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HORSE BREEDING
IN

THEORY AND PRACTICE

HORSE BREEDING
IN

THEORY AND PRACTICE

BY

BURCHARD VON OETTINGEN
I^ANDSTALLMEISTER AND DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL STUD OF TRAKEHNEN

TRANSLATED FROM GERMAN

LONDON SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO.
1909

PREFACE.

THE

wish has often been expressed that practical
their
it

men should make
in

known more generally
is

experiences in horse breeding, but

easy to lose sight of the fact, that when a practical man commences to write he at once steps out of the bounds of the practical. Moreover, it has to be taken into consideration that practical experience is only gained by long years of labour, whilst mere theorists mav write their works when even quite young and practically without experience, but being gifted with criticism, intellectual insight, and inspiration. I must also point out that my work at the Trakehnen Stud has kept me alwavs so actively employed that, unfortunately, I have not been able to spare the necessary time to go thoroughly through the large mass of material which I have accumulated in the course of many years, and to treat same in as exhaustive a manner as an expert ought. In writing the last chapter on " The Establishment of Studs " my time was very limited indeed, and I have had to be satisfied with simply giving an outline. The short historical sketch on the development of the Thoroughbred is the result of notes made from racing calendars and stud books, and the chapter on the alteration of w'eight differences is likewise the outcome of investigations made in the same quarter. It was only when I came to the conclusion, from the present work, that there seemed to be a deterioration in the Thoroughbred, commencing from about the middle of the nineteenth century, that I again went through the Racing Calendar, and Stud Book, in order to more closely investigate this apparent deterioration. In this wav originated the chapter comparing the capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of the Thoroughbred of to-day with that of an earlier period, and the deductions arising therefrom. The high regard which I have for the Thoroughbred has not stopped, but rather stimulated me to investigate and express candidlv the ideas got from studying the present state of the Thoroughbred. I have taken nothing for granted. The results of these investigations have once again vindicated the nature of " Public Opinion " so well described by Ranke. It has a true sense of what is needed, but has not the slightest idea
desiring this

1907. unfortunately the necessary material has neither been collected nor published anywhere. who already know and are well acquainted with the elementary laws of horse breeding and sport racing. its breeding. but it has been my earnest endeavour to take from the practical what I have recognised as right in practice. The chapter on " Inbreeding " is a modest attempt to come to a logical in conclusion this interesting. For a period of twelve years in Trakehnen the long winter evenings were shortened and brightened by these hippological studies. such as is claimed in several books on this subject. should be accounted for the fact that the famous Termagant was the base of Melbourne's inbreeding? as The computation of " Inbreeding " has entailed much labour. as writers of these latter are often led into the error of copying ridiculous blunders of other. but as yet unexplored. writers. As to whether the means which I propose improving the Thoroughbred will be efficacious or not it is indeed difficult prophesy. In the chapter on Heredity. I do not lay any claims to completeness as regards the whole principles of breeding. Up to the present time there has not been demonstrated the influence exerted by the bases of inbreeding.vi. much has been left out. and I claim this indulgence. and trial on the race course. BURCHARD VON OETTINGEN. as in and what is due to its sex. Experience alone will prove this. we do not yet know what is due to the own inbreeding Without doubt the study of this cjuestion of the base of Melbourne. region of thought. and I know very well that in this difficult work many errors have crept in. with the sincere hope that it will promote the love of that noble creature. . Oct(jber 1st. Preface. is in its veriest infancv. of how for to to supply what is wanted. Trakehnen. the results of which I give to the public in the present work. as I take it for granted that only breeders and lovers of horses will read this work. and in this way spread incorrect teachings in this as in other branches. Any man may make a mistake. often injudiciously chosen. as well as in the practical part on Horse Breeding. the horse. Is it possible that the great prepotency shown in his female descendants.

220 225 321 6. value in the Breeding of Half-breds. 4.INDEX. Part I. Trial of the its Thoroughbred on the Racecourse and CHAPTER 1. The Transmission The Doctrine Inbreeding Hereditary Faults of of Acquired Characters 3. 5. A Comparison of what Thoroughbreds have done previous! v and what they are doing at the present time to the 101 6. 50 5. II. PAGE Sources for Tracing the Development of the Thoroughbred and Race 2.. 9 3. Trials in England in 3 Development of the Thoroughbred and Racing Trials Most Important Events England. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables. Heredity.. and the Conclusions to be drawn therefrom General Observations on the Value of the Thoroughbred for other Breeds 32 4. The Transmission The Art of of Coat Colour 329 333 Mating . Constancy and Individual Prepotency . 209 215 General Observations on Heredity 2.. Conclusions and Propositions as ing of Thoroughbreds Improvement and Breed194 Part 1. 7.

Establishment of Studs Tables for Comparison of Various Measurements Tables showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the 409 422 6. The Practical Part of Horse Breeding. Training (a) (b) (c) The Training Methods Stable Regulations and Instructions for Rubbing Horses Food whilst Training 406 407 4. III.. The Judging and Treating (a) (b) (c) Judging Suckling Foals Treatment of Suckling Foals up 'JVeatment of \\"eanlings to the time of \\>aning . Part CHAPTER 1.... Down 3.. (d) (e) Treatment of the Skin and Hoofs of Weanlings 'Ilie Treatment of Yearlings and Older Foals ......viii. 839 339 343 345 347 350 351 3(31 Firstlings The Treatment Covering of P>rtilisation Brood Mares Brood Mares of 366 367 37*2 (k) (1) The Time The Birth of Pregnancy of Brood Mares (m) (n) (()) Abortion and Joint-illness Treatment of the Brood Mare of Foals after the Birth 374 376 380 381 383 383 385 389 393 397 399 400 2. PAGE Judging and Treating Breeding Material (a) Judging Covering Stallions (b) Judging Brood Mares Age and Treatment of Covering Stallions (c) The Stallion whilst Covering (d) Age of Brood ?^Iares (e) Twins (f) (g) (h) (i) .. 5.. Male Line 427 fJ . Index...

I. Trial of the its Thoroughbred on the Racecourse and value in the breeding of Half-breds. .

.

IX. V. XVII. VIII. 1905. An Introduction to a General Stud Book by James Weatherbv had already appeared in 1791. XI. X. 1869. XIX. 3rd 1853. 1836. consisting of various collections of Pedigrees gathered from Racing Calendars and Newspapers. 1897. VII. It is to be found chiefly in the following as far as I know exarhination of the various — — : — 1. XIII. . 1865.CHAPTER I. 1885. 1845. 4th III. unfortunately. and Secretary of the Jockey Club. 1849. 4th Edition. but. 1857. 1889. the 5th Edition. There is no breed in the world which places at the disposal of the investigator such an abundant and authenticated mass of material for the problems on breeding as does the English Thoroughbred. appeared in 1793. 1827. The General Stud Book by James Weatherby (Keeper of the Match Book. Volume II. 1873. Sources for tracing the development of the Thoroughbred and Race Trials in England. VI. 189-2. Volume I. very much improved and enlarged in 1891. 1893. XX. 1861. as successor of Tutting and Fawconer). IV. up to the present time this material has been made very little use of. 1881. XII. 1821. XVI. XVIII. XV. 1901. 2. XIV. 1877.

Erentzel's Family Tables of English Thoroughbred Stock.4 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. . all Historical List of Horse Matches run for in and was called An England and Wales.OU . covering the period from 1769 to 1772. appeared in York 1803. . . . -by „ . etc. by Hermann Goos. at appeared in 1748 York. 4 Volumes. by William Tutting (Keeper of the Match Book at Newmarket). . from the earliest accounts to 1902 inclusive. . New York. There are also many valuable notes added on Breeding. . the Races at Moscow. near the city of It contains the Reports of the Races in 1727. Johnson. 7. Tables of Pedigrees of Thoroughbred Horses by Ch. 4. covering the period from 1773 to 1907. ]805. edited by The Continuation appeared under the title of: Racing Calendar. all the Plates at Rawcliffe Ings. From 1741 the After Cheny's death appeared the Continuation by Reginald Heber 10. also since being moved York. 8.. the Races in America (Annapolis. William Pick.. James Weatherby (Keeper of the Match Book at Newmarket and Secretary of the Jockey Club). Up to 1800 the Races in Ireland are included. 1907. 1885. . Volume I. 18 Volumes covering the period from 1751 to 1768. . . Modern Pedigrees by Antwerp and Lamplighter. . 1 \ . The Ancestress of the English Thoroughbred. de Chapeaurouge. title of : and 1772 the Races 12. 1889. and Prizes run for on Clifton and to Knavesmire.. 135 Volumes. 1895. 1776. 18 ? ( -] T U R. 1777. under the same title. the Races in France at Sablon and Fontainebleau and in 1792 and 1793.. . The Turf Register and Sportsman and Breeder's Stud Book by 3. 24 Volumes covering the period from 1727 Races in Ireland were also included. \^olume I. the Races in Jamaica. in Jamaica are included. Wackerow. but from 1801 there is simply an abstract from the Irish Racing Calendar given. II . 1776. After Heber's death there appeared the Continuation. . Of Foreign Races are included 1770. The first Racing Calendar appeared 9. under the The Sporting Calendar. Volume II. to 1750. 1773. III. and Thomas Fawconer (Secretary of the Jockey Club). J. York from 1709 to 1747. 6. 5. Philadelphia and New York). 4th Edition extended by Dr. . 1900.. 1904. J In this Turf Register the pedigrees and racing performances of the most prominent stallions and mares are very clearly arranged. Historical List of etc. by John : Cheny. In the volumes for 1771 11. Since 1864 there has always been an Abstract of the important Races on the : . from the earliest accounts to 1897 inclusive. A. and in 1903 and 1904 the Races in Ireland are left out altogether.

