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IU Information 2000: A University Plan CAUSE INFORMATION RESOURCES LIBRARY The attached document is provided through the CAUSE

Information Resources Library. As part of the CAUSE Information Resources Program, the Library provides CAUSE members access to a collection of information related to the development, use, management, and evaluation of information resources- technology, services, and information- in higher education. Most of the documents have not been formally published and thus are not in general distribution. Statements of fact or opinion in the attached document are made on the responsibility of the author(s) alone and do not imply an opinion on the part of the CAUSE Board of Directors, officers, staff, or membership. This document was contributed by the named organization to the CAUSE Information Resources Library. It is the intellectual property of the author(s). Permission to copy or disseminate all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for commercial advantage, that the title and organization that submitted the document appear, and that notice is given that this document was obtained from the CAUSE Information Resources Library. To copy or disseminate otherwise, or to republish in any form, requires written permission from the contributing organization. For further information: CAUSE, 4840 Pearl East Circle, Suite 302E, Boulder, CO 80301; 303449-4430; e-mail info@cause.colorado.edu. To order a hard copy of this document contact CAUSE or send e-mail to orders@cause.colorado.edu.

DRAFT DRAFT IU Information 2000: A University Plan Introduction

DRAFT

This is a strategic plan for the development of information resources at Indiana University over the next five years. The objective is to create an integrated and highly functional environment of electronic information and tools that can be delivered through a high-speed network to all offices, classrooms, and other places of scholarly work used by every faculty member, every student, and every staff member on all campuses of the University. This plan seeks to provide a collective vision for the development of information resources at Indiana University.

In doing so, it builds upon President Thomas Ehrlichs metaphor for Indiana University: One University with Eight Front Doors.[1] In this spirit, it places the burden on each campus, each school, each department, each administrative unit, and each individual to make appropriate and specific decisions about the implementation of this plan. The collective goal is to create an integrated and coherent information system that binds the parts of the University into a productive whole and that makes the most effective use of increasingly limited resources. I.The Higher Education Context Higher education is not immune from the great transformations that define the late 20th century. The industrialized world is in transition from an economy based on large-scale manufacturing to one based on service mediated by massive flows of information.[2] Sustained and sometimes turbulent change attends this transition, and all but the most isolated individuals and societies are touched by it in profound ways. Each individual must deal with episodes of major social and cultural change several times within the span of an average lifetime. These rapid transformations in the world of work and family, in the arts and in the sciences, and in the very fabric of life challenge universities in myriad ways. They add to the existing pedagogical burden the responsibility for educating individuals so that they can function productively in an economy and society based upon information rather than industrial production. Higher education is called upon to aid individuals in acquiring new knowledge and new skills throughout their lifetimes. Additional demands are placed on universities by the need for research in new fields and by the need for collaborative activities to tackle the problems society has marked as fundamental for the well being of its members and for the world in which they live. In this time of change, the pace and content of the curriculum are being subjected to strong criticism; the very definition of the word student is changing profoundly; the very value and role of the traditional academy are being questioned unremittingly. [3] In the last decade, there have been remarkable developments in information technologies, especially computing and telecommunications. In the decade ahead, network delivery of digital information in all media formats (e.g., audio, including music, full motion video, still pictures, document images, and the traditional text) will emerge as a powerful and cost-effective alternative to traditional analog and printed formats. The creation and deployment of digital media will give individuals and organizations unprecedented power to store and process diverse forms of information at reasonable costs. These benefits, however, are not without their associated costs. Reducing all media to a digital format, from the Beatles recordings to the text of Beowolf to the film version of Ben Hur, serves to blur the traditional lines of responsibility and authority for information resource management within universities. It is important to address these changing relationships among organizations and information if universities are to create a truly integrated information resource fabric that is effective and efficient and that conserves scarce financial and human resources. The keystone of the integrated body of information resources envisioned here is the development of a ubiquitous, integrated university-wide highspeed network that is based upon nationally recognized

