1 JamesJ.ͲQ.

Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SmithChart
&
MatchingNetwork
James Lu
2 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
NonͲmatchedImpedance(I=0)
• ReflectionsleadtoZ
in
variationswithline
lengthandfrequency
• Poweriswastedbecauseofreactivepower,
whichcanalsodamageequipmentduring
shortcircuit(forexample)
• Onlypartialpowerisdeliveredtotheload.
• SWR>1:therewillbevoltagemaximaon
theline,voltagebreakdownathighpower
levels
• Noises(bouncesorechoes)
3 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
BenefitsofMatching(I=0)
• Z
in
=Z
O,
independentoflinelength,
andfrequency(overthebandwidth
ofthematchingnetwork)
• Maximumpowertransfertotheload
isachieved
• SWR=1:novoltagepeaksontheline
• Nobounces(echoes)
UQ
4 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
LoadMatching
What if the load cannot be made equal to Z
o
for some other
reasons? Then, we need to build a matching network so that the
source effectively sees a match load.
0 = I
L
Z
s
P
0
Z
M
Typically we only want to use lossless devices such as
capacitors, inductors, transmission lines, in our matching
network so that we do not dissipate any power in the network
and deliver all the available power to the load.
5 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
NormalizedImpedance
jx r
Z
Z
z
o
+ = =
It will be easier if we normalize the load impedance to the
characteristic impedance of the transmission line attached to
the load.
I ÷
I +
=
1
1
z
Since the impedance is a complex number, the reflection
coefficient will be a complex number
jv u + = I
( )
2 2
2 2
v u 1
v u 1
r
+ ÷
÷ ÷
=
( )
2 2
v u 1
v 2
x
+ ÷
=
6 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SmithCharts
The impedance as a function of reflection coefficient can be
re-written in the form:
( )
2 2
2 2
v u 1
v u 1
r
+ ÷
÷ ÷
=
( )
2 2
v u 1
v 2
x
+ ÷
=
( )
2
2
2
r 1
1
v
r 1
r
u
+
= +
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
( )
2
2
2
x
1
x
1
v 1 u =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷
These are equations for
circles on the (u,v) plane
( )
2 2 2
) ( a y y x x
o o
= ÷ + ÷
7 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SmithChart– RealCircles
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.5
0.5
1
{ } I Re
{ } I Im
r=0
r=1/3
r=1
r=2.5
1 = I Circle
8 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SmithChart– ImaginaryCircles
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.5
0.5
1
{ } I Re
{ } I Im
x=1/3 x=1 x=2.5
x=-1/3 x=-1 x=-2.5
9 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
W
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SmithChart
Impedances, voltages,
currents, etc. all repeat
every half wavelength
z=1+j
Capacitive
Purely imaginary impedances
along the periphery
Purely real impedances along
the horizontal centre line
Open
(z=·)
Short
(z=0)
z=1
Inductive
y=1/(1+j)
=0.5-j0.5
S
W
R
max) at (
1
1
P r S
o
=
I ÷
I +
=
L L L
jx r z + =
I ÷
I +
=
1
1
l
l
l
z
I ÷
I +
=
1
1
1
1
+
÷
= I = I
L
L
L
z
z
l j
l j
l
e
e
ì
t
|
4
2
÷
÷
I =
I = I
I=1
I=Ͳ1
I=0
r r
o o
P P
max max
P P
min min
10 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
W
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SmithChartExample1
Given:
O = 50 Z
o
° Z = I 45 5 . 0
L
What is Z
L
?
( )
O + O =
+ O =
5 . 67 5 . 69
35 . 1 39 . 1 50
j
j Z
L
11 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SmithChartExample2
Given:
O = 50 Z
o
O ÷ O = 25 j 15 Z
L
What is I
L
?
5 . 0 j 3 . 0
50
25 j 15
z
L
÷ =
O
O ÷ O
=
° ÷ Z = I 123 6 . 0
L
W
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G
W
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L
z1 = 2 + j
z2 = 1.5 -j2
z3 = j4
z4 = 3
z5 = infinity
z6 = 0
z7 = 1
z8 = 3.68 -j18
12 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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SmithChartExample3
Given:
O = 50 Z
o
O + O = 50 j 50 Z
L
What is Z
in
at 50 MHz?
