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HP-UX 11i

Company / developer Hewlett-Packard


● Main page OS family UNIX System V

● Contents Working state Current

● Featured content
Source model Closed source
● Current events
Latest stable release 11.31.0809 - HP-UX 11i v3 Update 4 /
● Random article

April 2009
Package manager Software Distributor

Go Search
Supported platforms PA-RISC, IA-64

Kernel type Monolithic kernel with dynamically
● About Wikipedia
loadable modules
● Community portal

● Recent changes License Proprietary

● Contact Wikipedia
● Donate to Wikipedia
HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard's proprietary
● Help
implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System
V (initially System III). It runs on the HP 9000 PA-RISC-based
● What links here
range of processors and HP Integrity Intel's Itanium-based
● Related changes
systems, and was also available for later Apollo/Domain (1 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
● Upload file
systems. Earlier versions also ran on the HP 9000 Series 200,
● Special pages
300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000
● Printable version

● Permanent link series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500

● Cite this page computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor


● ••••••• HP-UX was the first Unix to use access control lists for file

● •esky access permissions rather than the standard Unix permissions

● Deutsch system. HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to

● Español include a built-in logical volume manager. HP has had a long

● Français partnership with Veritas Software, and uses VxFS as the
● Galego
primary file system. HP-UX 11i is currently credited with
● 한국어 [1]
leadership in integrated mission-critical virtualization ,
● Bahasa Indonesia
observed performance, high availability and manageability.
● Italiano

● Latviešu The current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 (11.31) with

● Nederlands Update 4 (0903).

● 日本語
Contents [hide]
● Polski
● 1 Characteristics
● Português
● 2 Release history
● Русский
❍ 2.1 Versions
● Suomi
● 3 Earlier history
● Svenska
● 4 Operating
● Türkçe
● Укра•нська
❍ 4.1 See also (2 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

● 中文
● 5 References

● 6 External links

Characteristics [edit]

Since about 2000, the focus of HP-UX has increasingly been on

enhanced reliability, security, workload management, and

partitioning. The reliability is provided through clustering

technology and application failover on a system outage, as well

as error monitoring and correction. HP-UX 11i offers a common

root disk for its clustered file system. HP provides HP

Serviceguard as the clustering solution for HP-UX 11i, as well

as for Linux. HP Global Workload Management adjusts

workloads to optimize performance, and integrates with Instant

Capacity on Demand so installed resources can be paid for in

30-minute increments as needed for peak workload demands.

Security features have significantly increased with 11i v2, with

the addition of kernel-based intrusion detection, strong random

number generation, stack buffer overflow protection, security

partitioning, role-based access management, and various open

source security tools. The system partitioning (virtualization)

ranges from hardware partitions to isolated OS virtual partitions,

and most recently the Virtual Server Environment (VSE).

HP-UX 11i v3 scales as follows: (3 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

● 128 processor cores

● 2 TB main memory

● 32 TB maximum file system

● 16 TB maximum file size

● 100 million ZB storage

With the acquisition of Compaq in 2001, HP obtained another

Unix-based system, the Tru64 for AlphaServer hardware

platform. HP continues to sell Tru64 UNIX, together with

TruCluster software, but discontinued AlphaServer

manufacturing in 2007.

Release history [edit]

Prior to the release of HP-UX version 11.11, HP used a decimal

version numbering scheme with the first number giving the

major release and the number following the decimal showing

the minor release. With 11.11, HP made a marketing decision to

name their releases 11i followed by a v(decimal-number) for the

version. The i was intended to indicate the OS is Internet-

enabled, but the effective result was a dual version-numbering

scheme. The name change was apparently made to pay

citation needed
homage to the World War I Armistice anniversary,[ ]

which occurs on 11.11 in nations that use decimal dates.

Versions [edit] (4 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1.0 (1984)

Support for the HP Integral PC (embedded ROM version)

basic kernel runs from ROM other commands are disk


5.0 (1985)

Updated and renamed HP-UX 1.0 for the HP Integral PC.

6.x (1989)

Support for 300 series only. Introduced sockets from


7.x (1990)

Support for 300/400, 600/700 (in 7.03) /800 HP systems.
Provided OSF/Motif.

8.x (January 1991)

Support for 300/400 600/700/800 HP systems. Shared
libraries introduced.