technological standards. The escalating market cost of print-based information, the traditional and still predominant information resource at most universities, adds urgency to the task of creating an integrated information resources plan. In large measure, universities still define the quality of their scholarly information resources by the number of volumes their libraries physically possess. Yet a significant percentage of the books purchased by most research libraries never circulate and many articles in scholarly journals are never cited at all. The effective anonymity of such a large part of scholarly writing, due in part to the difficulty that one faces in gaining access to it, raises the effective price of that portion which is used to an almost unbearable level. It thus becomes imperative that the university exploit all opportunities to increase the functionality and decrease the costs of scholarly information by making access to collections of information more effective and efficient, by making the transition to electronic distribution as rapidly as possible, and by sharing resources electronically, not only throughout Indiana University, but on a national and global scale as well. Perhaps the largest factor in the costs associated with the traditional printed media is the existing economic and legal structures in which they are embedded. Scholarly monographs and journals, which once were the organs of scholarly societies, have increasingly become the property of major publishing firms and contribute to the profits of these enterprises. Copyright and trademark laws, which protect these properties when they are published in traditional ways, also serve as effective barriers to their electronic distribution. A fundamental challenge facing the academy is to find or help create economic and legal structures that will reflect the new potentials of electronic information transmission and still protect intellectual property rights. There are three themes--one social, one economic, and one technological-- that seem to signal the movement of universities into the post-industrial world . Each theme serves to expand the traditional model of a university and to challenge it in new ways. First, the definition of a university student is changing. Universities today must focus not only on the needs of students as they have been traditionally defined but on the needs of far more diverse student groups: minority students, those who are older and are returning to take up their education, and those who are employed full time and who have continuing education requirements. Second, universities have been subject to severe constraints in the resources that are available to support their missions. In response, there will be pressures to increase the productivity of faculty, students, and staff and to demonstrate accountability. Third, universities have positioned themselves in new national and global education markets. They have done so through the creation of high-speed, high-capacity digital information networks that connect their faculty and students to a worldwide community of scholars and scholarship. Indiana University is meeting these general challenges as well as a host of others that are particular to its own unique situation as a statewide institution with eight campuses in all parts of the State, urban and rural. II.The Indiana University Context The academic environment at Indiana University includes a

comprehensive and diverse set of undergraduate, graduate, and professional education programs and a rich array of research and creative activities spanning the disciplines. There is a strong emphasis on funded research, especially in the sciences and medicine. Programs with an international focus are particularly strongly developed. This diversity creates pressures that challenge the ability to provide an overall integrated information resource environment. Indiana University has a head start on many of the issues facing all of higher education. It has an effective presence in all parts of the State. Instead of viewing the institution as a system of colonies on the campuses outside Bloomington, the mission of IU has been focused so that each campus is a key part of a broad institutional response to the changing needs of Indiana and its citizens. As a united group of unique campuses, Indiana University responds more effectively to the diverse requirements of our chaotic age than either isolated and independent individual institutions or a homogeneous assemblage of identical campuses. Indiana University is poised to provide learning opportunities that will extend the boundaries of its campuses to reach every citizen at any time of day or night. The eight Indiana University campuses are strategically located so that 80% of the citizens of the State can reach one of them with less than a 30-minute commute. Internally, these campuses are linked, as peers, by a high-speed, University-wide digital network. This network forges some of the bonds that sustain One University With Eight Front Doors, and it provides the means for distributing the information that is the crucial raw material of teaching, learning, and administration among all the campuses. Some of the individual campuses are connected to community television and other systems to deliver instruction into homes and workplaces. Plans are in place to expand the delivery of higher education through technology to all parts of the state. III.The Technology Context In this last decade of the 20th century, Indiana University is at the threshold of a new age in computing. This new age will be characterized by dramatic advances in computing performance, new functionality, and user friendliness. The challenge for Indiana University will be in finding the best ways to leverage this new power to make equally dramatic breakthroughs in teaching, research, service, and administration. By the year 2000, high-speed read/write permanent data storage will be measured in dollars per gigabyte (one billion characters of information), not dollars per megabyte (one million characters) as it is today. This large, fast, cheap storage will enable many new applications and technologies such as digital multimedia and personalized electronic information sources. The use of inexpensive, large capacity write-once storage media like CD-ROM will grow rapidly. CD-ROM increasingly will serve as the distribution medium of choice for software, electronic publishing, digital multimedia, and specialized databases for desktop use. Mainframe time-shared computers will be largely replaced by both