by John Orton. The Sporting Calendar. ?) An and Historical List of Ireland. 23." Also. 13. died in : 1816. 49 Volumes. and omitted. 1871. Turf Annals of York and Doncaster. In the Appendix of the volume for 1751 all the Matches which were held at Newmarket from 1718 to 1751 are included. appeared first under the title of The Sportsman and Breeder's Vademecum. Up Irish since July. Walker. W. Bailey's Magazine. left Since the Autumn of 1867 the Hurdle Races have been out. Plates and Prizes in Great by B. containing all the Races in England and Ireland. Bailey's Racing Register appeared in 1845 in three thick volumes.1. to 1826. Sporting Review. 16. to 1907. Pick's Racing Calendar. and gives in a very convenient and lucid manner an abstract of all the great Races in England and Ireland from 1709 to 1842. containing the Races in England and Ireland. by John Pond. : The Steeplechase Calendar. covering the period from 1790 14. since 1811 as Pick's (Annual) Racing Calendar." by Craven. Since 1803 as The Annual Racing Calendar. and Sporting Magazine. 1845. covering the period from 1709 17. appeared 1843. 5 Continent included. The first Editor. Great Britain from the great match over Leicestershire in 1826 to the close of 1844. commencing 1870 (86 Volumes up to and including 1906). may be considered as a continuation of the Sporting Magazine (156 Volumes). and contains in one volume the important Races in England and Ireland from 1709 to 1750. which finished 1870. Pick. The Sport in Great . covering the years 1769 to 1770. A consecutive chronicle of the Sport 22. in Anonym. covering the period from 1751 to 1768. The Sporting Magazine. Britain Horse Matches. 18 Volumes. The Pocket Racing Calendar ( for the Races in Great Britain from 1821 to 1840 20. the competing papers " The Sportsman " and " New Sporting Magazine. 18. and was amalgamated from 1847 with the " SportingMagazine. Since 1855 the " SportingMagazine " appeared with the addition United with the Sportsman. A competing paper appeared in 1839 under the title of " The SportingReview. 2 Volumes. 1792. 15. The Racing Calendar Abridged appeared in 1829. 19. to the Steeplechase Supplement Calendar. and contains in one volume the Races at York and Doncaster from 1709 to 1843. 118 Volumes. to which is added the Irish Sport from the Autumn of 1842." appeared in 1831. Racing Calendar. then as Racing Calendar. the National Hunt Flat Races have been to 1840 the Reports on Cock Fighting were included. etc. 21. First year of circulation. Sources for Tracing the Development of the Thoroughbred. London.

Francis Lawley. cover24. Field and Fern (South). 1862. Ride. covering the period 1731 to 1846. but did not include the Races in France. bv experienced Gentlemen. 14 Editions. and Sebright. or Instructions how to play at 32. Pleasure. H. 1778. 37. 1809. by Hon. 1680. the Paddock. by J. 18 Volumes. 35. London. as well as the rider's colours. Running Horses. The Racing Calendar Steeplechase Past. by Joseph Osborne. 40 25. 1857. together with all manner of usual and most gentle Games. Ireland and France. Britain. Silk and Scarlet. Farrier's Approved Guide con33. London. 1895. Volumes. etc. compre30. from January. taining the Exactest Rules and Methods for Breeding and Managing Horses in order to bring them up in the best manner for Profit. The next and last volume by Corbet appeared under the same title. ing the periods from 1848-49 to 1865-66. 1870. by The Druid. 1845. The Sportsman's Dictionarv. Dixon. London. 36. etc. 1892. London. 29. : to the close of the season 1846. London. The Steeplechase Calendar. London. This ran through How to Chase. H. hending the appropriate uses. London. H. 1865. Train and Diet both Hunting Horses and Billiards. by J. by H. by The Druid. 1862. Travel and War. The Post and Scott . 81. The Olde New-Markitt Calendar of Matches. by The Druid. Cards or Dice. Service : or Recreation. Racing. especially in what relates to Racing or Running.. Aluir. Saddle and Sirloin. 1696. etc. B. The Complete Gamester. London. 3 Editions. Field and Fern (North). The Gentleman's New Jockey. etc. and the business of the Turf. 38. management and progressive improvement of each. 1865. Results and Pro26. Raciana. appeared 1890. by Corbet.6 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. 40. Coursing. 2nd Edition. Dixon). Life and Times of The Druid (H. by H. and gave various interesting notes on the few Matches at Newmarket and York. 27. covering the periods from 1866-67 to 1907. by John Lawrence. 34. by Jessis Markham. 1599. The following appeared under the title of The Steeplechase Calendar. Gentleman's Magazine. either at of Riding. 116 Volumes. by Weatherby. B. by The Druid. 39. with a particular investigation of the character of the Racehorse. History and Delineation of the Horse in all his varieties. from 1619 to 1719. Aluir. 28. grammes. Dixon. to which is added the Arts and Mysteries Archery and Cock Fighting.

H. edited by Byron Webber. Translated into German. Taunton. 1890. Cowthorne London. by Sydenham Dixon. London. Practice of Horse Racing. about A History of the English Turf. Ashgill. by W. 1901. by Th. by Charles Richardson. 7th : Edition. 1906. The Horse Breeder's Handbook. 4 Volumes. 53. Whyte. by Th. London. From Gladiateur to Persimmon. Allison. Radcliffe. 2nd Edition. 60. Cook. Hore. 7 41. 52. and Early Records of the Principal and Other Race Meetings. Treatment and Training of the English Racehorse. or the Life by J. and Times of John Osborne. 49. The English Turf. London. 1852. P. Herod. by John Porter. The Racehorse. London. Ch. 1893. by J. The British Thoroughbred Horse : together with an Exposition of the Figure System. 1897. 42. Issue. to the Present Day. Racing Life of London. London. 1888. 1880. 3 Volumes. A Treatise on the Care." 59.1. S. by V. W. 1892. London. . Portraits of Celebrated Race Horses of the Past and Present 45. its History and and R. Lord George Cavendish Bentick. London. Anonym. Centuries. Horse Racing Its History. Day. 47. 1900. 51. by R. by John Kent. 1863. 18-28. its Royal Ascot. by Robert Black. by Warburton. 1889. in it. Horse Racing England. A. Kirschy. 1892. 1908. History of the British Turf from the Earliest Times J. Day. 1896. Turf and the Men who haye made London. 57. : 2 Volumes. etc. 56. by 43. The Horse How to Breed and Rear Him. J. 44. The Racehorse in Training. 50. by 1901. Bruce Lowe. 48. 46. 1886. British 1905. London. 1887. London. 1901. B. His History and Breeding. 55. Darvill. Allison. by W. Breeding Racehorses bv the Figure System. by W. 1895. compiled by the On the Laws and 2nd by Admiral Rous. compiled by the late C. 58. Sources for Tracing the Development of the Thoroughbred. 54. 1840. 3 Volumes. 1902. by G. Kingsclere. The History of Newmarket and Annals of the Turf. 1866. 61. 2nd Edition. The " Sporting Life. 1892. by Joseph Osborne. Associations.

the Duke of Cumberland. Eclipse and O'Kelly. London. William Wildman. 62. London.8 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. 64. 1908. and of his subsequent owners. Heroes and Heroines 63. A. by Finch Mason. Denis O'Kelly and Andrew O'Kelly. etc. of that celebrated English Thoroughbred " Eclipse " (1764-1789). 1907. by Th. and of his breeder. . so far as is known. of the Grand National. London. 2 The Romance of the Derby. 1907.. by Edward Moorhouse. Being a Complete History. now for the first time set forth from the original authorities and family memoranda. Cook. Vols.

about It is worthy of 65 were imported before the famous Godolphin Arabian. Going back to the time when England was ruled by the Romans. The greater part were Berbers and Spaniards. according to the Stud Book. Thoroughbred and Racing Trials Most Important Events. so much praised by others Persians. we find that Oriental blood was employed for the purpose of breeding Racehorses in this country. It seems that only a very few of these Eastern stallions and mares were pure bred Arabs. whilst nowhere w'as there to be found such good. and as early as 1509-1547 Henry VIII. Caesar. had special paddocks made in his stud at Hampton Court for the breeding of Racehorses. (1660-1685) 30-40 Oriental mares. with the remark that they were better and more capable than any other breed in Europe. Shortly afterwards the Crusades again gave the opportunity of introducing Oriental blood. as far as the Thoroughbred is concerned. whilst the number of stallions imported from the East w^as much greater. and are mentioned as living in the forests as late as the seventeenth century. and during the reign of Charles II. on account of its staying powers and speed. nourishing grass." were brought over. Of the 102 for instance. 1778). note that. These native-bred horses in England and Ireland had the character of the wild horses of the Steppes. We have reason to suppose that up to 1750 about 60-80 Oriental mares had been imported to England. from the publications in the old Racing Calendars. in England. contributed very largely to the building up of the English Thoroughbred. During the reign of James (1603-1625) the importation of Oriental stallions increased very much. were probably very meagre). In the fourth part of the first volume of the " General Stud Book " there are 102 Eastern stallions given which have been used in the building up of the Thoroughbred. called the "Royal Mares.CHAPTER Development of the II. bur besides these there were many other Eastern stallions imported and used L by breeders in England and Ireland (although the results. AngloSaxons and Normans. Oriental stallions which. were imported. whilst some were Turkish and Also the home-bred English horse. as in England and Ireland (see the Sportsman's Dictionary. and after him by many other wTiters on this subject. as can be gathered. of the many Oriental stallions which were brought over to England .

Of the many daughters of Cullen Arabian there are only two out of Lady Thigh in Fam. 15. 1706 Darley's Arabian. 1704 Holderness Turk. or Carlisle's Turk or Barb. yet there has been nothing imperishable left behind. 26. 22. amongst which was Exotic. 7. born 1756. 1700 Curwen's Bay Barb. 1660 Place's White Turk. and which occur very often in the pedigree of every Thoroughbred of our time. eighteenth century (at least 40). 16. or William's Arabian. 1689 Oglethorpe Arabian. 4. or Pelham's Barb. 14. 1687 The Stradling. 24. 20. 2. imported in 1745. 1716 Bassett's Oxford Bloody-Shouldered Arabian. 1690 Leede's Arabian. 12 a. 17. 3. Victor Barb. and even he did not leave behind any son of note. 1670 The Darcy Yellow Turk. 1713 Woodstock. 1690 Pulleine's Chestnut Arabian. 12. give below. or Lister Turk. was the best. 1680 The Helmsley Turk. 1690 The Taffolet. 11. up to the age of twelve inclusive. 9. 21. 1689 The Byerly Turk. 5.a list showing the probable year of their importation 1. imported via Paris none of them exercised any striking influence on the Thoroughbred Of the Oriental staTlions imported from 1730 to the end of the of that time. 19. 2 (born 1756). born 1748. 42 (born 1760) which can be said to have left anything lasting as breeding stock. etc. 1680 The White-Legged Lowther Barb. 1708 Honywood's Arabian. 1695 The Marshall. In the following list are given the 36 Oriental stallions which have played a very conspicuous part in the breeding of Thoroughbreds. 1707 The St. and one Foundation mare in Fam. We : — . famous Godolphin Arabian (probably a Berber). although many of Cullen Arabian's children won races. 23. called Camillus. or Morocco Barb. 1711 Bethel's Arabian. 1680 Shaftesbury Turk. 27. 18. 10. 1709 Alcock's Arabian. or William's Turk. Trial of the Thoroug'hbred on the Racecourse. 13.IQ after the in 1730. 8. and although a son. or Sedbury Turk. one Foundation mare in Fam. 1708 The Akaster Turk. 6. 25. 1690 Fen wick Barb. 1675 The Darcy White Turk. begot some race-winners. 1712 The Strickland's Turk. 28. probably the Cullen Arabian. 1706 Chillaby. 1665 Dodsworth's (Mother imported in foal). or Selaby Turk. 1635 I^ord Fairfax's Morocco Barb.

