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Designing and Implementing the CUNY Open Systems Center Copyright CAUSE 1994.

This paper was presented at the 1994 CAUSE Annual Conference held in Orlando, FL, November 29December 2, , and is part of the conference proceedings published by CAUSE. Permission to copy or disseminate all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for commercial advantage, that the CAUSE copyright notice and the title and authors of the publication and its date appear, and that notice is given that copying is by permission of CAUSE, the association for managing and using information resources in higher education. To copy or disseminate otherwise, or to republish in any form, requires written permission from CAUSE. For further information: CAUSE, 4840 Pearl East Circle, Suite 302E, Boulder, CO 80301; 303449-4430; e-mail info@cause.colorado.edu

DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING THE CUNY OPEN SYSTEMS CENTER Richard F. Rothbard Vice Chancellor for Budget, Finance and Information Services The City University of New York Michael Ribaudo University Dean for Instructional Technology The City University of New York Colette Wagner Director of Education, Training and Staff Development The City University of New York Professor Michael Kress Computer Science Department The College of Staten Island/CUNY James Murtha University Dean for Computer Information Services The City University of New York I. THE ROLE OF REORGANIZATION by Richard F. Rothbard

Abstract: The creation of the CUNY Open Systems Center as an outcome of a reorganization of the central computing enterprise of a large urban university system will be introduced. In July of 1993, the CUNY Office of Budget, Finance, and Computing embarked upon an ambitious reorganization plan. The plan was the result of a thorough examination, conducted by colleges and representatives of the central administration, of the needs of the University and its colleges in the areas of computing, telecommunications, and related technologies, and the resultant call for us to exercise leadership in

planning for and implementing technological solutions, where appropriate, for the many academic and administrative challenges facing CUNY. Far from representing a mere name change to the Office of Budget, Finance and Information Services, CUNY's central computing enterprise has undergone a top to bottom reorientation to serve better the needs of the colleges and to position better the University to make the most effective use of current and emerging technologies in the service of higher education. And the emphasis is very deliberately on Information Services and not Systems, in recognition of the fact that systems are merely tools that may be helpful in achieving an objective, not the objective itself. Rather, our goal is to provide services in the new information age, services that all of us are either required to perform by internal and external mandates, or want to provide by virtue of our shared notions of how to improve life for our students, faculty and staff. One of the first major outcomes of the reorganization was the Fall 1993 inauguration of the Open Systems Center, a high-end research and training facility located in the Computer Information Services offices at the University's central hub that is designed to serve as a testbed for the application of new technology to problems encountered by the University's professional staff in teaching, research and administration. This morning, Michael Ribaudo, University Dean for Instructional Technology and Industry & Government Partnerships will offer a look at how the creation of the Center emerged from the reorganization and how it took technological shape. Colette Wagner, University Director of Education and Training, will report on the diverse instructional activities currently under development at the Open System Center, Mike Kress, will then speak to you briefly about a number of advanced technology projects that he and his graduate students have been working on and Jim Murtha, University Dean for Comuter Information Services, will address issues regarding sustaining the Open Systems Center effort. Since I'm sure with the diversity of interest represented in this group our prepared remarks might not address every aspect of the project, we'll try to leave ten to fifteen minutes at the end of the session for discussion and questions -- as well as to clear up as much as we can the inevitable confusion that may be plaguing you at the time. II. BUILDING A PHYSICAL CENTER AND FORMING A VIRTUAL TEAM by Michael Ribaudo

Abstract: The basic philosophy of the Open Systems Center and a chronicle of its development and operation will be presented. Issues to be covered include: relationship of the initiative to the reorganization of the CUNY Information Services enterprise, installed equipment base and overall strategy. The Open System Center we are talking to you about here today

