. is sold by a monopoly run by the breweries jointly under a provincial licence.8 88. Ontario’s retail monopoly (LCBO) sells spirits.5 4. five for the sale of wine and spirits. this system applies for the sale of all three categories of beverages (69 countries). one country for beer and spirits.0 15. Generally.6 8.0 23. and beer. and one country for the sale of beer only. however.

in the remaining 12% of countries. Comoros Congo Eritrea Ghana Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa UR Tanzania Zambia Guatemala Guyana Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Luxembourg Malta Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Spain Turkmenistan United Kingdom SEAR India Indonesia Sri Lanka EUR Armenia Azerbaijan Thailand WPR Australia China Japan Micronesia (Fed. All but three countries (Brazil.Table 7: Countries with no state monopolies that require licences for off-premise sale of alcoholic beverages Countries that require licences for sale of all alcoholic beverages AFR Algeria Cape Verde Central African Rep. Croatia.) New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore AMR Argentina Belize Bolivia Chile Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Belarus Bulgaria Denmark France Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Lithuania Countries that require beverage-specific licences Beer and wine Gabon Guinea-Bissau Nepal Wine and spirits Jamaica Latvia Malaysia Republic of Moldova Beer and spirits Nepal Ukraine Spirits Beer Benin Netherlands Viet Nam Finally. St. there are no specific restrictions on the offpremise sale of alcoholic beverages. Ethiopia and Lao People`s Democratic Republic) of this group belong to the European Region: Austria. 18 .

From a public health perspective. for example. rather than having any great public health purpose. 1995. as illustrated by the fact that several time-series analyses noted an increase in alcohol consumption as monopolies were abandoned in favour of private retail outlets (Wagenaar & Holder. one can assume that differences exist in the practical implications of choosing a retail monopoly or a licensing system.) Beer Gambia Lao PDR Spirits Azerbaijan Colombia Costa Rica El Salvador Lithuania Luxembourg Norway Slovakia Switzerland Turkey Wine and spirits Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Beer and wine Cape Verde TFYR Macedonia Seychelles Wine Ethiopia Conclusions Off-premise state monopolies are quite effective in curbing alcohol consumption and related harm. One explanation is that these countries may have general sales restrictions that cover all goods. Her et al. Table 8: Countries with state monopolies on the production of alcoholic beverages All beverages Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Malawi Mauritius Mongolia Micronesia (Fed. which is not specific to the sale of alcoholic beverages. the strictness of these general sales restrictions may vary to a great degree from one country to another. that are not alcohol-specific. Greece. This happens to be the case in Austria. However. Regionally. Table 8 shows the countries that have state monopolies on the production of alcoholic beverages.Czech Republic. Although not analysed further in the report. Slovenia. Both AFR and SEAR/WPR have also a large majority of countries where licences are required. 24% have no restrictions in place. Germany. countries in the Americas almost exclusively have licensing systems. 19% have a state monopoly.. for 19 . 2003) that should be controlled by specific regulations. and Switzerland. depending. However. Georgia. while more than 10% in both regions also have state monopolies. while on the other. which requires a licence for retail sale of consumer goods. Production monopolies are often mainly intended to assure that taxes are collected effectively. St. while retail monopolies are virtually unknown south of the United States. Estonia.. EUR is the region with the largest variation – on one hand. alcohol should be considered a special commodity (Babor et al. 1999). Slovakia.

such a comprehensive licensing system could be effective in minimizing alcoholrelated harms. The complete set of country data on the control of retail sale and the production of alcoholic beverages can be found in Table 9. have neither a monopoly nor a licensing system. state retail monopolies are presently rather uncommon. such as the requirement of a substantial fee to be paid (which could be used to fund treatment. In at least some of these countries. However. as part of an alcohol policy mix. in countries where much of the alcohol consumption is unrecorded. Overall. on the number of stores or outlets where alcoholic beverages can be bought. From a public health perspective. A breach of a state monopoly would probably be rather obvious. In conclusion. that licences are not granted automatically. that licences are effectively enforced. and also that the licensing system is used for limiting the density of licensed outlets. or on the level of difficulty to obtain a retail licence or the cost of a licence. one could suggest several components to a comprehensive licensing system. prevention or policy activities).example. but for a licensing system to be effective a comprehensive and continuous check of licences in retail outlets is necessary. almost exclusively in Europe. 20 . particularly for a licensing system. neither a monopoly nor a licensing system alone would be likely to raise the level of government control. Only a handful of countries. the retail sale of alcoholic beverages is governed by general sales restrictions that apply to all consumer goods. homebrewed or smuggled. that sanctions can be used for violations such as selling alcoholic beverages to underage or clearly intoxicated people. In cases where monopolies are not politically viable. a key issue is effective enforcement of laws around retail sale of alcoholic beverages. while a large majority of countries require a licence for the retail sale of alcoholic beverages.

YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO . . . YES N. YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . . NO NO NO . YES . NO NO NO NO NO . . YES NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO . YES NO NO YES YES .Table 9: MONOPOLY ON OFF-PREMISE SALE OF BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE LICENCE FOR PRODUCTION OF WINE SPIRITS Control of off-premise retail sale and production. NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO . . YES YES YES . YES NO YES YES YES . NO NO . . . . . . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . . NO NO NO . YES N. YES N. . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO . NO NO NO YES . YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES . YES . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . NO NO NO . Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana NO . NO NO NO YES NO . YES . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES . YES YES YES YES . YES NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . . YES NO NO YES YES . YES NO NO YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO . . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES . . YES NO NO YES YES .A YES .A YES . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . . NO NO . NO NO NO YES . .A YES . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO . YES YES YES . YES NO . . . NO NO NO . NO NO NO . . YES NO YES YES YES . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES . YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES . NO . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES NO NO YES YES . by country LICENCE FOR OFF-PREMISE SALE OF SPIRITS WHO REGION MONOPOLY ON PRODUCTION OF COUNTRY BEER AFR 21 AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. . . . .

. YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES . . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO YES NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO . . . Rep. . YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . . . . NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES . . . . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . . . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES YES . .WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE MONOPOLY ON PRODUCTION OF MONOPOLY ON OFF-PREMISE SALE OF LICENCE FOR PRODUCTION OF LICENCE FOR OFF-PREMISE SALE OF SPIRITS COUNTRY BEER EMR EUR 22 Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES . . . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES . . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES NO YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES . NO YES NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO YES NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES . . YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES .

WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE MONOPOLY ON PRODUCTION OF MONOPOLY ON OFF-PREMISE SALE OF LICENCE FOR PRODUCTION OF LICENCE FOR OFF-PREMISE SALE OF SPIRITS COUNTRY BEER SEAR 23 WPR Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. NO . NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES . NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES . . NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES . NO . NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES . NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO . YES NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO . YES NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO . NO .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES NO NO YES . St. YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES . NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . YES NO NO NO NO . NO . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO . NO . YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES NO YES YES YES . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . YES NO NO NO NO . NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES NO YES YES YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES YES . NO YES YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES . YES YES . NO .

8 27.2 Restrictions on off-premise retail sale There are many ways in which countries may seek to restrict the sale of alcoholic beverages.8 (n/N) (24/109) (67/110) (30/109) (52/110) To explore whether there is a tendency for the sales restrictions to be clustered in a limited number of countries with many restrictions.5 46. besides monopolies and licensing. whether in kiosks. giving 12 points maximum (see Table 11). Table 11 24 . 2002). whereas restrictions on hours of sale (around 45%) and days of sale (around 26%) are less common. not close by a school or religious place of worship may also be included. Some restrictions on location. the majority of countries have set restrictions regarding the place of sale of beer (56%). thus rendering comparisons at the national level impossible.. but spirits sales are somewhat more restricted. supermarkets or only in specific liquor stores. the exercise shows that. broken down by beverage type. e. Hours of sale can vary across the days of the week and can also include banning the sale of alcoholic beverages at certain places during specific hours.m. Babor and colleagues note that reductions in the hours and days of sale. the restrictions indeed tend to group under a fairly small number of countries.g. e. Beverage-specific differences are small. The most prominent are restrictions on hours. Table 10: Restrictions on off-premise retail sale Restrictions on: Density of outlets Places of sale Days of sale Hours of sale Beer % 16. days and places of sale.4 55.g. overall. Frequently.6 (n/N) (18/110) (61/110) (28/110) (50/112) Wine % 20.0 60.m. restrictions on places of sale probably refer mostly to the kind of store in which off-premise sales are allowed. and number of outlets are associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption and related problems (Babor et al.2.0 59. and the density and location of outlets. to where and how the beverages must be shelved. the restrictions for each country were summed. As the table illustrates. Restrictions on the place of sale include a multitude of options. from regulating factors like the size or location of the outlet. wine (60%) and spirits (61%). while another 19 (or 17%) have about half of the restrictions (4 to 8 points). allowing only a certain number of outlets for a certain number of inhabitants.5 25. 2001). 28 countries or 24% have all or nearly all (9 to 12 points) of the sales restrictions in place. In general. such as in the Netherlands.g. Table 10 summarizes the findings on existing restrictions on off-premise retail sale for the responding countries. France and Germany ban alcoholic beverage sales at highway petrol stations between 10 p. At the other end of the spectrum. 68 countries or 59% have few or no restrictions (0 to 3 points) in place. Density of outlets is often limited by controlling the number of retail outlets in a specific area.3 (n/N) (21/105) (64/107) (29/107) (52/110) Spirits % 22.5 44.9 27. (Rehn. Room & Edwards. From the 115 countries included. Studies of changes in hours or days of sale have often demonstrated increased drinking or increased rates of alcohol-related harm with increased number of hours or days of sale and vice versa (Chikritzhs & Stockwell. One point was attributed for each type of sales restriction and each type of beverage. e. and 6 a.1 47. a restriction on days of sale means that it is not allowed to sell alcoholic beverages off the premises on Saturdays and/or Sundays. For example. Especially restricting the density of outlets as a measure is rather rare (16 to 22% of countries). 2003). The specific details of restrictions on the sale of alcoholic beverages are sometimes decisions taken at the municipal level.

For example. Since sales restrictions vary only slightly when it comes to beverage types. while EUR and AFR have generally fewer countries with different sales restrictions. 25 . The AMR shows the highest overall frequency of sales restrictions.shows the complete country data for off-premise sales restrictions for the different beverages and the reported level of enforcement. This is followed by SEAR/WPR. while it is quite uncommon (12%) in AFR. restrictions on the days of sale exist in close to the majority of countries in AMR (48%). the results are presented for beer only. Regional differences in sales restrictions on off-premise retail sale are shown in Figure 1. except in the case of limiting the density of outlets.

NOT PARTIALLY N. NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES . YES YES YES .A FULLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY .Table 11: Off-premise sales restrictions and level of enforcement. YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO NO YES NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO YES NO . NO NO NO . NO . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES . NO YES NO YES YES YES YES YES . YES NO NO . NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO YES . 6 6 FULLY NOT N. PARTIALLY . by country DAYS OF SALE BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS SUM OF SALES RESTRICTIONS PLACES OF SALE DENSITY OF OUTLETS SPIRITS LEVEL OF ENFORCEMENT WHO REGION HOURS OF SALE COUNTRY BEER WINE AFR 26 AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. NO NO NO NO NO .A . N. NO .A N. NO NO NO YES YES . NO . NO NO NO YES .A RARELY RARELY .A N. NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO NO . NO YES 12 3 . NO YES NO YES .A RARELY PARTIALLY RARELY RARELY PARTIALLY . 3 6 0 12 . YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES . N. NO .A N. NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO . 12 0 6 . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO . NO NO YES NO NO YES NO NO . NO . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO YES NO NO . Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana YES NO NO YES NO YES . NO NO NO NO NO . NO .A N. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO .A PARTIALLY RARELY RARELY N. 6 3 6 . NO NO NO NO NO . 0 . NO . NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO YES YES . YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . YES NO YES . NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO . NO . 0 0 0 6 6 3 0 7 12 9 12 3 9 . NO YES NO YES YES YES YES YES . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO . N. 0 0 0 3 3 . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO .A RARELY N. YES NO NO .A RARELY . NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES NO YES NO YES .

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES NO .A FULLY FULLY N. N. YES NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO . NO .A FULLY .A PARTIALLY N. YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES .A FULLY PARTIALLY FULLY . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES NO . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES NO . YES NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO . PARTIALLY N.A N.A RARELY FULLY PARTIALLY N. 3 . YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO . 9 0 0 3 6 3 3 3 0 3 3 10 3 0 0 0 3 12 6 0 0 3 0 5 1 0 0 9 PARTIALLY RARELY PARTIALLY NOT PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY RARELY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY .A N. NO . N.WHO REGION SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS SUM OF SALES RESTRICTIONS HOURS OF SALE DAYS OF SALE PLACES OF SALE DENSITY OF OUTLETS COUNTRY BEER WINE LEVEL OF ENFORCEMENT EMR EUR 27 Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. YES NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 9 2 9 3 6 6 3 6 9 9 3 . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO .A N. of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands YES NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO .A N.A .A N. YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES .A PARTIALLY FULLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY RARELY N. Rep.

YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO . YES 11 5 0 2 3 3 0 3 12 12 6 3 12 3 2 . YES NO NO NO . YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO .A PARTIALLY NOT RARELY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY RARELY N. YES NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES . . YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO . 9 9 9 0 0 9 3 0 2 3 .A FULLY NOT N. NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES NO . YES YES . 9 6 3 0 . PARTIALLY Note: N. NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO . 12 12 . no sales restrictions to enforce. YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO .A PARTIALLY RARELY FULLY N.A . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO .A N.WHO REGION SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS SUM OF SALES RESTRICTIONS HOURS OF SALE DAYS OF SALE PLACES OF SALE DENSITY OF OUTLETS COUNTRY BEER WINE LEVEL OF ENFORCEMENT SEAR 28 WPR Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. FULLY FULLY N.A NOT PARTIALLY FULLY FULLY FULLY FULLY RARELY FULLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY RARELY N. . YES YES . St.A PARTIALLY NOT PARTIALLY N. YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES . YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO .A – not applicable. YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO . YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO . NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO YES YES YES . NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO . YES NO NO NO NO .

0% 31.7% 11.6% Density of outlets (n=110) 72.0% 47. the level of enforcement of any existing regulation is crucial and was therefore included in the questionnaire. % of countries with restrictions 26.7% 16. based entirely on the perception of the focal points. Regarding the WHO Regions.7% 12. there are notable differences in the estimated level of enforcement of sales restrictions.6% 16.0% 37.Figure 1: Regional differences in restrictions on off-premise retail sale of beer. while the remaining countries estimate their restrictions either as rarely enforced (23%) or not enforced at all (10%). as the measure is subjective.0% 55. Looking only at countries with existing sales restrictions (see Table 12).3% 16. partially.0% 52. while in SEAR/WPR half of the responding countries indicate a high level of enforcement.4% Places of sale (n=110) 48. 29 . over 65% of the responding countries consider their restrictions fully or partially enforced.5% Days of sale (n=110) AMR SEAR/WPR AFR EUR 68.5% 30. and in the AFR only 28%. The AMR and EUR show a rather high proportion of countries with full or partial enforcement (77% and 82% respectively). Great caution should be taken when interpreting the enforcement results.4% 50. Focal points were asked to rate the enforcement level of existing sales restrictions as fully. rarely or not enforced.2% Hours of sale (n=112) For restrictions such as those on sale.

3 42.7 7. Sales restrictions are not effective unless they are enforced. 48 countries have many of the sales restrictions. The different types of sales restrictions. e. Curbing the number of alcoholic beverage outlets and regulating their location (for example.6 14. In other words. the correlation between the sum on the 12 point scale developed earlier and the level of enforcement was calculated. and have the potential to decrease harm by effectively targeting certain population groups or specific alcohol-related problems. 2002). Earlier.1 21.g. Overall.9 28.01).5 EUR (n=28) 50. who are regarded as particularly vulnerable.0 32. i. among all the countries that do have restrictions of some kind. whether national or local in scope. 2. e. In other words.e. should be regarded as an integral part of a comprehensive alcohol policy. 1999). it seems that the situation leaves room for much improvement through governmental or local action. different kinds of sales restrictions were quite common in many countries. times.1 10. This means that. there is a tendency for the level of enforcement to be greater where there are more restrictions.2 4.6 63. 35% regard their enforcement as either being carried out rarely or not at all.4 AMR (n=22) 13. p<0. However. Between the two variables exists a significant association (r=0. while those in countries with few restrictions indicate a low level of enforcement.4 50.1 10. half or more of the attributes measured compared to 66 countries that have either few or no restrictions. The age of onset of drinking alcoholic beverages has been found to be important regarding short term 30 .g.1 SEAR/WPR (n=14) 14.. but there has been a tendency lately to loosen these restrictions (Drummond.Table 12: Level of enforcement of off-premise sales restrictions in countries with existing restrictions (in % by WHO region) Total (n=78) Fully enforced Partially enforced Rarely enforced Not enforced 25. 2000).3 To explore the possible link between the frequency of sales restrictions and level of enforcement. it does appear that physical availability impacts on consumption through its influence on perceived availability and on the total costs of obtaining alcoholic beverages. travel time (Toomey & Wagenaar. according to the present data. religious place of worship or workplaces) have demonstrated that geographical density does have a significant effect on alcoholic beverage sales (Edwards et al. focal points in countries with many sales restrictions in place tend to consider the enforcement of these restrictions as high. Although it is still not known how the density of alcoholic beverage outlets affects individual drinkers. near schools.6 18.0 23.3 AFR (n=14) 7. sales restrictions and enforcement was indicated by the statistically significant association. The link between the two variables. Research has also shown that the geographical placement of outlets and concentration of outlets in certain areas is associated with increased rates of alcohol-related problems. density and places of sales limits the possibilities of consumers to buy and consume alcoholic beverages and may reduce both overall and heavy consumption. 1994). violence and drink driving (Lipton & Gruenewald. from having easy access to alcoholic beverages.6 41.0 21.36.3 Age requirements for purchase and consumption of alcoholic beverages Setting minimum legal age limits is a measure targeted at barring young people. Conclusions Restricting the days.

Beer was chosen due to the fact that it is usually fairly cheap. 13%). 2000). however. there are no large differences between age restrictions for the different beverages in most countries. Overall.as well as long term effects on health.. There are about as many countries with no age limit on the purchase of beer on-premise as there are with a low age restriction of 15/16 years (15% vs. Also. personal communication. readily available and probably frequently drunk by young people in most societies. and drownings) than those who begin drinking at a later age (Hingson et al. 2000). 2002). 17/18 years is the most common age limit for on-premise as well as off-premise purchase of beer (in 64% and 58% of the countries respectively). the number of countries with no age restriction is higher (21% and 12% respectively). A more recent follow-up. Kraus et al. the age limits for buying alcoholic beverages varied from 15 to 21 years. at least for some Western countries. 1992. Changing the age limits can have an important effect on youth drinking. while when it comes to off-premise purchase of beer. One of the few studies from outside North America shows that introducing an age limit of 15 years for offpremise sales in Denmark in 1995 reduced alcohol consumption among youth both under and over the legal age limit (Møller. Furthermore. Looking at Table 13. 2000). In the present survey.. For example. falls.and off-premise. demonstrates that the effect could not be sustained and has disappeared over time (Lars Møller. Figure 2: Age requirement for the on-premise and off-premise purchase of beer By far. Figure 2 demonstrates the legal age limits for the purchase of beer both on. results from a national survey in the United States show that respondents who begin drinking in their teenage years are more likely to experience alcohol-related unintentional injuries (such as motor vehicle injuries. 14 May 2003. burns. This is particularly true for Europe and North America. countries with no age restrictions on the on-premise and off-premise 31 . where the emerging drinking pattern for young people is an increase in beer consumption (and a wide range of other relatively low-alcohol products like alcopops) and a decrease in wine and distilled spirits consumption (Gabhainn & François. an early onset of regular alcohol consumption has been found to be a significant predictor of lifetime alcohol-related problems (Chou & Pickering. a question was asked about the legal age for drinking or buying alcoholic beverages on and off the premises for each beverage separately.

purchase of beer are: Armenia. Equatorial Guinea. the differences are rather small. for example. Luxembourg and Malta. Croatia. Greece. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 SPIRITS 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . Gabon. NO . Table 13: Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages. China. Ghana. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 SPIRITS 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . while it is 20 for all beverages in the Swedish monopoly stores (see Table 13 for complete data). Nicaragua (19). When it comes to the different beverages. Malaysia has no age limit for buying beer off the premises. have an age limit of 18 for spirits. In Finland and Norway. the Federated States of Micronesia (21). Kyrgyzstan.and off-premise. Egypt has an age limit of 21 for wine and spirits. by country WHO REGION AFR ON-PREMISE COUNTRY Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. the off-premise age limit is 18 for beer and wine and 20 for spirits. Indonesia (21). Cambodia. the age limit for off-premise sale is 15 for all beverages and 18 years for on-premise sale. Benin. Israel. NO . A small number of countries (on-premise 8% and off-premise 9%) limit their sale of beer to people aged 19 or older. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 BEER 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . Iceland (20). Republic of Korea (19). on. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 WINE 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . Japan (20). versus 16 for beer and wine. In Denmark. 18 otherwise). Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador BEER 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . the Netherlands and Switzerland. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 AMR 32 . Comoros. NO . Another seven countries have age limits for on-premise sales. The high age limits for beer can be found in Canada (19). Guinea-Bissau. Republic of Moldova has age limits for buying wine and spirits. 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 NO 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 18 18 OFF-PREMISE WINE 18 NO 18 18 NO NO NO 18 18 NO NO NO . Sweden (20 for strong beer off-premise. Kazakhstan. NO . NO . Lao People`s Democratic Republic. Gambia. but not beer. Palau (21) and the United States (21). NO . Nepal and Togo. Germany. Congo. Austria. but not off-premise sales: Bosnia and Herzegovina.

