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14/03/2006

Filename and location

Cooling Systems

Purpose of Cooling Systems

Prevention of over-heating of process equipment Prevention of product damage Ensure desired performance of process equipment

Cooling Systems

Generally, the types of cooling available offshore are Closed Circuit Cooling Water (CCCW) Direct seawater Air cooling

Typical Cooling Loads

Process cooling Crude oil ~ 0.6-0.7 kW/(m 3/h.oC) Condensate ~ 0.3-0.4 kW/(m 3/h.oC) Gas (no condensation) ~ 500-800 kW/(m 3/h.oC) Produced water cooling ~ 1.2 kW/(m 3/h.oC)

Typical Cooling Loads

Utility Cooling Instrument/plant air after cooling ~ 350 kW/(106Sm 3/h.oC) Turbine lube oil / seal oil cooling ~ 10% of driver rating(kW) Compressor lube oil / seal oil cooling ~ 10% of driver rating Pump motor cooling ~ 10% of motor rating Diving facilities ~ 200kW Air conditioning - small ~ 150kW

medium ~ 300kW large ~ 500kW

Schematic of a Typical CCCW System


SEA WATER SUPPLY

LP FLARE

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS

GLYCOL MAKE-UP WATER MAKE-UP


TCV

TC

SEA WATER RETURN

OPEN DRAINS

FCV TURBINE GENERATOR COOLERS COMPRESSION COOLERS CRUDE OIL LOADING COOLERS

CCCW CIRCULATING PUMPS

FC

Closed Circuit Cooling Water (CCCW) Systems

Utilises a closed circuit of glycol and water mixture which is cooled by exchange with sea water Type of glycol used is dependent on glycol that is used on the platform, i.e. TEG or MEG.
Typical glycol concentration is 30 - 40% w/w

Closed Circuit Cooling Water (CCCW) Systems

Corrosion inhibitors are injected into the cooling medium


Permits use of carbon steel piping

Use of CCCW is limited to situations where contamination by seawater of the cooled stream is to be avoided
I.e. compressor seal / lube oil cooler, crude shipping pump coolers

CCCW System Design

To determine total cooling loads, Q, summate all coincident loads and add an allowance for run-up of largest spare machine. To determine flowrate, m, use inlet and outlet temperatures, T and specific heats, CP of glycol solution i.e.

Q = mC P T

Pump design capacity is approximately 1.25*calculated total load flowrate as a safety margin

CCCW System Design

Header sizing is based on pressure drop and velocity of fluid


Non-boiling liquid should be approximately 15oC below bubble point

The sea water circulating pumps should have a flat head characteristic in order to avoid excessive design pressure on the plate heat exchangers

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CCCW System Design

Heat Exchangers For initial sizing of heat exchangers use CCCW 32o C in and 18 oC out Seawater 15o C in and 27 oC out

Header Tanks Size based on thermal expansion and the design pressure of the system to cater for tube rupture on the heat exchangers

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Direct Seawater Cooling System

TEST SEPARATOR COOLER

INLET GAS COOLER

FLASH GAS AFTER COOLER

DEW POINT COOLER

FROM SEAWATER FILTER PACKAGE

CRUDE OIL COOLER

PIPELINE COMPRESSOR AFTER COOLER

FLASH GAS COOLERS

BOOSTER COMPRESSOR COOLER

TO SEAWATER DUMP HEADER

PLATFORM TOILETS SEWAGE TREATMENT UNIT HVAC SYSTEM DESALINATION PACKAGE SEAWATER CCCW EXCHANGER

EQUIPMENT OVERFLOWS

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Direct Seawater Cooling Systems - Advantages

Results in a lower overall system weight and space compared to CCCW


Due to lower operating temperature and hence larger temperature difference and elimination of the seawater/CCCW heat exchangers

Process outlet temperatures down to 18oC are possible

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Direct Seawater Cooling Systems - Disadvantages

Corrosion resistant (more expensive) materials needed for construction


E.g. cupro-nickel

Colder skin temperatures may cause hydrate or waxing problems in exchangers


Higher maintenance / downtime

Seawater to be used must be treated with hypochlorite and filtered to 80 - 120m Flow rates may be high due to lower return temperature limitations

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Air Cooling Systems - Advantages

Can still be used in the event of CCCW failure


Ideal for emergency and life support equipment

Low power requirement Only occasionally are air coolers considered for offshore cooling duties

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Air Cooling Systems - Disadvantages

Large in size and weight occupying a lot of space Expensive to operate Required temperatures lower than ~ 65oC are not possible Low efficiency Variable cooling rates difficult to achieve

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