is actually a small physical embodiment of a larger philosophical construct that has guided the progress of central computing at the City University of New York since the computing and telecommunications area for the Central Office was reorganized into its current structure in July of 1993. Prior to that, much of the thinking which governed the delivery of central computing services could be characterized as largely "Mainframe-Centric". The environment was more like the traditional 'glass house' computer center, with few staff having had any exposure to UNIX based workstations; the orientation of the networking infrastructure being almost totally limited to an IBM/327x/SNA view of the world. In fact, at the time of the reorganization only one or two of the forty or so full-time staff members had anything on their desktops other than a dumb terminal. In the year and a half or so since the reorganization things have changed considerably. All staff members now have either Intel 486-based or Macintosh machines on their desks, every workstation is connected to a ubiquitously deployed highspeed ethernet network, and we've introduced a suite of servers running almost half a dozen varieties of the UNIX operating system. We haven't as yet thrown away any of our mainframes, but the work those mainframes do now is somewhat different from what they've done in the past. Our central mainframes are now doing what smaller campus based mainframes did for the last twenty or so years at CUNY. By aggressively engaging in a system-wide program of mainframe consolidation, we have been able to afford considerable savings to the CUNY colleges which in increasing number are choosing to run their own locally based administrative mainframe systems on the central processors. By the end of this academic year, over one third of the CUNY colleges will be running their administrative systems"--"for the most part, their student registration systems"--"at the University's central computing facility on West 57th Street in midtown Manhattan. The shift in central mainframe workload from a primarily academic orientation to a more administrative one provided the initial impetus for creating the Open Systems Center. In order to free up the mainframe cycles and DASD cylinders to accommodate the college administrative systems, we needed to provide alternative and perhaps more appropriate platforms for users looking to port their applications elsewhere. While our utilization studies were telling us that instructional use of the mainframe by students had trailed off considerably over the years, faculty research usage remained high. The time had in fact come for folks like our social science researchers who over the years had become whetted to running SAS or SPSS on the mainframe under MVS to look at the approaching millennium. Another compelling reason for establishing the Center was our desire to provide faculty interested in developing multimedia courseware applications with a central site where those skills could be developed and nurtured. The university had already obtained site licenses for a number of high end authoring languages and tools and a number of the applications written internally for instructional purposes have won critical national acclaim.

A third rationale was to set up a model site for local area network strategies that the colleges could look to for guidance as they seek more and more to implement campus-based connectivity solutions which include mechanisms for delivering multiple media to the desktop and high speed connections to the Internet. We wanted a Center that embodied the then emerging philosophy the 'network' was becoming the computer and that in order for that network to accommodate the variety of vendor hardware platforms and operating systems different constituencies would require, we would need to build an open network capable of carrying a variety of network protocols. To that end we have built a heterogeneous and versatile computing environment in a three room 80,000 square foot setting. It currently houses 24 high-end multimedia computer systems and six UNIX work stations and a variety of peripheral devices such as printers and scanners in a state-of-the-art networked environment. The hardware includes Apple Macintosh 840AVs and Power Macs; DEC Alphas; IBM 486-Value Points, Pentiums, and RS-6000's; and Sun Sparcstations all connected in a Novell network capable of carrying Netware, Apple Talk, and TCP/IP over level 5 10-base T unshielded twisted pair wire and gatewayed to the Internet through a Cisco router which is scheduled to be upgraded from T1 to T3 speed within the next few months. Staffing the Open Systems Center has been a challenge. From the outset, it was clear that no one staff member possesses the full range of skills required for its effective operation. As a consequence, a virtual team has been constructed, pairing staff with requisite skills in projectbased activity across traditional organizational boundaries. While successful to some degree, this virtual team approach has created ambiguous situations to which some staff have been unable to adjust. This places divisional leadership in the ironic position of arguing for new staff lines not based on the need for more staff members but based on the argument that existing staff do not possess the requisite skills set to achieve newly promulgated organizational goals. On various projects, campus staff are added to the mix as well. We continue to struggle with this thorny issue through a variety of strategies, not the least of which is our education and training program about which you will hear in a moment. Finally, a word about start-up funding. Creative partnerships with hardware vendors enabled us to maximize the available budget with the result that a fairly impressive installed equipment base was available from the outset. In our second year of operation, the emphasis is on equipment upgrade and building the software tools available to Open Systems Center users. We are constantly seeking ways in which to finance these activities. III. TRAINING FOR NEW TECHNOLOGIES by Colette Wagner

