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CoUTENTS

THE UNITED KINGDOM

ad

Figures

l: TheCountryCalledBritain.

rngA: England,Britain,UK: What is rheDifference?. mgB:The'CelticCounrdes':Scotland,Wales,Northernlreland

g C:DivisionsWithintheCountry.

ngD: A Metropoliswith ManyFaces

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2:A DemocraticMonarchy

. ingA: ConstitutionalMonarchyWithout a Constitution_

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ing C:Westminster.

D:Whitehall

ngE: ElectionRulesandPoliticalParri€s.

3: Lifeand Society.

ngA: Town and Counrry

ng

B:My Homeis My

ng

Dl A MulticulturalSociety

4:TypicallyBritish

ingAr Sportsin Bitain

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ing C:A World Powerin PopMusicPartIt l950s-1970s

ingDrAworldPowerinPopMusicPartllt 1970s1990s

vancedReading:Whitby

andFigures-

T l:

An Island Continent

On theTrailof CounrDracula.

AUSTRALIA

lntroduction. ReadingA: TheLandandIts FirstPeople. -

ReadingB: The UniqueFloraand Fauna. -

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CONTENTS

UNIT2: Govemment. - ReadingA: The Structureof Government:a ReadingB: Political Partiesand ReadingC: The LegalSystem

UNIT 3: 'A Lucky ReadingA: Economy:a WealthyCounrry ReadingB:LabourandlndustrialRelarions ReadingC: Australiaasa Bridgein the SoutheastAsian Region.

UNIT4rTheAustralianWayof Life Introducrion. ReadingA:Sports

ReadingC:A

UNIT 5: Currenl l\\ue). ReadingA: Aboriginal Land Righrs. ReadingB:Becomrnga Repuhlrc AdvancedReading:Caring for the Environment . - Quiz on Au'tralia

 

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THE UNITED STATESOF AMERICA

Factsand Figures -

U\IT

l: Ceograph)

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IntroLlucli.'n ReadrngA: lhe lantl ol ReadingB: The Four Regions:Northeast- Sourh Midwest - West . ReadingC: What a Wonderful World - YellowstoneNational park ReadingD: WhereDoWe Go frornHere? Top

UNIT 2:Co\ernment Introducllt,n.

ReadingAt

ReadingB: fhe Elephantversusde Donkey - The Two Pafties ReadingC: Federal,Stateand Local Authodries

ReadingD: Lobbiesand lnterest Groups in rhe US

An Historic Document - The US Constitution and Its lmpact .

UNIT 3: Ta$ Inlrodu.ton

ReadingAi Justice for All - The Role of Law in AmericanLife ReadingB: The Courr Systemof rhe United States.

ReadingCr Guilty or Not Guilty

The Roleof theJury in Criminal Lnw.

l0

CONTENTS

ID{IT 4: Economy

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174

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ItrtroducLion. ReadingAi The "Self-made Man" in rhe Raceof Life.

ReadingB:TheGlobalRoleof USEconomy. ReadingC: TheWall StreetMystery _

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htroduction . ReadingA: "In God We Trusr,,- nargion in tf,e US

Readin8BAmericanHolidaysI'_TheEuIopeanHedtage'

ReadingC: American Holidays IL - Uniquely

ReadingD: AmericanFootball _ the CollegeSport

ReadingE: The Magic of

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American

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lilifT 6:CulturalIssues lnffoduction .

RcadingA:Multiculturalism - M"fringroi o.iuiJ

n"*ii

uaSaytheRightThingartheRighrTime- political Correctness

Therels No BusinessLikeShowbusiness_

Holllvood .

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ReadingC:

ReadingD:PopularCulture-JazzandCountryMusic

ReadingE:PopularCulture _ pop_Rock.

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AdvancedReading:AmericanLiterature:Transcendentalism.

Irts

and Figures.

CANADA

lrMT I: TheTrueNorth ReadingA: TheWorld'sSecondLargestCountry. R€adingB:TheCovemmenr

Reading C:

tfflT

2: The Tracks of History ReadingA: BraveNewWorld

ReadingBt "The LasrBestWesr., ReadingC: Dreaming of paradise

ReadingD: WhererheTrainWill Nor Take you

UNIT 3: Our Home and Native Land

ReadingA: TheNiagaraSrory

ReadingBt FirsLNarions ReadingC: Native Expectarions

LallT 4: We'reCanadians,eh?

ReadjngAt OneCanada - or Two?

ReadingB:A Canadianldentiry

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ll

'When peoplesayEngland,they sometim"'smean GreatBritdin, sometimesthe UnitedKingdom, sometimesthe British Isles- but neverEnglanil.'

(George Mikes)

Hr UUTTEDKTUCDOM

F,qcrs,qNnFrcunm

OlJici( n tmeoJstctteiUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Areq:242910 s{]]u'arekilometres

Popl atiotr (2000 estimate):59,756,000;3.,1oloincreasesince I99I

Populqtio\density (people persquarehilometrT,rcunded):247

ChiefoJstate:The Sovereign:Elizabeth I1,by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Norrhem Ireland and of her other Realmsand Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth. Defender of rhe Faith

Fom oJgoyemmenL:Constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses

HeadoJgovernment (since May 1997):PrimeMinister:

TheRt. Hon.Anthony(Tony) Blair,MP O lf icil.l 1 qn guage: English

Nqtionolanthpm:God SaveI he Queen

Capitdl: Londo\

England:London . Scotland:Edinburgh Walas:Cardiff . Northemlrelsnd:Belfast

Majorcities (1994 round.ed. figures): London(7,000,000), Birmingham (1,000,000), Leeds(720,000), Glasgow(680,000), Sheffield(530,000), Bradford(480,000), Liverpool(470,000), Edinburgh(440,000), Manchester (130,000), Bristol (400,000).