at at James' Park. at Teviotdale. 31. 35.2. 31. Godolphin Arabian. by his brother-in-law. near York. at a in 1620 at Paisley (Scotland). The first race in England of w-hich we have a reliable description took 33. races (tournaments) after the had taken Plague had destroyed the old market).) and the Earl of Arundel. (1603-1625). Duke of Burgundy. Lonsdale Bay Arabian. The Belgrade Turk. at Newmarket November in presence of James I. York. in 1590 1590 1595 1599 1601 1602 1605 1607 at St. Further. in presence of the Queen. Bloody Buttocks. 36. 1552 at Hattington (Scotland). Hall Arabian. according to reliable information. : — 1574 1585 at Croydon 1587 1588 1576 at Richmond. Development of the Thoroughbred. Hugo Capet. three-mile race. the place is not stated. etc. at Carlisle (the Silver Bell). . 30. since 1609 Silver Cup). 32. place in 1377. which had been bred in Germany. H •29. Horse-racing as a popular amusement was indulged in even in the times of the Romans. Doncaster. Unfortunately. later King of France. James I. earlier. King Athelstan (924-940) was presented with racehorses. 1632 at Harleston (Silver Cup). But already place at in 1309. between Lord Haddington and Lord Sheffield. at Huntingdon. and during the four years which King Severus passed at York (206-210) the Roman soldiers arranged races with Arabian horses at \\'etherbv. Hutton's or'Mulso Bav Turk. The Earl of Cumberland won the Golden Bell in a hunting match or steeplechase took place Huntingdon. 1585 at Salisbury. In all probability it took place at Newmarket. 1717 1718 1719 1720 1723 1723 1725 1730 Wynn Arabian. 1617 at Woodham Moor. the Silver Bell. and probably Newmarket (founded 1226. This race was a match between the Prince of Wales (later Richard II. and at Lincoln races for the Cup took place the presence of the King. Cyprus Arabian. races took place at the following periods 1511 at Chester (the Silver Bell.

about which we have an account in the collection published by Muir in 1892. R. Brood Mares without Foals. London. Charles called II. known as The King's (Queen's) or His Majesty's Plates also called the Royal Plates. (1660-1685). 1634 The establishment of the Gold Cup at Newmarket. by Basto (see Fam. in the end of the seventeenth century race meetings were held Newcastle.12 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. was the Duke of Rutland's mare. Brown Betty. 5). One-year-old Colts and Fillies. 1661 at Epsom. Towards regularly at places. with 3 heats. and somewhere about 1635 Hyde Park. C. Winchester. as. took place 1658 races were forbidden by Oliver Cromwell for political was a breeder and owner of racehorses. 17 Two-year-old Colts and Fillies. and they still exist. the first winner of which. and over shorter — distances. Run over the new round course at Newmarket. Towards the end of the seventeenth century there were races with conditions for sale. in the presence of King Charles II. (1685-1688). although he himself There was in the 23 23 15 22 Royal Stud at that time Brood Ala res with Sucking Foals. . These King's Plates have played an important part in the testing of the breeding material. (1660-1685) established in 1665 the so- King's Prizes. 1672 at Liverpool. described in detail. in 1688. Epsom was formerly famous as a health resort on account of the healing properties of its waters. born 1713. and many other a match. 93 yards (now R. 16 Three-year-old Colts and Fillies. = 3 miles. over 4 miles. under 12 stone. The first breeding tests with which we are acquainted arose from matches. but without heats. and race meetings were held there even in the reign of James I. formerly called Banstead Downs. There exists an exact register of the horses at the time when the Royal Tuttbury Stud in Staffordshire was handed over to the Parliament in 1649. 4 furlongs. in 1719. 6 furlongs. = 3 miles. C. etc. It can safely be taken for granted that as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century regular races were held at different places for the purpose of testing breeding material. 187 yards). whilst the races which took place before this time were more in the character of popular amusement. for instance. to From 1654 reasons. in Under the reign of James II. : After the Restoration. (1603-1625). Gentlemen's Races took place Newmarket. with heats under 12 stone. 23 Four-year and older horses. Northamptonshire.

Makeless. born about 1710. 1730. but. 10 stone. The riders at that period were often Gentlemen. ran and won many races." The age of the horses on the racecourse was generally over 6 years. by Grey Hautboy 4. X3 covering the period 1619 to 1719. and William III. Of one race in 1674 the report reads as follows " Yesterday His Majesty (Charles II. having already won the Gold Cup over 4 miles at York in 1710. 5.. over 4 miles. over 4 miles. etc. by Darley's Arabian and Betty Leedes. the races were run with " heats. ran 1. Duke of Bolton's Bay Bolton. born 1702. and : — — participated in a race meeting at that place. and I do assure you the King wonn by good horsemanshipp " (see Olde New-Markitt Calendar. born about won 1699 at Newmarket. was Starling in 1727. and sometimes even Kings. and won the Plate all fower were hard and neer ridden. In 1732 Blacklegs won a match as a four-year-old. Development of the Thoroughbred. over 5 and 6 miles. page 19). In 1698 the Czar visited Newmarket in the compau}^ of William III.2. over 4 for fourat Scar- It year-olds was only after the year 1728 that a few races were arranged at Hambledon. born 1705. won and as a six. by Whynot. Most of the races had to be run and won twice. 6. 4 miles without heats. born 1711. Flying Childers. borough. Charles II. by Byerly 1692. and won 1698-1702 at Newmarket. five matches at Newmarket. over 4 Basto. and were used for the building up of the Thoroughbred Old Careless. Turk and the Bay Peg. 2 miles with heats. as regards breeding. by Bay Bolton (at Hambleton). by Taffolet or Morocco Barb. 9 stone. The following horses were winners of the races of that early period. that is to say. and . The distances were generally 4-6 miles. the weight usually 8-l'2 stone. ran and won 1712 and 1713 at Newmarket. 3 miles without heats. seven 6 miles. by Spanker and a Barb mare. and since 1734 the same were arranged several vears in succession. by Muir. ran several times at Newmarket several times 1708 and 1709 at in 1718. 1708 once 12 miles. . ran and 3. so that even Peter the Great expressed the wish to become acquainted with this sporting place. miles. in many cases the names of the horses are not given.) rode himself three heates and a course. unfortunately. over 5 and 6 miles. 5 lbs. Newmarket was the chief racing place for all the best matches. : — 2. The first four-year-old winner of importance. born about 1690. and was famed as such. and eight-year-old. A sweepstakes for four-year-olds at Newmarket took place in October. 1681 once 10 miles. Honeycomb Punch. 8 stone. ran and won Newmarket. Snail.

by Crab. wcjn as a nine-year- 5. in 1665. In order to give the small horses more chance in the races. 8. Leger. In 1751 there were fifteen races for the King's Plates. 3. — These King's Plates at first consisted of silver dishes of the value of /. but later both older and younger horses were admitted. (1714-1727) that. born 1743. by Fox. by Cartouch. won four times as a five. are still in existence. 2. by Old Starling. won as an eight-vear-old once with heats.. won as a seven-year-old in Give and Take Plates with heats. 1. formed. the ^veights in special races were fixed according to the size of the horse. won as an eight-year-old. 7.T00. born 1739. by Godolpliin Arabian. This money was partly raised by gentlemen who themselves had no racehorses. under 9 and 10 stone respectively. in order to improve the breed of Hunters. born 1731. Torismond. was allowed for each year under seven years. It W'-as not until the time of George I. won 1717 at Newmarket. The races were called the " Give and Take Plates. Squirt. money prizes were given. Dormouse. At first the King's Plates were only for six-year-olds under 12 stone. normal weight 5 stone. Also 7 lbs. and for each increase of 1 inch |. born about 1710. Cub. corresponding to our present so-called five classical races Derby. Grev Grantham. Oaks.stone more. four races with heats. in 1713. by Bartlet's Childers.000 Guineas Stakes. established by Charles II. Y. and over 4 miles with heats. according to authority (but probably even earlier). etc. The races for the King's Plates. as a seven-year-old unplaced. bv old twice. from about the beginning of the nineteenth century. In the eighteenth century these races were important. and likewise Whilst the races for the King's Plates fifteen for the Give and Take Plates. over 2 miles with heats. the Give and Take Plates gradually disappeared in the The qualifications for these latter were first half of the nineteenth centurv. : — 1. Ankaster Starling. won as an eight to 6. born 1738. upon each of which was engraved the name and pedigree of the winner. seven and eight-vear-old. Since 1750 a part of the King's Plates were also open for four and five-year-olds. and not merely for breeding horses . in so far as several of the winners of the Give and Take Plates were the source from which came the material for They were as follows the building up of the Thoroughbred.24 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. instead of these prizes. published for the last time in the Racing Calendar of 1858. Old Starling. b^' Brownlock Turk. 4. St. once. Cartouch. born 1739. born 1733. won as a seven-vear-old Othello. with the express idea that this money should go to the Crown. for races over long distances with heats and heavy weights." Before 1750 the standard measurement for a horse was 12 hands high=l'22 cm. born 1738.000 and 2. the main trials of young Thoroughbreds. eleven-year-old.

