Preface

This workbook entitled ‘Advance Statistics’ was written for the use of third year Special Science Class. The intent of this workbook is to present statistical tools applicable for science and mathematical researches. The discussions throughout the text and its explanation have been made brief and concise. Each chapter is provided with exercises to develop students’ skill in solving problems. This is one way to give them experiences and new challenging situations that they may find useful in later years. The degree of difficulty of problems ranges from simple to more challenging ones for the students to acquire mastery of the subject matter. It is hoped that this humble work would be of great help to students in their preparations for their future research studies. May this piece of hard work be a fitting tribute to all my co-teachers who have nothing but the noble intention of helping their students through sharing their expertise.

MARIO M. RAMON

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface ………. i …………………………………………………………………

Chapter 1

Normal Distribution

Normal Curve…………………………………………………………… ……. 1 Properties of the Normal Distribution …………………………… ….. 1 The Standard Normal Curve………………………………………… …. 2 Areas Under the Normal Curve…………………………………… …… 2 Producing Normal Probabilities Using Excel…………………… …. 4 The Central Limit Theorem………………………………………… ….. 7 Other Statistical Distribution……………………………………… ……. 8 Exercises………………………………………………………………… ……. 10

Chapter 2

Statistical Hypothesis Testing

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Concepts and Definitions…………………………………………… 17 Five-Step Procedure for Testing a Hypothesis …………………. 17 P-values in Hypothesis Test ………………………………………… 19 One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test …………………………………….. 20 Tests Concerning a Single Mean Large Sample ( Z – test ) …………………………………… 21 Small Sample ( t – test ) …………………………………… 24 Other Uses for the Normal Z – test ……………………………… 24 Two Samples: Tests on Two Means Normal Test for Two Independent Samples…………….. 29 Two-Sample t – test ………………………………………… 31 Test on a Single Proportion ………………………………………… 33 ii

Test on Two Proportions …………………………………………… …... 34 One – and – Two – Sample Tests Concerning Variances ……. 35 Goodness-of-Fit Test………………………………………………… ……. 37 Test for Independence ……………………………………………… ….. 38 Exercises………………………………………………………………… ……. 41

Chapter 3 Analysis

Regression

and

Correlation

The Correlation Analysis…………………………………………… ……. 58 Scatter Diagram ……………………………………………………… …… 58 Simple Linear Regression Model………………………………… ….. 60 The Coefficient of Determination………………………………… …. 63 Hypothesis Tests on Regression Coefficients ……………… …... 63 Exercises ………………………………………………………………… …… 65

Chapter 4

One-Way Analysis of Variance

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The F – Distribution…………………………………………………… 69 The One-Way Lay-Out ……………………………………………… 71 Introduction to Experimental Design …………………………… 71 Principles of Experimental Design ……………………………… 72 The ANOVA Test ……………………………………………………… 72 Multiple Comparisons………………………………………………… 75 Exercises ………………………………………………………………… 76

References …………………………………………………………………
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