Lile expectancyat birth (yeors): male 73.2,fenale78.6

MonetcLt)tvnit: pound sterling (d) of 100 new pence (p)

GrossDomesticProduct(1999 Jigures): L 891,106million, {, 14,910per capita Inflationrate (1995): 3.61"

Ethniccomposition (1999 Jigures): White 93.2olo,Non white 6.7"/o,

including Black (Caribbean,

Indian l.7olo,Pakistani 1.20,6,Bangladeshi0.5ol",Chinese0.2olo, Other 1.1olo

ReligiousLfJiliation(1998 estimate):Christian 67% (including Anglican 17olo,Roman Catholic l8"/o,Orher Protestant32"/o), Muslim 2Yo,Hindu 0.8'/o,Sikh 0.7olo, Jewish 0.5"/o,Non-reli- sious 29%

African and other) 2.1%,

UNITI

READINGA

England,Britain,UK:WhatIstheDifference?

Match the political units with the namesgiven below.

lngland. r'reat&irain.

Norrhelmlreland.

scotland.UnitedR ngdom . WaIes

,:

IHEUNITEDKINGDOM

I Readthe following re\r with special attenriod ro the words in bold.

porergn .peaker. ut I rglr.t- In,JJdrnB I

I

,ttunqaflan\ottenu.elFrmrlrkc

po,irrr.

1ou _hould rropift) .ppak abuu(

an.lrhe

"ir,"alle.

,f," *f,oL" oi f."_

.ou,lr"rn tr"tuni

U".u",.

f

g

I cnh ruo polrriralunrr.:rheth

I

tr,-h k".,,hr,.

,Brirish

lano, nntarn'.crearllritain,,'UK.,

lsles'.carelessll',asif thcir meaningrvas

more or lessthe

rano

bnrrrn

,

. er(dl

I

I

same.Brirish people. I

Unrdin

'Ilk

B,,ri,h

IrishReDubtic.

Ihe nameot rhcUK.ho\\e\€r.suqqesrs rhat ir j5 a lombinarionot t"o

however, are far more

worcls_,and it is impoftanr ro

carefirl with these I

I

LrnrrsGreatBriui" rna lo.tlr".n f."furra.

fhe rea""n {.,r rhLs\lrange \iruarion r<lhar

I rhcUK $r. origrndil\rrcdleJrnIB0t,and

undeErand

lhedrll(rcn.'c.bcl!\eenrhem.

First, or€ hasro distinguishbetween

I

geographical andpoliricalconcepts.From I

a geographical poinr o{ view,the British Islesarea groupof two largeanda rum

I

erncoast_ofconrinenralEurope(which is

simplycalledthe

unrrl to22 il ;nrrined

luna. Wl"r,

I independent.thenorth"." nu.iJ".-,a"i ,o

I

remainwuhinrheUK.

What

aboul

England, Scorland and

lWal€5rhentAll,t"i".uunrr,"rnr"ioauy

lparrolCrtarBruarn.G,*,B.ii^,";

irc.lhrrheAcrott rrro",rZOZI

*_

.r',i"

s-ii*a.w"r"Jr,"ir,"";;;;,;ffi;i€

J

I

dom ofEngf""a.in."

rZd+.tf,"*inr"-trr"

Acr

,;li;

i\trndorBri,a,nunLlc,";;;;;;. "f

u,'io"

,h"

;;i"';i,n"

Becauseofthe complicaredhisroryofthe

rsles.,Bnrai"

^r"

"rniier"",

"",i'O;,h"

D€ror sma|eLrstrnctsot

the norrh wesr

Conlinenr'in Brirain).

rt.orh(,to.

lhelrrse.rutrhe\ $hirhr

I

Ixtngd,morrnghn.landrheKingdomof "",

,5:_:"*'""1,:.caled*Britain or

(sinc€ t707) crearBrirain.rhc nam.

I

I

I

l,me,., Ih(.e.und I

comesfrom rhe Larin 'Brirannia,. which

hasbeenthe tradilionalnamefor rhe

i:1,^".0_l:',l" :",

largestislandis calledIreland.

Thereare two independentpotitical

,*':

one

oJ themis

:ll-*1:l:f,91:,1

lilT^:

ii'?lili';

"

l:til:j

-officiatty called

]r"d.M

,The Unired I

Nu_'th".,, I

Ireland',in shorr,'the

UK,.The UK

con- |

I

I

Irelandforms I

I

I

orher island,

tainsnotonlyrheislandofBrirainbul rhe

northeasrernpar of rhe lreland.asweli.Theresrof

the independcrr Republicof rreland or

Lirc. lhcreturcit v^u $anr ro di.cu*

::,,_,^:.