Abstract: The Open Systems Center provides an umbrella structure for training faculty and computing staffs across the University. Its workshop "curriculum" spans interests from introduction to the World Wide Web and HTML document development, to an introduction to Unix for mainframe programmers, to training in the use of Universal Algorithms Schedule 25 (a facilities management program). In addition, the University's Multimedia Courseware Development Initiative is funded under the aegis of the Open Systems Center. The rationale for linking these training experiences under the Open Systems Center banner is explored. In my capacity as Director of Education and Training for the Office of Instructional Technology, I am the Program Coordinator of the Open Systems Center and it has been my responsibility to develop the activities and agenda of the Center. A key element of that programming activity is the schedule of training workshops for faculty and computing staffs that take place under the umbrella of the Open Systems Center. A key concept in the design of the Open Systems Center's programs is that of the virtual team. From the outset, I have billed all training opportunities provided to CUNY faculty and computing staffs that emanate from the Office of Education, Training and Staff Development as programs of the Open Systems Center, whether they were physically located at the Center or remotely located at campus sites. The method to this particular madness is quite simple. The current space allocated to the Open Systems Center does not include a classroom/conference room environment that will accommodate groups over 25 and I need to locate larger programs at campus sites. In addition, I am slowly starting to build a cooperative network of Universitywide training opportunities that will expand based on the deployment of campus-based Open Systems Center facilities at CUNY senior colleges about which Jim Murtha will speak at the end of our session. Finally, with the blurring of distinctions between instructional and administrative computing functions within the overall CUNY computing organization, the Open Systems Center provides a comfortable environment for the collapse of these traditional distinctions in the technology organization. It might interest you to know that the entire full-time complement of my training staff is myself and an assistant who publicizes workshops and handles registration, etc. In the period July 1993 through Fall 1994, we offered a total of 72 events, representing a total of 1300 participants and 1600 applicants. As you can well imagine from these statistics, the "faculty" of the Open Systems Center's training program are themselves a virtual team representing the best of CUNY's instructional and technology experts. This fall, four CUNY faculty members"--"Michael Fitzgerald (Philosophy, Medgar Evers), Michael Kress (Computer Science, College of Staten Island), Anthony Picciano (Curriculum and Teaching, Hunter College) and Dean Savage (Sociology, Queens College)"--"are serving as Visiting Faculty Fellows. In addition to 18 formal courses for faculty and instructional staff that they are teaching, one of the Open Systems Center's Visiting Faculty, Anthony Picciano, will be serving as a mentor to

CUNY colleagues who are novice multimedia developers. This committee of Visiting Faculty Fellows provide the primary input in the design of new course offerings for the Spring 1995 semester and beyond. Programming for faculty in the Open Systems Center is strongly tied to the University's instructional technology agenda. One of the Center's main objectives is to provide an experimental environment for prototyping instructional software that can be used in the real world of teaching, learning and research at CUNY. In particular, close ties exist between the Office of Instructional Technology's Multimedia Courseware Development Initiative (which has funded the development of approximately 30 multimedia projects by CUNY faculty since its inception in 1990-91) and the faculty workshops that are offered. In its first year of operation, the Open Systems Center quickly became the locus of the Office of Instructional Technology's Faculty and Staff training workshops. In addition to the scheduling advantage afforded by a training center dedicated to faculty and technical staff, the specialized equipment and high-speed network connections that were designed into the complex enabled cutting edge programming from the outset. In Spring 1994, the Open Systems Center provided the University's first workshops on navigating and authoring documents for the World Wide Web and, as a consequence, this work spurred the development of CUNY's own home page. This semester, campus home pages and individual faculty home pages are all the rage. Additionally, short courses such as _Authorware Professional_ , _Introduction to Data Analysis Using SAS for Windows_, _Preparing the Electronic Lecture_, and _QStats and QData_(statistical management programs developed by the Queens College Sociology Department and distributed free under terms of an NSF grant) were featured offerings of the Open Systems Center schedule. Small groups of faculty working on art and technology multimedia projects, and foreign language faculty also used the Open Systems Center to plan events or review new instructional software developments. As the University's videoconferencing/distance learning technology project unfolds over Spring 1995, the Open Systems Center will become a locus for faculty experimentation with the new technology. Finally, as faculty requests for support in identifying appropriate instructional technology materials come into the Office of Education and Training, the Open Systems Center is used as a clearinghouse and a program springboard. Social Science faculty and Foreign Language faculty will be working on conference events in their respective disciplines throughout Spring 1995. On the front of advancing technical skills of computing staffs across the University, the Open Systems Center strategy has been somewhat different. In start-up mode, training for computing staffs has been offered on a limited basis, with few large scale events, many vendor-sponsored briefings and a number of workshops limited to specifically targeted training audiences. For example, training in CAIDMS, which is the basis of the University's Student Information Management System, is limited to those schools