WHO REGION ON-PREMISE COUNTRY El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. NO 18 NO 16 18 18 NO 18 NO 18 15 18 18 16 16 16 NO 18 20 18 NO 16 NO NO 18 18 NO NO 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 18 15 16 20 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO SPIRITS 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 . of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia BEER 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 18 NO 18 NO 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 17 18 20 18 18 16 NO NO 18 18 16 16 16 18 18 16 NO 18 18 18 15 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO WINE 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 21 NO 18 NO 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 17 18 20 18 18 16 NO NO 18 18 16 16 16 18 18 16 18 18 18 18 15 16 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO SPIRITS 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 21 NO 18 NO 18 18 18 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 18 17 18 20 18 18 16 NO NO 18 18 16 16 18 20 18 16 18 18 18 18 15 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO BEER 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 18 NO 18 NO 16 18 18 NO 18 NO 18 15 18 18 16 16 16 NO 18 20 18 NO 16 NO NO 18 18 NO NO 16 18 18 16 NO 18 18 18 15 16 20 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO OFF-PREMISE WINE 18 18 18 18 16 18 19 18 18 18 16 18 21 18 18 . NO 18 NO 18 18 18 NO 18 NO 18 15 18 20 16 16 18 NO 18 20 18 NO 16 NO NO 18 18 NO NO 18 20 18 16 18 18 18 18 15 16 20 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 21 NO 18 18 18 NO EMR EUR SEAR WPR 33 . Rep.

In Europe. Figure 3: Legal age limit for the off-premise sale of beer. in the realm of private parties. and having no age restrictions. WINE NO 18 20 18 18 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 . St. for example. by WHO Region 34 . the countries are roughly divided between one half having 17/18 (a few 19 and above). It could be argued that. for young people. Looking at regional differences. BEER NO 18 20 NO NO 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 . and the other half equally between 16 and younger. OFF-PREMISE WINE NO 18 20 NO 18 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 . the off-premise sale is more important. The SEAR/WPR countries are distributed in between approximately half of the countries in the 17/18 group and the remainder equally between 19 and above and no age limits. the present report concentrated on the off-premise sale of beer.) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam BEER NO 18 20 18 18 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 .WHO REGION ON-PREMISE COUNTRY China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. In AFR two thirds have an age limit of 17/18. In the AMR countries. 80% have an age limit of 17/18 and a few 19+ and 15/16. while one third have no age limits. SPIRITS NO 18 20 NO 18 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 . SPIRITS NO 18 20 18 18 21 18 18 21 18 19 18 . because it is generally cheaper and consumption can take place without any oversight of bar or restaurant staff. Figure 3 demonstrates the regional differences in age limits.

and even bicycling in some countries. and therefore legal access for children and adolescents. A successful drink driving strategy would ideally require highly visible. Room & Edwards. suspension of licence. often as part of the local culture and norms. the penalties (fine. 2001). it can be assumed that the private selling (or giving) of alcoholic beverages by parents or older friends to those under-aged exists to some degree in many countries. or offenders who have significantly exceeded the legal BAC. questions around the enforcement of the existing age limits could not be addressed in this survey. 2000). without a need for legal restrictions. 3. is generally found in some countries in Western and Central Africa. Comprehensive drink driving legislation could also include provisions for areas such as the legal interpretation of a refusal to take a test. and in Eastern and South-eastern Europe. blood or urine sampling. this harmminimization approach also covers legislation for boating and civil aviation. Murray & Toomey. as well as in three Asian countries. as they reduce alcohol consumption and problems among young people (Grube & Nygaard. Drink driving legislation The aim of drink–driving legislation is to reduce the number of accidents. In summary. The existence and legal limit of the Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC or the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream) when 35 . The legal blood alcohol concentration level in a country is usually based on the evidence of risk. for example after an accident or in cases of erratic driving. however. potential benefits from drinking age laws are maximized if the laws are enforced through frequent and consistent checking by sales assistants and bar staff for the age of customers. Having an age limit of 16 years or younger is almost exclusively an European phenomenon. or imprisonment) and treatment or education programmes for habitual drink driving offenders. Furthermore. which include breath testing and blood sampling (Rehn. Evidence exists that even a moderate increase in enforcement can significantly reduce the sale of alcoholic beverages to under-age youth (Wagenaar. Earlier general laws against driving while intoxicated or impaired have now been supplemented in most countries with much more effective laws forbidding driving while above a specified blood alcohol concentration (BAC). frequent and random road checks. Testing for the intoxication of drivers is either done randomly or only after justified suspicion. The means used for testing is either a breathalyser. mostly 17/18 years. In some cultures. In this survey. public safety and what is perceived as publicly convenient and acceptable. No age limit on the off-premise purchase of beer. two questions were asked about drink driving. The effectiveness of any drink–driving law is primarily determined by the degree of certainty of detection and the quickness of punishment. It is recognized that having a legal age limit for buying alcoholic beverages does not necessarily mean that young people under the limit cannot purchase or consume alcoholic beverages. both off. access for children may be effectively limited by custom or social control. However. injuries and fatalities that result from driving while being intoxicated. or using behavioural and psychomotor tests such as the Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery used in the United States. a large majority of the responding countries have age requirements for the sale of alcoholic beverages. 2001). However. In many cases.and on-premise.Conclusions There is fairly strong empirical support for laws that raise the drinking age requirements.

49 0. SOMETIMES NO NO RARELY RARELY NO NO RARELY NO SOMETIMES NO RARELY NO SOMETIMES SOMETIMES OFTEN SOMETIMES NO RARELY OFTEN SOMETIMES NO NO AMR 36 .8 0.8 0.5 NO 0. as positive responses may be describing a level of enforcement short of true RBT.8 0.0 0. In the literature Random Breath Testing refers to an enforcement strategy where drivers passing a testing location are stopped at random by the police and asked to take a breath test. 0. Occasional roadblocks where all drivers are tested would not qualify as true RBT.5 0.5 0. Italy. New Zealand. non-selective testing can have a sustained and significant effect in reducing drink driving and the associated crashes.6 0.5 per mille equals 50 mg% and 0. Table 14: Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) levels and use of Random Breath Testing (RBT).8 0.0 NO .0 0.5 0.8 0. even if there is no prior suspicion of their drinking or involvement in any accident. by country WHO REGION AFR COUNTRY Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. 2003).5 0.8 0.5 0. injuries and deaths (Babor et al.8 0.8 0. The research evidence is quite strong that highly visible.1 0. In this report the BAC is expressed in per mille (‰) and refers to the amount of ethanol in grammes in each litre of blood (0.05%).49 NO 0. Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras MAXIMUM BAC LEVEL PER MILLE 0. 1997).7 USE OF RBT NO OFTEN SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO OFTEN NO NO NO RARELY NO NO NO RARELY OFTEN .g.8 NO NO 0. Russian Federation and Spain). Austria.0 0.8 0.1 0. In Australia one study found that RBT was twice as effective as selective checkpoints (Henstridge.7 0. 0.5 .8 0. The places and times for the testing vary and a refusal to take the test amounts to the same as a positive result. Caution is warranted in interpreting the presented data. Also the existence and frequency of Random Breath Testing (RBT) was asked with the intention to measure the enforcement of a BAC level.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.driving a car (not including graduated licensing or lower limits for young/new or professional drivers that exist in some countries e. The detailed country data are found in Table 14..0 0. Homel & Mackay.

5 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.8 .6 0.0 0. of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.5 0. Rep.5 0.8 0. 0.49 0.8 0.5 0.5 .2 0.5 0. St. 0.5 0.5 0. 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.35 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.WHO REGION COUNTRY Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl.0 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.3 .5 0.5 0. 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.5 NO 0.5 0.33 NO 0.3 NO 0.5 .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau MAXIMUM BAC LEVEL PER MILLE 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.1 USE OF RBT SOMETIMES SOMETIMES RARELY NO SOMETIMES SOMETIMES NO NO NO RARELY SOMETIMES NO NO NO OFTEN RARELY RARELY SOMETIMES SOMETIMES SOMETIMES OFTEN SOMETIMES NO OFTEN OFTEN OFTEN OFTEN NO OFTEN SOMETIMES SOMETIMES NO NO SOMETIMES OFTEN SOMETIMES OFTEN OFTEN SOMETIMES NO OFTEN OFTEN OFTEN SOMETIMES SOMETIMES RARELY RARELY SOMETIMES SOMETIMES OFTEN OFTEN NO SOMETIMES SOMETIMES SOMETIMES SOMETIMES NO RARELY NO RARELY SOMETIMES RARELY OFTEN NO NO OFTEN SOMETIMES NO SOMETIMES NO OFTEN SOMETIMES NO EMR EUR SEAR WPR 37 .

Table 15: Distribution of the maximum legal BAC when driving a car WHO Region n Low BAC level 0 (0.8 . but based on the response of the focal point. Dominican Republic. China. as well as “no BAC limit”. Ethiopia.0 per mille.60/00) 32% 50% 12% 17% 26% No BAC AFR AMR EUR SEAR/WPR Total (n=25) (n=24) (n=42) (n=18) (n=109) 16% 4% 2% 11% 7% In total. Comoros. 38 . Any BAC level needs effective enforcement. especially for SEAR/WPR. Lao People`s Democratic Republic. that the percentages relate to a small number of countries.6 per mille.5 0.0 to 0. “middle” (0.60/00) 24% 29% 52% 44% 39% High (>0.4 to 0. In addition. nearly 30% of the responding countries indicate having a low legal level of BAC when driving a car (see Table 15). it is assumed to be 0. It should be remembered. Congo and Togo. while one can observe a higher percentage of “high BAC level” countries in AFR and AMR compared to EUR and SEAR/WPR. USE OF RBT NO OFTEN NO RARELY With the exception of the three EMR countries.4-0.6 per mille) and “high BAC limit” (higher than 0.0-0.3 /00 ) 28% 17% 33% 28% 28% Middle (0.WHO REGION COUNTRY Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam MAXIMUM BAC LEVEL PER MILLE 0. In almost 40% of the countries. There are seven countries reached by the survey without legislation and definition of a BAC level. Table 16 presents the frequency of use of RBT in the different regions.6 per mille). the BAC level is greater than 0.5 per mille and. in Ukraine the maximum level of alcohol blood concentration is not defined in the legislation. the legal level is around 0. for the rest (more than 25%). Table 15 summarizes the results on the legal BAC level by grouping the surveyed countries into the categories “low” (0.52 0.3 per mille). Countries without a BAC can be mainly found in SEAR/WPR and AFR.

The result shows a significant association (one way ANOVA. and only in 24% of the countries it is performed either often or sometimes.3 0. which shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the high BAC level group and the average frequency of RBT. one could ask if a relationship exists between the level of BAC and the existence and frequency of RBT.08) (0.88) (1. those with high BAC level per mille and rarely or never perform RBT. In the African Region. In Figure 4. middle and high maximum legal BAC Maximum legal BAC Per mille low middle high Total 0.0 – 0. the countries are classified into four categories: those with high maximum BAC level per mille (defined as >0.Table 16: The frequency of use of RBT for countries with a legal BAC level.43 2.14) Note: Frequency of RBT is measured on a scale as follows: 1=often. more than half of the countries (52%) have no RBT. and those with low BAC level per mille and rarely or never perform RBT.6 n 30 43 28 101 Mean 2.6 per mille) are indicated to have RBT less often than countries with lower maximum legal BAC. in turn.001).21 2. rarely (16%) or not at all (30%). F=8.14 3.785.6‰) and who perform RBT often or sometimes. Countries with a high BAC level (greater than 0. However. RBT is used sometimes (32%). The data are presented in Table 17. 2=sometimes. more frequent RBT checks would be performed in order to detect errant drivers. In the other regions. the percentage of countries with relatively frequent use of RBT is higher (from 73% of EUR to 52% in AMR and 50% of SEAR/WPR) than in the African Region. It would be expected that countries which set a stricter level of BAC would take the position that drink driving is a serious offence and.52 Frequency of RBT sd (1. in total close to a quarter of them indicate frequent use of RBT. p<0. for countries with low. by WHO Region WHO Region AFR AMR EUR SEAR/WPR Total n (n=21) (n=23) (n=41) (n=16) (n=101) Often 14% 9% 34% 25% 23% Sometimes 10% 44% 39% 25% 32% Rarely 24% 17% 10% 19% 16% No 52% 30% 17% 31% 30% Looking only at countries with an existing BAC level. In other words. those with low maximum BAC level per mille (defined as 0.6 > 0. Table 17: The average use of RBT of drivers. there is no difference in the frequency of RBT between countries with low and middle BAC level.19) (1.4 – 0. Of the remaining. 3=rarely. 39 .6‰ or lower) and who perform RBT often or sometimes. Within the area of drink driving. 4=no. close to one third of the countries that have a BAC limit do not perform RBT as a measure of enforcing the drink driving law.

suspension of driving licence in case of an offence and certainty of punishment together form a successful drink driving legislation (Babor et al.6‰) New Zealand Paraguay Sri Lanka Belize Bolivia Brazil Central African Rep. visible and frequent enforcement.Figure 4: Countries categorized by maximum BAC level and use of RBT Canada Cape Verde Guatemala Luxembourg Malaysia Mexico HIGHER (higher than 0.) Nepal Palau Panama Philippines Romania Russian Federation South Africa UR Tanzania Thailand OFTEN/SOMETIMES Use of random breath testing RARELY/NO Note: Only countries with data available for both variables are included. A comprehensive 40 .6‰ or lower) Czech Republic El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Finland France French Polynesia Georgia Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Jamaica Japan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania TFYR Macedonia Republic of Moldova Mongolia Namibia Netherlands Norway Peru Poland Portugal Republic of Korea Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Turkey Turkmenistan Venezuela Algeria Austria Azerbaijan Cambodia Denmark Equatorial Guinea Gambia Germany Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana India Isl. Conclusions There is evidence to support the conclusion that a fairly low BAC limit. St. of Iran Israel Jordan Malawi Micronesia (Fed.. Ecuador Ghana Honduras Ireland Kenya Malta Nicaragua Niger Seychelles Singapore Suriname Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Uruguay Zambia Maximum BAC level per mille Argentina Armenia Australia Belarus Benin Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Chile Colombia Costa Rica Croatia LOWER (0. Rep. 2003).

Some data supporting this come also from developing societies (e. if pricing is to be used as a strategy to contain alcohol consumption (Rehn. The effect of price changes on alcohol consumption has been extensively investigated in Australia. Price and taxation Alcoholic beverages are commercial products and. 4.e.approach is most likely to produce positive results in the long term reduction of both the number of cases of drink driving and alcohol-related traffic accidents. i. with almost all countries having a defined. especially in countries with good government control of the market. 1998). although not conclusive at this stage. above 0. One of the factors explaining price differences is the rate of alcohol taxes. consumption goes up (Edwards et al. Mauritius in Room et al. Overall. and if prices go down. the evidence. Room & Edwards. In many countries. 1997). Another reason is that. the official policy of the pricing system is to steer people towards a particular type of low-alcohol or non-alcoholic beverage. Overall. Many countries lose substantial amounts of tax revenue because of difficulties in controlling the production. at or beyond the rate of inflation. in order to substantially reduce risky or high blood alcohol levels. consumption goes down. Europe and North America. 1999). import and sale of alcoholic beverages. alcohol is an important source for raising government revenue and. The robust finding is that if alcoholic beverage prices go up. which evade all taxation. as such.g. frequent and random breath testing should ideally play a vital part. 2003). when it comes to RBT. drink driving legislation is quite widespread. In the effective enforcement of any drink driving legislation. New Zealand. In the former Soviet Union.. excise taxes on alcoholic beverages and state profits (derived from the alcohol and wine industry and imports) accounted for between 12% and 14% of all state revenue for more than 60 years (National Research Council. an established target of taxation. therefore. 2001). Ineffective enforcement of a taxation policy generates large black markets for illegally produced or smuggled alcohol products. However. 45% of countries either do not perform it at all or perform it rarely.. are the precise objectives of alcohol control explicitly stated in the laws embodying such policies (Österberg & Simpura. That is one of the reasons for the usually higher tax on spirits. Laws around taxation are also fairly easy to adopt and to enforce. In addition. 2002). Taxation and pricing.. Retail prices of alcoholic beverages are composed of the wholesale price plus profit and other costs. The real price (and not just the nominal price) of alcoholic beverages needs to rise. while real price is measured in terms of purchasing power and not affected by 41 . which has a special tax on spirits. although in more than 25% of the countries that limit is fairly high. Production costs per litre of pure alcohol are higher for making wine and beer than distilled spirits..6 per mille. Only quite rarely. The nominal price is the absolute or current price reflecting the effects of general price inflation. in some countries. suggests that furthering beverages of lower alcohol content can be an effective strategy to reduce the level of alcohol consumed and the associated harm (Babor et al. however. therefore. can be an effective public health instrument for reducing overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. for example. discourage spirits drinking and encourage beverages with lower alcohol content (Holder et al. subject to the same economic principles as other consumer products. The results of the study found that countries with a higher legal BAC perform RBT checks less frequently. One example can be found in Switzerland. legal BAC limit for driving a car. taxes specific to alcoholic beverages are often added. 1994).

In contrast to general sales taxes which are set on a percentage basis. in shops or supermarkets. The question on other local beverages was intended to capture some home or locally made brews or traditional beverages that are industrially produced. is most likely to be the competing alternative for a soft drink in the mind of the consumer. spirits 750 ml. excise tax levels are not frequently adjusted. the price of beer in local currency was compared to that of a soft drink of the same size. caution is needed when analysing the price data. In this section. in most countries. with the price data. if strength of wine or spirits). time and place of the purchase. wine and spirit is either an industrially produced local version of an international beverage or a branded international beverage.1 Price of alcoholic beverages Two questions were asked about the price of alcoholic beverages: the average price of beer. other beverages either 500 ml. not in restaurants or bars. where prices and the ratio between beverages probably are higher and different. The quality of the data is almost entirely dependent on the focal points. The definition of GDP is the 42 . is based on fixed excise duties that have to be adjusted by separate and politically visible decisions. although some basic cross-checking was done to eliminate and minimize mistakes or misunderstandings. One of the restraining influences in tax and price policy stems from inflation control.g. wine. but it is assumed that. Price data on alcoholic beverages are sensitive to a number of possible problems. Exchange rates are of limited use also because they are volatile and reflect many influences. i. all prices were standardized to the per capita gross domestic product. The price data are for off-premise sales. Firstly. again in local currencies. an average beer. Secondly. In general. Beer was chosen as it has the lowest alcohol content of the standard alcoholic beverages and. and the prices recalculated accordingly. Data for the current price Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for each country were taken from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database (2002). with one US dollar you can hardly buy anything in the United States. The quantities of the beverages were standardized (beer 500 ml. even if inflation automatically reduces their value. an average table wine). The “value” of money is different in different parts of the world. wine 750 ml. Consequently. therefore. The average quantities of the beverages and price in local currency were asked. alcohol tax. a simple conversion of the local prices into one currency is not a good basis for comparisons. the definition of an “average” beverage (e. if the strength of a beer. but you can eat a good meal in other parts of the world.e. Therefore. a soft drink and any existing local beverage. Price levels are also strongly influenced by different drinking habits and beverage preferences in different countries. Thus. For example. and 750 ml. spirits. 4. the price and taxation section was the area where the survey respondents of the present study had the most difficulty in providing data. usually. including capital movements and trade flows. three different sets of analysis were performed. in the majority of the countries. developing what is called the beer-cola ratio. especially when asked to express the level of taxation as a percentage of the retail price of alcoholic beverages. such as exchange rates and inflation rates. to increase their comparability.general price inflation. This was done to get the “relative” costs of an alcoholic beverage in each country. plus what has been the general price development of alcoholic beverages during the last five years. There is no further information on the precise beverages that the prices refer to.

69 0. .70 1. the prices of local alcoholic beverages were compared with average alcoholic beverages.50 0. 0.39 0. INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE STABLE DECREASE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE 43 .47 1.70 0.23 1. by both residents and non-residents. 2.15 4.39 0.80 . INCREASE INCREASE .96 1.81 0.49 2.22 2.02 1.21 13.96 4.35 0. 1.31 2. 0.87 0. 1.28 .71 1.82 1.58 0. 0. Table 18: Prices of alcoholic beverages in US$. beer-cola ratio and reported five year trend in alcohol beverage prices. INCREASE STABLE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE .69 1.02 1.35 3. 23. and therefore it is of interest to compare their prices to the industrially produced beverages.37 1.51 2. 1.40 0.67 0.63 4.07 8.25 0.25 0.60 .93 0.67 0.87 1.65 1. . 0. 4.11 .51 .68 1.52 2.66 0.51 0.70 4. . 2.83 . 0.14 SPIRITS 750 ml 23.89 1.27 9.62 0. It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources (United Nations. regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims.29 1.91 0. 0.83 .06 0.62 2.81 0.21 .25 3.28 1.50 1.26 3.38 0. 2.52 1.90 4.47 6.82 0.78 1.50 1.94 1. 6.00 2. 2.60 .88 1.45 1.32 0.54 0.25 3.84 1.77 WINE 750 ml 2.48 0.57 . 4. 1.60 1.total output of goods and services for final use produced by an economy.27 2. by country WHO REGION AFR COUNTRY BEER 500 ml 1. 5.60 0.13 2.08 . Thirdly.88 . Also.94 1.48 . 2.70 .60 .82 0.46 0.34 4.50 1. .13 1.63 2. 1.16 1.52 0.88 1.08 .48 3.33 3. 1. 0.37 .69 .03 . 0. 12.66 BEER-COLA RATIO TREND IN PRICE AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep.80 .94 . for demonstration purposes all the prices of the different beverages were simply converted into US$ at 31 October 2002 rates and are shown in Table 18.04 0.68 .75 2.19 2.51 9. 1.82 1. 1. 0.89 0.29 2. 2001).00 5.48 3.07 2.08 .60 2.34 0. 5.93 1.47 0.35 .58 .47 5.16 .36 0.00 1. Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname 10.05 STABLE INCREASE DECREASE INCREASE STABLE STABLE .51 .11 . 0. 0.47 1. INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE DECREASE INCREASE STABLE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE STABLE STABLE STABLE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE . 0.90 .91 0.06 .31 .89 12.26 2. 1. From the list of local beverages it seems that a number of them are home or locally made and possibly unrecorded in the national statistics.50 .31 9.71 1.95 2.78 1.23 2.58 0.56 0.34 4.33 .89 1.17 1.

