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Related Studies - refers to theses, dissertation and research studied substantially characterized by the presence of the following part:

research problems, hypothesis, objectives, related literature, methodology, findings, conclusions and recommendations and bibliography. Published and unpublished research studies are sources of materials that included in this. These studies are segregated into foreign and local studies. Local if printed in the Philippines and Foreign if printed in the foreign land or country. This is also arranged chronological order from recent to past. Each related study has explanation on the relevance of the present study, otherwise, it is unscientific.

Population and Sampling Design Population consist of the totality or aggregate of observations with which the researchers is concerned. Is an accessible group of people who meets a well-defined set of eligibility criteria. The utmost importance in selecting a population is that the population should be clearly defined so that the same can be accurately identified. The scientific Population types are: Target population is a group of individuals who meets the criteria. Subject or respondent population- refers to a group of individuals participating in the study. Strata or stratum is described as a mutually exclusive segment of a population established by one or more characteristics

Sample - subset of the population for a study Also called subject or respondents of the study. Sampling process of choosing a representative portion of the entire population. An integral part of research methodology. Involves selecting a group of people, events, behaviors or other elements with which to conduct study. Element most basic unit which information is collected. Representativeness means that the sample must be like the population in as many ways as possible. The accessible population must be representative of the target population.

Sampling Theory

Is developed to determine mathematically the most effective way to acquire a sample that would accurately reflect the population under study.

Key concepts of sampling theory includes: Sampling unit Refers to specific place or location which can be used during sampling. Sampling frame Describes the complete list of sampling units from which the sampling is drawn.

Sampling Criteria Refers to the essential characteristics of a subject or respondent such as ability to read and write responses on the data collection instrument. Steps involved in Sampling: Identify the target population Identify the subject or respondent population Specify the criteria for subject or respondent selection Specify the sampling design Recruit the subject Sample Size Prior to the selection of sampling technique, we must first determine the size of the sample. A sample size can be determine using the Slovins (1960) formula, which as follows n = ____N____ 1 + Ne2

Where: n is the sample size N is the population size e is the margin of error 1 is a constant value

TYPES OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Two basic sampling techniques Probability (random) sampling Nonprobability (nonrandom) sampling

Probability Sampling Involves the selection of elements from the population using random in which each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen. Four Classification of Probability Sampling Simple Random Sampling

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the samples Most commonly used method is the lottery or Fish Bowl technique In using the lottery method, there is a need for a complete listing of the members of the population. The names or codes of all members are written on pieces of paper cards and placed in a container. The researcher draws the desired number of sample from the container. The process is relatively easy for small population but relatively difficult and time consuming for a large population Systematic Sampling Technique Type of probability sampling which selects samples by following some rules set by the researcher which involves selecting the Kth member where the random start is determined. A system is a plan for selecting members after a starting point or random start has been determined. Then every nth member of the population will be determined by the system in drawing or selecting the members of the sample Stratified Random Sampling Type of probability sampling which selects members of the sample proportionally from each subpopulation or stratum. Used when the population is too large to handle and is divided into subgroups (called strata). Samples per stratum are then randomly selected, but considerations must be given to the sizes of the random samples to be drawn from the subgroups. An example of procedure to use is proportional allocation which selects the sample sizes proportional to the sizes of the different subgroups. Cluster Sampling Used when population is divided into groups or clusters Samples are selected in groups rather than individuals which is employed into a largescale survey Multi-Stage Sampling Selects samples using more than two sampling techniques Rarely used because of the complexity of its application. Requires a lot of effort, time, and cost Non-Probability Sampling Involves the selection of elements from a population using nonrandom procedures. Characteristics of Non-Probability Sampling The members of sample are drawn or selected based on the judgment of the researcher. The results of these techniques are relatively biased. The techniques lack objectivity in terms of the selection of samples.

The samples are not so reliable.5. The techniques are convenient and economical to use. Types of Non-Probability Sampling Convenience or Accidental Sampling Involves the nonrandom selection of subjects based on their availability or convenient accessibility. Quota Sampling Involves the nonrandom selection of elements based on the identification of specific characteristics to increase the samples representativeness. Types of Non-Probability Sampling Purposive of Judgmental Sampling o Involves the nonrandom selection of elements based on the researchers judgment and knowledge about the population. o This is useful when a group of subjects is needed to participate in a pretest of newly developed instruments or when a group of experts is desirable to validate research information