Kingston 1849 by Venison. Regulus 1739 by Godolphin Arabian. Clarion 1836 by Sultan. 4. 8. Orville 1799 by IBeningbrough. Ellerdale 1844 by Lanercost. April. Torment 1850 by Alarm. 26. Dick Andrews 1797 by Joe Andrews. 31. Woodpecker 1773 by Herod. 9. Stamford 1794 by Sir Peter. Master Henry 1815 by Orville. Canezou 1845 by Melbourne. as well as those which have played an important part for breeding purposes. Penelope 1798 by Trumpator. 33. Walton 1799 by Sir Peter. Coneyskins 1712 by Lister Turk. Harkaway 1834 by Economist. 6. • . 28. 20. Shakespeare 1745 by Hobgoblin. 7. Lanercost 1835 by Liverpool. Mercury 1778 by Eclipse. 14. 19. Conductor 1767 by Matchem. 16. 34. 30. 15 with beautiful forms and great speed. 29. Little Red Royer 1827 by Tramp. 27. Langar 1817 by Selim. Eclipse 1764 by Marske (or Shakespeare). Guiccioli 1822 by Bob Booty. Sorcerer 1796 by Trumpator. 11. The Cure 1841 by Physician. 35.) (See the Gentleman's Magazine. 1739.2. 18. Gohanna 1790 by Mercury. etc. 25. 10. Birdcatcher 1833 by Sir Hercules. 39. Alice Hawthorn 1838 by Muley Moloch. : — 2. 38. 17. 15. 3. 37. 40. 32. 36. 21. 23. Priam 1828 by Emilius. were the following 1. Flatcatcher 1845 by Touchstone. Venison 1833 by Partisan Bees Wing 1833 by Dr. 5. 13. Rataplan 1850 by The Baron. Sir Paul 1802 bv Sir Paul. Catton 1809 by Golumpus. 22. Whalebone 1807 by Waxy. Waxy 1790 by Pot8os. Development of the Thoroughbred. Syntax. Cade 1734 by Godolphin Arabian. Tartar 1743 by Herod. 12. Highflyer 1774 by Herod. 24. The most prominent winners of the King's Plates up to 1850.

170-2 . Winner. its History and Associations. . The proposition of this race remained unchanged. 22 starters. After 1776.. 20 starters. S. 1715. 1720. etc. . Bay Bolton won the Gold Cup at York over 4 miles with heats. horses in matches.. Plates. 1724. were first published in 1902 (see Royal Ascot.. His — 1716. Sweepstakes. According to the statement of Admiral Rous. First race for five-year-old colts at York. York. 86 38 263 897 205 269 191 The further development of racing sport in : seen from the following dates 1709. 1718. 21 starters.. 1712. Cawthorne and R. Ings. . 4 miles without heats 15 starters. 19 starters. 1722... This race had always stronger fields than that for five-year-old colts at York. less rich gentlemen now being able to participate in it. — England and Ireland can be The first Racing Report of the Races at Clifton and Rawcliffe York (see Bailey's Racing Register). that is to sa}^. 4 miles that is to say. later called the Great Subscription. Since 1731 the races take place at Knavesmire. Since 1759 only the weight was reduced to 9 stone. Brocklesby Betty. 18 starters 1721. and through the Handicaps. 1719.16 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. with the exception of the name.^50 Plate for six-year-olds. covering the periods 1711. up to 1775. — Hambleton. Doctor. 1724 and 1726. as 1710. 1717. they remained unaltered for a period of 64 years. 10 stone. 1720. they remained unaltered for a period of 49 years. 12 starters (winner. 12 stone. In this way. which were introduced at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 10 stone. which had been very costly for became cheaper through the Sweepstakes. The racing reports gathered from newspapers and letters. and also by the increase of different Plates. First racing report of the races which took place at Newmarket . 4 miles with heats. the opening of the new racecourse at Ascot presence of Queen Ann (1702-1714). 1723. 1713. 4 miles with heats chestnut colt. gradually : — Matches. about the races held at Ascot. there were for instance trials for The racing the owners. a five-year-old. which were introduced in 1791. 19 189 1807 1813 . as long as the races were run at Hambleton. 1711. Herod). J.. 31 starters. 19 starters. the participation in racing sport grew very considerably. 1722. On the 11th of August. remained unchanged until 1758. 23). . in the — The Ladies' Plate. 1716. when these races took place at York. 12 stone —4 starters. the weight for six-year-olds. A . Albans' 7 starters. 1712. First race for five-year-old mares at (Black) Majesty's Gold Cup. 4 miles without heats. 26 starters. under 12 stone. the racing propositions for three-years remained the same as for five-year-old mares 10 stone. Duke of St. foundation dam of Fam. Gold Cup. by G.. that is. The proposition of this race.

Winchester. Tregonwell — these races for four-year-olds the following arc noteworthy : — —4 Sedbury 1734 bv Partner (won at Hambleton). 1729. Development of the Thoroughbred. Bonny Hambleton match as a three-year-old 1725. Canterbury. 1729. left as bequests). 5 lbs. under the title of: "An Historical List of all Horse Matches and of all the Plates and Prizes run for in England and in Wales (of the value of ^^10 or upwards) in 1727. Bonny Black had already won a 1719. c . From this year there has appeared regularly up to the present time a Yearl}^ Racing Calendar. Lincoln. Lewes. 13 starters. Hunmanby. Manager of the Royal Racing Stables under William III. Appeared the first Racing Calendar. For seven-year-olds 12 stone. First racing report of the races at Richmond. 17 starters. V7 (apart from the matches from 1619 to 1719. Epsom. stone. in a field of 31 starters. 1727. first four-year-old winner which played an important part in the breeding of the Thoroughbred. 1730. Manchester. Liverpool. won the Gold Cup as a four-year-old under 10 stone. 3 miles 15 starters. First race for four-year-olds at Hambleton. He was called " The Father of the Turf. Peterborough. Fox 1735 by Partner (won at Malton). Queen Ann. and in the special collection by Muir). At the same time the following weights were agreed upon for the " King's From Plates": — For five-year-olds 10 stone. For six-year-olds 11 stone.e. at the weight for five-yearolds. at the age of 86. Frampton. foundation mare of the Fam. and 1728.2. 15 starters. 1741 no races could be held with a prize of less than ^50.. York. men^ at Black. 1733. First race for four-year-olds at Newmarket. 10 stone. Oxford. Traveller 1735 by Partner (won at Hambleton). and shortly afterwards in the first years of : On the 12th of March. born 1727 by Bay Bolton.. and George II. 1730. 1731. winner." and was interred at Newmarket. Old Starling. Nottingham. 8 starters. Hambleton. 39. at Hambleton. Chester. etc. which have already been tioned above. amongst which the following are well known to-dav Ascot Heath. George I. Richmond. died. Bishop Auckland.. excepting the cases where the prizes were specially bequeathed (i." by John Cheny. 1741. Ipswich. at Newmarket. In the first Racing Calendar were included the races run at 112 places. 4 miles First racing reports in the Racing Calendar of the races run at : 1728. 1727. Curragh of Kildare (Ireland). Doncaster. Stamford. over 4 miles. 1731.

who in The establishment of Tattersall's in London by Richard Tattersall. 1760. : : — Altoeether there ran winners were : — in I^noJand and Ireland G81 horses. 1 for five-year-olds. 1750. age unknown. 34 26 36 64 tive-year-olds. Mr. between 1752. : There were run 18 King's Plates 5 in England. older. 10 stone. First known race for three-year-old cc^lts. and there were always good fields. 7 lbs. older. in Give and Take Plates. and thereby laid the foundation of his fortune. 4 miles with heats. for was the only race mares and geldings. 4 miles with heats. 4 miles with heats. 10 stone. 1779 bought Highflyer for /. 1756. 1 for four-year-olds and older.500. 73 age unknown. six-year-olds. Ireland. 1751. on the During the next three-year-olds. 15 King's Plates were run for in England as follows 10 for six-year-olds. 45 fi^'e-year-olds. 9 stone. of which 21 four-year-olds. steeplechase matcli in Ireland over 4J miles. 4th of October at thirteen years this Newmarket —2 miles. only 490 horses ran. 15 Give and Take Plates. six-year-olds. 49 older. which winners were : — 18 33 24 45 12 First four-year-olds. 45 four-year-olds. . 2 miles with heats. 12 stone.I^g Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse. Ireland. 8 stone. 4 miles with h(^ats. 2 for five-year-old mares. of According to the Sporting Calendar by John Pond. : King's Plates in in There ran altogether. 33 six-year-(^lds."2. In Ireland 8 King's Plates. hve-vear-olds. in Ireland England and 145 — of which England and 924 horses — 779 in winners were 1 three-year-old. etc. Jockey Club established at Newmarket. 1 for four-year-olds. Edmund Blake. -2 miles with heats. O'Callagnan and Mr.

five-year-olds. Shafto were the Stewards who had already sanctioned the races for two-year-olds in 1770. The first Classical Cup-Race. 7 stone. important part for breeding purposes. At the beginning there were many Pantaloon. vear-old classical was able winners. 4 miles without heats. with very strong fields. 2 miles. five-year-olds.2. Virago (see Fam. the First Dictator of the Turf. Lord Bolingbroke and Mr. 29 starters. 3 miles with heats. 19 1762. Curragh. since 1825. and others. First race for three-vear-olds in Ireland. time (Gold) Cup at Doncaster. On the 1st of April Eclipse was born in the Duke of Cumberland's stud at Windsor (born 1721. September. 1765. where already Crab.. about IJ mile For instance 1775. about which there were very different opinions. which is still run at the present 1766. including and older at also the races in Jamaica. Pot8os.hbred... •2 miles. . of which the two-year-old colt Baby won. win the : race.. 4 miles with heats. 4 miles. 4 miles with heats. (twice). by Weatherby. 1771. over 1 mile. 3J miles with heats. born 1740. at first for five-year-olds and older. Two matches between two-year-olds and four-year-olds at Newmarket. Up to 1812 no three1776. but which no tivo-y ear-olds took part. . included in Since 1878 the race has been onlv for three-year-olds. died 1765). 85- 1 2 1 . Hollandaise !. 4 miles with heats. Woodpecker (three times). 7 lbs. the race for three-year-olds which viz. For the first time the Craven (Trial) Stakes for three-year-olds and over. played an 9. 1771 and 1772. 3 miles with heats. five-year-olds. five-year-olds. 26 starters. 29 starters a verv popular race.. 12 stone. Julv Houghton and Craven Meeting in Newmarket. etc. First Jamaica were the Sporting volume of the Racing Calendar. .. four-year-olds and over. Bunbury (since 1768 Steward. of which were : 7 for six-year-olds. . : . 1777. 9 stone. since 1786 for three-}'ear-olds and older. stone.). 19 King's Plates in England. Buzzard Hambletonian Races in (twice). J. Devt'lopinent of the Thor()ui. Calendar. over 4 miles. 29 starters. 12 stone. 3 miles with heats. P^irst race for two-year-olds in Newmarket in November. to viz. 1 . 10 stone. . 1 1 six-year-olds. 10 stone. dam of 1764. 9 stone. 1 four-year-olds. 5 : furlongs.. Sir Ch. IMarske and Herod had been born and kept as stallions. Rubens.. and since 1891 to the present time. Second October Meeting First -winner in at Newmarket. 2^ miles with heats. Selim. 1763. . 2 miles. since 1772 for four-year-olds and older.. 1773. 4 miles with heats. died 1821). 1778.