I onehjrnd.irrererstoanisrand.ageographr_

*a"li

i"f",,"

'r;;;t"d

sense,,i"

rcnerallyandhrielil

UX

inctudesN.rrthemr,"rr"a,,, s,ij.tii.trr"

poLiri-l

ihars rrrstnJ.sc.rtan,trnJ\\ale, "q"i"d";r

*'ora

tl"

.g.uutrr'-ur.;

ro rbc

,Grear Ur,;

;i;;.i;;d

the

tur

"hul"'oi

rern

;"".,

;;;"^,

rrtunir.burt,irrt."

acountry,aporiticalunir.'rnrhjspoiiiical ","f,"

!

l.

2.

3.

Complete the following sentences

The two largestislandsof rhe Bdtish Islesare

and

England,Scotlandand Wales togerherare known

The two parts oI the United Kingdom are

11

l8

and

Thetwo independentpoliticalunirson theBritishlslesare

ed

:.t.a-

Theislandoflrelandispoliricallydividedinro ,ri:.t-.f!,.tr,.'.,;i: ,

and

,:

1

-r

i

4

r.r

:

UNITI

'.t1r

,,i

h

a geographicalsense,Britainis an

-

1.,,,

1.i1

;in a politicalsense,it is anequiva-

ht

o[

fbe British usually distinguish between themselvesand the rest of Europe, which rhey call

-:.,.,-

i-1r.,i:.:.i t:

READINGB

The'CelticCountries':

Scotland.Wales.Northernlreland

Choosethe correct answer.

Tk prohunciationoJthenameofWalesrhymeswith

i

whales.

b.

wells.

c.

walls.

hnebody Jrom Scotlandis calleda a.Scorch.

b. Scotsman.

c. Scottish.

Ihc traditionalCelticlanguageof Walesis called

a. Gaelic.

b. Welsh.

c. Cornish.

fhe -trdditional CehiclanguageoJScotland.is called

a. Gaelic.

b. Scots.

c. Scotch.

Iht Protestcrntpopulationof NorthemIrelanAcall their country a.Belfast.

b. Der ry.

THEUNITEDKINGDOM

6. which is thetraditionalsymboliccolourof Northe'.r.lrish CatholicRepublicans? arJgreen

b. orange

c. red

7. Which is the traditionalsymboliccolourof Northenl lrish ProtestdntUnio ists?

a. green

I b) orange

c. red

8. Thetradition oJrvearinghihsandpldJinBthebagpipesoriginallycomes Jrom

a. Glasgow.

r. b.)the Highlands.

c. the Shetlandlslands.

I

tead rhefollowingtextwirh specialalrenrionto the*ords in bold.

I lhe (ounlne5 andregionsoI rheBlitish

f

have so many different names,

how should one call their inhabitants? officially. thereareonly two kinds ofciti- zenship on the British lsles: people are citi- zens of either the United Kingdom or the

lrish Republic.Within the Uk there is no official distinction between the inhabi-

tants of

England, Scolland, Wales or

No(hern Ireland:they areall 'British' citi

zens. But citizenship is not the same as national identity. A typical mistake most Hungarians and many other loreigners

Ilsles

make is tha! rhey call Britain 'England', and rheBrilish 'English'.This attitude has always irritated Scotsmen and welsh- men, and especiallythe Northern Irish, some of whom are still fighring for com plct€independence{rom England.These peoplehave long regaded the Erglish as invaderswho occupied their countriesby lorce and 'uni!ed' the United Kingdom againsttheirwill. Histo cally, this is fairly close to the truth: at the time of the Roman Empire (first fi{th century), the wbole ofBritain

Hampton CouYtPalace,England

THEUNITEDI{NGDOM

$

wr,r.horther:ll.*119:,1::i:l:;ffi:X'i"JJ,*"'l:*il"f i:::,:il:::*:"Y,.;.y,il:

right country!

rhe initial letterol the

of mote than one country!)

r,ntlund r5'

Udlcs Wl

Nnrthern lrcl''rnJ'Nll

-

l. The original inhabitants of thcsecountrieswere Celts:

,. fl'r.uun,ry

3. The Act of Union unified it with EnBland:

4. They receiveclincreased autonomy in 1qa7:

I

'

--

no common b'rrdir urth anr ol tht other' -

''

: i

the English-thronel

ha-

5. This country's ruling clynastycameto

6. tn thia.uurrt.y, ccrtain groupshave

:'

fought lor independence uslng teronsm: -.--,

.

using the suitable form of the words below Each

oissqnb

and their naLu-

Irood

Ireland was irhabited by various peoples who were pushed out of

@tic -d

rt rwe todaycall Englandand into what

rr

ly the Anglo-Saxon invaders liom lhe brop€an continent betweenthe 5th and ilh centuries.A{ter severalcenturies,the

^LDglo-Saxon

territori€s were united and

relatively powerlul kingdom o{

now call lreland, Scotlandand Wales,

Palace s.orland

,

rlr

England emerged in the south of the rslend. During the Middle Ages, the @bsh klngs made severalattempts to .oquer rheir smallerneighbours. \\?les and Ireland had neverexistedas itdependent and united countries, but .msisted of several warring tribal lands rfich disliked on€ anolher almost as rrch as the invading English. Scotland rrs the only country besides England rtrkh had organised itself inio a united nd centralisedmonarchy,and it resisted Frgliqh attemptsat invasion for c€nturies. S'hile Wales and Ireland were gradually oquered by militalt force over several

<rrnuries,Scodandwas eventuallyunited

iith

England peac€{ully.In

1603. the

Sdrarts. rhe scottish ruling d1.nasty, came ro the English throne aswell: from then on, rhr two countrieshad th€sameruler, but continued to have separateparliaments rDd internal administralions. Then, in l;07. the ScottishParhamentpassedthe ,{ct of Union,which abolishedtheseparate

UNITI

government of Scotland, and a unified Bririshparliamentwascreatedin London. Bul one alsohasto considerthat, while England $as not a ben€volentruler and largely suppressed rhe indep€ndentcul- tures and languagesof these countdes, Scotlandand wales also benefited lrom English dominance economically, and. afrer rhe 18rh century, living standards inproved considembly (Ireland was an exception,sincit was far more severely exploited than Scotlandorwales).