9.x (July 1992?1995)

9.00, 9.02, 9.04 (s600/s800), 9.01, 9.03, 9.05, 9.07 (s300/

s400/s700), 9.10 (s300/s400 only). These provided

support for the series 300, 700 and 800 HP systems.

Introduced SAM. This version also introduced a feature of

context dependent files (CDF), a method of allowing a

fileserver to serve different configurations and binaries to

different client machines (and even architectures) in a (5 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

heterogeneous environment. A directory containing such

files had its suid bit set and was made hidden from both

ordinary and root processes under normal use. Such a

scheme was sometimes exploited by hackers to hide

exploits. CDF's and the CDF filesystem were dropped
with release 10.0. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM)

was presented at 9.00 for s800 as a replacement for the

older methods of disk management.

10.0 (1995)

This major release saw a convergence of the operating

system between the series 700 (workstation) and series

800 (server) systems. (The OS no longer supported the

older series.) There was also a significant change in the

layout in the system files and directories, based on the

AT&T SVR4 UNIX standard. Applications were removed

from /usr and moved under /opt; startup configuration files

were placed under /etc/rc.config.d; users were moved to /

home from /users. Software for HP-UX was now

packaged, shipped, installed, and removed via the

Software Distributor (SD) tools. LVM was made available

for s700, too.

10.20 (1996)

This release included support for PA-RISC processors that

support PA2.0, including 64-bit data registers. Pluggable (6 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Authentication Modules (PAM) were introduced for use

within CDE. The root file system could be configured to

use the Veritas File System (VxFS). For legacy as well as

technical reasons, the file system used for the boot kernel

remained Hi Performance FileSystem (HPFS; a variant of

UFS) until version 11.23. 10.20 also supported 32-bit user

and group identifiers. The prior limit was 60,000, or 16-bit.

This and earlier releases of HP-UX are now effectively

obsolete, and support by HP ended on June 30, 2003.


This is a Virtual Vault release of HP-UX, providing

enhanced security features. Virtual Vault is a

compartmentalised operating system in which each file is

assigned a compartment and processes only have access

to files in the appropriate compartment and unlike most

other UNIX systems the superuser (or root) does not have

complete access to the system without following correct


10.30 (1997)

This was primarily a developer release with various

incremental enhancements. The use of PAM continued to

expand in the system security components. Various

changes to system calls were also made. This OS also

provided the first support for Kernel Threads, with a 1x1 (7 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

thread model (each user thread is bound to one kernel

thread). 10.30 was also the first release of HP-UX that

was fully year 2000 compliant.

11.00 (1997)

The first HP-UX release to also support 64-bit addressing;

previous releases had been 32-bit only. It could still run 32-

bit applications on a 64-bit system. This release was also

deemed Y2K-compliant. It supported 1×1 kernel threads,

symmetric multiprocessing, fibre channel, and NFS PV3. It

also included tools and documentation to convert 32-bit

code to 64-bit.


Virtual Vault release.


This was a limited release to support the V2500 SCA

(Scalable Computing Architecture) and V2600 SCA

servers. Other versions supported the V-class server in a

single cabinet configuration, 11.10 ran on the SCA

versions where two servers are stacked on top of each

other, interconnected by a hyperplane crossbar. 11.10

also added JFS 3.3, 128-CPU support, AutoFS, and a new

ftpd. It was not available separately.

11.11 (2000) (8 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Also known as 11i, this release of HP-UX introduced the

concept of Operating Environments. It was released in

December, 2000. These are bundled groups of layered

applications intended for use with a general category of

usage. The available types were the Mission Critical,

Enterprise, Internet, Technical Computing, and Minimal

Technical OEs. (The last two were intended for HP 9000

workstations.) The main enhancements with this release

were support for hard partitions, gigabit ethernet, NFS

over TCP/IP, Loadable Kernel Modules, dynamic kernel

tunable parameters, kernel event Notifications, and

protected stacks.

11.20 (2001)

Also known as 11i v1.5, this release of HP-UX was the

first to support the new line of Itanium-based (IA-64)

systems. It was not intended for mission critical computing

environments and did not support HP's ServiceGuard

cluster software. It did provide support for running PA-

RISC compiled applications on IA-64 systems, and for

Veritas Volume Manager 3.1.