who are either already participating in the program or are scheduled to migrate to the SIMS systems in the near future. In the area of client/server and Unix training, gradual steps have been taken. Central Office computing staff and users of the _Schedule 25_ room scheduling application have been provided with a series of in-house seminars on survival in these environments to enable them to become acclimatized to these new environments and roll-out new applications. At this point, we are in the process of developing more specific training strategies that will identify central office staff for higher level training and that will enable colleges to participate in the same kinds of training at the lowest possible cost. The same approach has been taken in the area of Novell Netware administration. With the installation of a large number of local area networks in the Central Office, we have had the opportunity to assess various Novell training providers while addressing immediate organizational needs. Our long-term goal is to use this information to enable the successful negotiation of a University-wide training contract that will again provide colleges with lowest possible costs for upgrading staff skills in this crucial area. Finally, on the issue of long-range planning for the training programs that are offered under the umbrella of the Open Systems Center. As a result of the reorganization of Computer Information Services, all CUNY colleges are currently engaged in the process of articulating their own technology mission and program statements. This process involves consultation with the Central Office and one of the areas covered by the activity is technology training needs. It is anticipated that the long-term agenda of our Open Systems Center training program will be forged by this activity and that it will be further affected by alliances with faculty, with students, with CUNY computing staffs, and with the strategic partners identified by Dean Murtha in his presentation. IV. PARTNERING FOR INSTRUCTIONAL ADVANCEMENT by Professor Michael Kress

Abstract: The relationship between a large urban University's centrally located, high-end R&D technology center and a Computer Science department at one of its remote senior colleges will be explored. Student and faculty projects in multimedia development, video-editing and scientific visualization conducted using the Open Systems Center facilities will be discussed. Results of a studenttaught video-editing workshop for CUNY faculty will be reported. There were several important features to consider in developing a mutually beneficial relationship between the Open System Center facilities and a CUNY senior college, located a two hour commute away. It was important that they be able to provide each other with valuable resources and that they develop effective communications. This meant using appropriate file transfer techniques to share interesting applications and to disseminate information. It was also

necessary to have a strong commitment to success on the part of both parties. The Open System Center provided the state-of-the-art computer environment (hardware, software, and network) and funds for the students. Both the Staten Island students and faculty, aggressive in their use of new technologies, provided expertise in using and testing the equipment, selecting appropriate software, testing file transfer techniques and network performance, developing applications, and teaching workshops at the Center. The collective expertise and knowledge of evolving technologies contributed by the students was drawn from a wide network of users located throughout the World via bulletin board postings and user group events and meetings in the New York metropolitan area. The faculty expertise in research and development was essential to identifying critical issues and the detailed focus areas pertinent to cutting edge technologies. Effective communication throughout the project was accomplished through e-mail, fax machines, telephone, voice mail, and CU-SeeMe video conferencing software augmented with conferencing speaker phones. The use of the videoconferencing facility significantly increased the quality of interaction, especially for groups, but it required a scheduling and setup component to insure that the teleconferencing studios were available at each site and the technical links for the connection established in advance. Concise, brief meetings were held as part of bi-weekly testing and software installation and upgrade sessions at the Center. The daily activity of evaluating and using evolving software and hardware was done at the remote site where one computer station of each of the three platforms supported in the Center was available. Overcoming the distance constraint between the College of Staten Island and the Open System Center presented a special challenge for file transfer. One of the essential aspects of developing multimedia software effectively is transporting large digital video files from site to site. Various methods of file transfer were considered and tested. At first, we thought that FTP file transfer over the CUNYNet wide area network, would fill our needs. However, after hours of waiting for the transfer of a test file, we realized that a careful evaluation of the network performance at various times of the day was required to understand the feasibility of this method. After empirical tests of network performance and time calculations based on observed transfer rates, it became clear that even unattended overnight transfers were not always practical. Other methods considered included: portable PC hard disk and Lap-Link computer to computer transfer, 150 MegaByte (MB) transportable removable hard disks, One GigaByte (GB) external SCSI hard disk, read/write optical drives, and write once/read many (WORM) CD's. Ultimately, we concluded that there was no single way best suited to all circumstances. Network transfer could provide overnight delivery of files but was risky given the