Within modem Britain, most people still distinguish one another as 'English', 'Scottish'or .welsh'. ln most cases,how- ever, it simply refers to their birthplace:

the great majority of the British popula- tion todayareethnically mixed and speak English as th€ir mother tongue. The spe- cial Scottish and Welsh idendty is more historical and cultural than ethnic or lin- guistic in origin. Th€re are nalionalist

Cacmarfoncastle,wales

movemenrsand panies in bolh countries which demand more autonorny lor Scotland and Wales. They celebrateda great victory when, ln 1997, following a local referendurn, the British Parliament createda separateScottishParliamentand a welsh assemblyto overseelocal affairs. ReasonableScolsmenor Welshmen,how- €ver,do nor want complet€independence from Bdtain: rhey know very well that it would beharmful to their owncountries.

zt

j

UNITI

Iollowing word pairs are similat but not identical in meaning. On the basis of the tud exercise4, define their exact meaning and the differencJberween them. Use a

only if absolutelynecessary.The definitionof oneword of eachpair is providd

e conquer

-.-:to attackandenterinto in orderto takecontrolof somethins

inhabitant

-.

a personwho is a memberof a certain country by birth or bv

+

referendum

:1

*,t,L1.1t.rL

qsestion

:a vote by all the peopleof a country or an areaon a certainpol-

ce +r autonomy

:j:-ir.,,a{,t-

-

-.:self-govemmentof

a certaingroupor areawithin a country

e suppress

,: -

:

-

I

to srop,to bring ro an end (especially in a legalsense)

Wales and Northern Ireland are all well known abroad for various reasons.

much information as you can about each country and complete the cha

dpfrrl - inlormationhasalreadl beenprorided.

below.

THEUNITEDKINGDOM

ll

Completethe followingword groups.Usea dictionaryonly if absolutelynecessary.

 

verb

noun

adjective

 
 

l.

inhabit

inhabitant

inhabited,/uninhabited

 

2.

.',:!.p*1.!t-t,

l./

 

identity

:,

;

-

;

3. conquer

 

4. apply

 

5.

1o.1.,:;a. !

1.!

t,.

 

-

 

6.

crl-L

:

7. tn.:L:t:-'rJAJ-

8. occupy

 

):'-u+,).h:.,.! -.:t,.]r r.::.1.( ) -:u.;:.r

 

t

L.l.,lt

i

.' i

.

9.

.)t!,L-J!-

.uJJ-nr-

10.

.c)

)1

).t

7.,L

lnvasion/invader

Il.

resisr

 

12.

::Q

L.:-:J.tt,\

-

attempt

13.

demand

 

.:).t:u:1,;t1*

united

tJLf]:b)J)

J-)

aJ:*.i :.r 1": ;.:

.JLut2t-1.:

r

ta

)

tt

)

@ Matchthe wordsfrom the tablein exercise7 with the definitionsbelo\,'r'. (Not all

havede{initions!)

t-

1. '.t-ll;l-.,.ir:,:t:L

a placewhereno personlives

2.

3.

:ro 4.7.t-a.1)J,9!,i-

5. r

o. )i"ul:.1.7,

:to

.tt"Q)

:i,i"

attackanotherplace (country, city, etc.)andenterits rerritory

I.a:]!l.,!tct

a?,rtl,;Y

:

controlgainedoveranotherlandor countryby militarylorce

:

gatherasa group

:thingsseparateor

differentfrom oneanother

a [irm,strongclaimor requesrfor somerhing

-^''7.

.)

r-r

1

r

1,r1,!.:rhe

use of an oblect or a method for some particular purpose

p find the opposileof rhe lollowingwords.

1.

republic

independent

2.

3.

4.

5. to attack

6. Celtic

7. legalalien

divided

dillerent

'4111;1

i.;,.'.1 1.11.1

1

.A:t1+ !: "i,!-

u

" /,

!-::.'-J,

1

-.'

t,1,

,.1,

"

A:n,'.L.: ;-tt.t,).:,.

the following passageinto English.