four-year-old mares. 2 lbs.. lbs. .. Doncaster ... 3| miles without heats. as well as those in Jamaica. and 8 stone. the races in France (at Sablon and Fontainebleau). 1776. 8 8 8 8 stone. 7 lbs. 1842. The distances were later Since 1806. 11 lbs. The 1778.. in a race for three-year-olds viz. 1 1 . 2 miles with heats. Named Anthony St. 10 lbs. called the " Oaks.. Leger. 1808.069 horses in England and 206 horses 1774. from 1774 all King's Plates were to be run at York without heats. From this time onward all races at New-market were to be run without heats. 132 yards. 10 lbs. . May 14th. of Park Hill. Leger (convened as a sweepstakes) . colts. of which were 6 over 4 miles with heats. 8 stone. By special command of the King. etc. Weights since : 1790. Marquis of this name at Doncaster 8 starters. stone. . 1 for five-year-old mares.20 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. First race for two-year-olds October. : Distance since 1872 IJ miles and 29 yards. beat a two-year-old. 8 stone. First Oaks. 7 stone. 9 stone. 1839. 8h stone. 1 mile. 1892." not since far from Epsom.. at Epsom 1779. 2 without heats. 9 stone. neighbour and friend Rockingham. In the Racing Calendar. 1862. at 7 stone. Frontino. 2 miles with heats. 2 miles. which was the first winner of the St. First St. 6^^ 1 mile match. 2 lbs. 1775. fillies. Sweepstakes of . 8 stone.. Named after the estate belonging to 8 stone. IJ — Lord Derby. in Ireland. 1826. were specified.. 6 lbs. . 10 stone. 7 lbs. . 12 lbs. and 8 stone. stone. stone.^50 for each. 6 furlongs. Newmarket. . 8 stone. and Leger under — owner of Alabaculia. and 8 stone respectively. after Lieut. : 8 stone . who became Prime Minister in 1782. October. The first races in Jamaica were specified in the Racing Calendar. miles 12 starters. 4 lbs.-General Highflyer.. 1776. J mile. First St. 8^ stone. five-year-old mares. 6 furlongs. 1862. and 8 stone. . 3 lbs. 1884. respectively. 3 starters. stone. Newmarket. Leger. Altogether there ran 1. . 4 lbs. : 10 King's Plates in Ireland.. 1777. 1 mile. on Friday. 193 vards since 1826. of the winner which had an important bearing on breeding.. and 8 stone. 10 lbs. 9 stone. 5 lbs. Weight : 1787. one three-year-old.

1786. July Stakes at Newmarket. 2 lbs. and two for colts and fillies. and later became sire of the nameless Derby winner of 1797.069 horses ran and 13 over 4 miles with heats. Colts. distance 1 mile.. 5 lbs. Amongst 100 58 38 39 30 the two-year-old four-year-olds. stone. extra. At this time the races for two-year-olds became very popular. . stone. 19 King's Plates in England. Newmarket. T. three races for two-year-olds. of these were run without heats. Derby. several 7J stone. 7 stone. 8 stone. 1808. and 8 stone respectively.. First classical race for two-year-olds fillies. 5 lbs. 1803. 8 8 8 8 8 8 stone. 77 three-year-olds. and 8 stone. Y. Beside these. volume of the Irish Racing Calendar. respectively. 12 lbs. : on Wednesday. five-year-olds. First . Distance. 136 yards = 1. . 7 lbs. 1807. 10 lbs.2. winners was Assassin. respectively. Wren won five races as a two-year-old. at Epsom.. and 8 stone. stone.130 m. 8 stone fillies. 1| miles and 29 yards.. one for fillies only. The 1781. stone. 1790. C. winner of the Oaks. and also Ceres. 187-2. England and Ireland. older. — 7 starters. stone. 3 lbs. 9 stone. and in 1795 became the dam of Bellisima. : Iw miles. First The first races in Ireland for two and three-year-olds together. Colts. in Only 8 Altogether 1. extra). and 7 stone.. 9 lbs. six-year-olds. offspring of Eclipse or Highflyer. just as at an earlier period Herod's offspring had to carry 3 lbs... Besides this. and 8 stone. and 8 stone.. The winners were : 9 two-year-olds. 21 1780. Weights since 1784. other races for two-year-olds and over were held. age not known. 1884. . (This extra weight for Eclipse and Highflyer's offspring was customary in many other races. 1 mile —9 starters. O. 8 stone. = 5 furlongs. and 8 stone respectively. greater number of the races at Epsom were still run with heats. 7 lbs. October. 11 lbs.. winner of the next year's Derby. etc. : 8 lbs. the 4th of May. 12 King's Plates in Ireland. respectively. 3 lbs. 1801. Development of the Thoroughbred. 1862. 3 lbs. Afterwards (in 1785) Fidget won three races as a two-year-old. winner of next year's Oaks. .. The distances Since 1784. . 2 lbs.

— 3 starters. October. 9 stone.. and when she was 27 bore her 5 b. who became known in England through the dissection which he made of Eclipse in 1789. Russia. by Ready Rhino Herod. She was foundation dam of the Marigold. October. There 1791. C. o. at Newmarket against three-year-olds. Besides two matches took place between yearlings.= 2 furlongs. Altogether there ran in England and Ireland 923 3 one-year-olds. Winner. — last foal. 8 stone.22 1791. 1793. He was made first Professor of the Veterinary College of London. School founded in London by Charles \^ial de Frenchman. The following year this Handicap was removed to Newmarket. was also a race for two-year-olds in the following year at Curragh. First starters. 4 lbs. 8 stone. amongst which were three foundation mares of the Earn. 147 yards=524 m. and in 1870 was won bv the three-year-old. over 8 miles. 1 lb. Saintbel. of which 16 were over 4 miles with heats. First race for two-year-olds in Ireland (at Ennis) f mile. 3 lbs. '2 won by Penelope. Baronet. Y. C. First race for yearlings.). Newmarket. had the lightest not placed. Prince of Wales' six-year-old. From stated. matches Cash (later Ariel).950 Guineas. won two Distance. First match with yearlings. Winners were : 28 two-vear-olds. ran fourteen races and won in eleven (including one w. and 13 in Ireland. and started as favourite. Three races in Moscow.000 people at Ascot. — Prize. this date the lengths of the different courses at Newmarket were stone. J mile 4 starters. and the publicity caused by same. The race was very popular. Distance. horses. etc. Y. 7 stone. in — October Calendar. The famous Escape. over the Cambridgeshire course. 2. 10 lbs. at Ascot. and there must have been about 40. 7 stone. weight. then up to 14 years was used as a riding and carriage horse. The two-year-old. After that gave birth to nine foals. First known steeplechase in Leicester. 22 King's Plates in England. The three-year-old Vermin. 5 stone. First year's circulation of the Sporting Magazine. C. Adonis. a six-year-old. 8 2 lbs. (1789) by Diomed and the Golden Rose. at Newmarket. were included in the Racing The yearling. Trial of the Thorous^hbred on the Racecourse. Already in April a race had taken place at Distance. six-year-old. 9 stone. — Newmarket for two-year-olds.. The racing of yearlings was first ofticially forbidden in 1876. and only 8 were over 2 to 4 miles without heats. 2 miles 19 Winner. sweepstakes. the one-eyed grey mare of Mercury Herod.. Y. 1792. Veterinary a . which ran once again as a two-year-old not placed. Anthony. . Handicap: The Oatlands Staines. 1791. 4 lbs. In 1804 it was lbs. Distance. this.

there were specified in the Racino. that no place. 6 lbs. by Pegasus. Louise. First 8 stone.. Hambletonian won in 7^ minutes. Since 1850 Handicap. C. a part of the races in Ireland did not take In the English Racing Calendar it is stated. as a matter of fact. Over 4 York. won the Cup Prize. 1 furlong. erroneously.. at famous The 1804. age unknown. •2 One sweepstakes for yearlings at Newmarket. Flint's Brown Thornwithout regard to weight miles. the Woodcot . Allegro. but some. IJ miles. 1795. Thornton. unrest of the period. B. for For the first time the second classical race for two-year-olds. the breeding of It was not until after 1815 again commenced to recover. two-year-olds and older. In the last mile the aged Vinagarella became lame. Racing Report. by Diomed. Distance. etc. at Doncaster. . Colonel ThornVolunteer. did take place. Also. about twenty-year-old. such as had never before been seen at York. the famous match for 700 Guineas and a Cup. about the three days' meeting at Goodwood. and therefore : — Brown Thornville won easily in 9 minutes. the Racing Calendar for 1798 and 1799 appeared later in one volume. match for 1000 Guineas on the 25th of August. political trials In consequence of the Thoroughbreds and racing that it was neglected. Y. owner. by Pegasus. race for two-year-old colts. at York. the famous lady rider beat Francis Buckle. in September. rider. between Hambletonian. 3 lbs. the most noted jockey of that period. In 1800. In Ireland. Blomfield's six-yearold. 1805. 79 45 34 38 36 four-year-olds. Mrs. rider. over 4 miles with heats).Calendar three races w hich were run at Moscow (the eight-vear-old Grev Diomed. 1807. 138 yards. C. 13 stone. by Woodpecker. and Diamond. account of the Revolution. 23 93 three-year-olds. Development of the Thoroughbred. 9 stone. 8 stone. races were held. On On the 25th of March. October. 8 stone. First volume of the General Stud Book. 2 miles: Colonel Thornton's six-year-old. by half a neck. 59 seconds. Fitzwilliam Stakes. after a very exciting struggle. six-vear-olds. Francis Buckle. distance. bv ville. at Newmarket. Rider. On the •24th of August.2. September. Mrs. five-year-olds. took place the famous match 1799. Mr.. G lbs. 8 stone. Thornton. Ridden by the seven-year-old. older. If miles (later 1 mile) 1802. lbs. Both seven-year-olds. = 4 miles. ton's Vinagarella. at Doncaster. Amidst the unequalled enthusiasm of a tremendous crowd of spectators. and Mr.