19 2.80 0.00 1.47 37.25 3.90 7.53 .93 4.54 1.75 4.67 1.20 1.49 1.56 2.07 1.05 0. 8.38 0.27 0.58 2.51 1.60 1. 0.00 1.87 . 0.85 0.09 6.53 0.63 15.61 1.37 2. 7.47 0.67 .20 11.89 0.33 1.16 1.72 6.10 14.78 0.59 TREND IN PRICE INCREASE DECREASE DECREASE INCREASE INCREASE STABLE STABLE STABLE STABLE STABLE INCREASE STABLE DECREASE STABLE DECREASE DECREASE INCREASE DECREASE STABLE INCREASE STABLE .55 15.80 0.25 0.28 2.35 0.65 4.85 3.93 6.50 2.93 2. 6.95 1.20 1.95 SPIRITS 750 ml 6.25 1.60 7.59 11.80 9.99 1.94 .29 1.78 3.99 0. 1.48 5.63 .20 0.88 .53 9.86 8.29 1.91 4.01 5.95 0.90 5.00 0.00 1.84 2.50 3.50 0.52 0.56 1.90 0.00 2.92 0.19 15.18 3. .68 0.18 4. 4.98 0.WHO REGION COUNTRY Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl.63 0.79 .00 2.35 1.66 0.95 1.34 2.67 1.53 0.46 1.63 6.13 2.74 0.42 0.46 1.19 1. 0.51 6.21 0. DECREASE STABLE DECREASE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE DECREASE INCREASE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE INCREASE DECREASE INCREASE INCREASE DECREASE STABLE STABLE DECREASE STABLE EMR EUR SEAR WPR 44 . 1.) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines BEER 500 ml 1.76 0.46 5. 11.95 8.86 1.81 5.13 13.41 2. 1.59 2.33 5.39 18.58 0.42 .75 2.38 0.80 .31 .87 .46 WINE 750 ml 2. 5. 1.89 3.98 3.43 1.41 2.93 0.87 6.27 BEER-COLA RATIO 1. 22.28 0.83 .10 22.73 13.00 1.41 1.10 2.98 .29 1.35 2.43 1.49 3.52 2. .29 1. 9.05 2. 3. 2.58 1.49 1.67 .10 . 12.79 0.20 4.60 2.88 3. of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed.78 . 0.47 1.51 4.56 0.75 2.21 3.55 1.69 0.34 3.87 1.81 1.91 0. 1.03 5.30 0.42 3.66 0.61 0.92 .50 .76 3.22 2.92 2.05 1.02 0.67 1.00 1.21 0.64 1.95 .15 21.52 29.25 1.45 5. Rep. DECREASE DECREASE DECREASE STABLE INCREASE DECREASE DECREASE STABLE DECREASE INCREASE STABLE INCREASE DECREASE DECREASE INCREASE INCREASE STABLE INCREASE INCREASE DECREASE DECREASE DECREASE DECREASE INCREASE .81 4.37 0.29 3.00 1.00 0.99 1.61 0.13 2.72 .40 0.83 5.54 1.60 .78 1.67 1.64 0.73 1.03 0.97 18.45 1. St.23 1.27 2.00 .02 1.89 1.46 1.61 0. 4.22 0.47 0.36 9.92 1.64 0.25 1.03 1. 0.61 2.30 1.30 0.18 1.22 1.01 0.25 8.32 1.70 2.19 4.69 5.06 0.33 0.66 1.43 0.32 .19 2.63 2. 6.48 1.22 1.97 0.47 2.25 1.

50 .7) to SEAR/WPR (1.2. It should be noted that the prices referred to here are off-premise prices. i. the soft drink is much cheaper than a beer. meaning that a soft drink is cheaper than a beer of the same size. The countries range from Australia with the lowest beer-cola ratio (. it would be useful to also have the on-premise prices. the aim is to promote non-alcoholic drinks or less consumption of alcoholic beverages. 0. Malawi. Guatemala. because the beer is sold in the illegal market. all the figures were multiplied by 10 000. Belarus. AMR (2. all other countries are between 1 and 3.3). indeed.1. 4.0).75 SPIRITS 750 ml 42. Relative price of alcoholic beverages The relative prices for the three beverage categories are shown in Table 19. Romania and Venezuela). soft drink (beer-cola ratio) The beer-cola ratio simply expresses the number of soft drinks that one can get for the price of one beer. beer is fairly 45 .40 TREND IN PRICE DECREASE . in Argentina.1. EUR (1. A relative price means a price ratio between two goods as. The Islamic Republic of Iran represents a special case with a beer-cola ratio of 22.50 . meaning that one can get between one and three soft drinks for the price of one beer.00 . Regionally the means vary from AFR (2.6). Countries have been arranged from the least to the most expensive within each beverage category.90 . it follows that a soft drink should be cheaper than beer. i. Price of beer vs. Algeria also has a very high beer-cola ratio of 10.46 WINE 750 ml 1. Denmark. Besides illustrating the order of the countries for the different beverages. Lithuania.13 BEER-COLA RATIO 3. For example. To look at the possible incentive to buy a soft drink instead of a beer. Czech Republic. Mongolia. for example. The rationale for looking at the price of beer and a soft drink is that one aspect of pricing policy of alcoholic beverages by governments can be to encourage the consumption of nonalcoholic drinks. 1. From a total of 103 countries. two soft drinks for the price of one beer. in this case the ratio of the price of alcoholic beverages to the price of GDP per capita. The Islamic Republic of Iran has not been included in the mean calculations that follow. one can also look at differences in price between the beverages.e. The highest mean in AMR can either reflect the fact that soft drinks are inexpensive or that beer is expensive. Malaysia. 1. 0. in 16 countries beer is cheaper than a soft drink. Croatia. see Table 18 for beer-cola ratios for all countries).e. For an easier overview.2. The mean of the beer-cola ratio across all countries (n=103) is 2. The aim of the relative price is to show how cheap or expensive alcoholic beverages are for the people living in the country.1. Equatorial Guinea. If.1.61) to Guatemala with the highest (5. From an alcohol policy perspective ideally the ratio should be higher than one. Italy.WHO REGION COUNTRY Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam BEER 500 ml 1. Portugal. Hungary. Bulgaria. i. Paraguay. 4.e. Costa Rica. The price has been derived by dividing the price in local currency by the GDP per capita in local currency. the ratio is below one (Australia. With the exception of six countries (Bolivia. and it is derived by dividing the price of a beer in local currency with the price of a similarly sized soft drink (500 ml). STABLE Note: Conversion from local currencies at 31 October 2002 rates. Peru and Seychelles) where the ratio is relatively high. thus bringing up the price considerably.

72 1.74 12.22 0.08 1.43 17.01 7.70 10.54 26.78 1.87 5.71 0.63 24.64 0.81 31.05 6.76 14.65 0.03 10.19 1.70 1.46 0.94 17.02 3.26 12.20 10.45 18.22 4.15 2.04 29.31 3.80 3.65 1.82 2.52 26.40 1.74 5.12 2.13 8.42 1.53 5.62 7.40 28.30 0.35 8. by beverage type and country BEER (500 ml) Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Luxembourg United States Netherlands Austria France Switzerland Denmark Germany Czech Republic Canada Spain Portugal Sweden Norway Japan Australia Slovenia Hungary Israel Ireland Finland New Zealand Iceland Italy Malta United Kingdom Croatia Poland Chile Slovakia Lithuania Bulgaria Gabon Estonia Mauritius Equatorial Guinea Venezuela Mexico Brazil Republic of Korea Trinidad and Tobago Latvia Panama Romania Uruguay Russian Federation Belarus Colombia Costa Rica Argentina Namibia Thailand Paraguay Malaysia Seychelles Ukraine Jamaica Yugoslavia Belize Georgia Philippines Sri Lanka Suriname Egypt Peru Congo Jordan Bosnia/Herzegovina China Kyrgyzstan 0.65 3.72 8.33 13.21 10.71 6.42 9.73 0.35 4.33 22.36 5.02 5.47 1.48 1.22 6.68 12.75 6.73 19.62 1.70 5.52 5.78 19.67 18.20 11.86 27.49 0.45 0.19 1.71 10.56 19.95 1.48 10.44 1.21 0.79 0.67 18.85 11.28 5.24 2.77 22.16 26.40 5.32 3.62 11. as the data show that spirits is expensive in Argentina.02 9.67 0.92 2.41 2.32 0.37 0.07 1.85 0.27 13.17 3.61 1.73 10.17 1.79 2.87 21.23 4.28 7.73 5.11 8.85 7.47 5.91 4.74 1.28 0.34 7.60 17.40 1.57 0.43 3.78 14.75 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 WINE (750 ml) Country Spain United States France Austria Germany Denmark Malta Portugal Switzerland Slovenia Italy Luxembourg Sweden Argentina Canada Netherlands Czech Republic Finland Equatorial Guinea Republic of Korea United Kingdom Norway Chile Uruguay Mauritius Hungary Israel Australia Ireland New Zealand Trinidad and Tobago Croatia Poland Costa Rica Iceland Gabon Brazil Venezuela Slovakia Georgia Paraguay Namibia Latvia Bulgaria Lithuania Jamaica Mexico Colombia Estonia TFYR Macedonia Romania Guatemala Kazakhstan Indonesia Russian Federation Bosnia/Herzegovina Ukraine Algeria Azerbaijan Belarus Seychelles Peru Guyana Congo Benin Viet Nam Malaysia Honduras China Jordan 0.61 2.93 8.52.26 12.47 1.93 15.58 3.32 5.04 1.97 6.92 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 SPIRITS (750 ml) Country Luxembourg United States Germany Switzerland Austria Israel Netherlands Japan Portugal Ireland France Czech Republic Chile Slovenia Spain Denmark Mauritius Canada New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Romania Italy Gambia Finland Norway Sweden Croatia Nepal Brazil Iceland Kazakhstan Venezuela Trinidad and Tobago Malaysia Hungary Panama Bulgaria Peru Georgia Estonia Slovakia Uruguay Seychelles Costa Rica Lithuania Philippines Russian Federation Paraguay Namibia Poland Suriname Latvia Honduras Cambodia Argentina Guyana Belarus Thailand Lao PDR Mexico Colombia Ukraine China Azerbaijan Bolivia Guatemala Viet Nam Jordan Uganda 1.69 12.34 3.17 – while wine is quite cheap – 1.expensive – relative price 3.21 22.64 4. In other words one gets more than two bottles of wine for the price of one 500 ml beer. One would also get more than 13 bottles of wine for the price of one bottle of spirits.64 0.33 5.66 1.56 3.46 1.94 3.47 22.92 9.68 2.89 1.41 0.18 1.03 6.06 33.45 14.72 8.68 0.80 9.26 2.09 5.46 1.12 5.60 2.76 0. with a relative price of 20.88 8.67 10.55 5.00 1.27 1.52 1.97 17.52 26.51 1.28 0.69 6.34 1.32 5.23 1.33 9.63 6.16 1. Table 19: Relative price of alcoholic beverages.78 13.99 1.33 0.19 0.70 0.92 16.74 16.84 4.24 21.20 1.84 5.57 25.54 46 .06 4.80 20.35 5.39 7.26 0.27 7.90 5.94 2.71 3.97 10.71 2.48 3.64 4.03 2.00 3.02 4.05 12.54 2.67 2.13 13.36 2.09 1.01 20.17 13.

Overall there is great variation in the relative prices: for beer it varies between 0.26 17.47 20.34 26.43 45.16 34.79 335. 750 ml of wine (at 12% alc/vol) equal to about 90 g of pure alcohol and 750 ml of spirits (at 40% alc/vol) equal to about 300 g of pure alcohol.37 (mean 39.86 72.66 578.46 437.40 28.62 123.19 to 59.62 65.93 137.16 314. followed by wine and. However.5% alc/vol) equal to about 22.63 73.05 37. this would mean that.80 8. Other interesting country examples showing large differences between the relative prices of different beverages are: Republic of Korea with cheap wine compared to very expensive spirits. in a global setting. Uruguay where wine and beer cost about the same while spirits is rather expensive. beer.31 40.87 17. This was determined by referring to the WHO Global Alcohol Database and exploring for each country which alcoholic beverage type of the three mentioned had the highest total adult per capita (in litres of pure alcohol). Rep.08 14. of Iran Nigeria Nicaragua Eritrea Algeria Benin Guinea-Bissau Malawi Comoros 34. It may be surprising that the means for wine and spirits are relatively close to each other. looking at the median values.34 15.40 174.39 (mean 33.0) and spirits between 1. Israel and Kazakhstan where wine and spirits cost the same.13 95.93 133.22 125.5 g of pure alcohol.02 22.95 9.29 17.07 8. i.99 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 WINE (750 ml) Country Guinea-Bissau Bolivia Suriname Belize Philippines Togo Armenia Kyrgyzstan Thailand Comoros Republic of Moldova Central African Rep. on average.22 55.e.13 11. Bolivia.42 23.35 32. Rep.16 55.07 120. a bottle of wine would cost roughly the same as two bottles of beer (500 ml each).98 67.52 47. China.17 9. 47 .05 167.79 32.39 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 SPIRITS (750 ml) Country Sri Lanka TFYR Macedonia Togo Republic of Moldova Republic of Korea Ghana Kyrgyzstan Bosnia/Herzegovina India Indonesia Armenia Isl. Price-wise.01 8.26 229.37 445.84 22.7 for wine and 13.17 27.65 11.39 29.36 70.18 41.65 to 578.62 50. for wine between 0.1). Nigeria Niger Mongolia Sri Lanka UR Tanzania Gambia Eritrea Nicaragua India Ghana Lao PDR Uganda Cambodia 27.51 50. and Cambodia and Gambia where beer and wine are very expensive.83 27.89 54.92 139.22 15.61 15.06 13. while a bottle of spirits would cost roughtly the same as two bottles of wine (see illustration in Figure 5). Measuring roughly the actual amount of pure alcohol in each type of beverage comes to the following: 500 ml of beer (at 4.47 38.64 59.82 56. Guinea-Bissau Malawi Gambia Zambia Nigeria Uganda UR Tanzania Niger Isl. This means that.14 10.70 30.52 84.99 (mean 8. of Iran Nepal Eritrea Comoros Ethiopia Cambodia 6.98 10.2 for spirits are shown.89 105. at the median price for each beverage. while spirits are cheap.46 and 445.06 43.BEER (500 ml) Country 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 Kazakhstan Guatemala Armenia Azerbaijan Benin Republic of Moldova Indonesia Honduras Mongolia Algeria Bolivia Viet Nam Lao PDR Guyana Guinea Nicaragua India Ghana Togo Central African Rep.25 12.98 125. one obtains the best value.2). the largest amount of pure alcohol for a given amount of money.61 52.61 52. 3.06 93. which might be more informative due to the large standard deviations.33 9. 8. when purchasing spirits.21 40.45 14.5 for beer.49 32.37 Note: The bolding of countries indicates that the beverage category highlighted is the most consumed in that country. lastly.98 110.

For beer. according to estimates. However. In all of the beer-drinking countries. the relative price seems closely related to economic development. among the 25 countries with the lowest beer prices. the Netherlands. one can argue that tradition and historical factors. and more surprisingly Equatorial Guinea. Italy. It is evident that the majority of countries are beer-drinking countries (47 in total). Also expensive are Armenia. all the developed countries of Western Europe. North America. the data also show some countries to drink what is perceived to be the traditional beverage of choice. In Eastern Europe. and Uruguay. Norway and Sweden have beer as their beverage of choice. these are luxury products accounting for only a small part of alcohol consumption – for instance.044 Spirits 2 X Wine In general. among the cheapest 25 countries. For spirits. Looking at Table 19 again. rather than price.156 0. beer in the Czech Republic. but also some Asian countries such as Cambodia. Chile. India and Nepal. especially for beer. influence the choice of drink. France. Chile.e. as demonstrated by the fact that these countries also fall within the same group. The preferred beverage often seems to be the cheapest. Mauritius. At the other end of the scale. Nicaragua and Republic of Moldova. Wine is the preferred beverage in the main wine-producing countries like Argentina. even where it is not the cheapest alcoholic beverage. Germany. For wine one can find Argentina. beer is also the cheapest beverage among the three (with the only exception of Gambia where spirits is cheaper than beer). at the cheaper end of the scale. Ireland. and Spain. are found. Italy. for example. It should be noted that these comparisons are for commercially produced western-style beverages. Oceania and Japan. while big beer-producing countries like Australia. Portugal. Of the 28 spirits-drinking 48 . 2002). the most consumed beverage in that country. big wine-producing countries. i.097 0. In some parts of the world. and Republic of Korea. Denmark. Portugal. there are two African countries – Gambia and Mauritius. Hungary and Slovenia appears to be fairly inexpensive. When looking at the case of spirits. the Islamic Republic of Iran (where alcoholic beverages are only sold illegally).Figure 5: Median values of the relative cost of alcoholic beverages worldwide Relative price of 1 g of pure alcohol ___________________________________ Wine 2 X Beer Beer Wine Spirits 0. where the country name is highlighted in bold this indicates the alcoholic beverage of choice. one finds mostly African countries. followed by spirits (28) and wine (18). less than 15% in east Africa (Willis.

This could also be the case with beer in Africa.3. 26. but should be taken with caution. it was decided that the trend data on the real prices where not reliable.7 4. 49 . The table shows that. this can be explained by the fact that most of these countries are from SEAR/WPR (India. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union).7 2. has increased.1 11. Especially in Africa.3 14. Price of local beverages A separate category in the price question was on local beverages.2 (n=90) For the small n in EMR the means are 14.9 for wine and 52. Again. except for wine.7 24. Overall. where SEAR/WPR is the most expensive. thus bringing the prices up.1 (n=104) Wine (750 ml) 68.countries. A question was included to determinate whether the price of alcoholic beverages. out of eight countries. and in some cases hardly even available. However. In eight of the spirit-drinking countries is a bottle of spirits cheaper than a bottle of wine. much cheaper than wine. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Some of the prices of these beverages are shown below. palm wine in Nigeria and sorghum beer in Malawi cost less than half of an average beer of the same size. changes in salaries. wine and spirits categories. as compared to the level of salaries. 18 do so despite spirits being the most expensive beverage (mostly countries from Asia. on average. The aim of the question was to get data on special local alcoholic beverages. A comparison was made between the price of the local beverage and that of an average beverage closest to its alcoholic strength.1. the local beverage is considerably cheaper than the average beer in seven countries. in Table 21. This is also reflected in the fact that it is the only region where spirits are. AFR is significantly more expensive.5 8.0 33. 4. EUR is clearly the region were all alcoholic beverages are relatively the cheapest.1 16. In that case the price quoted for the western-style spirits is not representative for the often consumed locally distilled spirits.3 for spirits.0 (n=95) Spirits (750 ml) 147.3 8. decreased or remained stable during the last five years. especially home or locally made beverages that do not fit in the general beer. When looking at the regional means in Table 20.6 for beer. followed by AMR. as it would require a great deal of economic expertise to judge any price development in a national economy which is influenced by inflation rates. among the beers and similar beverages. wine is not the beverage of choice. since it is likely that the average beer prices used here are for bottled. factory made beer and not homebrewed. For example. buying power etc. Sri Lanka and Thailand) where wine is still unpopular and the western-style spirits must compete with traditional local distilled drinks.9 39. It is included for all countries in Table 18.4 81. it should be remembered that these are very rough generalizations and that there are large differences within the regions.9 20. For that reason the trend data have not been analysed. In most countries of SEAR/WPR. a large percentage of the beer consumed is home made and considerably cheaper. It should be noted that not all local beverages below are home made or industrially produced versions of traditional beverages. Table 20: Regional means of the relative prices of alcoholic beverages Beer (500 ml) AFR AMR EUR SEAR/WPR Means for all countries 18. Philippines.