general and specialized servers that will interact transparently with a distributed array of workstation-based client applications. These servers will be based on computer architectures, such as RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) and MPP (Massively Parallel Processors), that are being introduced in large numbers today. Combined, these new technologies will provide tremendous performance improvements for both general and specialized processing needs. Workstations will become significantly more powerful. By the end of this decade $15,000 will buy a workstation that is one million times more powerful than a mainframe computer that cost $15 million two decades ago. Advances in distributed database technology, network bandwidth and networking protocols, storage media and access methods, operating systems, and graphical user interfaces, will enable these powerful workstations to assume the role of intelligent information hubs. As information hubs, they will seamlessly search local, campus, regional, national, and world-wide databases, providing rapid access to everything from a local phone number, to economic statistics for any nation, to the current research abstracts in any discipline. The creation of a distributed computing environment, however, will demand new management structures to insure the veracity, security, and safety of mission-critical institutional data and the external sources of information used by scholars in their research. Computer networks, implemented with wireless technologies, will offer a ubiquitous connection to all the computing resources of Indiana University. With ubiquitous, omni-present connections will come the increasing use of personal digital assistants and laptop, notebook, and pen-based computers. As part of the federal governments High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, by the end of this decade, the National Research and Education Network (NREN) will provide a 3Gbit/second bandwidth network linking the Nation's top research centers. This network will be nearly 70 times faster than current 45Mbit/second networks. This tremendous increase in communication bandwidth will enable a new level of scholarly collaboration. Current wide-scale use of fiber optics in campus-wide, regional and national networks will expand into local networks and, perhaps, to the desktop. This expanded use of fiber optics in computer networks along with other market forces will further reduce costs and increase both performance and reliability. Instructional methods, and the work of the University as a whole, will benefit greatly by advances in digital multimedia and by collaboration software known as groupware. Powerful workstations and new technologies for Indiana University campus-wide networks will provide the ideal platform and transportation mechanism for realtime, collaborative, and interactive presentation of CDquality audio, high resolution still images, animation, full motion video, and multi-point video conferencing. Standards which promote open systems will increasingly enable interoperability in heterogeneous computing environments while at the same time encourage vendor-independent solutions for

instruction, research, service, and administration. Information Technology and the Missions of the University If the broad, general predictions outlined above for the higher education environment of the next decade are accurate, it should be helpful to consider the development and use of technology along the lines of the missions of the university: teaching, research, and service. I.Teaching and Learning As the nation becomes more dependent on information (a society of Informavores as Fritz Machlup has observed), new skills will be required by both traditional and non-traditional students. In the information age, students and faculty alike will need to become more proficient in accessing, filtering, synthesizing, and organizing ever larger masses of material. There will be continued emphasis on the development of critical thinking skills, and there will be increased emphasis on collaborative learning, some of which will be mediated by information technology. In many instances, the traditional lecture will be enhanced and transformed by teaching methods infused with technology that will make them more effective and productive. Many of the social and economic factors that currently bar some students from residential study on a traditional college campus will be reduced or eliminated. Multimedia distance education-through which instruction is delivered at a time, place, and pace chosen by the student-- undoubtedly will play an important role in shaping the university of the future; it will be crucial if the university is to offer education to many of those who would be called non-traditional or new majority students. This form of education will expand the options for teaching and learning far beyond their current bounds. Educational opportunities will grow as specific student populations and needs are targeted. Educational programs directed toward social problems, business needs, and work force development could speed the transformation from a society rooted in largescale industrial enterprises to one that is sustained by knowledge and by a rich base of information. In any event, the workplace will continue to demand a greater understanding of technology and a greater facility to find and use information by employees. Although there will be greater focus on technology-based instruction and on distance education, the fundamentals of the educational process will not be altered by these changes in view. Learners will still approach new knowledge from a subjective perspective and expand their horizons either through direct or mediated experiences. As they gain richer understanding through those experiences, students will come to conceptual understandings and ultimately to new discoveries. The expanded role for information technology in this learning process is to improve, as dramatically as possible, what already is being done. Moreover, it should create alternative learning environments for those students who have either not been able to succeed in the traditional university classroom or who have not had the option of