possibility of network failure. The use of 150 MB removable disks offered a number of significant advantages. It involved mature, standard technology at a low cost; it was easy to use on all platforms and featured archival backup. It was easy for the user to transport or could be sent by "sneaker net" or "snail mail". However, the transfer rate was limiting for motion video playback directly from the drive. The One GigaByte external drive offered speed and large capacity storage but at a higher cost. It also required (for the most part) that the user him or herself carry the 8 to 10 pound drive from site to site. The optical and WORM technologies as advertised offered cost-effective price per megabyte of storage. However, the startup cost and rapidly changing proprietary formats caused a "let's wait and see" opinion on their use in practice, especially since 20 different Colleges would ultimately be using the Open System Center. The challenge presented in developing and testing software and hardware integration in the Center typically becomes clear immediately after the first interaction with technical support as the features and behavior of the technology is advertised but rarely known by the software support group or developers themselves. The result is the need for a methodical step-by-step, hands-on testing and evaluation of each component in the system to identify the"features", limitations, and "work arounds" required to harness its power. Bulletin board listings and user group support are invaluable in this phase of the development. The applications developed by the CSI group used multimedia technology for a variety of teaching applications from Scientific Visualization to American Sign Language. The common component of the applications was the use of "home grown" digital video in a highly interactive multimedia program. The activities of each project included shooting video footage, digitizing and editing motion video, writing digital video playback scripts, and developing and testing programs with content experts. Many digital video-capture and playback-boards as well as editing software packages and configurations were evaluated. They ranged in price from $400 to $2700. For our purposes, the inexpensive consumer boards ranked highest in overall value. Three presentation software packages"--" _ToolBook_, _Authorware Professional_, and _Visual Basic_"--"were used for different projects. The following Staten Island projects were initiated as part of the Center's development effort: _Applications and Techniques of Scientific Visualization_"--"a multimedia program for teaching and learning visualization techniques in science and engineering; _Bon Jour_"--"a multimedia program for learning conversational French; _The Magic Rabbit_"--"a computer aided educational (CAE) program for teaching English tenses, aimed at children whose first language is American Sign Language (ASL); _ASL Dictionary and Tutorial Program_"--"a multimedia program for learning ASL; _Colors and Shapes_"--"a CAE program for teaching autistic children; _What Is Multimedia_"--"a descriptive program for demonstrating multimedia techniques for CAE programs; _A Multisensory Calculus Program for Visually Impaired Students_"--"a student controlled program using audio-tactile material for learning Calculus for blind and visually impaired students.

One of the exciting aspects of learning and using cuttingedge multimedia hardware and software is ascertaining and disseminating information. The classical sources of information, including library references materials, are of limited value. By the time printed paper makes its way to the library shelf, the hardware and software discussed are often obsolete and the information of little use. Magazines, trade shows, bulletin boards, and user group networks are the essential sources of information. The classical professor with years of theory and a firm mathematical foundation is no longer the renowned expert in solving the details of contemporary development and integration. The students are the experts and become the teachers in the use of the technology! Fortunately for me, professors retain a role as content specialists. Some are also helpful in presenting the student's material to workshop participants. Following the clear gradient of contemporary information flow, a series of faculty and staff workshops taught by students and faculty were held at the Center. The workshops were: _Digital Video Editing_, _Survival in a UNIX Environment_, _UNIX Script Programming_, _Graphical User Interface (GUI) Programming_, _Client/Server Computing_, _Performance Evaluation and Optimization in A Client/Server Environment_. All but the last two were taught by a student-faculty team. Each contained a significant hands-on component with more than 85% of the workshop spent using computers. For the most part, the workshops were at least 1/2 day in length. The projects and handouts provided the workshop participants with practical applications for developing operational skills. Participant surveys indicated an overall favorable evaluation. V. STRATEGIES FOR CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT by James Murtha