UNITI

.g}-arorszegbrtdnelmdbengyakoriakazidegenrdmadiisok,h6ditlisok esafrigget-

knsegi harcok. A magyartorzseka X. sziizadv6g€ntelepedtekle

t€ruleten, amely ekkor szinte lakatlan volt,6s

orsziigmai

egy vszdzadmrilva ^z kialakult

Kirdlysdg.Az orszig fejl6d€s€tazonbanismEteltenidegenrdmadiisokzavartdk

.urtuok l21l-42-bencsaknemelpusztitort.ikazorszdsot.denemhoztakldrretarr6s

.{ XV. szdzadt6lazonbana Torok Birodalommiir megakartah6ditani Magyaror- as t6bbszoris megtilmadtaaz orczi.got.A magyarokmegpr6briltakellen:illni, es Ndndorleherviirnrille is gy6zt6ka hatalmastorok sereget,de 1526-banMohrics- katasztroflilisveres€getszenvedett.A tdrdkOkmegsz:illtdkazorsziigk6- rrsz€t,€steljesenkizsdkmdnyoltAka lakossiigot.A XVII. szdzadv6g6naz orszag a r6r6k uralom a161,de eztazosztr:ikHabsburq-dinaszriardbbmint ktdvszri, Eelkodrisakovette.1848-49-bena magyarokmegkisdreltdkfegyveresenkiharcolni iket, deaszabadsiigharcotazosztrdkokoroszsegits€ggellevertdk.

READINGC

41!"

'11

bionsWithintheCountry

htifv

the most imoortant of England and Scotland

t

outlinemapbelow.

EastAnglia

Highlands

Lowlands

Midlands

North country

southeast

Westcountry

{1

_l

:r-"-

L_,1

';

i

THEUNITEDKINGDOM

,,1.',

,

t,.;.,'lr

:'

'.'

:

r,.r;.;,r

l

Readthe following rert with special attention to the words in bold.

':,. ,.r

:.llli

l

or admrnistrati\e furf'o\e\. rhelerri-

,"-L.:j,:lelTl

|

,"0 *r,lc,r-dr\rdcd I

crrt\ mcdi. I

rhou,anJ' I

|

I

\\frt

( ountryrrc reld||vel)\par\el\ DoD_

,";;",i)

utaredrurrtared.burrhcih,

rh€MLdrand\ ",

n

'

InLo,counrie\uhicn,re ot

b.,o.e Ir.hiunrb

rnerrcoasrneandbeauntulscenery.

t"r.h.t,,la).d;;;

,h;;;;.:;il,*

"-

".*"?r.i"f

-

'-

-"*

-'

i

aeratoflgrn. andtookba(k rod

was the old AnSlo

yearsof_hisrorr Manyof themhaverhe

word-s/rirein rheirname,becausethis

I

I arerhtrnrddLeoIEngf".a.,f"

Saxonword for,coun-

of rhesecounries,

".;;;--;;

'".ponJ

'" ";:

ty. The boundaries

however.are hi',".i;

mo.rotrhemao "o,

I U--_

,::

':,,,:,

.,,,

:,::,.

rfl

rr

,#Z

,-

r^r

basedpanry."g""si"pl'i,-p".,r; ."lG

.ocidldnd lulrlr!al hi.loD. theqourh(an I

rurrncrbe \ubdi\iLl.d

(essenlially the London

(uunlic., <urrounding tondon

I I

into thr \oulhea\t

area and the

ca.r

I

I

I

rnepenrn<uranoflh(a.r ol I onJnn\.dnd I

AnSlia.rhe.r.rernmo\r nartot Ingland.

*""i;;li,:*:":ll':,1:,""":ll":y: I

England,thep€ninsula sourhof

watet.

I

ll:,'::ii::':::l:.:::l

latedrnd,rhemo.rt'xpcn-,,e,"gion

"r

,::

l

\nstia

-E

lh( Vidl.rnd.

lurrh

be4n.

""a

lhc

Waies and wesrof fast Anglia. The prob_

,ii"r"

",

,f,"

l"rnarr.ra,k.howercr.,. ,"-a"f,*

,"a ,fr",",fr

:::lt:c i1"s",",:""i. i"",i.1"l.,,"

Midt".;.

.;

f.";-ril;;

esiu;

rhe North srars froi

mo_r Aenercll\acccDreJ

o,:1.:''p"p* l r,"r*.""u"r^,"J,r,"w".i'.io,n,^

ir,. |,r,"

u^r,. ;;

i:;;

;,;;:;;";]'r".

ff," f,n,."-pr,",ing,f,f

viatri,;:

1.

the nonhrrn

rou|llr\.huriral.uorlcr.lhihe.r ,nband l{nFlu.

careeropporruniries. EasrAngliaandrhe

I

from

l*t.t\\ale. andcn.t Ihe\ a-hd.$ell

[h,

d-l'

-rra looL lrkca rriarglc.lhe\(nrrc ul Elhe hugeciryof Bimingham.

-

trurn thL

fbc \onh

c[

- rhelarge.rrnJ hrllr,

.lr, r,h, -

c.

uo

i.tril'nds

lltrouEhour hisrory, it was a poorer and

Bnrarn

up

!o

rhe Scolrish bordcr

Dyr

& mdusrnal revolulion in the late lsth

ad

rr qcalth ind a hugepopulation explo

back$ard region than rheSouth,bul

rie

l9rh rtnrurirs

bLoughrprospcr_

tu

,c. rliverpool, Manchesrer. Sheftield,

Lrcd;. Bradford and Newcasrle) devel_ ep.d In rhesecondhalfofthe 20rh cenru_

ff- hoiiever, rraditional industries have

d.drned.