0 . 1 j 0 . 1
50
50 j 50
z
L
+ =
O
O + O
=
° Z = I 64 445 . 0
L
ns 78 . 6 = t
ì ì ìt
et ì t |
339 . 0 10 78 . 6 10 50
9 6
2 / 4 2
= = =
I = I = I = I
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
f l
e e e
j
L
l j
L
l j
L in
° =180
in
0
° Z = I 180 445 . 0
in
( ) O = + O = 19 0 . 0 38 . 0 50 j Z
in
° = et 244 2
13 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
Admittance
A matching network is going to be a combination of elements
connected in series AND parallel.
Impedance is NOT well suited when working
with parallel configurations.
2 1 L
Z Z Z + =
2
Z
1
Z
2
Z
1
Z
2 1
2 1
L
Z Z
Z Z
Z
+
=
ZI V =
For parallel loads it is better to work with
admittance.
YV I =
2
Y
1
Y
2 1 L
Y Y Y + =
1
1
Z
1
Y =
Impedance is well suited when working
with series configurations. For example:
14 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
NormalizedAdmittance
jb g YZ
Y
Y
y
o
o
+ = = =
I +
I ÷
=
1
1
y
( )
2 2
2 2
v u 1
v u 1
g
+ +
÷ ÷
=
( )
2 2
v u 1
v 2
b
+ +
÷
=
( )
2
2
2
g 1
1
v
g 1
g
u
+
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
( )
2
2
2
b
1
b
1
v 1 u =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
These are equations for
circles on the (u,v) plane
15 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.5
0.5
1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1
1
0.5
0.5
1
AdmittanceSmithChart
{ } I Re
{ } I Im
g=1/3
b=-1
b=-1/3
g=1 g=2.5 g=0
b=2.5
b=1/3
b=1
b=-2.5
{ } I Im
{ } I Re
g=·
b=·
Conductance Circles Susceptance Circles
16 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
ImpedanceandAdmittanceSmithCharts
• For a matching network that contains elements
connected in series and parallel, we will need two
types of Smith charts
¾ impedance Smith chart
¾ admittance Smith Chart
• The admittance Smith chart is the impedance
Smith chart rotated 180 degrees.
– We could use one Smith chart and flip the reflection
coefficient vector 180 degrees when switching between
a series configuration to a parallel configuration.
17 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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• Procedure:
•Plot 1+j1 on chart
•vector =
•Flip vector 180 degrees
AdmittanceSmithChartExample1
Given:
° Z64 445 . 0
Find I & z
1 j 1 y + =
° ÷ Z = I 116 445 . 0
Plot y
Flip 180
degrees
Read
I & z
5 . 0 5 . 0 j z ÷ =
18 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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• Procedure:
• Plot I
• Flip vector by 180
degrees
• Read coordinate
AdmittanceSmithChartExample2
Given:
Find Y
° + Z = I 45 5 . 0 O = 50 Z
o
Plot I
Flip 180
degrees
Read y
36 . 0 j 38 . 0 y ÷ =
( )
( ) S j
j Y
3
10 2 . 7 6 . 7
36 . 0 38 . 0
50
1
÷
÷ =
÷
O
=
19 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
0 = I
O 100
s
P
O = 50 Z
0 M
Match 100O load to a 50O system at 100MHz
A 100O resistor in parallel would do the trick, but ½ of
the power would be dissipated in the matching network.
We want to use only lossless elements such as inductors
and capacitors so we don’t dissipate any power in the
matching network
20 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ We need to go from
z=2+j0 to z=1+j0 on
the Smith chart
ƒ We won’t get any
closer by adding
series impedance so
we will need to add
something in parallel.
ƒ We need to flip over
to the admittance
chart
Impedance
Chart
W
T
G
W
T
L
21 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
W
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MatchingExample
ƒ y=0.5+j0
ƒ Before we add the
admittance, add a
mirror of the r=1
circle as a guide.
Admittance
Chart
22 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ y=0.5+j0
ƒ Before we add the
admittance, add a
mirror of the r=1
circle as a guide
ƒ Now add positive
imaginary
admittance.