11.22 (2002)

An incremental release of the Itanium version of HP-UX, it

was designated 11i v1.6. This version achieved 64-way

scalability, MxN threads, added more dynamic kernel (9 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

tunable parameters, and supported HP's Logical Volume

Manager on IA-64. It was built from the 11i v1 source code


11.23 (2003)

The original release of this version was in September

2003 to support the Itanium-based systems. This version

is also identified as 11i v2. In September 2004 the OS was

updated to provide support for both Itanium and PA-RISC

systems. Besides running on IA-64 systems, this release

includes support for ccNUMA, web-based kernel and

device configuration, IPv6 and a strong random number


11.31 (2007)

This release is also identified as 11i v3. This release

supports both PA-RISC and IA-64. It was released on
February 15, 2007. Major new features include native
multipathing support, a unified file cache, NFS v4, Veritas

ClusterFS, multi-volume VxFS, and integrated

virtualization. Hyperthreading is supported on Itanium

systems with Montecito processors. HP-UX 11i v3

conforms to the The Open Group's UNIX 03 standard.

Earlier history [edit]

The first version of HP-UX was 1.0, built about 1983. It started (10 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

out based on System III Unix, and later on System V.

The first HP-UX, for the FOCUS systems (Series 500s), had a

kernel written in MODCAL, a modified Pascal with extensions

for low-level programming. Pascal/MODCAL was in vogue at

HP for operating system work in the early-to-mid 1980s. This

kernel in turn was hosted on top of another lower-level kernel

called SUNOS (no relation to Sun Microsystems' SunOS) and

emulated a file system similar to UFS on top of an HP-peculiar

filesystem called Structured Directory Format (which led to

curious features like . and .. not actually existing in a directory

as opened and read). The userland was a mix of AT&T, UCB,

and HP sources.

The series 200/300 history also started out claiming System III

and later System V. The HP-UX ROMs for the HP Integral PC

had two versions: 1.0 which was System III based and 5.0

which was System V based.

HP announced its Precision Architecture in the second half of

1986, for two hardware lines: the HP3000 series 930 which had

an equivalent HP9000 series 840, and the HP3000 series 950

which also had an HP9000 series 8xx equivalent. Unlike later

PA-RISC systems, in the 3000/930 and 9000/840, the PA-RISC

processor was spread across several boards of TTL.

At the time, HP did not have shippable quantities of hardware, (11 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

but did have some installed at third-party developers sites. It

was another year before MPE/XL was ready for its 1.0 release

to customers, and in that time the HP9000 series 840 had

shipped with HP-UX and the HP3000 series 930 had been

dropped from the price list, not being enough faster than a

classic HP3000 series 70 running a similar workload.

When it came time to do a Unix for the first PA-RISC systems

(Series 800), at least the kernel was based on 4BSD but then

worked over to make it behave more like System V and other

HP-UXs. BSD-isms gradually got put back into it over the late

1980s and 1990s. That is, HP started a fresh port of Unix and

then layered the old code and APIs on top.

The last release for the series 500 was 5.2.

Series 200 and Series 800 HP-UXs started with versions 1.0

and later got version number bumps up to other ports' version

numbers as they became more compatible with those ports. So

s200 went from 2.x to 5.0 when it got demand paging and more

compatible with s500 5.0, and PA-RISC went from 3.1 to 7.0

when its userland was being built from common sources used in

7.0 on the s300.

By HP-UX 7 even the series 300 port was feeling somewhat

BSDish, including the BSD Fast File System and a filesystem

with long filenames. (12 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kernel had common source (across series 700/800 at least,

maybe s300/400 too) in 8.0.

Operating environments [edit]

HP sells HP-UX 11i in Operating Environments (OEs). OEs are

HP-tested and integrated operating system plus application

bundles designed to simplify installation and maintenance while

providing the functionality needed for the system's purpose.

In 2008, HP introduced new OEs for HP-UX 11i v3 to align

application bundles with today's typical systems' use. OEs for

HP-UX 11i v2 remain unchanged. The following lists the

currently available HP-UX 11i v3 OEs:

HP-UX 11i v3 Base OE (BOE)

Delivers the full HP-UX 11i operating system plus file

system and partitioning software and applications for Web

serving, system management and security. BOE includes

all the software formerly in FOE & TCOE (see below), plus

software formerly sold stand-alone (e.g. Auto Port


HP-UX 11i v3 Virtualization Server OE (VSE-OE)

Delivers everything in BOE plus GlancePlus performance

analysis and software mirroring, and all Virtual Server

Environment software which includes virtual partitions, (13 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

virtual machines, workload management, capacity advisor

and applications. VSE-OE includes all the software

formerly in EOE (see below), plus additional virtualization


HP-UX 11i v3 High Availability OE (HA-OE)

Delivers everything in BOE plus HP Serviceguard

clustering software for system failover and tools to

manage clusters, as well as GlancePlus performance

analysis and software mirroring applications.