Efi"lproblems in theflorthern ciries.

and a number of large indusiriat

causing great economic and

\\ ales is mostly covered by hills.

rhe

\hest

r ahenorrh. The most denselypopulared

peakofwhichisSnowdon(1085 m)

iiEas or rhecountry arerheriv€rvalleysin

6. south. u,herethe largeslWelsh

cilies,

(:rdifl

Sales is a beautiful region full of hills. &p valleysand spectaiular scelerl, bui r hasaverysmallpopulation.

andSwansea.arealsofoun.l. Norrh

torland

is usualLydivided inro two

Earn r€g'ons:the Lowlands and the Hieh_

hds. The Lowlands srretch from ihe Englishborderto rhenarrowestpart ofthe xle and theeasternseacoast.whi;h hasthc

mo.l Ieflil€lan(lin scoriand andronrarn:

lhe qrcdl rratorir\ ol the

i|lcludrn! the hig , illt'. ot r,la.eo$

Fdinburgh a. utll

Dundee. the

fopulslron

and

a" rhe grcaiporr ol

crer

Uighland

(.otland. burrherrpopulorroni.e\lcmcl\ small; dreyarecharacterised by numerous lochs (lakes), beaurifui mountains and a ruggedcoastiine.The highesrpoinr ol rhe Highlands.BenNevis (1142 m), isalso rhe high€srpeak inBrirain. The longestriv€r olBrirain. thSevern, ises in WaLesand.after making a bend in thewesl Midlands.flows inro theAllanric; ns wrde estuary separates sourh wals from rhe Wesr Country. The besr known British fiver, however, is probablv the Thames, w.hich rises in rhe Midiancls, crossesEnglandin a sourh_easrerly djrec_ lion, and Ilows inlo rheNorlh Sea just easr ofLondon

iralt or

INITI

THEUNITEDKINGDOI'I

El True (T) or False (F)?

l.

2.

i.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Thc Nnflh ol fnglenrlhara rer) lou populaliun

The highestpeak of GreatBritain is in Wales. !

lhe modcrniuunlic- LllLnglanrlan.]\Valc-h.rvcr ren lunghi'ron. I

In Scotland,the maioity

of the populadon live ill the Highlands

The Severnis the longestriver in Britain. I

The largestWelsh citiesare all locatedin the southernpart of Wa)es. I

The large indusLrialcities arevery wealthy and prosperoustoday. []

In Britain, peopleprefer to spendtheir holidays in rural, sparselypopulated areas. f]

The Midlands are the areabetweenwales, the North, EastAnglia and Scotland. I

@

appropriate region. You may use the maps on pages15 and 25 to check your solutions.

ln which part of Great Britain can you find the following cities? Match them with t

l. Aberdeen2. Birmingh m

3.

6.

9.

12.

14.

Biislol 4. Bradlord 5. Cambridge

Caftliff 7. D:','ndlx 8. EAinburgh

Glasgow10.I-eedsll. Liverpool

Mdnchcsttr 13. Neivcastle

Oxford 15. Shtffklcl 16. Srvansea

S

l.

2.

l.

+.

5.

Edinbufgh

Find the word or expressionfrom ReadingC that fits the dellnitions below.

.i- - :

'

:

--

,,

'

i-.1.;r:t

:

dry land surroundedby lvater on three sides

all the naturalleaturesof an area

],.-ir.-l-

:.j 1r.1.:,- a sudddnincreaseof thenumberof peoplelivingin an area

:

f

,-

,

).1

!

-.-long.deepmouth

of a river

l,Ll.:.:

 

:

uneven,rough.rock)' (ol a coastlineor a naturalsurlirce)

: hl(e rn SLotland

UNIT1

good economicsituation (of a country or place);wealth (oI a person)

: good for agriculture (land, region)

h.ring a smallnumberof people (of a countryor region)

blloring

text. The first letter of eachword is providedto help you

-'

'

r'1ich means that it is s.f.Lr,:'.1.:r.:1

1.from

the Coatt:-cc,tl.

by the

€;:,,=

r!-.,

the narrowest part of which is called the S:c:irj

. of D?'li'{:

'

soaller islandsoff the c.Qt!:i:

ins inro the sea.Sincethe cccr;ii'r'[is

of Britain,and therearealsoa number of

, it offersa lot of

so r'.i].::.1

hJatr4i

for ships,and thereforesevera]greatpur'--i. developed

;- island. its bcaulirr:':sare

*e

id

y;:tt.=-|ct.

l.-lrr.:'.inside the

Englandfrom Scotlandand Wales.The L:- 'l:J- .-';r'i-:r'-of the

natural, and the only d:.r-l:--':l

and beautiful: there are gentlehills, steepmO"r'.r.:l-. rand sceniclakes'but

b concentratedmostly in largeu.ai.fl'r" areas:in and around London, in the

Wales and in the Lc-t !':r'.'.J.:of Scotland.The most

o{ Eneland, in 5':.,.t1,tc,

:,

,

'

cen b€lound

can

be

lound rn Ine mosl sLi,.{.4:.,/.,I

rn Ine mosl sl.i,.{.4:.,/. r -1,- r,., i,

area\.