182. 2. and he cleared the racecourse of defaulters. 2^ miles.3. 1. Ross won the first steeplechase match which is recorded in the Racing Calendar.= 7 furlongs. and 3 training establishments.000 Guineas Stakes at Newmarket. First year's circulation of the — : . as in the 2. at St. Weight now 9 stone. A detailed description of this match is to be found in the Sporting Magazine. August 15th September. for three-year-olds : : and older. year-old 1816. First steeplechase. October. For the first time The third classical race for two-year-olds. 9 lbs. respectively. 178 yards. Distance R. 3 lbs. for Cavalry Officers 16 starters.000 Guineas Stakes at Newmarket. . died 1848) had 100 brood mares. For the first time Gold Cup at Manchester. 26 King's Plates in England. : f mile. in the presence of the Duke of Wellington. page 42. : time Goodwood Gold Cup. For the first : 1826. 1814. for three-year-olds and older. On the 31st of March. over 4 miles. with his famous Hunter. at Newmarket. Y. according as one or both parents were Oriental. by Clinker Sancho Fidget. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. the allowance was raised to 38 and 36 lbs. at Newmarket. 16 King's Plates in Ireland 17 — — — over 4 miles with heats. opening of the first railway in England. 1827. Colts. October. In 1897 this allowance was done away with. 8 stone. T. 60 racehorses. 16 without heats. at Sportsman. R. Colts. 8 stone. He was the second Dictator of the Turf. 4 lbs. 9 stone. 1845-1853 the prize was given by the Czar of Russia. Epsom. Since 1834.= 1 mile — 8 starters. For the first time The Lavant Stakes. 1829. for two-year-olds. For the first time : The Wokingham Stakes (Handicap) : f mile. For the for two-year-olds — 11 first time : The Clearwell Stakes. at Derby time. from I mile. Manchester to Liverpool. allowed. Albans. for three-year-olds and older. fillies. 182.000 Guineas Stakes. For the first time Chester Cup. : The Criterion Stakes. The Prendergast Stakes. 1830-46. 1830. volume 68. 8 stone. 8 stone. October. Weight now: Colts. C. as Orientals did not take part. Since 1833 7 lbs. for three-vear-olds and older.24 Stakes. Capt. 8 stone. for two-year-olds. 1813. present time. first time 8 stone. allowed for horses whose dam or sire was Oriental (including Persian or Turkish). 1826. For the first time The Gold Cup at Ascot. at Goodwood. 2 miles. 1830. starters. Clinker. : year-olds. M. O. ^l. For the first time Newmarket. at Leicester. 1824. Lord George Bentick (born 1802 at Welbeck. Since. at 3 lbs. to the . ~M. since 1873 For the fillies. etc. fillies. threeFor the first time 1809. by Eclipse. Distance the same up fillies. and the Lily of the Valley. at Ascot. threeD.5. 14 or 28 lbs.

1837. and The Cambridgeshire Stakes. For the : for three-year-olds — 11 miles —16 : starters. by J. Capt. 1850. a horse foaled any time in the year 1830 will be deemed a year old on the 1st of May. At the smaller racing places most 8 stone. instead of the 1st of May. First volume of the Steeplechase Calendar. For the time the : The Lincolnshire Handicap. in 8 hours. chase 12 stone. and was run 1836-1838 over a course at Maghull. C. gentlemen riders— 10 starters. as at the present time. as at the present time. Becher. and in 1894 disposed second time. On the 25th of Thoroughbreds 15. using 29 horses. For the first time The City and Suburban Handicap at Epsom. "the third Dictator of the Turf. at Shrewsbury. who. The number of the two-year-old racing horses increase. reckoned. later. 7 stone. Admiral Rous. at Doncaster two races with heats. at Newmarket. and older.. In November. 1 mile . 13 colts. 1831. 42 minutes. 1^ miles. 7 lbs. and since 1856 outnumbers the three-year-olds. Colts. In the Spring Races at Newmarket the age of the horses was J834. first Liverpool Grand National Steeple1836. sold for Thoroughbreds again established. of the races with heats. in March. For the first time Gold Vase at Ascot. the two famous Handicaps at Newmarket The 1839. 1 mile 24 starters. R. on the 5th of November. and over which It was at first arranged as a SweepCapt. 2 lbs.e. 1842. with 11 stone. w-hich he changed every 4 miles. Osbaldiston 1S31. Development of the Thoroughbred. At Epsom still five races with heats at Goodwood three races with heats. | mile. . three-year-old and Stewards Cup (Handicap). etc. 1851. The last reports on cock fighting in the Racing Calendar. the famous water leap was called. Osborne. (born 1787. Becher tumbled with Conrad. 1843. October. races for yearlings. 4 miles. stakes with selling conditions. Winner. fillies. and 18 fillies. 200 miles=322 km." became Handicapper of the Jockey Club. For the first time : The Coronation Stakes at Ascot. 1838.. after whom. rode. 05 The Racing Calendar recorded the famous bet of Mr. first 1853. and also well known on account of his duel with Lord Bentick). Since 1843 as a Handicap. great Handicap of the year.2. 1848-49. 1856." : — On the 29th of February. auction at Hampton Court of the 43 brood mares. ... For the first time. first time The Royal Hunt Cup (Handicap) at Ascot. at Lincoln. Still first 1855. He was a celebrated sportsman.692 Guineas). (5 stallions. . and only since 1839 over the course at Aintree. i. from the 1st of January. the stud of of for the : : 1840. Cesarewitch Stakes (the Russian Grand Duke Alexander gave ^300). For all other racing places up to 1858 the following held good " Horses take their ages from May Day.

at 7 were races with heats run. Heroine. ^ tion mile 7 starters. etc. 9. October. starters. 7 lbs. 1827 with Bav Middleton. 14."hbred on the Racecourse. For the first time : Course — 6 starters. 27 years old). 1834 with Glencoe. 2 b. starters. Heads or Tails (born 1854. 1866-67. The proposal of Lord Redesdale 1803.. clam of Camballo Ireland. The establishing of the National Hunt Committee. bv Sir Hercules.000 Guinea Stakes twice 1824 with Cobweb. small portion of the most important races on the of the volume Weatherby. foundation mare in Fam. Blair Athol to the Cobham Stud Co. Shrewsbury. Tomboy.000 Sovereigns. — — 1858. at Shrewsbury. ran his second at Paris. b\' klleb(n. of 33 King's Plates without heats in England. new Iv established. Osborne. foundation mare. The Derby winner. 1835 He won the with Ibrahim. Guinea Stakes Mameluck. 1836 with He won the Oaks once with Cobweb in 1824. by by J. as 1856 All the King's Plates in England without heats. at Stakes. He won the Derbv three times: 1825 with Middleton..26 Trial of the Thoroui. Flageolet. races for yearlings The Anglesey Winner. 3rd. which was raised to 6 stone in 1889. and the 2. 1830 with Charlotte W^est. First and was beaten with two lengths by V^ermouth.and Alexina. 1837 with Achmet. to fix the minimum racing weight stone was rejected by the Jockey Club. 18()4. 1872. as in 1856 Winner. at Newmarket. as in 1856 — 9 starters. unplaced. : 1859. Fam. 1851). W. Lord Jersey died. of which the well-known half-bred mare. as a continuation of that issued Racing Calendar for Steeplechases. There were also several hurdle races with heats.. given by Mr. In November. Winner. 1. . Saxony. Little Lady. Mr. won a few. 2 c. 1866. — 1873. Pollv Peachum. In November. foundation mare in : Fam. Blair Athol. Winner. For the first time: The Middle Park Plate (1. races for yearlings. . at fifteen small racing places King's Plates still in Only 1860. and 17 which one only was with heats. 2. In — November. WL Blenkiron) for two-year-olds. 1836 with Bay Middleton. at Shrewsbury. two-vear-olds. Jockey Club Cup. 7 lbs. foundamare in Fam. Cesar.. Blenkiron Middle Park Stud was sold after the death of the Manager. fillies. 1857.000 five times: 1831 with Riddlesworth. 6 furlongs 15 starters. 4 lbs. and would not He was let the greatest to races for his own two-year-olds run. races for yearlings. at Newmarket. 7 stone. and the minimum weight was fixed at 5 stone. and only one over opponent 4 miles. race in the Grand Prix Since this year a Continent have been recorded.

won four times. Donovan. in March time : — IS starters. 1897.000 to the Argentine. Bendigo. Maher (18-year-old). For the 7 first Dewhurst Plate at : for two-year-olds. July 7 starters. Development of the Thoroui^hbred. and afterwards Mr. 27 for r-2. under the management of Mr. Menlo Stud Stock Farm. For the first time: Tlie Brocklesby Stal<es for two-year-olds.000 Guineas to Germany. Leger. 46a Pall Mall. 1886. at New- market . 1S74-. Gladiateur for 7. In 1899 Sloan ran 343 races and won 108. California. : — Sandringham. at The first /. In England all the King's Plates were run over a two-mile 1880. which. First race in the year for two- 1875. M. Commencement of the American Jockey invasion. at Newmarket.2. In the Derby the French grey colt. Distance. broke his fetlock in struggling with Flying Fox. 1898. Kempton Park (three meetings). from America to England. Suff. for three first time The Newmarket Stakes for three-\-ear-olds. Ray. Isinglass. W. beating Flying Fox. olds. Macdonough. London.000 race Eclipse Stakes. came second with Caiman in the 2. F. but in Ireland there were still six over a three-mile course and two over a four-mile (as at present). Reiff and J. Holocauste.= l mile. among them the Middle Park Plate with Caiman. The second /. and in came the two brothers. course. 1878. C.= 1J miles. S. A. furlongs 17 starters. Whinner. Race Meeting first For the 1879. near Francisco. For the : "2 — : — \\'inner. Introduction of the Australian starting machine for two-year-old in the following year also for three-year-old races. \\'inner. vear-olds. L. to 1889. etc. furlongs First — ]-2 starters. and four-year-olds. Reiff (14-year-old) 1900 D. The Roval Stud for Thoroughbreds was established at 1887.500 Guineas. IJ miles. Allison. The Hartwicke Stakes for three-year-olds Disposal of the Cobham Stud Co. B.000 race Princess of \\"ales'. after many a change. for /'31. for three and four-yearSandown Park. IJ miles 12 starters. and in the St. Whinner.000 Guineas.. rode in fifty-three races and won twenty. and . at Lincoln. Distance. ran ninetv-eight races and won forty-two.W. On the last racing day he rode five races.000 Guineas to Capt. 1891-. Since 1901 for four-vear-olds and older. 1899. where he died. and Breadalbane for 6. St. Ormonde was sold for ^'30. In June.000. Kisber. 1888. races. finally came into the possession of the International Horse Agency and Exchange. = l mile. and once came in second. and older. at time Ascot.T0. In the following year Sloan came to England in September.T0. Distance since 1902. In October Tod Sloan (born 1873) came to England. I mile.