attending a traditional university. A. Changing Social Aspects of Learning, Discovery, and Understanding A sense of community is essential to the learning process. Applications of new technology not only increase the potential for greater interaction among participants in the learning process, but they also expand the size and scope of the learning community. Electronic mail and electronic classrooms, for example, bring opportunities for communication between and among instructors and students. Experts, faculty colleagues, and other individuals at remote sites can be introduced easily to, and interact with, a group of learners through technology, thereby creating a collaborative learning environment. Remote learning can expand the opportunity for development of community. As learning shifts from a site specific model to encompass a distance model, diverse combinations of people, learning with each other, are greatly facilitated. Students' peers no longer will be limited to a particular subset of individuals living in a specific region or on a specific campus, but peers and mentors will come from many locations and cultures. Such diversity, even when mediated by information technology, can enhance and broaden everyones understanding of multi-cultural perspectives. B. Access to Information

New technologies will provide access to increased amounts of information. Moreover, as information continues to become available in electronic form, it will become increasingly accessible to a greater number of users. For example, the prohibitive costs of making rare materials accessible to large numbers of users can be eliminated when the information is put into electronic form. At the same time, information that was previously available only in linear form, as in a book, can be accessed electronically through rapid subject, word, and text searches. Audio and video materials increasingly will be integrated with print and graphic materials, and students will come to expect information "on demand" without regard to the medium on which it is written. Interactive technologies, including CD-based and live interactive instruction, will become commonplace. For example, in the not too distant future, a class might interact with a laboratory staff member in another part of the nation through digital video delivered over the network. Alternatively, computer programs can be written to simulate such interaction between an expert and a student and can serve as a virtual example of the actual experience. Collaboration among students and between students and faculty will remain extremely important to the learning process, and opportunities for collaboration through voice, video, and computer technology will increase between now and the year 2000. C. Richness of Content

Incorporating many technologies and using them to provide information in a variety of ways, such as through

simulation exercises, computer-based tutorials, and multimedia learning experiences, will provide richness of content. The quality of the learning material will improve continually, especially as market demands increase supply and lower price. As learners interact using new media, the content of instruction should become richer. If, indeed, the paradigm for instruction remains essentially intact, the need for individual firsthand experiences will persist. Yet virtual instructional environments and simulations can lead to new experiences and the discoveries they might engender. With new technology, the line between direct and mediated experience can become blurred when simulation and multimedia programs are well designed. If the new technologies provide opportunities to enrich learning environments, then support issues become more complicated and more important. The crucial personal needs of individual learners will remain and will place additional demands on faculty and support staff. Moreover, well developed faculty support programs will be necessary to implement many technology-based enhancements in instruction. II.Research and Creative Activity Just as the fundamental paradigm for instruction is not likely to change, neither will the basic research paradigm be altered drastically . The library and its collections, whether print or electronic, will remain a fundamental asset for research and a primary gateway to organized bodies of information and knowledge. The laboratory, as the locus of controlled experiments, and the social and natural worlds, as the loci of experiments controlled by methods of selection and comparison, will yield ever increasing bodies of data. Recognizing significant problems, formulating questions, constructing hypotheses and their alternatives, setting up experiments, gathering and analyzing data, all will remain at the heart of research. If data gathering and analysis become easier through the assistance of technology, research designs might be expanded and become more ambitious, conclusions and theoretical implications could become broader and more precise, and the research process thereby enhanced. By the same token, creative activity already is expanding in new directions, using the computer and digital media as a basis for music and video art. It is clear that the integration of information technology in the arts and sciences already has had a profound impact on research and creative activities in diverse fields and disciplines; it is equally clear that the future impact on the creative arts and the natural and social sciences will be several orders of magnitude greater than it is today. A.New Investigations and Old Fields New subjects and disciplines and new methods of expression will arise because new technologies will allow investigation into expanded fields of experiences. Technology has enabled us to see further [the space telescope], smaller [the scanning electron microscope], more precisely [laser inferrometers] and to create new kinds of art and visual experiences [virtual reality]. Technology has facilitated and mediated the collection of vast amounts of data [the census; financial databases; LANDSAT and SPOT images; the outcomes of