READINGD

AMetropolisWithManyFaces

ialo vour mind when you hear London's name?Collect information, images . \[-hich of these are attractive or positive and which are negativeto you?

rhe lollowing text with sPecial

qdtss

otbd

d Fir

of all the natural beauties attractions o[ the various

, London l5 a mrr<f lo ll

Ersts li i5 by far the largest town

rb€GreaterLondon area (whi(h

icc

luotrhe

suburb<aswell) today inhabitants, which

7 million

i 5€i'en times as big as the next

attention

to th€ words in bold.

largesrcity, Birmingham. London boasts many of the most famousimagesforeiSn- ersassociatewith Englandor Britain:it has the To\rer, the Big Ben,TrafalgarSquare, 5t. Paul'sCathedral,the red doubledeck- ers, the black taxis, the London bobbies wirh rheir t'?ical helmels, and dozensof otherwell known sl.rnbolsof thecountry-

lo

THEUNITEDXINGDOM

London wasfoundedby rhe Romansin the firsr century on the north bank of the Thames, abour B0 kilometres upstream Irom the mourh oI the river. From the beginning, London was an excellentsea- polt and an imporranl centreoftrade. The mediaevalCity, a sell-govemingcommu, nity of merchanrs and craftsmen. extended from the Tower (which defendedit {rom the sea) appror.imarely to the present Black{riarsBridge, and did nol include Westminster,which wasa royalresidence. That differenceis part of the reasonwhy the City has developedinro one of rhe largestbusinessand financcenrresin the world (the Srock Exchange,rhe Bank of

An Undergroundsraft,n

England and the headquarrers of many British and inremarionai businesscornpa nies are located here), whereas West- minster becam€the seat of the national

Sovernmerr (see unit

2).

London's specraculargrowth began in the sixte€nth cenrury: by 1600, lt had almost 200,000 inhabitanrs, a hundred yearslater about 500,000 and by 1800 a million people lived in the area. which made il the largest metropolis in rhe

world at the time. The rown wasgrowing sponlan€ouslyin all directions, withoui

Taxis near Hyde Park

much cenrralplanning. rhal is why it lacksanyclearstructurein its streetpat tern.Thesourhbankwasbuilt up much laterthanthenorth,thereloreil hasvery

I€s sightsfor rourists.The west End has

lraditionally been the rnore elegant part

f London, $here the royal residence.

Buckingham Palaceis found, and where man,varistocratsbuilt eleganthousesand greatparks.Todat, it is famousfor its the- alres.cinemasand lashionableshopping .lLstnrt5.lhe Last Lnd, In€ nelgnnour- hood of the docks, bas ahvals been a poor€r.working classarea-It has become famousfor the Cockneys, the lraditional

inhabiranb of the area ivho are distin- guishedby their typical accent (for exam ple. they sa)''ouse insteadof'house' and pronounce the word wa)" as il it was \rhy) and the famous Cockney rhyming slang (for example.'stairs' are called applesandpears'.or for short.'apples'). ln the ninereenth ccnturv, the ov€r- crowdedtowlr had to solvemany difficult problcrns,such as wat€r supply, sanita- rion and public tlansportation. London pionecr€dthe developm€ntof the under- ground railway,lhe lamousLondonTube, Nhich todaycarriesalmostamillion people to work elery day.Anofier pressingprob lem n'as thc infamous London smog, a mixture of$roke and fog.which in thc late I9th and eariy 201h century often made lif€ intolerable in th€ town. ln ihe m 20th cent ry. authoriries banned coal heating and mosl of thc facloriesmoved

UNITI

elsc*,here,so the air quality improved a lot, although heavl motor traffic ii still a major sourceof pollution. Londons image abroad was largely shap€dbypopularnineteenthc€nturynov elistssuch as CharlesDickensand Arthur ConanDoyle,and manytourisrsarrivingin the to*'n todal €xpecl a cosy Victorian atmosphere.The_"-areusuallysurpriscdto find rhat contemporaryLondon is a highly cosmopolitan place.After world war Il. large numbers o{ Asian, Cafibbean and African immigrants settled in the capital (especially in the southern and eastern parts) and their nLrmberswere increased by EasternEuropeansfl€eingfrom politi- cal oppression. Today you can lind \r'hole neighbourhoodswhere almost all lhe peopleareAsianorWest Indian,and, accordingto a sur!ey, over a hundred dit ferent languagesar€ spoken *,ithin the GreaterLondonareal

The Tower ol Londo.

l1

THEUNITED (INGDOM

! Here is a map ofcentral London. Match the famousplacesmarked on it with the list

i. 10 Downing Slreet

J. nigaen

lr, BuckinghamPalace ,-, Ilyde Park

St.Paul'sCathedral .f. the British MusetLm if. the Housesof ParliamenL theNationalGallery

r /,_ the I ower ot I L)ndt)n

, it. Trafalgar Square

;

Tower Bridge

iri WestminsterAbbey

4

Match the olacesfrom exercise3 with the definitions below.

l

2.

,)l::t-.\|ti.-

,!

-!. )|i.t

1

3. 1.1!.1i-

 

)!

r.!