Grimshaw G. Archer F. Fordham Kenyon G. Archer F. Wins. 1884 73 164 142 126 145 121 95 77 W.Archer F. then J. Archer F. Fordham G. Reiff. Archer 120 220 1882 1883 210 232 . with 604 mounts and The American style of seat at race-riding was now generally 124 wins.Archer F. Fordham G. Fordham G. Archer 1875 1876 172 207 1877 F. of whom L. Gray G. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Of the ten most successful jockeys who had won more than 50 races were Americans. etc. Fordham G. five accepted. Fordham G. followed with 809 mounts and 137 wins. Archer F. S. Cannon 88 88 109 147 1872 1873 1874 H. Archer F. Archer 1878 1879 1880 1881 218 229 197 F. Fordham T. Reiff stood at the head with 553 mounts and 143 wins. Constable F. 109 146 106 166 named the champion jockeys of 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 Fordham G. Fordham J.28 1900. Fordham G. In the in the last England 1859 1860 1861 following table are 50 years. Loates. The most famous English jockey up to this time.

•29 Number of Horses which ran in England and Ireland. .2. Dev^elopment of the Thoroughbred. etc.

30 Trial of the Thorou'/hbred on the Racecourse. etc. 1 O CO ! -f -+ eg GO -t< 'M f2 ^ CD 00 -a c c -a c ^ ^ Qj .

o o C^l clO 33 CO l^ ^ o o DO CO -n -H ?t DO t^ -f ID ira o CO C5 -M C5 Ci 5i CO -+ -^H Ci (M l^ 'M CO 05 Ci ^1 iO O CO /< ^ .2. Development of the Thoroughbred. etc. 31 .

Difference October. . Conclusions Weight Tables...^ lbs. = 4 miles. 5 lbs. .. and the following examples show the average differences in weights in 1775 : . For instance : 4 year-olds 9 stone. .j i stone.. 2 -j^.j ^ i stone. and the be drawn therefrom. 9 .. Distance. ) <* Older 10 — 7 ~ ^^^ . the difference in weight of horses of various ages was calculated generally at the rate of 1 stone=14 English lbs. 6 year-olds " \ ^o "" ibs .. = about 4 miles.. over 4 miles. Older 1766. At that time there was no universally accepted scale of weights. 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 year-olds 7 stone. October. . in At the establishing of the Gold Cup in 1768 at Newmarket.CHAPTER Origin and Change in the to III. — 4 4 . ^ ^ . . 5 3'ear-olds 10 6 vear-olds 11 Older 12 1759 to 1765. ..j i stone.. 7 Ibs. Newmarket. . 8 9 . Difference to 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 year-olds 6 stone. 3 Older 9 10 .. C. B. .. 7 lbs. so-called weight scale according age for distance. .. . 8 9 .. So-called weight scale according to age at Newmarket. 11 Ibs. B. / 10 lbs. per year... In the beginning and middle of the eighteenth century. } 7 lbs. i..| . . ^ ^^^^^ 8 9 10 . . C.. up to about 1760.} : ^ lbs... to be run October.e. . the weights were Difference 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 7 stone. —Ibs.

J 5 year-olds ^ -' .3. 6 year-olds ( "^ ^^s. to 1 stone. „ . In August. 8 9 9 — 5 ^ " \ . to 1 stone. < Older 8 8 9 4 ^^ .s. „ . 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 year-olds j . 5 year-olds { 6 year-olds ^ lbs. i stone \ { '^ 2 lbs. 4 vear-olds \ ta iu ^ 1 .1 7 lbs.. to 2 stone..... — 2 9 .{ . 7 lbs. In October. . 5 lbs. ^ .. 7 lbs.. over 4 miles 6 stone. to 2 stone... . 2 lbs.^^^ ^ 1^^o lbs.. 13 . to 3 lbs. 2 year-olds 3 year-olds 4 year-olds j | ^ 1 stone. 3 Ibs. J 9 ibs '"> lbs. . 7 . 2 lbs. 3 year-olds | 1 stone. 12 lbs. to 1 stone. to 6 lbs. { Older } 1830. r iu „ It) lbs... { Older / .. about as Older . ^ i stone. „ ^ . to 1 stone... lbs. Older } -2 lbs.. on the average. 11 lbs. 12 lbs. | i stone. to 9 lbs. etc. 1 lb.. ' . ^^^ '^ ^^^ ^^. { ^ lbs. . 1800.. -. over 4 miles 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 vear-olds 7 Difference stone. 2 lbs. ^ stone to 2 stone. . to 10 lbs. ^ stone to 2 stone. 2 lbs. at Newmarket. 33 In July. 3 lbs. at Newmarket. 2 lbs.. 8 9 . . over 2 miles : Difference 3 year-olds 4 year-olds 5vear-olds 6 year-olds 6 stone. to 1 stone. .. 2 year-olds \ 3 year-olds 1 stone. .. O'lder 9 } : 2 lbs. to 8 lbs. 7 3 year-olds 4 year-olds £) year-olds G year-olds — 7 Difference lbs. . „ } Hereafter the differences in weight were. follows : 1775. : 12 3 ( / . . at Newmarket. 2 lbs.j . Orig-in and Change in the Weight Tables. -. -..

0. etc. 3 lbs. At Newmarket alone were different racing places in the Racing Calendar.l^s. 5 lbs. 2 year-olds \ 3 year-olds j ^ ' i stone. 2 year-olds \ 3 year-olds . 13 lbs. and holds good at the present From 1832 the weights for the King's Plates were fixed for the time. A special table is given herewith for comparison of the weights from 1881 and of those from 1906. ^ lb. ^ ^^^^^^ ^ j^g_ ^^ o stone. Calendar for 1861 appeared for the first time the universally accepted weight scale for the King's Plates. to 1 lb. 4 year-olds 5 year-olds ^ ( ^ to 8 lbs. _ . ^ 7 lbs. to 2 stone. iu 10 6 year-olds { . i stone. 12 lbs. On . to 2 stone. In the Racing the weights for the King's Plates fixed by the Stewards.g4 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Older J 1900. which we give below.. to 4 year-olds ^ ij 5 year-olds -^ ta lbs. 6 lbs. to 1 stone. to 6 lbs. page 35 is given the weight scale worked out by Admiral Rous in This scale has been frequently altered. Older } 1873. 1 lb. 1850. It was not until 1881 that the first copy of the weight scale worked out by Admiral Rous appeared in the Racing Calendar.

Ori"-in and Cliance in the Weisfht Tables. >i (u >-. 00 05 05 X o o o !>• Oi O O O CD 00 00 t^ iM ^7 1-1 t- K O C5 •M t- O 1— -H t^ iM -^ O Ci 05 X C5 O X C5 O O t^ Oi O O CO I> (M CC •^ CC t- C 1— :r. 35 OS C- 1-1 --H LI t^ (M -M ?0 t— CC CO CO 05 Oi 05 CO 05 c: Oi 00 o c: Ci X Oi o o O X GO 1> 1-1 r-< t.3. S^ Tt( >i >^ CO * O CO CC -* K5 CO CO lO CO CO -* "O CO . >. O) <U c^ <U c^ O) >. o t- rH Oi t^ ri lO CO 05 C5 C5 t> C5 O O X Oi o o c <1J O 00 l> CO o o 3 t^ t- 1-1 -M 1-1 t> rH CO g c <^ CO l> CO CO rt c: 05 o o o "! t- Oi o o t^ Oi o o CO o "^^ •4—1 ^ c- t^ O IM X t- t^ (M "+ biD o o o OJ o o c- Oi c. o l> Oi o o CS J3 «- t- O C^l CO t- rH »* I> t> N l-O CO t- ^ X o o t> o o o t^ o o o t- Oi O O i^ Oi < tn t/1 tn u) "u •n 'o "D *0 U5 7) t/1 tn I/) u) tn (/3 *0 T3 'U 'O "O •o *^ T3 -O "O T5 c^ rt (U a> oj >.: r- (M ?t :o t- CO — 1— I t^ T-l C5 C5 O cT) a a ^ X Oi o o f 00 t- S<J 'M DO I> CC O O "* t^ O 1-1 CO L— ^ CO OS c: o. etc.

36 u Trial of the Thoroug'hbred on the Racecourse. etc. ! o 05 .

etc. 37 o rH 00 X) J J-) o fciO o .3. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables.

. Distance 2 Y. 1 stone. Puzzle. 12 lbs. 8 lbs. 12 lbs. 12 lbs. according to to-day's scale. According to to-day's scale the difference would be 4 lbs. Newmarket. Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. to the present day scale 1 stone. = l ] mile. October. 3 year-old. = 4 furlongs. Difference. . C. distance D.C. 6 lbs. ^ Taking into consideration the usual 3-lbs. 2 stone. 1 stone. and the three-year-old. 1773. . Newmarket. 3 lbs. that is. 13 lbs. according to to-day's Distance. 3 year-old. 2 year-olds. 2 1800. The first race for two-year-olds and older horses in November. October. ] ) M. scale. 7 lbs. July.. Newmarket. 8 lbs. . 2 lbs. etc. 13 lbs. 1 lb. 2 stone. Difference in weight between 2 . 6 lbs.. Distance D. 1800. It is very interesting to note how exactly. according to to-day's scale. M. hereafter will be given the weights for definite yearlv periods. 7 lbs. Newmarket. 7 lbs. as well as three-year-olds. 4 stone. to the present dav scale 1 stone. 1 stone. Difference in weight between 2 . 8 stone. (paid forfeit).. J. 8 stone (won). — — 1800. were racing horses of almost equal value. October. : [ According 1781.. October. 3 lbs. In order to arrive at a fair comparison of the weights carried formerly with those carried at the present time. For further comparison of the weights for twoyear-olds. and 3 year-olds. 3 lbs. \ M. = about 2 miles. October. even at that time. according to to-day's scale. only for races without heats. 6 lbs 1 stone. and for three-year-olds. ^ According to present day scale : about Assassin. 6 stone. i.. 3 year-olds. 2 stone. 1 stone. 7 lbs. Newmarket. 6 stone. a difference of 1 stone. at Newmarket. Puzzle. and.38 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Distance D. Difference.. Difference. 2 year-old.. . 6 stone. = about 2 miles. . allowed for fillies. the following examples will serve : — 1777.= 5 furlongs. : J According 1777. = about 2 miles. J. Newmarket.O. Assassin. O. and 3 year-olds. Distance f mile Ab. the capabilities of the two-year-olds were valued against those of the three-year-olds. 3 lbs. 136 yds.. 2 stone. 7 stone (won). 1 stone. 136 yards.= 6 furlongs. winner of the next vear's Derby. 1800. Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. of course.. Newmarket. Distance ^ R. more. 1 stone. October. 1 stone. 2 year-old. seasons. J.= 5 furlongs. . 1 stone. 8 lbs. distances. and Puzzle won directlv afterwards the at that time classical Perram Stakes at Newmarket.e. 8 stone.. . Distance Ab. Y. stipulated as weight for two-yearolds.