Abstract: The continued development of the CUNY Open Systems Center and the special projects and strategic alliances that will drive its future agenda are explored. Now that my colleagues have described how the CUNY Open Systems Center was initiated and have detailed the range of its current activities, I'd like to give some idea of how we intend to sustain the development of the Open Systems Center. Special projects and strategic alliances will be the key to the future of the Open Systems Center. Building the University's technical infrastructure is an announced goal of the Office of Budget, Finance and Information Systems. With a $3 million capital allocation for an Educational Technology Initiative from New York State in fiscal 1995, CUNY has been able to offer one of two possible technology programs to each of its nine senior colleges. The University's Open Systems Center will figure heavily in the development of both program options. The first option is the establishment of a campus-based Open Systems Center facility which will emulate the design and philosophy of its central parent. The campus-based center

will support instructional and research development and testing and will maintain close connections to the central facility. Cooperative projects between and among the various Open Systems Centers will emerge as the centers are installed and program activities are initiated. The second option available to senior colleges under the Educational Technology Initiative is the choice of becoming a remote site in the University's emerging videoconferencing network. Videoconferencing/distance learning technology has been a research pursuit at CUNY for some time. Switched wideband trials with NYNEX and Ameritech on instructional projects, use of the University's proprietary T1 network to sustain PictureTell installations for administrative purposes, and monitoring the progress of desktop videoconferencing programs such as CU-SeeMe are examples of the range of activities in this field. At present, we are anticipating creation of a University hub at 57th Street that will be connected via a video-enhanced CUNYNet (i.e., the University's proprietary T1 network) and that will be linked initially to five similarly equipped remote senior college sites. The Open Systems Center will play a formative role in the development of this project as it is slated to be the site of the first connection in the network between 57th Street and City College. In addition to the videoconferencing effort, the future of Open Systems Center will continue to be formed by the technology agenda of the University. For example, research initiated at the Open Systems Center on the development of the World Wide Web and subsequent training in navigation of the Web and authoring HTML documents lead to creative thinking about the ways in which CUNY could participate in the burgeoning international development of digital resource collections on the Internet. A strategic alliance among the CUNY Office of Library Systems, The New York Academy of Medicine, the New York Metropolitan Reference and Research Library Agency (METRO) and the New York Public Library has resulted in a $275,000 award from the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Telecommunications and Information Administration to support the design, construction and demonstration of an electronic Consumer Health Information Network. The project will establish user-friendly microcomputer access at libraries, colleges and hospitals, allowing users to navigate among a wide range of databases, including the Breast Cancer Information Clearinghouse, AIDS Treatment News, Cancernet, Oncolink, Lymenet and the New York State Department of Health's gopher service, among others. Several services will be available in Spanish as well. The network will build on the existing infrastructure available at CUNY, and in order to ensure capacity for growth and interconnectivity, it will employ standard Internet protocols, hardware and software. As the Consumer Health Information Network progresses, the Open Systems Center will continue to play a role its development"--"as a training and testing site. Faculty activity and research interest will also drive the agenda of the Open Systems Center. Recently, CUNY received a grant of approximately $25,000 from the United States

Information Agency to maintain and help develop a new gopher specifically tailored to teachers and teacher trainers in English as a Second or Foreign Language working at locations worldwide due primarily to the activity of CUNY Basic Skills faculty who pioneered listservs on this subject using the CUNY mainframe as a resource over the years. Through the USIA gopher, which is called TES/FL, they will be able to obtain, at no cost, a wide range of pedagogical documents, many produced by the English Language Programs Division of the USIA, as well as lists of Binational Centers, and announcements of international conferences, fellowships, and employment opportunities. A specific reason for USIA's support for CUNY as the TES/FL gopher site is the University's prior creation of TESL-L, the listserv list, or electronic mail discussion group, for teachers of English as a second language. The TESL-L listserv membership includes more than four thousand teachers in 73 countries, making it one of the largest interactive listserve forums on the Internet. The Open Systems Center will continue to play a role in the development of this resource as we explore alternatives to mainframe-based listservices, etc. We are also pursuing strategic partnerships that will further the development of the Open Systems Center. These partnerships can take various cooperative forms. Our latest venture is the establishment of a CUNY/New York Software Industry Association Internship Program under the aegis of the Open Systems Center. With economic development funding from New York State, this spring will see the placement of 50 funded interns in software companies in the greater metropolitan area. One of the anticipated outcomes of this university-industry partnership is the development of specialized training workshops to be housed at the Open Systems Center that will forge greater cooperation between education and industry to the benefit of both parties. As a symbol of our reorganization and the reinvigoration of computing and technology at CUNY, we see the continued development of the Open Systems Center as paramount. Under its aegis, we will aggressively pursue all opportunities to research and evaluate the ways in which technology can improve teaching and support learning and research at CUNY, and afford us the ability to provide student services more effectively and efficiently.