04 0.52 1. there is indication that industrially produced beverages.81 5. 2002). and the Islamic Republic of Iran. in 18 the local spirits is cheaper than the average spirits (for Mongolia the spirits price is missing).45 5.56 0. and kassippu in Sri Lanka. arrack in India. there are only two countries.58 0. Looking at beverages that have roughly the strength of wine.5 33.13 3.33 2.76 1.32 0.63 2. as well as rum in Colombia and Suriname (called borgoe).36 6.60 0.56 (beer) (beer) (beer) (beer) (beer) (beer) (beer) (beer) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) (spirits) Spirits and similar (750 ml) Wine and similar (750 ml) 2.29 2. From the 23 countries.20 1.. The health consequences of impurities and adulterants in 50 .50 2.31 4. pisco in Chile.46 0.96 2.3 30-40 40 38 80 40 22 50 50 30-40 38 28 38 12-18 15 Price in US$ 0.Table 21: Price of local alcoholic beverages in US$ Country Beer and similar (500 ml) Argentina Bolivia Congo Malawi Namibia Nigeria Seychelles Uganda Benin Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Cambodia Chile China Colombia Croatia Guinea-Bissau Iceland India Isl.14 3. sake is more expensive than wine. The majority of the data are for beverages of the strength of distilled beverages.46 2. In Japan.14 1.69 0.09 Price of average beer/wine/spirits 0. pinga in Brazil.73 0.66 4.10 0.58 29.15 4.52 3.42 4. are gaining popularity in many developing countries.66 9.73 2. Jordan.72 5.16 0.48 9.23 42. Rep. for example slivovica in Slovakia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.35 2.31 (wine) Note: Conversion from local currencies at 31 October 2002 rates.89 4. it seems that there is ground for the expectation that at least some home or locally made beverages are cheaper than mass or factory produced “brand” beverages.21 0. due perhaps to issues of prestige attached to international brands and increasing marketing efforts by multinational alcohol beverage companies. Even with the limited data from this survey.5 40 30-40 37. however.25 2. Although more expensive.25 0. paddywine in China.29 14.55 1.04 0.12 26. of Iran Jordan Mongolia Palau Peru Republic of Korea Russian Federation Slovakia Sri Lanka Suriname Thailand Uruguay China Japan Beverage name Chicha Maize beer Chibuku/sorghum beer Homebrew Palm wine Lapire Maruba Sodabi Slivovica Pinga Drug spirit Pisco Paddywine Rum Slivovica Aguardente Tindavodka Arrack Home made Arak Arak Archi Moonshine Pisco Quebranta Soju Samogon Slivovica (plums) Kassipu Borgoe Clear Liquor Cana Ricewine Sake Alcohol volume % 7 5-7 5 4 3 5-7 >8 6 65-75 50 39 21 35 35-45 28.49 1.66 2.25 2. are high quality beverages that are more expensive than the average spirits.94 3.76 0.03 3.39 1.46 0. particularly lager-style beer.49 5.48 0.22 0.65 1.42 (wine) 1. Rice wine in China is both cheaper and stronger than the average wine. This may carry some health benefits in terms of higher purity of beverages (Room et al. samogon in Russian Federation. However. In some cases the price difference is quite significant.51 2.35 6.62 0.76 4.

On the other hand. EUR showed a slightly higher average than the other regions with 19. In this survey. providing local employment opportunities and preserving values of the local culture (which may or may not promote lower levels of alcohol consumption).g. for the purpose of country comparability. Eritrea. and Lao People`s Democratic Republic. Since taxation systems and the basis on which they are calculated vary for different countries. In India. 4. The average tax rate among the 94 countries that indicated their percentage is 16.. In some instances. on the countries’ taxation levels. leaving open the question of the reliability of the data. Be it for the purpose of public health or raising government revenue. and some may be deliberately fortified with potentially harmful additives.2 Taxation As mentioned earlier. in particular. Some contain dangerous constituents that may include heavy metals such as lead and arsenic (Room et al. Thirdly.6% (SD: 6. these benefits should also be empirically verified. Concerning the different tax systems. It would seem that there may be health benefits from replacing cottage-produced with industrially-produced alcohol in terms of the purity of the product. This section had the highest number of missing values. these figures have not been validated through other sources. 2002). Since the question in this survey asked about the VAT on alcoholic beverages only.3). a comparison of tax rates is a complex exercise. However. Firstly. there have been numerous reports of substantial number of drinkers being poisoned by methanol and other contaminants in illicit alcoholic beverages (Room et al. The five countries without sales tax are: Belize.2% (compared to SEAR/WPR 12. since they can easily be overstated (Room et al. wine and spirits separately. more than 90% of the responding countries (n=112) indicate its existence. the alcohol-specific tax is a policy measure obviously focusing on alcoholic beverages. However. producers of alcoholic beverages may have included poisons in an attempt to add “kick” to the beverage or to save on production costs. they answered a question on the use of duty-paid. not surprisingly. in contrast to the general sales tax or VAT. Ranging from 3% to 40%. or both. such as pulque in Mexico and ogogoro in Nigeria. Also. among other things. Regionally. emphasis seems to be shifting away from local to industrially produced alcoholic beverages. AFR 16% and AMR 15. they were asked to provide details about a possible alcohol-specific tax or excise tax as a percentage of the retail price. for beer. tax data in formats other than as an excise tax percentage of retail price were excluded from the analysis.. 1995). e. about the existence of a general sales tax or Value Added Tax on alcoholic beverages and its percentage. Secondly. different tax rates for domestic and imported alcoholic beverages. the countries show very different percentages of a general sales tax (for the country specific rates see Table 23). excise or tax stamps on alcoholic beverage containers or bottles. it could be speculated that traditionally produced alcoholic beverages may potentially carry the benefits of having a lower alcohol content. 2002).. 2002). nothing can be said about rates of VAT on other consumer products in the countries. Regarding the general sales tax or VAT (Value Added Tax). the price of alcoholic beverages depends. are often poorly monitored for quality and strength. in many developing countries. Traditionally produced forms of alcoholic beverages. indicating the inherent difficulty of these questions. about 60 countries provided data on the percentages of 51 .alcoholic beverages are relatively more important in developing countries than in developed countries (Saxena. Gambia. Costa Rica. In the questionnaire the respondents were asked three questions related to taxation.7%.1%).

This means that. Other countries with a low tax on wine include Kyrgyzstan (2%). Countries with the highest taxes on beer include Iceland (64%). distinguishes itself from the rest with an alcohol excise tax of 200% on all three beverages.7% respectively) compared to a lower level in EUR (13.8% and 24. SD=28. Ghana (50%). Table 22: Frequency of low.1 52. The tax percentages were broken down into the three groups of low. Czech Republic.7 33.specific tax Low (<30%) Middle (30-49%) High (>50%) Spirits (n=60) 36. In three countries the beer tax is below 5% of the retail price: Latvia (4. as can be seen from the standard variation. wine and spirits.the excise tax on beer.0 Concerning an alcohol-specific beer tax.5%). Regarding the average tax rate for beer in the different regions. However. Nigeria and Nepal (40%). Benin (46%). Guinea-Bissau.6 Wine (n=60) 28. Germany.6% with a standard variation of 26. followed by AFR (24. and Bosnia and Herzegovina (3. Regarding the tax on spirits. and Switzerland). and Central African Republic (60%).3 Alcohol. TFYR Macedonia. Table 22 summarizes the results. Jordan.3%). One could very well speculate that low taxes on wine are a means of protecting the domestic agricultural industry in wine-producing countries like Italy and Spain. as the results show. The overall mean is 23.8%. there is a wide range in the tax rates (from 0% to 60%). Greece. the countries were classified in categories with cut-off points other than that for beer and wine (see Table 22). SEAR/WPR has the highest mean tax rate (26. Russian Federation (3%). Italy. Overall. taking into consideration the general higher 52 . but also generally beer producing countries like the Czech Republic and Germany. Dominican Republic (45. The countries with the highest tax rates on wine are Equatorial Guinea. Mauritius.4%). It should be noted that these taxes are often only effectively collected on industrially-produced beverages. i.e.1).7%). while the country data are presented in Table 23. Philippines (44%).3 43. Luxembourg.1. the majority of the countries have taxes between 10% and 29% of the retail price. These countries include not only traditional wine producing countries like Spain and Italy. the overall average is lower than for beer ( X =22.5%).8%).3 28. and EUR (17.3%). Niger and Ukraine (50%). Philippines (48%). middle and high alcohol-specific tax on beer. Japan (46. One country. AMR and SEAR/WPR have about the same mean tax rate on wine (29. A European phenomenon is the absence of tax on wine in some European countries (Austria. for close to half of the countries. Slovenia. Russian Federation (4%) and Guinea (2%). low taxes on wine are also imposed in countries such as the Czech Republic and Germany.50%). Hungary and Nigeria (40%). Spain. 23. the responding countries in AFR. AMR (18. Iceland (58%).3 30. the middle tax group.3%). Croatia. Malta. When it comes to the alcohol-specific tax on wine.7. France (3.1%). French Polynesia (41%). wine and spirits (% of retail price) Alcohol-specific tax Low Middle High (<10%) (10-29%) (>30%) Beer (n=65) 23. middle and high levels of tax. where wine is not the main beverage. the data are missing. However.3 24.

00 . . NO NO YES NO YES YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO NO NO YES AMR 53 .00 38.00 35. .00 18. 11.00 13.00 . More than 60% of the responding countries have a tax on spirits which is 30% or greater. NO YES YES NO YES YES YES .00 25.00 . 13. . 22.5%).00 40. 30. Finland (67%).tax level on spirits.00 .00 40. 25. . . excise taxes on beer. wine and spirits. 8.00 10.30 .30 .78 .00 .8.00 . . .00 .00 .2%. 27.00 30.00 . 60.00 2. 85. EUR (40.00 .00 18.00 .00 18.00 5.00 18.00 .00 36. SEAR/WPR (36.00 7. while Uruguay and Ukraine (85%).00 20.00 .00 EXCISE STAMPS NO NO YES NO .00 .00 5. .30 .00 15. . . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES % SALES TAX/VAT 17.00 12.00 .00 8.00 .00 18.00 15. 60.00 18. . 45.00 10.00 12.00 22.00 .00 .80 .00 15. .00 6. 8. . .00 8.00 25.00 .00 50.50 26. 25.00 18. . 15. . . 50. 60.00 . 40.00 . .00 . 46.00 30. 58.00 .00 19.00 .00 13.00 40. . and Iceland (80%). 47.00 30. .00 . 40. French Polynesia (63%) and Mauritius (62. NO . 25. . . 62. .00 . . .2%) all have close to the same level of mean tax rate on spirits.00 TAX AS % OF RETAIL PRICE BEER WINE SPIRITS .00 .00 5.00 .50 18.90 . Overall.40 .00 . . 50.00 . 46. have the highest taxes on spirits.00 20. followed by the traditional high-tax countries of Sweden (67. 15. and use of excise stamps on beverage containers.6%).00 . 20. Eritrea and Paraguay (10%) are the countries with the lowest tax.00 20. 20. .40 .00 . 30. .00 40. 20. by country WHO REGION AFR COUNTRY Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. .00 .00 14.00 15.00 18. Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay SALES TAX/VAT YES YES YES YES YES YES . 12. Table 23: Sales taxes on alcoholic beverages. 12.00 . 22.50 26. . . .00 26.00 10. YES YES .7%) and AFR (38. 18.00 50.00 18.50 . 15. NO . . 15.90 20. 10.00 38. 15. 15. .1%).00 . 15. 15. 20. . 23.00 23. 30. Regionally AMR (36.78 20. 20. . . 40. 10. NO NO NO NO NO NO YES .00 .30 .00 .90 .00 5. . the average tax on spirits is 41.00 40. . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES . 15. .00 15. 19. 18. with a standard deviation of 27. .1%).00 . .70 .00 20. 25.

00 .18 25.00 22.00 36.00 .80 0.00 8.00 20.35 27. 16.00 22.50 .00 17. . 6.00 5. EXCISE STAMPS YES YES NO NO YES NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO NO YES YES .00 .00 25.00 . .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam SALES TAX/VAT YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES . 0.00 0. . 200. .00 14. 20.25 67. 35.00 24. . 0.00 20.00 . .00 22. . . . .00 10. . 4. 34. .00 17.00 . .00 17.00 67. YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO . .10 .00 . 13.00 7.00 0.WHO REGION COUNTRY Venezuela Egypt Isl.60 13.50 50.00 0. 15.00 19.00 15.00 44.00 .00 .00 10.00 48.00 TAX AS % OF RETAIL PRICE BEER WINE SPIRITS .00 0. 24.00 . . 11. 45.00 20.00 22. . 3. 13. 14. 22.00 .00 46.00 5.80 . 20.00 17.00 20.00 15.00 . 57.00 .00 . 27.00 18.00 18.00 35.00 25. 10.00 .00 30. .00 20.70 53.00 20. 40. YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES % SALES TAX/VAT 14.00 . 15.00 7.00 40.00 .50 . 3. .90 . 50. . 6.00 24.20 .00 16. 0.00 .00 41.30 9.00 20.00 18.00 33.00 41.00 50.60 . 20.00 18.00 10. 22.00 3.00 .00 23.00 . .00 10. NO YES NO YES YES YES .00 18.00 19. 2. YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES EMR EUR SEAR WPR 54 . 50.10 .60 38. 12.00 20. 20.40 . 15. 3.90 .00 .20 . 13. 200. . .00 18.50 21. .00 20. . YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO NO YES .00 20. . . .00 9. 10.00 20.40 . .00 10.20 13.00 . Rep.78 . . .40 . . .00 5.00 .00 63.50 52.00 85. 41.50 . .10 .00 25. 10.00 25. 11.00 20. .00 17.00 16.00 20.00 18.00 8.00 20.50 19.00 16.80 .00 4. 40.00 . 15.60 .90 . 22.00 .30 .00 10. .00 40. .00 . 38.50 . .00 12. .00 .00 80.00 .00 20. 40.00 25.00 33.00 22.00 . 15.00 38.00 7. 44. 0. 200.00 58. .50 4. 21. 33.00 13.00 0.00 .00 64.40 0. 40.80 25. . 16. . of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. .80 .00 . St.00 25. 25.00 3.00 .00 .00 .00 20.00 8.

Regional differences were seen for the African Region. low tax rates can be found in countries where prices are low and in countries where prices are high. compared to EUR (61%). and Germany. in nearly half (47. AMR (59%) and SEAR/WPR (31%). high taxes on alcoholic beverages exist in countries were prices are already high but also in countries were prices are low. Figures 6 and 7 show the countries grouped according to the relative price of 500 ml beer and 750 ml spirits and level of tax as a percentage of retail price in that particular country. Examples of countries with relatively low prices but high taxes are Finland. Similarly. When correlating the relative prices to the taxation rates. Bolivia and Guatemala. the third question concerned the use of duty-paid. The high price countries where low taxes are imposed include Cambodia. China. where only 20% of the responding countries indicate the use of tax stamps. As an illustration. The results show that. whereas taxes are high in Nicaragua. Ireland. 55 . overall. no significant correlation was found. excise or tax stamps on alcoholic beverage containers or bottles. Iceland. Nigeria and Ukraine. Australia and Sweden. The notion that a high alcohol tax does not necessarily mean a high relative price of alcoholic beverages is obvious when comparing taxation to price. duty paid or excise stamps are used at least on some alcoholic beverages (see country data in Table 23). Guinea-Bissau. In other words. France. Italy.5%) of the responding 101 countries.Finally. Many countries introduce them to ensure the collection of taxes and to counteract smuggling. Countries with relatively low prices and low taxes are Bulgaria.

Figure 7: Countries categorized by relative price of spirits and excise tax Argentina Armenia HIGH (> median) Bolivia Bosnia & Herzegovina Cambodia China Relative price of 750 ml spirits Bulgaria France Germany LOW (< median) Hungary Italy Japan Peru Seychelles Slovakia Spain Australia Chile Croatia Denmark Estonia Finland Iceland Ireland Mauritius Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Sweden Uruguay Eritrea Ghana Guatemala Kyrgyzstan Namibia Paraguay Philippines Russian Federation Azerbaijan Benin Colombia Guinea-Bissau Jordan India Latvia Mexico Nigeria Nicaragua Poland Ukraine LOW (<35%) Excise tax as % of retail price HIGH (>35%) Note: Only countries with data available for both variables are included 56 . Eritrea Ghana Guinea-Bissau Jordan Relative price of 500 ml beer Argentina Bulgaria Chile Costa Rica LOW (< median) Colombia Estonia France Germany Italy Latvia Namibia New Zealand Paraguay Russian Federation Slovakia Spain Australia Croatia Denmark Equatorial Guinea Finland Hungary Iceland Ireland Japan Mauritius Mexico Netherlands Poland Sweden Uruguay Lao PDR Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Peru Philippines Seychelles Ukraine LOW (<15%) Excise tax as % of retail price HIGH (>15%) Note: Only countries with data available for both variables are included.Figure 6: Countries categorized by relative price of beer and excise tax Azerbaijan Bolivia Bosnia & Herzegovina HIGH (> median) Cambodia China Guatemala Guinea India Kyrgyzstan Armenia Benin Central African Rep.

Conclusions In conclusion, extensive studies conducted in many developed and some developing countries demonstrate that increases in taxes and prices are related to reductions in alcohol consumption and harm (Babor et al., 2003). Despite the robust findings, the real price of alcoholic beverages has decreased in some countries, partly because the tax has not increased at par with inflation rates. Ideally taxes on alcoholic beverages should be placed high on a list of possible policy measures as they are effective, cost-effective, easy to implement, and can generate government revenue and reduce both consumption and harm. The feasibility of taxation as an effective measure depends on the level of government control over the market. The positive effects of increased taxation in some countries need to be weighed against a potential increase in smuggling or illegal production of alcoholic beverages. In trying to curb smuggling or illegal production of alcoholic beverages, 50% of the countries in this present study label their bottles with tax stamps. Ideally, countries should implement a tax and price level which is high enough to reduce consumption and harm while not being so high as to increase illegal production, smuggling and cross-border trade. Part of the complexity of setting taxation levels is the pressure arising from large differences in prices between neighbouring countries, leading to a significant level of cross-border trafficking. For the price and taxation section, one could perhaps question the use of the GDP per capita as a standardizing measure. However, for the present data and countries, it seems like the most valid basis. Overall, large differences could be seen in the relative prices, differences that are not as prominent when looking at simple conversions of the currencies. For example, the prices for beer vary from 0.2 to 2.6 US$ (not including the Islamic Republic of Iran). The relative prices increase the range and make clearer that alcoholic beverages are relatively less expensive in developed countries. For example, related to national wealth, one beer in EUR costs the local consumer the same as nine beers in AFR. When noting the high prices in developing countries one should take into consideration the local or home made beverages which can be significantly cheaper than the “industrial” beverages. In countries where a large proportion of the available alcoholic beverages is locally or cottage produced, governments should, to the largest possible extent, try to include those beverages in their tax and pricing policy, ensuring higher tax returns while keeping consumption and harm at lowest possible levels. With economic development, an increase in alcohol consumption is expected in many developing countries, partly due to the simple fact that, as the buying power increases, the real prices will decrease, unless government action is taken. Large differences exist in tax rates between countries, from negligible taxes to a high of 200%. Contrary to the rather low monetary prices, there are many developing countries which, on average, have quite high tax rates. On a worldwide scale, the rates of alcohol taxation seem unrelated to price. This finding does not necessarily indicate that taxes are not used as a measure to increase prices, but it seems that developed countries especially do not currently use taxation to its full potential as a public health measure.

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5.

Advertising and sponsorship

Alcohol advertising has the potential of portraying drinking as socially desirable, of promoting pro-alcohol attitudes, of recruiting new drinkers and of increasing drinking among current drinkers. Alcohol advertising emphasizes the desirable aspects of drinking, ignores the risk of alcohol consumption to the individual and to public health, and can undermine prevention objectives (Harkin & et al., 1995). The overall research evidence suggests that advertising has a small but contributory impact on drinking behaviour (Edwards et al., 1994). Restricting and controlling alcohol advertising as a policy measure is relevant and appropriate for a comprehensive alcohol policy, although the overall impact of advertising on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related harm may be limited and long-term (Rehn, Room & Edwards, 2001). This section covers the restrictions on alcohol advertising in different media, as well as, the requirement of health warnings on the advertisement or the alcoholic beverage containers, regulations of alcohol beverage industry sponsorship, and the level of enforcement of existing advertising and sponsorship restrictions. In the questionnaire the media included were: national television, cable television, national radio, local radio, printed magazines and newspapers, billboards, points of sale and cinema. This report examines four of those media: national television, national radio, print media and billboards. The types of advertising restrictions vary from complete bans and partial legal restrictions to voluntary advertising agreements or no restrictions. Partial legal restrictions include exposure restricted by hours, by type of programme or magazine (e.g. children’s programmes on television), by saturation limits, and by place of the advertisement. Voluntary agreements are internal codes of conduct or regulations that the alcohol beverage industry follows, and which are not in themselves legally binding. Firstly, the overall existence of alcohol advertising was examined. It exists in almost all countries (92%) except for some of the countries with predominantly Muslim populations (Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Jordan and the Islamic Republic of Iran), Equatorial Guinea, some parts of India and Nigeria, and Iceland and Norway, where all types of alcohol advertising are banned. Table 24 shows an overview of the advertising restrictions for the four selected media and the different beverage categories (India and the Islamic Republic of Iran were not included in the table). Overall, only a minority of countries have complete bans on alcohol advertising. Some 23% to 31% of the responding countries, depending on the media and the beverage, implement some partial restrictions. Another 13% to 16% of countries rely on voluntary agreements. A significant number of countries have no restrictions on advertising (between 28% and 57%), especially in print media and on billboards. Advertising on television and radio are more restricted than in print media and on billboards, with legal restrictions, total or partial ranging from 44% (beer on national radio) to 60% (spirits on national television). Beer advertising is significantly less controlled than advertising for wine, and especially that for spirits.