:

the largestcollection of paintingsin Bitain, where entry is

 

free for everybody

 

)

1,.!,t.:-

:

in the middle ol this place,there is a huge column with

 

a statueof Admiral Nelson on top

)J'

:i.,

:

in one corner of this place,arrybodycan standup and speak

aboul any topic publicly

32

1

'

t'

,tr'.+.{,'l,la:p,/"iL'.L\ lLi.,l,,t the Queen's residence

.-;

'^;

./.-f

-r-]U(1'I*

,

1.1.1.,

:

-:fo:.--

1:.1

the moslfamousclocktowerin London

:thePrimeMinisrea(reqidence

IJNITI

Complete the following

tohelpyou.

sentences using words from Reading D The first letters are pro-

t.ctu,{'-Fr(s.Lu}'r-is highly developedin London:you canused(hblL

, which is actuallyan u udrSclud-

r:*iir'r'11

P.JLlLc-

n.Ktr-r

london wasoneof thefirst big townswh"re aL"r: p cl-l*trcrL

lem. ln the early20th century,the city was oftencoveredwith surc3 , which camefrom

t m-{Fq- is the pri-

factoriesandhousesthat usedc cX:tL. for heating.Today'm oLor"

- becamea seriousprob-

-

or thefamousT|AL

rnary sourceof p.oU'4t.:'{/l'.{-

ManypeopleimagineLondonasa Vtclor.uul*.

placeuhere dozensol dillerenl e : k'r4:

city, but nowadaysitis a cfi:u''cp'o&'btu-

groupslive, olten in separate

E q/'

 

l:he

C(t*$'fi?

f-

The

C.r-tr4

is

areworkinS-class peopleliving in London'sEo.iL

the oldestpart of Londonthat is todayan internationalcentreof busi-

of E'i+q(aad-arealsohere'

n"r, undiir,^n"", thes.lccl

Exc!4*qL.

andtheB a-s''-

Find the words from Reading D that fit the definitions

below'

L

gbQ{l-- gldl4rl$c

:

LMgh/L.:dLaA$:

.h'ties,

 

:

l-

3il.rctqtrnt]-

:

5.

1u1t11{3cq,il":}

aplacewheresharesof companiesareboughtandsold

u ,1pi"u\lyrnglish kind of buswith two floorsof seats

London policemen,nicknamed after Sir RobertPeel' who createdthe Metropolitan Policein 1829

theproperremovalof wasteto protectpublichealth

: peoplewho havemovedinto a countryfrom another

counlry

:an

old namefor peoplewhoseprofessionis to buy andsell

vadousthings

,"ii.

THEUNITEDKINGDOM

fl

Complete the following sentencesby using the verb form of the nouns given below'

immi.rant.

pollution. prosperity. suppll ' trdnsportation

l. lfyou usea bicycleinsteadofa car,you

the environment.

2. Peopleusually

:.,'-.into

to escapeftom political oppression.

-l)1.11.(

!,.)

another country to find better opportunities in life or

3. When the country's economy [{.l'{iF{{J., everybodybenefitsfrom it.

4. Ho\r "l|r yuu goingto

,{.1

,^

f

1.:

all rour helonging:orersea'?

5. Urbanpeopledon'tgrowfoodfor themselves,everythingis9,t-pp.l'r:./- by groceryshops

andsupermarkets.

@ Haveyou everbeento London?lf yes,wdte a summaryofyour experiencesin about2(

describein 200wordswhat you would like to seeor do whenyou getthere'

words.Ifno,

p Compareyourinformationon Bdtainto Hungaryin groups.Th€questionsbelowarep vided to helo vou.

which are the main geographicaland sociologicalregionsof Hungary?What are the defining characteisticsof thesereqions? Which are the largesltowns in Hungary?CompareLondon's characterand role wifhin Britai

to the characterand role of Budapestwithin Hungary'

Can you identify such a dividing line within Hungary as the one betweenthe North and the

Southof Britain? what differencescanyou find on the two sidesof this linel

l[

Translate the follolving passageinto English.

A

l\

I

t- agyarorszagaz europai kontlnens kozepdn taldlhat6,tiivol a lengert6l Hatdrai

,/l

a totr"tt"l"-

toran robbszoris negvdltoztak,ezdrta magyaranyanyelvtiilakossrig

V Legy

reszema azorszaghatdrainkivul 61.Az orszdglegnagyobbr6gi6ia Dun.intil, a

NagyalfolJr* azEszakikoz€phegys6g,dt sokanugy tartjak.hogy a Dunantuleszaki6sd€li r€s;eisjellegzetesenknlonbozik egymdstol.A rcgiokkozril mrndiganliugarrhatnrhozkajze- lebb esd teiuletek voltak gazdasdgilags tdrsadalmilagfejlenebbek,mert ezek voltak

a legszorosabbkapcsolatbanN)'ugat-Eur6pdval.Bizonyoskrilonbs€gekma is megfigyelhe-

t6k: a Dunrintulon alacsonyabba munkan6lkrilisdS,magasabbaz 6letszinvonal'6skisebb

a br1n6z6s.A legnagyobbkulonbs€gekazonbanBudapest€sa vidik kozott fedezhetdkfel:

af6vdrosbansokkalmagasabbakazdtlagj6vedelmek,itr vanalegtobbkulfoldi v,llalat szdk- helye,de a ibvdrosnagyonzsrilolt,a leve86jeerdsenszennyezett,dsitt alegmagasabbabii

noz6s.A budapestiekben€sa vid€kiekbenis dlnekbizonyos jellegzetes el6it6leteka m:isik

fdllelszemben:abudapesti€kn€hamilvelettenebbnek,t.ijakozadanabbnakrartjnkavicl6kie-

ket,mig azokolykor g6gosnek,nagykdpiinek6sbar.ilsiigtalannakldtjdkaf6vdrosiakal

34