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Study Guide for Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science Key Terms to Know:

Astronomy Biosphere Closed system Earth Science Earth system science Environment Geology Geosphere Hydrosphere Hypothesis Interface Lithosphere Meteorology Nebular hypothesis Negative feedback mechanism Oceanography Open system Paradigm Physical environment Positive feedback mechanism Renewable resource System Theory

Good review questions of some of the more difficult concepts

Describe the steps of the Scientific Method. Contrast renewable and nonrenewable resources. Give examples of each. How is an open system different from a closed system? Contrast positive feedback mechanisms and negative feedback mechanisms.

Exam question are similar, but not exactly like these:

This term literally means study of Earth. A. Earth science B. meteorology C. geology D. geomorphology E. historical

Geology is traditionally divided into two broad areas called physical and nonphysical geology. A. True B. False What science focuses on the study of environments such the coast and processes controlling the movement of seawater, as well as the abundant and varied life found in the marine environment? A. geology B. meteorology C. astronomy D. oceanography E. biology Which science is divided into two divisions of the study of the physical processes and the study of the chronological events. A. geology B. meteorology C. oceanography D. biology The conditions that surround and influence an organism are referred to as the __________. A. resource B. social sphere C. technosphere D. environment You are getting ready for school and need to know whether or not to bring an umbrella. You should consult a/an: A. geologist B. paleontologist C. meteorologist D. astrophysicist E. none of the above

To better understand Earth, it would be helpful to learn more about how our planet relates to the solar system and the universe by investigating the science of __________. A. meteorology B. biology C. oceanography D. geology E. astronomy Astronomy is the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate. A. True B. False Earth is a dynamic, ever-changing planet. A. True B. False Internal forces are responsible for all erosional landscapes. A. True B. False __________ refers to everything that surrounds and influences an organism. A. Containment B. Sphere C. System D. Shell E. none of the above Natural resources include A. water B. soil C. gold D. coal E. all of the above

Which of the following is not considered a renewable resource? A. most forest products B. hydroelectric energy C. coal D. solar energy E. chickens Artificial changes as a result of human activities always produce beneficial effects. A. True B. False The process in which researchers father facts through observations and formulate scientific hypotheses and theories is called the __________. A. model testing hypothesis B. random analysis C. scientific method D. observation model E. none of the above A tentative (or untested) explanation of a natural phenomenon is called a scientific __________. A. truth B. fact C. paradigm D. theory E. hypothesis All science is bases on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study. A. True B. False As a hypothesis stands up to experimentation, and other competing hypotheses are proven false, the hypothesis is likely to advance to acceptance as a __________. A. fact B. theory C. law D. none of the above Which of the following ways is not included in how to test a hypothesis? A. popular belief B. predictions C. strict analysis of data D. repetition of experiments E. none of the above Paradigms are narrow and isolated in scope to achieve a high degree of certainty. A. True B. False

The __________ suggests that the bodies of the solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud composed mostly of hydrogen and __________. A. nebular hypothesis; oxygen B. planetary theory; helium C. protoplanet model; oxygen D. protoplanet model; silicon E. nebular hypothesis; helium Shortly after Earth formed, __________, coupled with hear released by colliding particles, produced at least some melting of the interior. A. radioactive decay B. internal combustion C. photosynthesis D. friction D. nuclear fission Earth and the other planets formed during essentially the same time span and from the same primordial material as the Sun. A. True False The solar system began forming approximately 13-15 billion years ago. A. True B. False As the inner planets formed, the solar winds whisked away the lighter elements. A. True B. False Early in the formation of the Earth, melting allowed the denser elements, principally iron and nickel, to sink to the center of the planet. A. True B. False Earth is located in the __________ galaxy. A. Andromeda B. Milky Way C. Hubble D. Pin Wheel

A very large interstellar cloud of dust and gases is called a ____________. A. meteorite B. comet C. protosun D. nebula E. protoplanet The age of Earth is best approximated at ____________. A. A. 6,00 yrs old B. 15 billion yrs old C. 4.5 billion yrs old E. 2. Billion yrs old

D. 4.5 million yrs old

Which of the following sets of planets correctly identifies the four inner rocky planets, in order starting from the closest to the Sun? A. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter B. Mercury, Mars, Venus, and Earth C. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars D. Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth The global ocean covers _______ percent of Earths surface. A. 71 B. 38 C. 42 D. 65 E. 83 Humans are part of the Earth system. A. True B. False

Most natural systems are __________ systems where both energy and matter flow into and out. A. closed B. inverted C. hidden D. open E. none of the above Eighty percent of Earths atmosphere lies below an altitude of 5.6 kilometers (3.5 miles). A. True B. False The Hydrosphere is restricted to our global oceans. A. True B. False Soil is part of the __________. A. hydrosphere B. biosphere C. geosphere D. atmosphere

The geosphere is known as the Solid Earth. A. True B. False Life is restricted to only the ___________. A. surface of the land. B. areas accessible to air C. warm areas water D. none of the above D. sunlit ocean

The Earth spere, called the _______, includes the freshwater found in streams, lakes, glaciers, as well as that existing underground. A. atmosphere B. hydrosphere C. biosphere D. geosphere