cyclotron experiments] and allowed their analyses and presentation to occur in ways that can be grasped by the human intellect. New technology should allow scholars to revisit old topics with new insights and to stimulate much broader areas of study. Historical information can be the subject of new types of analysis [historical demography of Medieval France; the effects of the Little Ice Age of the 15th century on agricultural productivity in Scandinavia]; textual analyses can incorporate a large corpora of an age and tongue [ARTFL, the full text database of historical French literature]. Prospecting in archives and repositories of scientific, historical, and literary data and text will become far easier and access to them will not be constrained by the specifics of place and time occupied by any particular scholar. Key to such exploration will be the tools necessary to traverse the Internet [the digital network that connects most of the major research universities in the world], search the resources attached to it with intelligence and economy, and provide organization to the information that is returned to the user who has initiated the request. Technology offers the potential for scholars at diverse locations and institutions to increase the number of contacts they have with researchers and colleagues at other locations. Structured (ListServ and USENET news) and unstructured (e-mail) digital conversations across the Internet are creating virtual research groups today. Perhaps tomorrow, with the growth and maturity of these information tools, expertise at one university might be shared systematically with another university, thereby broadening and strengthening the research and creative activities of both. B.Greater Opportunity for Collaboration With greater opportunity for collaboration, new questions are likely to be asked and new discoveries are likely to be made. The entire velocity of research should increase. The process of electronic collaboration will itself become central to learning and teaching. Collaboration will become a scholarly tool equal in importance to bibliographic prowess and statistical skills. Study across disciplines and institutions should be enhanced in proportion to the extent that researchers become electronically linked with peers in other departments and institutions. Interdisciplinary study long has been one of the great strengths of Indiana University, and with sufficient effort and the assistance of technology, it should remain so over the next decade. Electronic distribution of articles already has reduced publishing lead times in some disciplines dramatically; by the same token, electronic journals and preprints have increased the number of scholars who participate in informal academies within and among traditional scholarly disciplines. Electronic publishing raises fundamental issues about intellectual property rights and the rewards offered for the products of intellectual work. It is essential to revise copyright and other laws and regulations to reflect this age of information technology if the fruits of research and creative activity are to be made available to broader audiences over electronic networks. High potential exists for increasing faculty

collaboration throughout Indiana University because of the close administrative and academic connections among its campuses. Using networks, the time costs of collaboration can be minimized, travel time and expense can be greatly reduced, and barriers that may be strictly a function of space and distance can be broken. Opportunity for collaboration at remote sites outside traditional institutional boundaries will also increase. Supercomputing centers, for example, and other very expensive research tools no longer need to be available only to those who may happen to live in a particular region in the nation. Nor will the kind of interaction that may have occurred previously only at national and international conferences be limited to such infrequent meetings. Instead, researchers are able to interact easily with colleagues all over the world who may have similar, and perhaps very specialized, interests. C.Expanded Use of Simulation Simulation will provide tools and opportunities for research and creative activity in areas that might be impossible otherwise. In many fields it will free the researcher from the housekeeping functions of a research experiment and the studio. It will allow more time to be spent on the creative aspects of scholarship: posing of sharp research questions, systematic gathering of precise data, insightful analysis and formulation of broader conclusions, the creation of new artistic works, and the reinterpretation of the classics. Technologies will take over the mechanics, allowing the scholar, the scientist, and the artist to be more productive. Virtual reality systems will become available in numerous disciplines, i.e., medicine, astronomy, geology. Simulation can easily be expanded in the creative arts as well. For example, refinements can be made to theater productions, painting, weaving, and other fine arts before actual expressions are made on the stage or canvas. III.Service Indiana University will apply new and expanding technologies to the achievement of its service mission. Service involves the application of professional skills, faculty and staff expertise, disciplinary knowledge and institutional resources in support of: 1) the university and its units; 2) scholarly and professional organizations; and 3) external communities ranging from those local to each campus through the state, nation, and world. Technology will enable the University to interact with and strengthen its ties to larger and more diverse audiences in comprehensive, sophisticated, and powerful ways. A.Service to the University and Its Units Service to the University and its units will be enhanced by routine availability of more effective tools for communication and collaboration. The work of faculty, staff, and student committees and task forces will be facilitated by more routine voice and video conferencing capabilities. Intercampus activity, in particular, will benefit from this technology application.