Admittance
Chart
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23 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ y=0.5+j0
ƒ Before we add the
admittance, add a
mirror of the r=1
circle as a guide
ƒ Now add positive
imaginary
admittance jb = j0.5
Admittance
Chart
( )
pF 16 C
C MHz 100 2 j
50
5 . 0 j
5 . 0 j jb
=
t =
O
=
pF 16
O 100
W
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24 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ We will now add
series impedance
ƒ Flip to the
impedance Smith
Chart
ƒ We land at on the
r=1 circle at x=-1, i.e.
z = 1 – j1
Impedance
Chart
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25 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ Add positive
imaginary
admittance to get to
z=1+j0
Impedance
Chart
pF 16
O 100
( ) ( )
nH 80 L
L MHz 100 2 j 50 0 . 1 j
0 . 1 j jx
=
t = O
=
nH 80
W
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W
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L
26 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
MatchingExample
ƒ This solution would
have also worked
Impedance
Chart
pF 32
O 100
nH 160
W
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G
W
T
L
27 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
W
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50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Frequency (MHz)
R
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
d
B
)
MatchingBandwidth
50 MHz
150 MHz
Because the inductor and capacitor
impedances change with frequency, the
match works over a narrow frequency range
pF 16
O 100
nH 80
Impedance
Chart
28 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SingleStubTuner
0 = I
l
1
l
2
Stub length l = t u
p
=fìt
Phase shift: u
¸
=2|l=2(2t/ì)l=4t(l/ì)
z
in
=1 (y
in
=1)
Z
L
Z
0
Goal:
Z
0
Z
0
Open
or
Short
y
l1
y
l2
y
in
= y
l1
+ y
l2
= 1
= (g
l1
+ jb
l1
) + jb
l2
g
l1
= 1 (real-part condition)
b
l1
= -b
l2
(imaginary-part condition)
(2 Degrees of freedom)
l
l
l
l
l
l
e
z
y
| 2
1
1 1
÷
I = I
I +
I ÷
= =
Open: Z
in
= -jZ
o
cot|l, or z
in
= -jcot|l
Short: Z
in
= jZ
o
tan|l, or z
in
= jtan|l
29 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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SingleStubTuner
ƒ Flip to Admittance
chart
ƒ y=0.5+j0
ƒ Adding length to
Cable 1 rotates the
reflection
coefficient
clockwise to g=1.
Admittance
Chart
l
1
= 0.152ì
Match 100O load to a 50O system
at 100MHz using two transmission
lines connected in parallel
ƒ y
1l
=1+j0.72
30 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SingleStubTuner
ƒ The stub has to add
a normalized
admittance of -0.72
to bring the
trajectory to the
center of the Smith
Chart
W
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W
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Admittance
Chart
31 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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SingleStubTuner
Admittance
Chart
ƒ An short stub of
zero length has an
admittance=j·
ƒ By adding enough
cable to the short
stub, the admittance
of the stub will
reach to -0.72
l
2
= (0.401-0.25)ì = 0.151ì
32 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SingleStubTuner
0 = I
100O
l
2
= 0.151ì
l
1
= 0.152ì
W
T
G
W
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L
Admittance
Chart
33 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
SingleStubTuner
Admittance
Chart
0 = I
100O
W
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L
l
2
= 0.097ì
l
1
= 0.347ì
This solution would
have worked as well.
An open stub of
zero length has an
admittance=j0
34 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
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50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 15
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Frequency (MHz)
R
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
d
B
)
0 = I
100O
SingleStubTunerMatchingBandwidth
50 MHz
150 MHz
Because the cable phase changes linearly
with frequency, the match works over a
narrow frequency range
Impedance
Chart
l
2
= 0.097ì
l
1
= 0.347ì
36 JamesJ.ͲQ.Lu
ECSEͲ2100Fields&WavesI
Summary
• Impedance matching is necessary to:
– reduce VSWR
– obtain maximum power transfer
• Lump reactive elements and a single
stub can be used.
• A quarter-wave line can also be used to
transform resistance values, and act as
an impedance inverter.
• These matching network types are
narrow-band: they are designed to
operate at a single frequency only.

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