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Table 24: Restrictions on advertising in selected media, by beverage type
Total bans % National TV Beer Wine Spirits Beer Wine Spirits Beer Wine Spirits Beer Wine Spirits (n=113) (n=111) (n=112) (n=111) (n=110) (n=111) (n=113) (n=111) (n=111) (n=111) (n=109) (n=109) 15.9 22.5 28.6 16.2 20.9 27.9 3.5 8.1 10.8 9.0 12.8 13.8 Partial restrictions % 28.3 31.5 31.3 24.3 29.1 27.9 24.8 24.3 23.4 22.5 22.9 23.9 Voluntary agreements % 13.3 13.5 12.5 15.3 15.5 13.5 15.0 16.2 15.3 12.6 13.8 12.8 No restrictions % 42.5 32.4 27.7 44.1 34.5 30.6 56.6 51.4 50.5 55.9 50.5 49.5

National radio

Print media

Billboards

To illustrate regional differences, the category of countries with bans or partial legal restrictions on beer advertising was chosen, due to the fact that advertising of beer is probably quite prominent in many countries. Voluntary agreements were not included. As Figure 8 illustrates, first of all, television in general is significantly more restricted than print media. Secondly, the African Region, is for each media, the region with the lowest percentage of countries with restrictions (bans or partial legal), followed by SEAR/WPR, and EUR. AMR is the region where the countries have the most restrictions. Table 25 shows the countries with no restrictions (not even voluntary agreements) on television, radio, print media, or billboards. Figure 8: Regional distribution of countries with bans or partial legal restrictions on beer advertising in selected media

45% 41% 42% 38% 48% 48% 32%
National TV (n=111)

22% 31%

24% 28% 56% 13%
Billboards (n=109)

56%

32%
National radio (n=109)

8%
Print media (n=111)

AFR

AMR

EUR

SEAR/WPR

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Table 25: Countries with no restrictions on beer advertising on television, radio, print media or billboards
AFR Benin Comoros Congo Ethiopia Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Niger South Africa UR Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia EUR Armenia Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Georgia Greece Latvia TFYR Macedonia Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia

AMR Brazil Canada El Salvador Guyana Jamaica Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay

SEAR Thailand

WPR Cambodia China Palau Republic of Korea

The present report did not look at advertising codes or codes of content, i.e. regulations on the advertisement itself. These codes are either laid down by governments, or perhaps more frequently by the alcohol industry through internal guidelines. The codes often cover areas such as the age of the people portrayed in the advertisement, showing drinking while using machinery, and suggestions about linking alcohol consumption with social, sexual or sport success. For example the European Union has placed restrictions on the advertising of alcoholic beverages on television. Council Directive (89/552/EEC 3 October 1989) “on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in member countries concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities” restricts the content of alcohol beverage advertisements on television. The directive states:
“Television advertising for alcohol beverages shall comply with the following criteria: it may not be aimed specifically at minors or, in particular, depict minors consuming these beverages; it shall not link the consumption of alcohol to enhanced physical performance or driving; it shall not create the impression that the consumption of alcohol contributes towards social or sexual success; it shall not claim that alcohol has therapeutic qualities or that it is a stimulant, a sedative or a means of resolving personal conflicts; it shall not encourage immoderate consumption of alcohol or present abstinence or moderation in a negative light; it shall not place emphasis on high alcoholic content as being a positive quality of the beverage.”

However, there is little enforcement of this directive, and the European Union common market rules have, in fact, been used to weaken national advertising restrictions.

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as illustrated for beer by Table 26. they may in fact amount to the same effect as direct alcohol advertising on television. 61 . In AMR. for wine and spirits in Croatia and Turkey. AMR is the region with the highest number of countries with restrictions (mainly partial restrictions) on beer industry sponsorship of sports events (42%). Venezuela. Poland and Switzerland for spirits. This would include the existence of independent grievance panels or consumer boards and the possibility of sanctioning advertisers for breaking the rules of law. Panama. AFR: 21%. in Croatia and Turkey for the wine and spirits industries and in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Eritrea. Focal points were asked to rate the enforcement level of existing advertising and sponsorship restrictions as fully.5. India (southern states). as the measure is subjective. Few countries restrict alcohol industry sponsorship of sport or youth events. with only about 24% of countries having any statutory controls. basketball and also concerts and other cultural events. Only in EUR. Regarding the beer industry sponsorship of youth events. Table 26: Restrictions on alcohol beverage industry sponsorship of sports and youth events. for beer Ban % Sponsorship of youth events (n=107) Sponsorship of sport events (n=107) 8 16 8 68 13 Partial restrictions % 11 Voluntary agreements % 15 No restrictions % 61 Regionally. more countries restrict sponsorship of events by wine producers and even more by spirits companies. rarely or not enforced. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the enforcement question. The only countries with complete bans on both kinds of sponsorships are: Algeria. A majority of countries have no restrictions (on sport events: 68%. Youth event sponsorship bans exist in Bosnia and Herzegovina. and Switzerland. many of which are directly targeted at young people. youth: 61%). Costa Rica. Indonesia. Gambia. In the other regions restrictions are less common (EUR: 20%. SEAR/WPR: 17%).1. In addition sports sponsorship is banned in Jordan. partially. Restrictions on sponsorships An important part of alcohol marketing and promotion are sponsorships by the alcohol beverage industry. motor sports.2. Nepal. AFR and SEAR/WPR there are no significant differences between restrictions on alcohol industry sponsorship of sport and youth events for the different beverages. Mauritius. France. Guatemala. and for spirits in Finland and Poland. Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions An important aspect of advertising restrictions is effective enforcement. based on the perception of the focal point. the Islamic Republic of Iran. If these sponsored events are televised. the restriction rates are almost identical to those mentioned above for each region. compared to beer. 5. The variety of sponsorships covers sports events such as football. Norway and the Russian Federation. Finland.

focal points in countries with many stringent restrictions are more likely to regard them as being well enforced. the impact of the current warning labels on perceptions of risk and drinking habits is modest. As Figure 9 shows. Health warnings Research regarding warning labels on bottles is rather ambiguous at this stage. SEAR/WPR: 33%). 36% have nothing to enforce legally. with most of the evidence (primarily from the United States. two questions on health warnings were included in the questionnaire. from countries with statutory controls (ban or partial restrictions). 1994). size. the requirement of health warnings applies in particular to countries of AMR.Of all responding countries. In other words. etc. p<0. where over half of the countries covered by this survey have them (56%). 1999). However. In countries where alcohol advertising is allowed (n=106). while in the other WHO Regions the frequency of health warnings on the advertisements is lower (AFR: 27%.01) between advertising and sponsorship restrictions and enforcement. partly due to poor label designs and weak wording (Toomey & Wagenaar. 62 . Nonetheless. and only few studies suggesting behaviour change that could be attributed to the label (Edwards et al. because they either have no restrictions or they only have voluntary agreements.3. bans and partial legal restrictions (n=64) There is a significant correlation (r=0. rotation. EUR: 22%.) were not asked. Overall. Precisions on the requirements set for the health warnings (the text. Some studies show that warning labels do raise levels of awareness. than those in countries with fewer and less strict policies. 5.. the countries estimating rare or no enforcement of their advertising and sponsorship laws can be mainly found in SEAR/WPR (39%) and AFR (30%). Regionally. 48% partial enforcement. 28% indicate full enforcement. 16% rare and 8% no enforcement. while EUR (19%) and AMR (13%) seem to have fewer countries with low levels of enforcement. Figure 9: Level of enforcement of existing advertising and sponsorship restrictions. Canada and Australia) suggesting no change in the perception of risk among people who have taken note of the label.49. The more frequent and more strict the advertising restrictions the higher the level of perceived enforcement. 33% require a health warning of some sort on the advertisement.

especially when it is targeted at young people. i. Philippines. Spain. However. Brazil. often targeting younger people. Mexico. Thailand and the United States. As a media the internet is one of the most difficult to restrict. thus rendering it impossible to form general conclusions. Indonesia. Although content restrictions were not examined within the context of the survey. Table 27 shows the complete country data for restrictions on advertising of alcoholic beverages in four different types of media and Table 28 shows the complete country data for restrictions on sponsorship of sports and youth events. The role of different types of sponsorships is becoming increasingly important as the alcohol beverage industry in many countries is moving away from traditional advertising in broadcast media. Benin. it seems that restrictions on advertising and sponsorship should be part of a comprehensive alcohol policy. increasing evidence can be found that exposure shapes positive perceptions of drinking and can increase heavier drinking. while about 15% of countries rely on voluntary agreements. as it is to a large degree outside the control of national governments. However. Cape Verde.Finally. Although not covered by the questionnaire. Therefore. 63 . those kind of restrictions appear difficult to implement and enforce effectively because of their rather ambiguous and mostly voluntary nature. a considerable proportion of countries have no restrictions. Republic of Korea. Russian Federation. especially in print media and billboards (around 50%). On alcohol advertising. only a third of countries (29%) that have legal restrictions on advertising consider those laws fully enforced. alcohol marketing on the internet seems to be on the increase. The correlation between the restrictions and enforcement shows that the countries which indicate their laws as fully enforced are also more likely to have many and strict restrictions. total bans are fairly rare. Conclusions While much of the research on the impact of alcohol advertising is not conclusive. Malawi. at present only a minority of countries have statutory controls on sponsorship of youth and sport events (about 24%). For the enforcement of regulations. including health warnings on advertisements and estimated level of enforcement. only few countries (16%) indicate having health warnings on bottles or containers. From the countries where the questions were included (n=94). Broadcast media is somewhat more restricted and also spirits advertising in general is more restricted than that for wine and beer. Armenia. a question was asked about the requirement of printing health warnings on beverage bottles or containers. this question was omitted from the Spanish translation of the questionnaire (used in most AMR countries). Overall. Mongolia. and 23% regard their laws as either being rarely or not enforced at all.e. India.

BAN NO NO BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO . Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador BAN NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . NO NO NO PARTIAL . NO NO NO .Table 27: Restrictions on advertising of alcoholic beverages in four media. NO NO NO . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . NO NO NO PARTIAL . VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO . VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO . NO NO NO PARTIAL . NO NO NO PARTIAL . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO . by country NATIONAL TV WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE NATIONAL RADIO PRINTMEDIA BILLBOARDS SPIRITS WHO REGION COUNTRY BEER AFR 64 AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep. VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO . BAN NO NO BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO . NO NO NO PARTIAL . BAN NO NO BAN NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO . NO NO NO . NO NO NO PARTIAL . NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO .

NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO BAN NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO .WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE NATIONAL TV NATIONAL RADIO PRINTMEDIA BILLBOARDS SPIRITS COUNTRY BEER EMR EUR 65 Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN NO BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT NO BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO BAN PARTIAL NO VOLUNT . VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO BAN PARTIAL . of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO BAN NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO BAN NO BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL . Rep.

NO NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO . BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . VOLUNT Note: VOLUNT – voluntary agreements. BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . St. BAN NO NO PARTIAL . BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN . VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO . BAN NO NO PARTIAL BAN . . BAN NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL NO .WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE NATIONAL TV NATIONAL RADIO PRINTMEDIA BILLBOARDS SPIRITS COUNTRY BEER SEAR 66 WPR Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed. NO PARTIAL .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO BAN PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO . NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL . . NO NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO BAN PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN . NO PARTIAL . NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN . NO NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO . . NO NO PARTIAL NO . VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO . NO NO PARTIAL NO . BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL NO . NO PARTIAL . NO BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL BAN . PARTIAL – partial legal restrictions. NO NO PARTIAL NO . PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL . NO PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL . NO NO . PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL NO . BAN NO NO PARTIAL NO . NO BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO BAN PARTIAL NO PARTIAL . PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL .

NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO BAN .A N. YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO NO NO .A . NO NO . VOLUNT NO NO .A NOT PARTIALLY PARTIALLY N. VOLUNT NO NO .A FULLY . PARTIALLY N.A N. PARTIALLY FULLY .A N.A N. NO NO .A PARTIALLY N. NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO BAN NO .A N.A PARTIALLY RARELY N. NO NO . Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica BAN NO . health warnings and enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions. . VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN . . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO BAN NO .Table 28: Restrictions on sponsorships. BAN NO . BAN NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO BAN NO . NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO FULLY N. NO NO . .A N. . . VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN . BAN NO . BAN . FULLY . . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO BAN NO . N. . . BAN NO PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO BAN . by country SPORTS EVENTS WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS HEALTH WARNING ON ADVERTISEMENT YOUTH EVENTS ENFORCEMENT OF ADVERTISING AND SPONSORSHIP RESTRICTIONS WHO REGION COUNTRY BEER AFR 67 AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep.A N.A N. NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO .A . PARTIALLY PARTIALLY .A PARTIALLY NOT PARTIALLY PARTIALLY . PARTIALLY RARELY N.A N. NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO NO BAN NO . YES YES NO NO NO NO NO . BAN . BAN VOLUNT NO NO NO NO BAN .

A PARTIALLY RARELY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY . BAN BAN NO NO NO NO BAN NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO BAN PARTIAL . BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO BAN NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN . NO YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO YES N. N.A .A FULLY . NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL . of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova Romania PARTIAL .A. FULLY FULLY N. BAN BAN NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL .A. NO PARTIAL . NO PARTIAL .A N. VOLUNT NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL . BAN BAN NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT . BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL NO . NO PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL NO . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL N.A.A N. VOLUNT NO VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN NO . BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN N. N. YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO NO N. . BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN N.A . .A PARTIALLY PARTIALLY N. BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO BAN NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO BAN BAN . BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN N.A NO YES NO NO PARTIALLY . PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY N.A.A .A FULLY RARELY FULLY FULLY RARELY .A N. NO PARTIAL . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL N.A.A N.A.A PARTIALLY PARTIALLY . VOLUNT NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT . PARTIALLY N. NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL N. NO PARTIAL . NO PARTIAL NO NO NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL . .A RARELY N. Rep. NO PARTIAL . VOLUNT NO VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT .WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS SPORTS EVENTS HEALTH WARNING ON ADVERTISEMENT YOUTH EVENTS COUNTRY BEER ENFORCEMENT OF ADVERTISING AND SPONSORSHIP RESTRICTIONS EMR EUR 68 Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. FULLY FULLY N.

NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO NO NO BAN VOLUNT NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO .A NOT N. VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO . N.A N. NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO . VOLUNT BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO . .) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO . St.A – not applicable.A RARELY FULLY . NO PARTIALLY RARELY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY FULLY N. PARTIAL – partial legal restrictions. no legal advertising restrictions to enforce.A RARELY N. PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL NO . PARTIAL NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO YES NO NO YES NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO . PARTIALLY Note: VOLUNT – voluntary agreements.A PARTIALLY N.A PARTIALLY PARTIALLY FULLY N.A FULLY N.WHO REGION WINE SPIRITS BEER WINE SPIRITS SPORTS EVENTS HEALTH WARNING ON ADVERTISEMENT YOUTH EVENTS COUNTRY BEER ENFORCEMENT OF ADVERTISING AND SPONSORSHIP RESTRICTIONS SEAR WPR 69 Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed.A NOT FULLY RARELY NOT PARTIALLY N.A N.

or that certain target groups are banned from drinking or from drinking at certain times and places.3 24.4 22. voluntary and local agreements. The development of formal or informal comprehensive workplace health programmes.7 21.0 70 .9 Local or voluntary % 20.1 26. sporting events. Table 29 shows the total number of countries as a percentage of all responding countries with total bans.1 23.0 45.3 15. which include alcohol and other drug use. but not all. streets etc. The questionnaire asked about the extent to which alcohol consumption in these different public environments is restricted.3 19.7 43.6. Research done in Austria showed that 68% of workplaces had a negative attitude towards alcohol consumption. Room & Edwards. and one of the areas identified is the potential of local government regulations to prevent alcohol-related harm in public places (Conway & Hill.6 23. can contribute to a healthier and more productive workforce.7 19. 1999). parks and streets. The designation of specific environments as alcohol-free can thus be viewed from the perspective of physical safety and social order. and of physical or mental harm. Voluntary or local agreements mean that local governments and municipalities have their own regulations that can vary between areas and cities or that the restrictions are in the form of recommendations or guidelines. Leisure events (e.8 18. concerts) (n=112) (n=112) (n=112) (n=112) (n=110) (n=111) (n=112) (n=111) Ban % 58. In the public sphere. educational buildings. Alcohol-free environments The two overall aims of restricting alcohol consumption in different settings are to ensure a safe public environment for leisure-time and sporting events. 1999).5 15.8 47.8 47. the threat of aggressiveness and disorderly behaviour. some offices/buildings/places are alcohol-free. The research evidence for this field of preventive action is scattered but accumulating. public transport.8 9. These regulations are targeted either at the general population or at specific target groups. Partial restrictions can mean that drinking only certain beverages is banned.0 16.7 41. or no restrictions for each public domain. The restrictions on alcohol consumption in the different environments vary from complete bans or partial restrictions to voluntary or local agreements and no restrictions.0 13. Work-related accidents and absenteeism put significant financial burden on societies.3 No restrictions % 7. Most countries have restrictions on alcohol consumption in different environments. and thus voluntary to follow. The public settings considered were: health care establishments.3 22. has led to a variety of interventions aimed at drunk people in public areas (Rehn. Table 29: Restrictions on drinking in public domains n Educational buildings Health care establishments Government offices Workplaces Public transport Sporting events Parks. and to minimize or avoid injuries and loss of productivity in offices and workplaces.8 Partial restrictions % 13.6 12.5 27.9 13.3 15.5 26. 2001). government offices. partial restrictions. leisure events (such as concerts).2 10.3 54.0 22. and workplaces. enforcing total abstinence during working hours (compared to 24% with a neutral attitude and 8% with positive) and that the people who worked there drank less alcohol than those in the more “alcohol-friendly” workplaces (Federal Ministry of Labour.g.

Drinking is banned in close to the majority of AMR but in less than 10% of EUR. and during sports events or concerts. Table 30: Restrictions on alcohol consumption in parks and streets WHO Region AFR AMR EUR SEAR/WPR n (n=26) (n=25) (n=42) (n=19) Ban % 23.8 Local or voluntary % 11. and public and leisure time environments. it is important that police or security staff enforce the existing laws. for all the public domains. and less than 10% have no restrictions. Conclusions Restricting alcohol consumption in public domains could potentially reduce some forms of alcohol-related harm at workplaces. For alcohol consumption in educational and health care buildings the majority of countries have a complete ban. Countries may also restrict alcohol consumption in additional settings. To illustrate regional differences one public domain was chosen – drinking in parks and streets – for closer examination (see Table 30). and treatment institutions. EUR relies heavily on voluntary restrictions.0 9. in four of the domains SEAR/WPR is the least restricted. and AFR on education and leisure time activities.5 12.2 32.0 31.5 No restrictions % 46. alcohol consumption in official settings is in most countries strictly controlled. Some trials have been done on restricting alcohol consumption at football stadiums for example. There is much less control on drinking out in parks and streets and during sport and leisure time events. such as football stadiums during “risky” matches and in the vicinity of schools. AMR has the least number of countries with no restrictions (about 30%) and SEAR/WPR and AFR the highest (about 50%).1 Partial restrictions % 19.0 15. drinking that takes place in the open air in parks and streets.5 21.0 10. it is not known if any controlled evaluation of the effectiveness of general restrictions on alcohol consumption in different settings actually exist. religious places of worship. On the other hand. educational buildings. while EUR is the least restricted on health care and government offices.0 19.5 52. No beverage-specific data were available.6 Overall. Drinking “in the open” is banned in about 25% of countries and during concerts and leisure time events only in 15%. and workplaces is more controlled than leisure time drinking. with around 50% of them having total bans. but to date. In general.e. 71 . For this message to be credible. so some of the restrictions may only apply to certain beverages. Local or voluntary agreements exist in between 13% and 27% of the countries. or with workplaces. 50% of EUR has partial or voluntary restrictions. i. Of the total eight areas included.From Table 29 it is clear that alcohol consumption in settings such as health care. Table 31 shows the complete country data for restrictions on alcohol consumption in different public domains.2 8.0 40.1 48. The overall message of restricting drinking in different domains is to emphasize alcohol as a special commodity which does not mix well with certain environments and occupations. while more than 40% of countries in both cases have no restrictions. and that there is support by the local communities for such controls.

BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN BAN NO VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT . VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO . ETC. BAN NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL BAN NO . NO BAN NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO NO NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIAL . BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN NO BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN NO . (CONCERTS. STREETS. PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL . BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN NO BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN . NO BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN BAN NO BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL BAN NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO BAN VOLUNT NO NO . Comoros Congo Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Seychelles South Africa Togo Uganda UR Tanzania Zambia Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Honduras Jamaica BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN NO . PARTIAL BAN NO PARTIAL BAN NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIAL NO BAN BAN NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL NO PARTIAL . BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN . BAN NO NO NO NO VOLUNT NO BAN NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO . LEISURE EVENTS SPORTING EVENTS ETC. BAN NO NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL NO . BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN NO BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT . BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN NO PARTIAL BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO . by country EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS GOVERNMENT OFFICES PUBLIC TRANSPORT PARKS.) WORKPLACES WHO REGION COUNTRY HEALTH CARE ESTABLISHMENTS AFR 72 AMR Algeria Benin Cape Verde Central African Rep.Table 31: Restrictions on alcohol consumption in different public domains.

of Iran Jordan Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Moldova BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN NO VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO BAN BAN VOLUNT NO NO PARTIAL NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL NO NO NO NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN NO . STREETS.WHO REGION COUNTRY HEALTH CARE ESTABLISHMENTS EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS GOVERNMENT OFFICES PUBLIC TRANSPORT PARKS. ETC.) WORKPLACES EMR EUR 73 Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay Venezuela Egypt Isl. LEISURE EVENTS SPORTING EVENTS ETC. VOLUNT NO NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL NO BAN NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO NO NO PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO NO PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL BAN . Rep. (CONCERTS.

BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN NO . VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO BAN NO BAN VOLUNT NO BAN NO BAN . LEISURE EVENTS SPORTING EVENTS ETC. PARTIAL –partial restrictions. STREETS. St. NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO . VOLUNT Note: VOLUNT – voluntary or local agreements. (CONCERTS. NO NO NO NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT . VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN . NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN NO VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN NO BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT NO . BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN NO . PARTIAL VOLUNT NO VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO BAN NO PARTIAL NO NO BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT NO . .WHO REGION COUNTRY HEALTH CARE ESTABLISHMENTS EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS GOVERNMENT OFFICES PUBLIC TRANSPORT PARKS.) WORKPLACES SEAR WPR 74 Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland TFYR Macedonia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom India Indonesia Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Australia Cambodia China French Polynesia Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Micronesia (Fed.) Mongolia New Zealand Palau Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Viet Nam BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN . VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT NO VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN NO PARTIAL NO PARTIAL NO NO BAN NO NO NO NO BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT NO . BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN BAN NO . ETC. NO BAN BAN PARTIAL NO BAN PARTIAL NO NO BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT NO NO VOLUNT NO VOLUNT . VOLUNT BAN PARTIAL BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT NO PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIAL VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNT BAN BAN VOLUNT VOLUNT NO BAN . VOLUNT .

a licensing fee). that the potential impact of alcohol policies on alcohol consumption and related consequences depends less on single aspects but more on the joint impact of several aspects (Norström. the General Agreement on Trade in Services) impinge on the possibilities to influence. Comprehensiveness in this respect would mean the level of coverage of alcohol legislation. An exercise of this kind could combine or scale the separate measures into one variable. the alcohol policy questionnaire could also function as a starting point for developing a minimum set of policies covering some of the most essential areas. a clear gap exists between research and action. it may become increasingly difficult to implement and enforce control measures directed towards supply reduction in many countries. where there is much convincing evidence for some rarely utilized policies. they need to be effectively enforced. in some areas of alcohol policy. Therefore. sanctions. among others. control measures directed towards demand reduction or the reduction of alcohol-related harm may become more crucial. also for the sake of the general legal climate. or pricing of alcoholic beverages) of alcohol control policies were treated separately. However. 75 . Sinclair & Schacter. trade. Regardless of what particular policies or laws are adopted and implemented. It became clear that each of the measures were present. It can be argued. it should be recognized that. a small number of countries have comprehensive policies. retail sale and advertising of alcoholic beverages (Grieshaber-Otto. as measured by the questionnaire. which would complement country analysis and provide an alternative model for interpretation. In the preceding chapters. the taxation. if the national laws regarding alcohol have provisions for most of the main policy areas or only a few. to a differing degree. i. different aspects (e. 2002). legal age and BAC limits.Discussion This report provides a snapshot of the state of national level alcohol policies in countries. it is becoming increasingly difficult to enforce national legislation as international trade and services agreements (such as GATS. Some government control over the retail sale. This is even more important as different aspects of alcohol policy may not necessarily go in the same direction.e. To broaden the perspective of the discussion and to give a general overview it would be useful to develop a scientific way to measure and to evaluate overall policy comprehensiveness. besides being a data gathering tool. Currently. and shows the great variation that exists today. some have almost none of the measures included and the majority of countries lie somewhere in between.g. For example. as a result of market globalization and increasing world trade agreements. Recent alcohol policy research can provide decision-makers with a shopping-list of the most effective strategies and show which measures a comprehensive policy would include. Not surprisingly. control of production and sale. however. either through a state monopoly or a comprehensive alcohol licensing system (including for example regular checks. but would probably include some or all of the following measures (not exhaustive list): • • Definition of an alcoholic beverage (measurable in alcohol by volume) at an alcohol content level low enough to include most of the alcoholic beverages consumed in the country. in different countries or regions in the world. 2000). When considering the policy measures separately. The particular mix of the most effective policies is different for each country.

In addition. revoking of the driving privileges has been shown to be the most effective). The final decision. and consequently in this report. Controlling time. and can be utilized to send the message that alcohol consumption does not mix well with certain environments and occupations. A culturally appropriate age limit that is effectively enforced. e. i. as a minimum at par with inflation.• • • • • • • Sales restrictions by time and place. it should be considered that passing legislation does not in itself require substantial resources. the most gain is achieved per unit of finances invested. Also. ideally through frequent and visible random breath testing (and as punishment for drink driving offenders. Restricting drinking in public places promotes physical safety and social order. Real prices should also be increased. A blood alcohol concentration level low enough to deter people from drinking and driving. with regard to beverage types.e. and that a start can be made with a minimum level of enforcement which could then gradually be expanded over time. the use of health warnings either on advertisements or on the containers could be warranted. The introduction or implementation of alcohol policies does require. social. and legal systems. by making soft drinks cheaper than the cheapest alcoholic drink. The situation especially in developing countries. but a mix of culturally appropriate policies is needed. duty-paid stamps might be useful. A 76 . Research shows that there are also some especially cost-effective measures. and effective enforcement of that limit. political and economic situations are anything alike in different countries. among other things. However. The areas of brief interventions and treatment were not included in the questionnaire. or people who are alcohol dependent. Taxation (and accordingly price level) is an effective measure and should be high enough to keep levels of harm as low as possible. place and media for advertising and sponsorship efforts is relevant as part of a comprehensive policy. might differ considerably. Brief interventions are aimed at identifying people drinking at risk levels that indicate possible problems in the future.g. financial resources. while not encouraging an increase in illegal home production and smuggling. no single measure will alone curtail alcohol consumption and related harm. about which policies should be implemented in individual countries. and not only on the level of the content of the advertisement (which is difficult to uphold). a comprehensive alcohol policy should include provisions for brief interventions and different types of treatment. drinking patterns. Especially marketing and promotion targeted at and appealing to young people should be controlled.g. e. There is no one model or policy mix that can be recommended which would fit all countries. some cost-effectiveness studies indicate that drink driving legislation is the most cost-effective measure for many countries. In cases where the nonexistence of policies is a matter of lack of resources (financial in particular). depends on the particular situation in that country. and in countries where smuggling and tax evasion is an issue. and public awareness and support. expertise. For people with more severe problems. Furthering lower or non-alcoholic beverage consumption. In some cases. just as no model can simply be taken from one country and imposed on another. certain locations or density of retail outlets). effective treatment modalities are also available. it cannot be assumed that the cultural. political will. especially useful when utilized to target problem or high risk areas and times (restricting days and hours of sale. with the aim to change their pattern and level of drinking.

this report has focused on alcohol policies at the public or governmental level. housing. media. To be effective. 2003). examples of model legislation and case-studies of policy implementation and effectiveness under different circumstances would be useful. as with increasing development both alcohol consumption and harm tends to rise. sales or consumption in different ways (Toomey & Wagenaar.g. providing longitudinal data for monitoring these areas systematically. community level restrictions. At the national level. e. recreation and political decision-making have all been shown to reduce alcohol-related problems (Alcohol Policy Network. This would give the opportunity of slightly changing or improving some of the questions. 2001). But it should not be forgotten that efforts to improve access to employment. promoting local and regional efforts at developing alcohol policies should be supported. economic and religious situation of countries. Room & Edwards. can also implement policies affecting drinking among both youth and the general population. schools. Emphasis should be put on enforcement of policies. 77 . and workplaces. 1999). but it should be remembered that other places such as alcohol outlets. For an overview of alcohol related issues pertinent to the developing countries please refer to the work of Room et al. which explicitly promotes the development of alcohol policies by stating that well balanced alcohol policies have clear public health benefits (Rehn. alcohol policy should include regulatory and other environmental supports that promote the health of the population as a whole. a higher degree of precision could be achieved for the price question. countries might not have many laws and regulations. Therefore.g. More situational analysis.clear research bias towards developed countries obscures to what extent and under what circumstances policies are transferable to developing countries. Although each country needs to develop and implement its own alcohol policy.g. The importance of alcohol policies in the developing countries is likely to increase in the future. Also there should be more research into federal countries and countries with local level regulations. Also. such as on retail outlets and outdoor advertising. by developing guidelines on the practical implementation of alcohol policies that are adapted to the differing social. The data in this report were not correlated with levels of alcohol consumption and/or alcohol-related harm. but there could be effective and comprehensive local restrictions in many of the policy areas. health care. A further research direction that would be recommended includes a repetition of the survey in a few years time. e. An example would be sports stadiums restricting or banning alcohol advertising. both through NGOs and other fora. cultural. with longitudinal data it would be possible to examine to what degree significant changes in alcohol policy impact consumption or harm levels. due to the fact that the data are cross-sectional. These institutional policies range from formal written policies to informal practices or standards. An example of an attempt by WHO at establishing a regional alcohol policy framework is the European Alcohol Action Plan (EAAP). (2002). e. On the other hand. education. there are lessons to be learned from the past and from efforts other countries have made.

Country profiles To facilitate a more comprehensive overview. All notes and comments in the profiles have been provided by the focal points. 78 . The profiles contain data from the alcohol policy questionnaires. which have been presented in this report (with the exception of data on prices of alcoholic beverages). the following section contains country profiles with information from the focal points regarding alcohol policy. The data collected were intended to reflect the status of alcohol policies as at 1 May 2002. unless otherwise stated. The country profiles are arranged alphabetically according to the WHO Regions (refer to Table 2 for list of countries).

etc. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 3 2 3 All beverages containing ethyl alcohol are considered alcoholic. Checks are done in case of infractions of the law or during police investigations. %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT 2 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 17 . NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN N. streets.A.AFR-PROFILES Algeria Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . 0. 79 .1 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . etc. FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN .

%) Definition of alcohol. streets. YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer .5 OFTEN NO NO NO NO NO NO 46 NO NO .A.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. NO NO NO NO YES NO NOT NO NO NO NO YES 18 20 46 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES N. .Benin Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN NO BAN 4 0. NO NO NO NO YES NO Spirits 80 . etc.

YES NO NO NO NO 81 . 5 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. .8 SOMETIMES . YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL .5 0. . . . 18 18 18 18 YES . . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES . . streets. . 18 18 Spirits .A.Cape Verde Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAN BAN BAN BAN NO BAN NO BAN 0. YES NO NO NO NO Wine YES . N. . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . . . %) Definition of alcohol. YES NO . YES PARTIALLY . . . etc.

Central African Republic (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.8 NO . streets. etc. etc. . BAN BAN NO NO 60 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES 82 . BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO BAN . 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 20 60 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO RARELY VOLUNT VOLUNT . %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. .

Comoros (the)
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)
4

Beverage categories Beer NO NO . YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO . YES NO NO NO NO N.A. NO NO NO NO YES . . . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.A. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO Spirits NO NO . YES NO NO NO NO

Islam, which is practiced by the majority of Comorean people, prohibits the use of alcohol.

4

No production of any alcoholic beverages is authorized.

83

Congo (the)
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO RARELY NO NO NO NO YES 18 . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.A. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY BAN 4 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO

84

Equatorial Guinea
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

Beverage categories Beer . . . . . . . . Wine . . . . . . . . . NO NO NO NO . . 25 40 . NO NO NO . NO NO NO . NO . . . . . BAN BAN BAN . NO . NO VOLUNTARY . 0.0 NO . . NO NO NO . 50 NO NO Spirits . . . . . . . .

85

Eritrea
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)
5

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine . . YES YES NO NO NO NO N.A. 18 18 18 18 NO . 22 6.7 NO BAN BAN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO NO FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 5 0.0 OFTEN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO 10 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO

5

The tax percentages are calculated from the tax rates of 3 nacfa (local currency) per litre of spirits and beer, and 2 nacfa per litre of wine.

86

etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 9 8 7 6 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO NO . BAN BAN NO NO . 87 . Customs tax 40% and excise tax between 50% and 150%. NO NO .A. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 6 7 No special licence needed for alcohol. etc. 18 18 18 18 YES 15 . 8 Advertising in electronic media is prohibited for alcohol over 12% alcohol by volume. streets. .Ethiopia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 9 The law states that driving is prohibited if intoxicated. . %) Definition of alcohol. . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . only a general trade licence which applies to all merchandise.

NO . . . streets. BAN BAN BAN NO NO VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY 4.2 . .A. %) Definition of alcohol. etc. NO NO NO NO YES 18 . NO NO Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 88 . NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL VOLUNT .Gabon Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. .

. NO BAN BAN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO YES RARELY NO VOLUNT NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAN BAN NO NO . NO NO Spirits . etc. streets. %) Definition of alcohol.5 0. . YES YES NO NO YES NO 89 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY NO NO NO NO NO . . etc. BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY BAN 2.Gambia (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.0 NO BAN . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine . .

.8 RARELY 25 NO NO Spirits . streets. YES YES NO NO YES NO 90 . .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL 1. YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine . .Ghana Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverage On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer .A.5 50 25 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N.0 0. YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY NO NO NO NO YES 12. %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . . . NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO . . . YES 18 2 . streets. . NO NO . NO NO . 91 . . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN VOLUNT PARTIAL NO BAN BAN VOLUNT .Guinea Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO . . . .0 NO NO NO . . NO NO NO N. %) Definition of alcohol. etc. . NO . 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . . .A. . . Spirits NO NO . . etc. . .

YES NO NO NO NO N. There is no national legislation.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.A.5 0. a Portuguese law from 1954 is applied.5 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 40 NO NO Spirits . %) Definition of alcohol. streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO YES 15 40 22 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. . 12 Only in case of accidents. etc. BAC level and RBT 11 10 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine . NO NO NO NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 12 10 11 Excise stamps on spirits only. NO . 92 . etc. NO .A.Guinea-Bissau Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 0.

streets. .A. . .Kenya Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. . etc. . . . . . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . Spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT . . . . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . . 0. etc. Wine .8 NO 93 .

A. 18 18 Spirits YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO 94 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES N. 0. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN NO BAN . .Malawi Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NOT 18 18 18 18 YES 20 . . etc. %) Definition of alcohol.0 RARELY NO NO NO NO NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. streets. etc.

5 18 18 Spirits YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO 13 The excise duties have been calculated from the following rates.00/litre. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 15 14 13 Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine YES YES YES YES YES NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 15 40. streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.9 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO YES FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 2.3 11. etc.10/litre.40/litre and spirits 50. etc. 95 .Mauritius Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. wine 4.5 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 14 Advertising allowed after 9 pm. 15 Advertising allowed after 9 pm.5 OFTEN BAN BAN NO NO 62. for beer Rs (national currency) 12. %) Definition of alcohol.

Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . . . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . . BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY NO BAN .Mozambique Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 96 . etc. etc. . . . . 18 18 18 18 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol. . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . streets.A. . . . . . YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. .

etc. %) Definition of alcohol. Only performed in the capital Windhoek. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.Namibia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement 16 Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 97 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.5 SOMETIMES NO NO BAN 30 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES 16 17 Off-premises may sell beverages which contain less than 16% alcohol by volume. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 17 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES . streets. NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY 3. 15 30 YES VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN NO .0 0.

All beverages. etc. streets. locally produced or imported. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. YES YES NO YES YES Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 18 19 For imported alcoholic beverages only. 98 .8 NO NO NO NO NO 50 18 18 Spirits NO NO .Niger (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT 19 18 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES Wine NO NO . %) Definition of alcohol. . PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 19 25 50 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NOT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN . which can cause intoxication. YES YES NO . BAN VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY BAN . 0. etc.

0. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. consumption and advertising of all alcoholic beverages.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.Nigeria – southern states Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 20 Any beverage containing any amount of alcohol. BAC level and RBT 20 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 5 40 40 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO BAN NO BAN . etc.e.0 NO NO NO NO NO 40 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Some states in the northern part of Nigeria have total prohibition. etc. total bans on all sales. streets. %) Definition of alcohol. 99 . i.

etc.8 RARELY NO NO BAN 100 .0 0. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 12 18 18 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN 18 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL 1.Seychelles Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets.

etc. 20.South Africa Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.5 RARELY NO NO NO NO NO NO 26.3 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 21 22 There is a ban on Sunday sales.7%.6% respectively.2% and 38.A.0 0. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY NO NO VOLUNTARY 1. except in restaurants and unless a special permit is obtained. %) Definition of alcohol. streets. etc. Including the VAT the total tax rates are 30. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 22 21 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 14 18. 101 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.9 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.4 7.

. . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . . . . .A. %) Definition of alcohol. . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . . . . . . NO NO NO NO YES 18 . . 102 . streets. .Togo Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. . .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. . NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY . etc. . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. N. . Wine . . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO Spirits . . .

etc. 18 18 18 18 YES . . 103 . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . NO NO NO NO N. NO NO NO NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 23 24 Most production and retail sale takes place in the informal sector and licences do not apply. 18 18 Spirits NO NO . %) Definition of alcohol. streets.A.Uganda Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO . BAC level and RBT 24 23 Beverage categories Beer NO NO . etc. . 0. . NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.8 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . Any drink which has any content of alcohol.A. . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY .

. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 25 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 25 Traffic police on rare occasions conduct RBT in the capital Dar es Salaam. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.United Republic of Tanzania (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO BAN NO 0.A. 104 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets.A. 18 18 18 18 YES 20 .5 RARELY NO NO NO NO NO NO . %) Definition of alcohol.

18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 26 Any beverage that contains alcohol and is capable of causing intoxication. . . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY NO BAN . etc.A. 18 18 18 18 YES . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 105 .Zambia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. 0. BAC level and RBT 26 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. streets.8 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO .A.

streets. 8 20 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO BAN NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO 0.5 SOMETIMES 20 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 106 . etc.AMR-PROFILES Argentina Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. %) Definition of alcohol.5 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc.

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 27 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 NO . streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.Belize Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 3. NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES NOT NO NO NO .8 NO 27 Source of data: website www. %) Definition of alcohol. etc.htm 107 .5 0.belizenorth. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.com/more_about_traffic. . .

but is limited to times of holidays and festivals (national or regional). streets. etc. etc.Bolivia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. 108 .7 RARELY ~ 15 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES 28 RBT with breathalyser started in 1998. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 28 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 13 ~ 15 ~ 15 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO PARTIALLY BAN 2 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

6 NO VOLUNT NO 29 30 No licence specific to alcohol is required.Brazil Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT 30 31 29 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 32 Time restrictions for beverages above 13% alcohol by volume.g. NO NO NO NO 34 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 18 18 Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio 33 32 . 35 Alcohol may be sold during celebrations. %) Definition of alcohol. even at the high school or elementary school level.5 0. streets. 109 . Different for each state. etc. . 18 18 18 18 YES 25 . 33 Time restrictions for beverages above 13% alcohol by volume. 31 No specific tax for alcoholic beverages. most states have about 25%. . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. e. same as taxes on other industrialized products. 34 Health warnings “avoid excessive consumption” are required by the advertising industry self-regulation code.A. for beer it varies between 18-30%. but it is not a federal law. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 35 PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO NO NO 0. but a general licence to operate a business.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc.

8 SOMETIMES 36 A single system of stores. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 39 38 PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 37 BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY 0. Most offpremise wine sales are by government monopoly stores. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . . 38 In Ontario a 12 hour licence suspension exists for drivers caught with a BAC between 0. 37 Local authorities may permit alcohol under specific occasion permit or at camp sites. owned jointly by the brewers. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO .5 and 0. 19 19 Spirits NO YES YES NO YES NO YES NO Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.5 0. etc. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 39 Especially during Christmas and holidays.8.Canada – Ontario Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of 36 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES FULLY 19 19 19 19 YES 19 . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. %) Definition of alcohol. 110 . streets. but there are also winery-owned stores. is licenced as the main off-premise seller of beer.

streets. 111 . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 41 40 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 15 15 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO 47 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN .0 0. etc.5 SOMETIMES NO NO 40 41 Municipalities authorize alcohol licences.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. and on roads around pubs. decide on the cost of the licence and possible limits on number of licences. %) Definition of alcohol. restaurants and night clubs.Chile Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. VOLUNTARY 1. Road checks occur mainly during weekends of festivals.

Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. Allowed all hours provided that for every 30 minutes aired.5 0 OFTEN 40 18 18 Spirits YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 45 Mainly in the capital cities of the departments. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. maximum duration 60 seconds every 30 minutes of programme. an anti-drinking campaign must be aired for 30 seconds. especially in Santafe de Bogota. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. 112 .Colombia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements 44 43 42 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 35 8 20 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES FULLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 0. 44 Health warnings on labels state “excessive use of alcohol is harmful to health”. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 45 42 43 Allowed between 11 pm and 6 am.

5 0. BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 0.34 colones.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. between 15% and 30% pay 1. NO . %) Definition of alcohol. streets. PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES . . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 113 . etc.Costa Rica Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events 47 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 13 46 Spirits YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES 18 18 .5 SOMETIMES BAN BAN Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. 47 When the young people attending are under 18 years old.84 colones per millilitre. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 46 Beverages with alcohol up to 15% alcohol by volume pay 1.59 colones and beverages stronger than 30% alcohol by volume pay 1.

) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. 114 . 30 45. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. streets.5 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO VOLUNTARY 9.Dominican Republic (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 48 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES .5 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO 48 Prohibited to drive intoxicated.0 NO NO 58.

streets.Ecuador Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol.78 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO 115 . etc.9 26. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 12 30.78 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 2 0.7 RARELY 26.

%) Definition of alcohol. FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 13 20 .A.5 OFTEN NO NO 49 It is prohibited to sell alcoholic beverages in San Salvador between 2 am and 6 am. Fri. 50 Health warnings on labels state “excessive consumption of this product is harmful to health. NO NO NO NO NO 50 Spirits YES NO . Sat and Sun. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. All sales of alcoholic beverages is prohibited during elections. Wed. 116 . Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES N. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 51 NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 2 0.A.El Salvador Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale 49 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. NO NO NO NO Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets. 51 Every night and during daytime on Mon. etc. etc. it is prohibited to be sold to people under 18”. Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements 18 18 20 NO NO NO NO YES . YES YES NO YES N.A.

Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.Guatemala Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale 52 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO . On advertisements the text “consumption of this product cause serious damage to health” must be minimum two seconds in broadcast media or 10% of the ad size. 54 No outlets allowed within 500m of schools.4 PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 0.8 SOMETIMES BAN BAN Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. on-premise 6 am to 3 am and off-premise 6 am to 9 pm. 18 18 18 18 YES 12 55 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale 54 level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements 57 56 53 18 18 5. 55 For foreign beverages 40% on all beverage categories. Sat 10 pm to 2 am in six different places along the main roads. recreational and sports centers.8 YES 18. 58 Road checks every week Thu. %) Definition of alcohol. hospitals. streets. etc. Fri.3 22. 56 On all imported alcoholic beverages.5 0. Sale and consumption banned 48 hours before presidential elections.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 117 . etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 58 52 53 Authorized hours of sale. 57 Warning labels (bottles) state “excessive consumption of this product is dangerous to the health of the consumer” and cover 25% of the front of the label.

etc.1 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . 0. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES 118 .A. . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY . .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES . %) Definition of alcohol. etc.Guyana Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. streets.

7 NO NO NO .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. All intoxicating beverages produced for human consumption that contain alcohol to any degree or proportion. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN . .Honduras Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 119 . 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 59 60 For wine and spirits. streets. 0. BAC level and RBT 60 59 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 15 . etc. %) Definition of alcohol.

16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets. NO VOLUNTARY NO 0.A. 120 . etc. %) Definition of alcohol.35 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO NO NO . NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.Jamaica Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT 61 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY 16 16 16 16 YES 15 . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 61 A special consumption tax of 30% exists on imported alcoholic beverages. . etc.

%) Definition of alcohol. 25 30 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN 2 0.Mexico Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcohol beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 121 .8 SOMETIMES NO NO NO 60 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO 62 For wine and spirits. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 62 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets. etc. etc.

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 63 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NOT 19 19 19 19 YES 15 36 38 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT YES . .Nicaragua Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. . streets. 38 19 19 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO 63 Tax rates on foreign beverages.8 RARELY . BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY 12 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 122 . . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 70%. . %) Definition of alcohol. 65% and 65% respectively. etc. .

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 64 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 10 .0 NO NO BAN . 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO 64 For spirits. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc.8 0.Panama Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. . etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets. 123 . YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY NO BAN NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO BAN 3. %) Definition of alcohol.

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 66 65 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 10 8 10 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 1. streets.Paraguay Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 124 .0 0.8 SOMETIMES 10 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO 65 66 For wine and spirits. etc. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. Only one alcotest equipment exists in Paraguay.

streets. 125 . 69 Advertising is allowed on TV between 10 pm and 6 am. 70 Advertising is allowed on radio between 10 pm and 6 am.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.3 20 YES NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO FULLY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY BAN VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY NO NO VOLUNTARY NO 0. etc. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.Peru Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. For beer. %) Definition of alcohol.5 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO ~ 30 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO 67 68 Sale of alcohol is banned on days before and after electoral events and in case of suspension of constitutional rights. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 70 69 68 67 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO YES NO NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 15.

) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 6. etc.A. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO RARELY 16 16 16 16 YES 5 . %) Definition of alcohol.8 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . streets. etc.Suriname Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 126 .0 0.

etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 15 . 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO 127 . %) Definition of alcohol. etc. .A.Trinidad and Tobago Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. . NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.

13.United States of America (the) California Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. If signs are observed.2% on wine and 7.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO RARELY NO NO NO .5 0. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. cars can be randomly stopped at the checkpoint and a brief intervention by the law enforcement can take place to determine if the driver is showing any signs of intoxication (alcohol on breath. . streets. 21 21 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY 0. then the driver can be diverted to a secondary checkpoint where the breathalyzer is administered. US courts permit law enforcement to set up drunk driving checkpoints following certain guidelines.3% on beer.).5% on spirits. etc. slurred speech etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 72 71 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES PARTIALLY 21 21 21 21 YES 8 .8 NO 71 72 The tax take of the retail price is reported to be 36. 128 .

NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO VOLUNTARY 0. streets.Uruguay Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale 73 Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains 75 Parks.5 0. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. and one may be punished for breaking those rules. sporting and leisure events). 73 74 Off-premise sale of alcoholic beverages banned from midnight to 6 am. streets.A. %) Definition of alcohol. 129 . Montevideo. On imported whisky. etc.8 RARELY NO NO NO NO NO NO 85 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO For Uruguay the data represent the area around the capital city. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 74 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 23 27 23 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 75 Internal regulations forbidding alcohol consumption are likely to exist in most of the domains (not parks.

76 All beverages which contain any degree of alcohol. 130 .Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES .5 SOMETIMES BAN Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) For Venezuela the data represent the area around the capital city. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES . etc. 0. BAC level and RBT 76 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES . streets. 18 18 18 18 YES 14. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. Caracas.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.5 . . . PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . etc. YES BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . %) Definition of alcohol.

N.A. streets. .A. NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 21 . BAN BAN BAN BAN . NO NO YES NO 77 78 Advertising in newspapers is only for beer and occasionally for local wine. N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. N. .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. . No checks because alcohol consumption is not prevalent among Egyptian population. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 78 77 Beverage categories Beer . YES . YES BAN BAN NO BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN . Spirits .A. 131 . BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 1. . . N. . etc. . N.EMR-PROFILES Egypt Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcohol beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. .A.A. .A. . .0 . %) Definition of alcohol. 21 . NO N. . NO NO YES NO Wine .

N. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer N. NO . etc. N.A. etc. N.A. %) Definition of alcohol.A.A.A.A. N.A. N. .Islamic Republic of Iran (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.A. N.A. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.A.A. Wine N.A.A. N. . N. N. N. N. N.A.A.A.A. N. Any kind of selling or serving of alcohol to the general population is strongly prohibited.A. N. Spirits N. N.0 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN .A.A.A.A.0 0. N.A. N. streets. N. Religious minorities can buy alcoholic beverages from very few specifically licensed shops owned by shopkeepers of the same minority.A. N. N.A.A. N. N. FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 1. N.A.A. N. N. N.A.A. NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN N.A. N. N.A. 132 .

FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY . BAC level and RBT 79 Beverage categories Beer . YES NO NO YES YES YES Wine . . etc. 133 . YES NO NO YES YES YES PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 13 200 200 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 200 18 18 Spirits . %) Definition of alcohol.Jordan Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc.0 NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 79 Any amount of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 0. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . YES NO NO YES YES YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN . .

EUR-PROFILES

Armenia
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)
80

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N.A. NO NO NO NO YES 20 20 20 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES N.A. NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 1.0 0.0 OFTEN NO NO NO NO NO NO 20 NO NO Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO

80

A special tax of 10% exists on imported alcoholic beverages.

134

Austria
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise:
81 82

Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.A. 16 16 16 16 YES 20 . 0 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N.A. NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY 0.5 0.5 RARELY NO NO . 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)
83

81 82

The on-premise age limits vary between different states for spirits, being either 16 or 18 years. Off-premise age limits vary as follows, no age limit or 16 for beer, no age limit or 16 for wine, and no age limit or 18 for spirits. 83 National television and radio have some legal and some voluntary restrictions, but they relate to the content of the ad.

135

Azerbaijan
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 15 25 NO NO NO . NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES FULLY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN PARTIALLY BAN 1.0 0.0 RARELY NO NO 50 18 18 Spirits YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO

136

Belarus
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT
84

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 . . YES NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN PARTIALLY BAN 6.0 0.5 SOMETIMES NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN . 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES

Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio

Restrictions on advertising

Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions

Restrictions on sponsorship of

Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices

Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

84

In addition there exists another general sales tax of 5%.

137

) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. streets. %) Definition of alcohol.Bosnia and Herzegovina Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.35 16 NO Spirits YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO 138 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine YES YES YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 16 NO 16 NO YES 20 13 3.5 SOMETIMES BAN NO NO NO NO 22. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.3 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY BAN NO PARTIALLY NO BAN 2 0.

4 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.5 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO NO NO 27. streets.8 9. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 5. 0. etc.Bulgaria Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.7 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO 139 .A. %) Definition of alcohol. etc. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN NO PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.

no excise tax. Not on beer.Croatia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. 140 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 87 86 85 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES NO NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO RARELY 18 NO 18 NO YES 22 25 0 YES NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO PARTIALLY PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 2 0.5 OFTEN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 53 18 NO Spirits NO NO YES NO NO NO YES NO 85 86 On wine only VAT. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. and in connection with special events organized along highways. 87 During weekends and nights. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. streets.

141 .Czech Republic (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards 88 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. streets.A. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.75 0. 18 18 18 18 YES 5 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO RARELY NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY NO BAN 0. etc. 0 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO .0 SOMETIMES NO NO Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 88 A 300m distance from schools is required.

%) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.2 0. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO FULLY 18 15 18 15 YES 25 34.Denmark Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.5 NO 142 . streets.5 18 15 Spirits NO NO NO YES YES NO NO NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIALLY VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO VOLUNTARY 2. etc.2 17.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.6 YES BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 41.

Estonia
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT
89

Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 13.6 13 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO BAN BAN NO NO NO 0.5 0.2 OFTEN NO NO NO NO 52 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO

Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

89

The 0.5 vol.% is for beer, for other beverages the limit is 1.2 vol.%.

143

Finland
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of
90

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO YES YES . YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 22
91

Spirits NO YES YES . YES YES YES YES

Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale

Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains 92 Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

18 20

38

36 NO

67

PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO FULLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY 2.8 0.5 OFTEN

BAN BAN BAN BAN

BAN BAN

90 91

State monopoly on retail sale of alcoholic beverages stronger than 4.7 vol.%. If including the excise tax and VAT, the tax percentages are 52%, 44% and 82% respectively. 92 It is possible to get a licence for on-premise sale of alcohol for all these domains.

144

France
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO . 16 16 16 16 YES 16.9 8.8 3.1 YES BAN BAN BAN PpARTIA L NO 33.2 16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO

PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO YES . PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY 1.2 0.5 OFTEN BAN

145

Georgia
Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks, streets, etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts, etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol, BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT)

Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.A. 16 16 16 16 YES . . . YES NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL . NO NO . NO NO . . PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY 2.5 0.3 OFTEN . . . NO . 16 16 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

146

6 0 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N.78 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 147 .A.5 NO 13. etc.Germany Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic On-premise: beverages Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.A. VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY 1. etc.2 0. streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 16 16 16 16 YES 16 6.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.

5 OFTEN NO NO NO NO NO NO . 0.Greece Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 0 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO N. etc. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO PARTIALLY NO NO . streets. 17 NO 17 NO YES 18 . %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc.A. 17 NO Spirits NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO 148 .A. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

Hungary Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 30 20 ~ 40 YES VOLUNT BAN VOLUNT BAN ~ 27 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIALLY NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN VOLUNTARY NO NO BAN 5. streets. %) Definition of alcohol. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc.0 0.0 SOMETIMES 149 . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

YES .5 64 58 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 80 20 20 Spirits NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN NO PARTIALLY VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 2.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.25 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 94 93 Beverage categories Beer NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. streets. YES YES YES YES YES FULLY 20 20 20 20 YES 24.5 SOMETIMES BAN 93 94 No wine production exists. 150 . etc. %) Definition of alcohol.Iceland Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. In domestic print media but not those imported in foreign languages.

A.5 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N.5 0. 99 Licence can be obtained to sell and consume alcohol. radio and cinema. streets.9% and 58.3 NO NO Sporting events 99 Leisure events (concerts. 96 There is a voluntary agreement that spirits are not advertised on TV. 97 Alcohol can be consumed and sold on trains but not buses.7% respectively). %) Definition of alcohol. 39. NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY 100 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 18 18 41. 151 .Ireland Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising 96 Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices 97 Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY 0.8 NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 95 In off-premise sale and without the VAT (including the VAT raises the percentages to 37. 100 Licence can be obtained to sell and consume alcohol. etc.8%. 98 95 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 21 20.4 22. 98 Up to local authorities. Only other restriction is that alcohol ads should not be shown around children’s programmes.

etc. streets.A.Israel Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 18 NO Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 152 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.0 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. 18 NO 18 NO YES 18 .5 NO NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 2. . %) Definition of alcohol. etc.

) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. and 40% on spirits. 153 . %) Definition of alcohol. 16 16 16 16 YES 20 11 0 YES PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL NO PARTIALLY VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 101 102 When including VAT the tax rates are 31% on beer. but not on trains. etc. streets.1 0. 101 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. 0% on wine. etc.A.5 SOMETIMES 20 16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.Italy Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices 102 Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Alcohol consumption forbidden on buses.

NO NO Spirits NO NO YES . . OFTEN 154 . %) Definition of alcohol. PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . NO NO YES NO . etc. . NO NO NO NO .Kazakhstan Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO . NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES . NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY . NO . etc. . . . NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO YES . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES . streets. .

Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc.5 SOMETIMES NO NO 15 NO NO Spirits YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO 155 . %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.Kyrgyzstan Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. NO NO NO NO YES 20 11 2 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO . NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY NO BAN . 0.A. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO N. streets. etc.

5 OFTEN BAN BAN NO NO 44.Latvia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.9 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES FULLY NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN 1. %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.2 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 156 . etc.4 16.2 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES NO NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 4. streets.

18 18 Spirits YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO YES FULLY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 1.Lithuania Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc.0 0. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 . %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc.4 OFTEN NO NO PARTIAL 157 . YES NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . .

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. etc. 16 NO Spirits YES NO YES YES NO NO NO NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 1. etc.Luxembourg Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement 103 Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. they can be sold according to the opening hours of the off-premise sale establishment.A.0 0. streets. 158 . 16 NO 16 NO YES 15 .8 SOMETIMES 103 There are no special restrictions on the sale of alcoholic beverages. %) Definition of alcohol. 0 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO NO .A.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.

etc.A. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. %) Definition of alcohol. 159 .0 0. streets.Malta Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. 16 NO Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 104 Testing can only be carried out if police officers have reasonable suspicion. 16 NO 16 NO YES 15 .8 NO NO NO NO NO . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 104 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 0 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO FULLY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO VOLUNTARY 2.

5 OFTEN 45. 160 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 105 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO FULLY 16 16 16 16 YES 19 20 9.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. Up to local authorities. %) Definition of alcohol.4 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO RARELY VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY NO VOLUNTARY 0.Netherlands (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. streets.5 0. etc.8 18 18 Spirits NO NO NO YES YES YES YES NO 105 106 Passive enforcement. 106 Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

etc. . 109 Drinking in public places is prohibited.5 0.55/litre on beer. NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . but you can get a local licence to serve alcohol e. 109 Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.47 per vol%/litre on wine and 5.98 vol%/litre on spirits. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.Norway Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising 108 Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Advertising for products with less alcohol than 2.g. streets. FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY 2.51 vol% is allowed and is used to circumvent the advertising ban. %) Definition of alcohol. Advertising in business to business magazines is allowed. 161 . 20 20 Spirits YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 107 108 Tax rates 15. 3. in a park.2 OFTEN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 107 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 24 .

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 110 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 22 22 14 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN NO FULLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY BAN 0.2 OFTEN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 57 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES YES 110 In Poland 80% of the price of spirits is tax when including the VAT. streets. %) Definition of alcohol.5 0. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 162 . etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.Poland Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.

Portugal Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc.A.5 SOMETIMES NO NO NO .5 0. 16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 163 . %) Definition of alcohol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. 16 16 16 16 YES 17 . . YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO YES RARELY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO NO VOLUNTARY NO PARTIALLY 0.

.3 SOMETIMES .Republic of Moldova (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale 111 level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. . in size. On wine and spirits. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 112 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY NO NO 18 18 YES 20 . . 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO 111 112 Retail sale of alcoholic beverages in specific stores only. BAN BAN BAN BAN . . 164 . PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 3. YES NO NO NO NO .m. . . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. .8 0. which cannot be less than 20sq. %) Definition of alcohol. . etc. . . . . . NO .

%) Definition of alcohol.Romania Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 0. . NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY BAN . 165 . etc. streets.A. BAN .0 RARELY NO NO NO NO NO NO . Any alcohol in the drink makes it legally an alcoholic drink. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAC level and RBT 114 113 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NOT 18 18 18 18 YES 19 . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. etc. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 113 114 Some restrictions for ads on TV.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.

.5 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets. etc. etc.Russian Federation (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 4 3 YES NO NO NO NO BAN BAN NO BAN BAN PARTIAL 35 18 18 Spirits . . %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN 1.0 RARELY BAN BAN 166 . YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine . .

18 18 18 18 YES 23 7. NO RARELY .Slovakia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.A. %) Definition of alcohol. streets.5 25 YES NO NO NO NO BAN BAN 35 18 18 Spirits YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL . etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY BAN NO 0. .0 SOMETIMES 167 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . etc.

%) Definition of alcohol. etc. . etc.Slovenia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NOT 15 15 15 15 YES .2 0.5 SOMETIMES BAN BAN BAN BAN . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. streets. 15 15 Spirits NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO 168 . NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN YES PARTIALLY NO NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO NO NO PARTIALLY 1. .

%) Definition of alcohol.Spain Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.5 OFTEN NO NO 115 Ban on advertising alcoholic beverages with content over 20 vol%.25 16 16 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY 1. 169 .2 0.18 0 YES PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN 22.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 115 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIALLY 16 16 16 16 YES 16 6. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. etc.

etc. %) Definition of alcohol. YES YES YES YES Wine NO YES YES .5 vol%). Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) NO NO BAN BAN PARTIAL BAN 25.8 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO FULLY NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY 2.1 BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO 116 117 Beverages of below 3. YES YES YES YES Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: 18 20 YES 25 18 20 20 Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets.Sweden Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of 116 Beverage categories Beer NO YES YES .5 vol% can be sold in grocery stores etc.9 33.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 170 .25 0. etc. Off-premise age limit 18 for the beer sold in grocery stores (below 3. YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 117 Spirits NO YES YES .2 OFTEN 67.

Law on opening hours is the responsibility of the cantons and varies between them. etc. 18 18 Spirits YES NO YES NO YES YES NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO FULLY NO BAN NO BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO NO 0. %) Definition of alcohol.8 NO BAN BAN 118 Not only for alcohol but points of sale in general. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 119 Beer tax 17.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.7% of the wholesale price and tax on spirits chf 29 per litre 100 vol%.5 . streets.Switzerland Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale 118 Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.5 0. 171 . 0 NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 119 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO Wine NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO FULLY 16 16 16 16 YES 7.

%) Definition of alcohol. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIALLY BAN NO NO PARTIALLY BAN . etc.5 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO NO NO 21 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 120 A beverage containing any percentage of alcohol by volume is defined as alcoholic beverage. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 0. streets. etc. BAC level and RBT 120 Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 19 15 0 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N.A. 172 .

BAN BAN NO PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN NO FULLY NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY BAN NO BAN 0. etc.5 SOMETIMES BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . 18 18 Spirits YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES 121 No licences are given to establishments within 200m of educational or religious buildings.5 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 18 . .Turkey Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale 121 level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. %) Definition of alcohol. streets. 173 . etc. .

streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc.A.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.33. 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 122 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 10 15 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N. VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . etc.33 SOMETIMES 40 18 18 Spirits YES NO YES YES NO NO YES NO 122 In practice it is zero alcohol level as the measuring equipment cannot detect levels below 0.Turkmenistan Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. 174 . %) Definition of alcohol.

%) Definition of alcohol.Ukraine Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. .0 NO SOMETIMES NO NO 123 Not clearly defined in the legislation. 175 . NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 20 20 50 YES NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN 85 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO PARTIAL PARTIAL YES NO NO NO NO NO BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY BAN 3. but is assumed to be zero. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. streets. . . etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 123 Beverage categories Beer .

NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N. 124 While it is managed on a self-regulatory basis there is also a statutory basis to the codes governing broadcast advertising.5 . streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . etc. NO NO NO . .A. YES YES . . YES YES . etc. NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY 0.United Kingdom (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising 124 Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 18 18 Spirits NO NO . %) Definition of alcohol. YES YES .8 NO The data for United Kingdom refers to England and Wales. NO PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 17.5 0. NO Wine NO NO . 176 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO .

127 Wide variety between states as law relating to taxation is a state subject. . . 0. Age limits vary between 25 and 18 depending on state. YES YES YES YES YES YES PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 . YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine . by advertising other products with same brand name e.SEAR-PROFILES India – Southern states Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of 125 Beverage categories Beer .g. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 125 126 Some states have state monopolies and the state of Gujarat has a blanket prohibition. 177 . and on TV channels uplinking from other countries. 12.6 18 18 Spirits . . 128 Alcohol promotion covertly practised by indirect advertising.1 . etc. YES YES YES YES YES YES Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages 126 On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages 127 % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising 128 Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets. . Kingfisher bottled water instead of the beer.3 RARELY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 40. %) Definition of alcohol. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. YES BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN YES PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN . etc.

Indonesia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement 129 Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising 131 Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. On imported beverages. Beer regulations are not strictly enforced. YES BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN YES PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 1. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.000/litre. NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . 131 Regulations on advertising are decided by local provinces. %) Definition of alcohol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 130 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES RARELY 21 21 21 21 YES 10 . .000/litre and spirits 50. 178 . duty free shops and bars).000/litre.0 . etc. wine 20. 21 21 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES 129 130 Wine and spirits are only available in certain places (hotels. etc. beer Rp 10. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.