The expanding technology experience and expertise of faculty and staff increasingly will be applied to the development of academic and administrative programs and to the solution of institutional problems. Access to institutional data will be increased, as more records are stored electronically and historical files become machine readable. The focus will shift from efficient data storage to its effective access, organization, and use. B.Service through Scholarly and Professional Organizations Indiana University faculty and staff will continue to achieve positions of leadership and influence in regional, national and international professional and scholarly organizations. Professional service activity increasingly will be supported by technology and information resource developments. Communication and collaboration among professional colleagues will improve; the need to travel to professional meetings could be reduced by more routine and effective use of expanding telecommunications capabilities for consultation. Faculty and staff of Indiana University must continue to position themselves as leaders in their professional and scholarly organizations as these groups address important technology and information issues. Such issues include training and resource sharing, establishment of standards, legal protection for individuals and ideas, security of technology and information, and ownership of various elements of the global technology infrastructure. Technology will emphasize the fact that faculty are often more part of an intellectual discipline that is global in nature than bounded by institutional perimeters. Indiana Universitys traditional strengths in international programs will be supported by rapid improvements in international telecommunications and language translation software. C.Service to External Communities Rich opportunities for service enhancement exist in the relationship of the University to its public communities. These include education, government, business, cultural organizations, social service agencies, and communities defined by special, shared characteristics such as physical or mental disabilities, employment status, ethnic or linguistic identity, and so on. These communities and the opportunities to provide them service exist at every geographic level from local to global. In service to these communities the University becomes a transfer agent from and through which new information and technology are distributed. In laboratories, studios, and libraries, new ideas are formed, tested, and developed. In the communities it serves, Indiana University puts these discoveries to work in service applications. The University should build partnerships with and then build upon the strategic developments that are taking place in the communications industry today. This enhanced service and expanded capacity should provide the means by which the University could

become the hub in electronic village projects, linking the academy and its external communities in mutually-enhancing partnerships. IV.Information Technology and Administration Given the current environment and the future of the University's traditional missions of teaching, research, and service, issues are being addressed concerning the effective operation of the University with scarce financial and physical resources.[4] Several considerations will be integral to the administrative and decision-making processes: 1) treating students as consumers; 2) focus on administrative quality; 3) effective use of administrative data and empowered decision-making; and 4) new organizational structures. Use of the appropriate information technologies can help Indiana University deal effectively with these issues. A.Students as Consumers In the 1990s the University will continue to focus on the student as its most important consumer of services. Learning and the associated administrative processes should be designed to be rewarding and productive experiences for the student. The University should deliver student services unencumbered by bureaucratic processes. For example, in the area of course enrollment, technology will continue to be used to maximize the match between course offerings and student demand while minimizing the time and effort spent by students on this process. In this and other areas -- paying bills, applying for financial aid, seeking advice and guidance, etc. -- the service delivery must focus on the student as the customer of these services, and technology must be applied and adapted to improve the quality of this delivery. B.Focus on Administrative Quality The limited resources of the University will be directed to those activities most central to its mission. Improved quality of administrative services is an enabling factor for higher quality in the entire academic enterprise. Information systems and technology such as electronic approvals must be applied to simplify and improve the quality of administrative processes of the University (e.g. purchasing, payroll, budgeting, personnel actions) so that they can achieve their goals more efficiently and effectively. C.Effective Use of Data Good decisions, whether made by individual students or by faculty and staff on behalf of the organization, depend on the availability of good data. These data must be timely, relevant, and easy to interpret or manipulate. Students should be able to access and review basic computerized information about themselves: their current enrollment, their financial aid status, progress toward their degree, status of their bursar charges, etc. Faculty must be able to access a class roster, conduct electronic course evaluations, review a grant account, or retrieve a student record for an advisee. All staff should have access to institutional computerized records needed in the course of their daily work.