HP-UX 11i v3 Data Center OE (DC-OE) -

Delivers everything in one package, combining the HP-UX

11i operating system with virtualization and high

availability. Everything in the HA-OE and VSE-OE is in the


Solutions for wide-area disaster recovery and the compiler

bundle are sold separately.

The following lists the currently available HP-UX 11i v2 OEs

HP-UX 11i v2 Foundation OE (FOE)

Designed for the demands of Web servers, content

servers and front-end servers, this OE includes

applications such as HP-UX Web Server Suite, Java, and

Mozilla Application Suite. This OE is bundled as HP-UX (14 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

11i FOE.

HP-UX 11i v2 Enterprise OE (EOE)

Designed for database application servers and logic

servers, this OE contains the HP-UX 11i v2 Foundation

OE bundles and additional applications such as

GlancePlus Pak to enable an enterprise-level server. This

OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i EOE.

HP-UX 11i v2 Mission Critical OE (MCOE)

Designed for the large, powerful back-end application

servers and database servers that access customer files

and handle transaction processing, this OE contains the

Enterprise OE bundles, plus applications such as MC/

ServiceGuard and Workload Manager to enable a mission-

critical server. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i MCOE.

HP-UX 11i v2 Minimal Technical OE (MTOE)

Designed for workstations running HP-UX 11i v2, this OE

includes the Mozilla Application Suite, Perl, VxVM, and

Judy applications, plus the OpenGL Graphics Developer's

Kit. This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i MTOE.

HP-UX 11i v2 Technical Computing OE (TCOE)

Designed for both compute-intensive workstation and

server applications, this OE contains the MTOE bundles

plus extensive graphics applications and Math Libraries.

This OE is bundled as HP-UX 11i-TCOE. (15 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

See also [edit]

● HP-UX Process Resource Manager (PRM) software

References [edit]

1. ^ Ideas International (2008). "HP-UX 11i v3 Delivers Superior

Capabilities for Virtualized Data Centers" (PDF). HP. http://

Retrieved on 2008-03-24.

2. ^ Gabriel Consulting Group (2008). "4Q'07 Unix Survey: HP

Surges" (PDF). HP.

downloads/4AA2-1457ENW.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.

3. ^ Loftus, Chris (1994). ADA Yearbook 1994. IOS Press.
ISBN 905199155X.

4. ^ HP-UX cdf(4) man page

5. ^ Staff (2007-03-14). "HP-UX 11i compatibility for HP Integrity

and HP 9000 servers" (PDF). HP.


Retrieved on 2008-07-24.

6. ^ Staff (2007-02-15). "HP Eases Deployment of UNIX

Virtualization with Newest HP-UX Operating System, HP

Integrity Servers". HP.

press/2007/070215a.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-24.

7. ^ The Open Group (2007-02-27). "HP-UX 11i v3 Open Brand

Certificate" (PDF). The Open Group. http://www.opengroup.

org/openbrand/certificates/1188p.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-11- (16 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

● Scott W. Y. Wang and Jeff B. Lindberg "HP-UX:

Implementation of UNIX on the HP 9000 Series 500 Computer

Systems", Hewlett-Packard Journal (volume 35 number 3,

March 1984)

● Frank McConnell, More about the HP 9000,

External links [edit]

● HP-Journal oct. 1985 introducing the HP Integral and HP-

UX 1.0

● HP-UX Guides Blog

● Hewlett-Packard HP-UX

● The HP-UX Porting and Archive Center: Porting Open

Source Software to HP-UX


● Securing HP-UX

● HP and Veritas to Accelerate HP-UX 11i Virtualization

● New HP-UX 11i v3 Operating Environments

● 11i v3 Update 2, a name that's practically poetry (17 of 18)6/2/2009 5:26:37 PM

HP-UX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Categories: System V | Unix variants

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