YES BAN BAN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO NO FULLY BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO VOLUNTARY NO BAN 4. YES YES NO NO NO NO 179 . .A. N. . etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. .0 0. NO NO NO NO YES 25 40 . . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. .Nepal Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. . . streets. YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . .0 RARELY BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO 40 NO NO Spirits . .

. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO NO NO N. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES 180 . 0. etc.Sri Lanka Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. .A. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES NO YES PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 10-20 . streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY NO NO NO .6 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO .

BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 7 . . YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES RARELY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. streets. %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO 181 .Thailand Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. 0. etc.5 RARELY NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO .

182 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.WPR-PROFILES Australia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. streets. etc.5 OFTEN NO NO 50 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO 132 133 It is possible to get a licence for university premises. NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY 1. About 50% of drivers tested per year. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 133 132 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES YES YES NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 10 24 25 NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO N. %) Definition of alcohol.15 0.A.

NO NO NO NO YES 14 8 13 YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES N.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. streets.6 0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.5 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 17 NO NO Spirits YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO 183 .A.Cambodia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. etc. etc. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY NO NO NO BAN 2.A.

etc. %) Definition of alcohol.China Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N.A. NO NO NO NO YES 17 ~8 10 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY 2.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.A. etc. streets.0 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO ~ 25 NO NO Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO 184 .

5 OFTEN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO 63 18 18 Spirits NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO French Polynesia is a French overseas territory. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO Wine NO YES YES YES YES YES YES NO FULLY 18 18 18 18 YES 16 38 41 NO BAN BAN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY BAN BAN . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. etc. and not a Member State of WHO.0 0. etc.French Polynesia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol. BAN BAN 2. streets. 185 .

) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. etc. streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.A.3 SOMETIMES NO NO NO 186 .5 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES NOT 20 20 20 20 YES 5 46. NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY 1. etc.8 20 20 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO YES VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO YES N. NO VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO NO NO 22. %) Definition of alcohol.Japan Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.0 0.

80) on a bottle of wine. Tax of 800 kip (US$ 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. %) Definition of alcohol. and spirits have a per bottle tax which varies according to type and alcohol volume. streets. 50 .Lao People’s Democratic Republic (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages 134 % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. 18 NO Spirits NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO 134 135 Shops selling alcohol pay a monthly tax. etc. NOT PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN NO NO PARTIALLY BAN NO NO NO NO NO NO NO . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 135 Beverage categories Beer YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO N. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. 18 NO 18 NO NO . 187 .A.

streets.). . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. public transport etc. . education. . 188 . .Malaysia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains 137 Parks. .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. 136 Alcohol is not advertised in Malay print media most likely read by Muslims. 137 Alcohol is usually not served or sold in government buildings and functions (health care. %) Definition of alcohol. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 136 Beverage categories Beer NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO PARTIALLY 18 NO 18 18 . while it is allowed for non-Muslim consumers such as Chinese and Indian. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO FULLY PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO . and alcohol is haram (forbidden) in Islam. NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN . . etc.8 SOMETIMES NO Islam is the official religion in Malaysia. 0. NO NO NO NO .

. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES NO YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine YES NO YES YES YES NO NO NO NOT 21 21 21 21 YES 3 . %) Definition of alcohol. 21 21 Spirits YES NO YES YES YES NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO RARELY NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN NO NO NO NO BAN 2. etc.5 0. NO NO . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. NO NO .Federated States of Micronesia (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc. streets.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.5 NO NO NO 189 . NO . NO NO .

etc. YES .Mongolia Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks.2 OFTEN NO NO BAN BAN BAN . 18 18 Spirits YES YES . .5 0. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . YES . YES . YES . %) Definition of alcohol. NO BAN BAN BAN . RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 40 .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. YES NOT NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN BAN 2. etc. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer YES YES . . . streets. YES . BAN BAN BAN . Wine YES YES . YES . 190 . .

etc.New Zealand Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 138 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES PARTIALLY 18 18 18 18 YES 12. etc.5 10 15 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL NO NO NO NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY NO NO NO NO PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN VOLUNTARY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY VOLUNTARY 1.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.8 SOMETIMES NO NO NO NO NO 38 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES YES 138 Advertising allowed after 9 pm.15 0. 191 . streets. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.

A. %) Definition of alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO N. 21 21 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 139 The tax on wine and spirits is $10/oz. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 139 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO YES NO PARTIALLY 21 21 21 21 YES 4 10 . streets. NO NO NO NO BAN BAN BAN BAN PARTIALLY PARTIALLY PARTIALLY BAN 0. etc. etc. 192 .Palau Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.1 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO .5 0.

141 An auxiliary label is attached to imported wine and spirits. 193 . Stores near schools are prohibited to sell alcohol.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 141 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO RARELY 18 18 18 18 YES 10 41-55 22-67 NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL YES RARELY NO NO NO 25-40 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO PARTIAL PARTIAL PARTIAL BAN BAN BAN BAN VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO 0.Philippines (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale 140 Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. %) Definition of alcohol. streets.5 NO 140 Hours and days of sale are restricted in selected cities and during elections. etc. etc.

00.Republic of Korea (the) Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT 142 143 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO N. . 19 19 Spirits NO NO YES YES NO NO NO NO Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. etc.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol.sid%253D2959%2526cid%253D5044. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts.A. etc. %) Definition of alcohol. . 194 .1639.html) 143 Tax percentages from production price. NO NO NO NO NO . streets. wine 30% and spirits 72%.0 0.com/dtt/article/0. BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 142 Source of data: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu webpage on Global Indirect Tax Rates (http://www. NO NO NO FULLY NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO VOLUNTARY NO NO 1. 19 19 19 19 YES 10 .deloitte.5 OFTEN NO NO BAN BAN NO NO . beer 100%.

etc. streets. 18 18 Spirits NO NO YES YES YES NO NO . etc. Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . 18 18 18 18 YES 3 . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) 144 Beverage categories Beer NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO Wine NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO . . slurred speech. 0. . .Singapore Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. and incapability of handling vehicle. . 195 . NO . . . . . . unsteady gait. . . 144 Testing possible when suspicion of intoxication. . . .5 0.) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . . . bloodshot eyes. . . .8 NO . . %) Definition of alcohol. . . . . . . alcohol on the breath.

. RARELY 196 . YES NO NO NO PARTIAL PARTIAL NO BAN BAN NO . NO Wine . etc. YES NO NO NO YES . . .) Workplaces Definition of alcohol (vol. . . YES NO NO NO .Viet Nam Monopoly on production of Control of retail sale and production Monopoly on sales of Licence for production of Licence for sale of Hours of sale Days of sale Off-premise sales restrictions and Places of sale level of enforcement Density of outlets Level of enforcement Age limit for purchasing alcoholic beverages On-premise: Off-premise: Sales TAX/VAT exists? Taxation of alcoholic beverages % sales TAX/VAT Tax as % of retail price Excise stamps exist? National television National radio Restrictions on advertising Print media Billboards Health warning on advertisements Enforcement of advertising and sponsorship restrictions Restrictions on sponsorship of Sports events Youth events Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Restrictions on alcoholic beverage Public transport consumption in public domains Parks. %) Definition of alcohol. . Spirits . . . BAC level and RBT Maximum Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) level Use of Random Breath Testing (RBT) Beverage categories Beer . . YES 10 . etc. YES YES NO NO YES YES VOLUNT VOLUNT VOLUNT NO PARTIALLY NO NO VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNT PARTIAL VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY NO VOLUNTARY . Sporting events Leisure events (concerts. . PARTIALLY . streets.

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40% alcohol by volume. e.g.e. wine and spirits separately into the table below. expressed as the minimum volume %? Please fill in: _________ % (e. other special or different local alcoholic beverage. increased.5 litres) Price (local currency) During the last five years.g. as percentage of the retail or selling price if at all possible.ANNEX 1. YES NO 201 . means that a beverage containing 2. Alcohol specific tax. when purchased in an average shop. Increased Decreased Been stable Taxation of alcoholic beverages Do you have a general sales tax or VAT (Value Added Tax) on alcoholic beverages? Please circle. excise or tax stamps or labels on alcoholic beverage containers/bottles? Please circle.5% alcohol by volume. 0.) Alcohol specific tax. Average non-alcoholic soft drink (e.g. YES NO If yes.) Alcohol specific tax. decreased or remained stable? Please tick the appropriate box below. what is the percentage of the tax? _______ % (usually between 7%20%) Please add information on the level of alcohol tax for beer.g. excise tax (if possible as % of retail price) on wine (approx. e. e. excise tax (if possible as % of retail price) on beer (approx. 4. 12% alcohol by volume.) Do you use duty-paid. has the price of alcoholic beverages in general. GLOBAL QUESTIONNAIRE: ALCOHOL CONTROL POLICIES What is the definition of an alcoholic beverage in your country.5% alcohol or more by volume is an alcoholic beverage) If the above is not applicable please provide other definition: Price of alcoholic beverages Off-license. vol. 1 litre. coca-cola.g.g. or supermarket. i. excise tax (if possible as % of retail price) on spirits (approx. NOT on-premise in a restaurant or bar Average locally produced or most consumed beer Average and most consumed table wine Average locally produced or most consumed spirits If it exists. name: ________________ and ____ % alc. 2. as compared to the level of salaries. lemonade) Usual quantity (e.5%.

wine and spirits by ticking the appropriate boxes.Restrictions on consumption and availability What are the legal age limits for buying alcohol both on-premise and off-licence for beer. drinking on the spot (cafes. wine and spirits ? Age limit for buying alcoholic beverages On-premise.) Please provide information on the level of state control on production and sale of beer. Restrictions on alcohol consumption in different public domains Drinking legally Drinking partially forbidden restricted Health care establishments Educational buildings Government offices Public transport Parks. supermarkets) years years years Please provide information on the extent to which different public environments are alcoholfree by ticking the appropriate box for each domain. restaurants) Beer years Wine years Spirits years Off-licence. Restricted by voluntary or local agreement means that local governments and municipalities have their own regulations or the alcohol beverage industry follow their internal voluntary rules. State monopoly (full state control) Beer Wine no yes no no yes no License is required (partial state control) Beer Wine no yes no no yes no Spirits no no Spirits no no Production Retail sale yes yes yes yes Production Retail sale yes yes yes yes 202 . it does not refer to general age or sales restrictions. take-away (stores. but not all. shops. pubs. streets etc Sporting events Leisure events (concerts etc) Workplaces Local or voluntary agreements exist No restrictions on alcohol consumption (Note: partially restricted can mean that certain beverages are forbidden or some offices/buildings/places are alcohol-free.

Sales restrictions on alcohol Beer Wine yes no yes no yes no yes no yes no yes no yes no yes no Spirits yes yes yes yes no no no no Hours of sale are restricted Days of sale are restricted Places of sale are restricted Density of outlets is restricted What is the level of enforcement of existing sales restrictions ? Fully enforced Partially enforced Rarely enforced Not enforced Please provide information on how the selling or serving of alcohol is regulated by ticking the appropriate box regarding on-premise and off-licence (take-away) sales. YES YES NO NO 203 . highly populated areas Alcohol advertising and health warnings Is alcohol advertising allowed and does it exist in some form? Please circle. pubs. some applicants do not get one Alcohol is only sold/served in specific/regulated premises Off-licence (shops.) sale of beer.5 ‰ = 0. supermarkets) Drink driving legislation What is the maximum legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) when driving a car? Please fill in: _______ mg% (e. but all applicants get one A license is required.05 g%) Or please tick here if the limit is ZERO. Selling or serving of alcohol in retail outlets On-premise (bars. shops. restaurants) All retail outlets are allowed to sell/serve alcoholic beverages A license is required. 50mg% = 0. retail stores.Please provide information on existing restrictions for the off-licence (supermarkets. how would you geographically describe its use? RBT is evenly carried out in different regions and between rural and urban areas RBT is unevenly performed. retail stores etc. kiosks. wine and spirits by ticking the appropriate box.g. kiosks. no alcohol is permitted in the blood: _____ Please provide information on the use and/or frequency of RANDOM roadside breath testing (RBT) of drivers with a portable breathalyzer (without justified suspicion. RBT often performed RBT sometimes done RBT rarely performed No RBT If RBT is used. without any connection to accidents) by ticking one of the four options below. some regions or areas being more tested than others RBT is mostly performed in urban. Are health warnings legally required on the advertisement? Please circle. cafés.

Voluntary agreement is the alcohol beverage industry following their internal voluntary rules) What is the level of enforcement of existing advertising and sponsorship restrictions indicated in the two previous questions? Fully enforced Partially enforced Rarely enforced Not enforced 204 .g. Voluntary agreement is the alcohol beverage industry following their internal voluntary rules) Alcohol sponsorship and promotion Please provide information on regulations of alcoholic beverage industry sponsorship and sales promotion by filling in B (BEER). but not all.g. happy hour (complying with existing age and other sales restrictions) Partial legal restriction S (spirits) Voluntary agreement W (wine) No restrictions B (beer) (Note: partial restriction can mean that the restriction applies during some events or in certain cases. YES NO Please provide information on the extent to which alcohol advertising is regulated in different media by filling in B (BEER). concerts Sales promotion in the form of serving FREE alcohol (complying with existing age and other sales restrictions) Sales promotion in the form of sales below cost e. W (WINE) and S (SPIRITS) for each type of media below. Restrictions on advertising and sponsorship Complete legal ban S ( spirits) Partial legal restriction W (wine) Voluntary agreement No restrictions B ( beer) EXAMPLE National TV National TV Cable TV National radio Local radio (e. Restrictions on sponsorship and sales promotion Complete legal ban EXAMPLE sports sponsorship Alcohol industry sponsorship of sporting events Alcohol industry sponsorship of youth events e. W (WINE) and S (SPIRITS) in the table below.Are health warnings of any kind legally required on the containers/bottles of alcoholic beverages? Please circle. two for one. FM local programs) Printed newspapers/magazines Bill boards Points of sale Cinema (Note: partial restriction can mean that the restriction applies during a certain time of day or to some programmes/magazines/films.g.

Komekan Luz A. of Addiction Treatment for Males National Board of Health nd Name A. de l’Industrie et de l’Artisanat Escuela de Salud Pública. du Commerce et de la Promotion de l’Emploi Fisioclinica: Centro de Fisioterapia y Rehabilitación Institute for alcoholism and substance abuse and Ministry of Health of F.R. Andrade J. de la Population et de la réforme hospitalière Concep de Gencias. Valenzuela Werth Hao Wei Martha L. Castro El Badaoui Mohamed Fakih Patrice Otilibili Oficina de Investigación Vlasta H. Guesmi H. Miguez Karine Simonjan Tim Stockwell Alfred Uhl Nuraddin Abdullayev Vladimir Maximtschuk Kimani Avila Romain L. Molina de la Rosa Nermana Mehic-Basara Ilana Pinsky Georgi Vasilev Suth Dara Norman Giesbrecht Ana C. Universidad de Chile Mental Health Institute – 2 Xiangya Hospital. Zerjavic Karel Nespor Morten Wiberg 205 . Southern Central University OPS Ministère de la santé Ministère de la santé Instituto sobre alcoholismo y farmacodependencia Croatian National Institute of Public Health Dept. Tecnologia Ministry of Health National Drug Research Institute Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute Ministry of Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Health – National Drug Council Ministère de l’Industrie. Bosnia and Herzegovina UNIFESP-Federal University of São Paulo National Center for Addictions – Ministry of Health Ministry of Commerce Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ministère de la Justice et Administration interne Service du Commerce. Idjidina M.ANNEX 2: LIST OF FOCAL POINTS FOR THE ALCOHOL POLICY QUESTIONNAIRE Country Algeria Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Cambodia Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chile China Colombia Comoros Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Institute Direction de la Prévention du Ministère de la santé.

Country Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Institute Universidad Acción por el Arte y la Cultura (UNAPEC) Ministerio de Salud Pública Faculty of Medicine – Alexandria University Medico General Unidad Antidopaje del ViceMinisterio de Transporte Ministère de la Santé et Bien-être Social Dept. Oyono Ondo Zekarias Tesfamariam Mari Järvelaid Haileselassie Bihon Kari Paaso Dominique Martin and Christophe Palle Marie-F. Rodríguez Guzmán S. Brugiroux F. Drogadicción y Farmacodependencia IHADFA National Addictological Institute The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Council National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences Ministry of Health Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Eleonora Sineger Thorgerdur Ragnarsdottir Vivek Benegal Idris Yusmansyah 206 . G.M. del Pilar Carranco Madrid and Wilson Rojas Amira Seif El Din Rudy O. Ramos Suazo French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea – Bissau Guyana Honduras Insituto Hondureño para la Prevención del Alcoholismo. Observatoire Français des Drogues et des Toxicomanies Ministère de la Santé Centre National de santé Mentale Mental Health Service Scientific Research Institute of Narcology Federal Ministry of Health WHO Country Office Reitox Focal Point. Pharmaceutical Services Ministry of Social Affairs Drug Administration and Control Authority Ministry of Social Affairs and Health Ministère de la santé. University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI) Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social Brasserie-Limonaderie Ministère Economie et Finance Guyana Revenue Authority Name C. de la famille et des personnes handicapées. Mbumgu Mabiala Bakary Sonko Michaela Schreiber Joyce Addo-Atuah Katerina Kontogeorgiou Mirna Alicia Garcia Jean-Paul Puijanne Antonio Vaz Ean Nickram and Penelope Harris M. Morales A.

Country the Islamic Republic of Iran Ireland Israel Italy Institute National Research Center for Medical Sciences. Ministry of Health Department of Health and Children Ministry of Health Istituto Superiore de Sanità – Osservatorio Fumo. University of Florence Name Afarin R. Health and Social Services Western Regional Hospital – Pokhara Ministry of Health.D. Walliby Erdenebayar Luusandorj Paula Mogne Rene Adams Kapil Dev Upadhyaya Sandra van Ginneken M. Ram T. Guido Belsasso K. Movaghar Ann Hope Jorge Gleser Emanuele Scafato Valentino Patussi Gloriana Batoli Rosaria Russo Piergiorgi Zuccaro Michelle Henry Shinji Shimizu Mahmud Shareif Aigul Tastanova David Musau Kiima T. Alcol e Droga. Education and Social Affairs Center of Mental Health and Narcology Ministry of Health Substance Abuse. Welfare & Sport Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand Purmessur J. National Council on Drug Abuse National Women’s University of Nara Ministry of Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Health Ministry of Health WHO-Vientiane Center of Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment Ministry of Health Ministère de la Santé. Hamid Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mexico the Federated States of Micronesia Mongolia Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Ministry of Health. Asanov Dean Shuey and Soulivong Phoubandith Astrida Stirna Gelena Kriveliene Yolande Wagener Immaculate Chamangwana Mary Assunta and Mohammed A. MacAvoy 207 . Service de Médecine Préventive Ministry of Health and Population Consumers Association of Penang Sedqa. National Agency Against Drugs and Alcohol Sina Bugeja Abuse Ministry of Health and Quality of Life Consejo nacional contra las adicciones Department of Health. A. Direction de la Santé.

Institute of Public Health Medical Research Council Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs Alcohol and Drug Information Centre (ADIC) PAHO (WHO) Suriname National Institute of Public Health Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Problems Medical Institute of Accident and Disaster Ana Vieira da Silva Son II Yong Feodor Grigore Vasiliev Floyd Frantz Vadim Pelipas Benjamin Vel Teng Mui Mui Alojz Nociar Janja Sesok Charles Parry Teresa Robledo de Dios Pamodinee Wijayanayake Rinia Chiragally and P. Valbuena The State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol Related Jerzy Mellibruda Problems Centro Regional de Alcologia do Sul – Ministry of Health Ministry of Health & Welfare. Pantelimon National Research Center on Addictions Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs Customs & Excise Department Ministry of Finance Governmental Office of the Slovak Rep. Health Policy Division Public Health Office of Narcology Policlinica St.Country Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Palau Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Romania Russian Federation Seychelles Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Sweden Switzerland Thailand Institute Consultor Name Jairo Eduardo Meléndez Noguera Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Lutte contre Almoustapha Garba les Endémies WHO Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs Ministy of Health Facultad de Ciencias Medicas – Instituto de Prevision Social Universidad Cientifica del Sur Health Action Information Network Ogori Taylor Dag Rekve Annabel Lyman Anayansi Franco de Rodríguez Victor San Martin Hugo Cordova Canales Joyce P. Ritoe Sven Andréasson Matthias Meyer Tairjing Siripanich 208 .

Hale Rick Phillips Noelia Macho de Sequera Tran Viet Nemi John Mayeya and Ashbie Mweemba 209 .Country The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Togo Trinidad and Tobago Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Kingdom United Republic of Tanzania Uruguay United States .Turkmenistan Ministry of Health Ministry of Health Institute of Alcohol Studies Ministry of Health Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation Dept. of Revenue.A.Colorado United States . Eguida Clarence Leach Sevim Tezel Aydin Nina Kerimi Sheila Mdyamabamgi Anatoliy Viyevsky Andrew McNeill Joseph Mbatia Adriana B. des Finances et des Privations Office of the Prime Minister General Directorate of Primary Health Care UNICEF .California United States .Texas United States Washington the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Viet Nam Zambia Institute Mental Hospital Skopje Ministère de l’Economie. Marquizo James F. Moore Roy R. Liquor Enforcement Division Bureau of Enforcement – NH Liquor Comm. Mosher David C.New Hampshire United States . Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission Washington State Liquor Control Board NIMM Central Board of Health Name Pavlina Vaskova K. Reitz Aidan J.

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