Ultimately decisions will be made more often by front-line staff, and to make this possible staff must be empowered with the information they need to make these decisions. Indiana University has made great advances in providing appropriate and timely information that is necessary for the work of staff, students, and faculty; yet seamless access to all relevant data by appropriate and authorized individuals remains an unfulfilled goal today. D.New Organizational Structures In an era of cost-containment, the University will make an assessment of all administrative and academic support services offered: areas of redundancy may be merged, and strict hierarchical structures may be replaced or supplemented by networks of individuals drawn from several organizations. Additionally, services will be evaluated for delivery under central management versus delivery under distributed management, and services that can be performed more economically and at a higher service level by outside agencies will be evaluated as candidates for outsourcing. In all cases, technology will be adopted to support the organizational structures chosen: electronic communication and groupware for network organizations, distributed information management systems for distributed service delivery, central systems for centrally managed services, integrated information for University-wide management and decision-making, etc. Under these new structures, bureaucracy will be reduced and the quality of service should increase markedly.

Five-Year Goals To achieve the stated vision for the Indiana University information environment and to enhance the mission of the University, the following goals are set forth. Although not meant to be inflexible either in their scope or in their potential deployment, they are offered for all campuses, departments, institutes and other organizations that comprise Indiana University. These goals take as their underlying metaphor and model the notion of peers on the network. There are eight peers on IUNet, the eight Indiana University campuses and their respective computing organizations and networks; there are perhaps two hundred local area networks [LANs] on the several campuses of Indiana University, and each of these networks is a peer on its own campus network; each of those LANs, in turn, has scores of individuals and their workstations attached to it, and they too are peers on their respective networks. Independent decisions and choices are made by individuals and organizations at each level on the network, but, beyond the adherence to a common set of standards, decisions are not imposed on one level by another (neither from the top down nor from the bottom up). Together, these nested networks are the foundations of the Indiana University information environment. I. Infrastructure

A.Deploy information technology that allows intuitive, seamless access to sources of knowledge and data that support the scholarly missions and orderly administration of Indiana University.

A1.Expand the data networks capacity and connectivity to meet the rapidly evolving network application base. A2.Develop specialized information servers that provide institutional, instructional, and research clients with seamless access to system-wide repositories of data (text, audio, and still and motion images). Support CIC-Net, other regional and national networks, and the Wide Area Information Services they make available. A3.Capture as much of the mission-critical information into electronically accessible form as possible and practical. B.Insure system interoperability through standards. B1.Establish information storage, retrieval, and exchange standards to facilitate seamless and productive access to system-wide information repositories. B2.Establish standards for the physical environment for the safe and appropriate use of technology and conformance to the Americans with Disabilities Act and other applicable codes and regulations. C.Assure sufficient recapitalization of equipment. C1.Provide sufficient funds for the recapitalization of the information resource infrastructure. C2.Provide incentives to encourage the migration to strategically important technologies, especially from large, central systems to a distributed system model. D.Promote the use and development of information navigation and filtering methods to enhance the usefulness of the increasingly overwhelming amount of available information. E.Promote increased technological literacy for the whole University community and provide formal training and support. F.Provide a distributed support organization, with both a physical and electronic presence on each campus of the University, to assure the well being of the Indiana University network and the resources that have been attached to and form an integral part of it. II. Teaching and Learning

A.Use technology to extend the boundaries of the campus to include access to wider geographic areas, student populations, and resources. B.Equip learning environments to allow for the integration of on-line information and multimedia instructional systems. C.Build a distributed support system which includes adequate design and development staff, suitable production equipment, and opportunities for creating and using instructional

technology to increase the learning gains achieved with traditional classroom methods and to provide alternative learning strategies for those students who have not succeeded in the traditional classroom setting. Promote course development teams to revitalize existing courses and design new courses which will utilize the cognitive-- affective and supportive--nature of technology. D. Familiarize faculty about innovations in methods of using technology to enhance learning and teaching. E.Provide incentives for faculty to develop and offer enriched learning opportunities in their courses through the use of media and technology. Establish clear connections between innovative instructional strategies and promotion (e.g., under Teaching Activities, Section B of the Faculty Summary Report, request the title, course number, and a short description of courses that have used technology in their development and revision). F.Research and apply appropriate teaching strategies for distance education using technologically-enhanced instruction, encourage production of distance learning course materials, and coordinate the use of both these and similar materials from other sources. III. Research and Creative Activity

A.Expand access to high performance compute servers, both central and local, and increase bandwidth of local high-speed networks and links to national research networks. B.Implement technology and software which will allow research colleagues to electronically collaborate more effectively and conveniently in all forms, e.g., joint document creation and editing and voice/video conferencing. C.Develop the necessary information environment to support research in all disciplines including access to appropriate local, regional, national and international information resources. D.Familiarize faculty about innovations in methods of using technology to enhance research and creative activities. IV. Service

A.Contribute to state, national and international discussions of important technology and information issues. A1.Position and financially support IU faculty and staff in leadership positions of organizations dealing with technology and information issues. A2.Organize a series of seminars at Indiana University focusing on technology and information issues facing higher education. B.Apply technology initiatives to the traditional

service mission of the University. B1.Develop an electronic village project with selected Indiana communities. B2.Expand the use of information technologies to transfer new information to external constituencies. C.Use technology to extend the service boundaries of the institution to include access to wider geographic areas. V. Information Technology and Administration

A.Ensure that faculty and administrative staff have access to institutional data with easy-to-learn and easy-to-use tools. B.Implement quality information systems which allow students and faculty to concentrate on academic pursuits unencumbered by bureaucratic processes and ineffective practices. C.Move toward the paperless University; for example, implement a system of electronic approvals and practices of electronic record archiving and develop an electronic course evaluation system. D.Use information technology to enhance, maintain and manage our physical, human, financial and information resources. E.Familiarize administrators about innovations in the use of technology to enhance administration. Develop and initiate plans to incorporate business process improvement and quality improvement into the administrative operations of the University. Performance Measures: What Constitutes Success? Four unambiguous numerical measures of success can be offered immediately. The network must have sufficient bandwidth and connectivity to meet the intra- and inter-campus need for digital communication and the need for access to sources of information and information technology worldwide. All offices, workplaces, lecture halls and classrooms, and campus residences should have direct connections to their respective campus networks. A number of classrooms and lecture halls equal to demonstrable faculty demand should have appropriate digital and analog control and display technology for multi-media presentations in support of their teaching; that is, no faculty member should be prevented from using multi-media in support of teaching because appropriate equipment is not available in the classroom. Finally, students, staff, and faculty should have unimpeded access to the information and information technology necessary for their work as learners, teachers, and administrators. Beyond these straightforward measures, success must be defined by those who actually use information resources and technology in their work. Each organization responsible for the provision of such resources should periodically survey a sample of their users and measure their satisfaction and the degree to which they believe these several goals are being met. In turn, the Information Resources Council should continue to refine the

current set of goals and develop additional goals. They should do so in response to the success in meeting current goals, the continued development of information technology, and the evolution of the intellectual and information environments which challenges the scholars and scholarship of Indiana University. Finally, direct measures should be constructed to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of current information technology as well as future technologies that will be deployed under this plan. Some form of Activity Based Costing should be used to measure the real costs of the initiatives taken under this plan; some form of assessment should be implemented to measure their efficacy when integrated into the work of the University.

Don Agostino Gerry Bernbom Garland Elmore Norma Holland Sonja Johnson (ex officio) Polley McClure, chairemerita Howard Mellinger Jim Neal Chris Peebles, chair Sue Stager (ex officio) Larry Tenny Jim Williams References

ENDNOTES******************************** [1]. President Thomas Ehrlich, Our University in the State, August 1987; Our University in the State: Lessons Learned, Fall 1989; Our University in the STate: Educating the New Majority, Spring 1991. IU: One University. Indiana at Its Best, Academic Planning Paper, Fall, 1988. [2]. See, for example, The Corporation of the 1990s: Information Technology and Orgaizational Transformation, edited by Michael S. Scott Morton, Oxford University Press, 1991. [3]. Some of the most profound statements of the role of all education in modern (or post-modern) society can be found in: Thinking for a Living: Education and the Wealth of Nations, by

Ray Marshall and Marc Tucker, Basic Books, 1992; The Work of Nationa: Preparing OUrselves for the 21st-Century Capitalism, by Robert B. Reich, Knopf, 1991. [4]. See, for example, Policy Perspectives, Volume 4, Number 4, February 1993, Published by the Pew Higher Education Research Program.