Distance J Ab. Distance IJ miles. C.. . Newmarket. 11 lbs. 6 fur. 1 stone. . 1850.. 2 to to-day's scale. Difference in weight betw-een 3 and 4 year-olds. weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. 1 stone. Newmarket.. Difference in .3. 2 furlongs. . Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. according to to-day's scale. 1775. 1 stone. Doncaster. April. 2 stone. Distance 2 Y. 1 stone. 7 lbs. = about 5 furlongs. . Newmarket. . 4 lbs. Craven Stakes. Doncaster. . lbs. 2 stone.. 1830. according to to-da3''s scale. according to to-day's scale. September. 13 lbs. Liverpool. 0. = G furlongs. lib.. . 7 lbs. 7J lbs. October. according to to-day's scale. 2 stone. C. 8 lbs. 44 yards. 9 lbs. 1 stone... 2 stone. July. April. September. 4 lbs. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables. 2 stone. etc. O. 1800. . 39 1830. according to to-day's scale. 1850. July. 3 yds. Diff'erence in . lbs. . and 3 \'ear-olds. Craven Stakes. October. Curragh. 7 . Newmarket. according to to-day's scale. 2 lbs.. Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. according to to-day's scale. Distance 4 miles. Diff'erence in Dist.= 5 furlongs. 1 stone. according to to-day's scale... . . O. according to to-day's scale. . weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Difference in Weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. 2 lbs.. . Distance 2 miles. according Dist. according to to-day's scale. 11 lbs. 2 stone. C... Diff'erence in . 136 yards. 152 yds. 1850. 11 according to to-day's scale.. 2 stone. 44 yards. 2 stone. = about 5 furlongs. Difference in weight between 2 . 1 stone. weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. O. 1775. 3 lbs. 1 stone. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds.. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. 2 fur- longs. . . 1 stone. Distance 2 Y. and 3 year-olds.. .. Distance 1 mile. 12 lbs.. July. according to to-day's scale. 11 lbs. Distance 2 Y.. 1 stone. October. 1850. 1850. October. 10 lbs. 1850.. 1 stone. .. 1 stone. 2 stone. 7|-lbs. 2 lbs. will For comparing three and four-year-olds the following examples serve : — 1775. July... 2 stone. 1850. Newmarket. i\L = 4 furlongs. Difference in weight between 2 . .. .. weight between 2 and 3 year-olds. Newmarket. . 1 stone. Red House==5 furlongs. Newmarket. Y. August. 2 lbs. 1 stone. 4 lbs. 1 stone.. Distance 1 mile. . Liverpool. Distance Red Post=l mile.. 1 stone. Goodwood. Distance 1 mile. O.

. . 2 stone.. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. 1830. 7 lbs. 8 lbs. Diff'erence in Manchester. 1800.. Liverpool.. 1 stone. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. . Distance=4 miles. . May. 1 stone. June. Newmarket. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. 1 stone. . Gold Cup. . weight between 3 and 4 year-olds.^Q 1800. Distance=2 miles. Stockbridge. 1 stone.... Gold Cup. Liverpool. 1 stone. 1 stone. . 1 stone. Distance 2J miles. Gold Cup. 12 lbs.. Craven Stakes. 1800. Gold Cup. Stamford. 1 stone. Distance 2 miles. June. . weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. . . Distance 1 mile.. 1 stone. 1830. 7J lbs. .. 1830. Difference in Distance=4 miles. 1800. 4 lbs. J. Ascot. 1 stone. May. according to to-day's scale. 1 stone. Epsom. . October. Distance=2J miles. Distance D. according to to-day's scale. May. 1 stone. according to to-day's scale. 4 lbs. . Difference in Craven Stakes. weight between 3 and . 7J lbs. lbs. 4 lbs. Ascot.. . 1 stone. . 1800. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Difference in Weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. 1 stone. 13 according to to-day's scale. . 1830.. Distance=2 miles.. June. Newmarket.. 1 stone. 4 lbs. July. 7J lbs. Distance IJ miles. lbs. 1830. Distance=lJ miles.. 2 stone. . 5 lbs. Newmarket. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Newmarket. 44 yards.. 1800. according to to-day's scale. etc. August. Croxteth Stakes. 2 furlongs. . according to to-day's scale. 6 . 7 lbs. 6 lbs. . 3 lbs. according to to-day's scale. 1 stone. 9 lbs. Distance 2 miles. 6 lbs. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds.. . . Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Distance= 2 miles.. 3 lbs. 4 year-olds... 1 stone. July. 4 lbs. . . 1 stone.. 1 stone. 13 lbs. 1 stone. 7 lbs. 1807. July. 1 stone.. according to to-day's scale.. according to to-day's scale. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. according to to-day's scale.. according to to-day's scale. Ireland.. July. 1 stone. 1 stone. . April. 1830. according to to-day's scale.. = about 2 miles.. 1 lb. 10 lbs. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. according to to-day's scale. .

. Distance 1 mile. 1850. . 1 stone.. three and . that the weight difference between tw-o and three-year-olds as well as between three and four-year-olds was.. 1 stone. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Cup. 9 lbs. . . 1^ lbs. are. The many Handicaps for horses of each age are very difficult to manipulate as comparisons. according to to-day's scale. . 8 lbs. . April.. especially in the years before 1850. Metropolitan Stakes. Epsom. in Difference Distance 2 miles. scale. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. and that they often were somewhat smaller for longer distances. . lbs. From above examples one easily can see. In other words. according to to-day's scale.. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables. Craven Stakes. 1 stone. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Distance I5 miles. according to to-day's scale. July. often difficult to gather.O. what. ^ Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. .3. 1 stone. 9 lbs. Doncaster. Distance 2 miles. 7Jlbs.Y. 3 lbs. 4 .. October. Distance. Distance 2J miles. 2 stone. June. 5 furlongs. Those examples. 1 stone.. up to the year 1800. 4 lbs. Distance IJ miles. Distance 2 miles. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Doncaster. August. . lbs. Difference in . 1 lb.).. and 4 year-olds.). T. . 1850. Croxteth Stakes. of weight carrying is capability has been approximately the same up about 1800 as to-day for two. Newmarket. weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. Liverpool. 1 stone. 1850.. lbs. October. 1 stone. and are therefore unsuitable as comparisons with the present time. 136 yds. 1 lb. according to to-day':. Newmarket. according to to-day's scale. 1 stone. Cup.. according to to-day's scale. nearly according to the present scale of weights. 2 furlongs. lbs. viz. weight between 3 and 4 year-olds. 1 stone. which may serve as a comparison. Ascot. Epsom. 44 yards. . York. as most races then were run with heats. September. 1850. : From 1800 to about 1850 these weight differences increased someThe differences between two and three-year-olds less (about 2-7 somewhat more (about it those between three and four-year-olds the proportion to 3-11 lbs. Gold Cup. May. 1 stone. 5 furlongs.. 1 stone. 1850. according to to-day's scale. 2 lbs. however. Difference in weight between 3 . 41 1830. IJ 1830.C. 1850. according to to-day's scale.. 12 lbs. 1 stone. 1 stone.. 7 according to to-day's scale..... . . . 4 lbs. 5 lbs.. September. etc. Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds.. . Distance 11 miles. Craven Stakes. 2 lbs. and because only few races were set apart for horses of each age.= 5 furl. 1830. TJlbs. . 1 stone.

appears that the races for two-year-olds.. improved the and four-vear-olds. | I Older 3 .42 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. : „ According 1792. 6 year-olds ' " . O'ider 1-2 Distance 2 miles. Xewmarket. : Distance 1 mile. According to present Difference weight : scale : 4 year-olds \ jo ibs 5 year-olds ^ ' lbs. in Gold Cup." / 9 ibs ^ 4J n lbs. Older 1792. } 2 October. Jul}-. 5 3^ear-olds 10 lbs ^ ' 3 lbs. etc. Xewmarket. Xewmarket. " " According " " to present scale older 1800. . capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of the future three 1782). in Distance 2 miles. Difference in weight \ \ ' to present scale : vear-olds 4. in Distance 2| miles. } '^ ' " to present scale October. weight : Difference : 4 year-olds | 10 lbs 5 year-olds \ ^ 5 lbs. four-vear-olds. in their historic development — April. 6 year-olds ' " ^ OMer 1792. [ 7 vear-olds ^ f .. ^ 6 year-olds " " . Newmarket. According : Difference weight : 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds ^ 6 vear-olds i n ' lbs 6 lbs. 41 yards. which took and not too earlv in the year (which became popular after Assassin's Derby victory. } 1 June.. Distance 4 miles. whilst about 1850 the increase of races for two-year-olds. especially in the early part of the year.. whilst after about 1800 up to about 1850 the three-yeat-olds and the four-vear-olds especially were expected to carry more. According to present scale : Difference weight 4 year-olds | 5 vear-olds ^ ij b vear-olds r. " " . according to It the table just quoted. Ascot. The changes are of weight differences between four-year-olds and older horses : shown bv 1775. races after place at that time in a reduced degree. the following examples. 2 furlongs. seems to have annulled gradually this favourable effect. in Craven Stakes.

. Older 1800. 4J n lbs. 6 year-olds ' J " . Difference in weight Distance 2 miles.. I ^ " Distance 2 miles. } . April. 6 vear-olds " .. ^ ' r 4J r. ^ " | } older 1830. Older } ... Distance 1 mile. . Difference in weight Distance \\ miles. May. 2 furlongs. q . : Difference in weight According to present scale 4 year-olds \ 5 vear-olds \ 6 vear-olds \ 9 ibs r. Distance 1 mile. 43 1800. 44 yards. According .. Craven Stakes.. June. 44 yards. Gold Cup.. ^ " : October. Epsom. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables.. Older 1830. 3 .. Ascot. Newmarket.. Difference in weight to present scale : 4 year-olds | jq lbs . 1807. Newmarket. Newmarket. etc. June. Craven Stakes.3.. Julv. ( } o'lder 4 " According " 1830. 2 furlongs. Difference in weight According to present scale : 4 year-olds } 10 lbs 5 year-olds \ r 6 year-olds '^ lbs.. I Newmarket. " .. lbs.. 7 'vear-olds { O'lder } ^ ^ ' '' " . Gold Cup... Distance 2| miles. 7 lbs Difference in weight According to present scale 4 year-olds \ 5 3'ear-olds ^ lbs. : Difference in weight According to present scale 4 year-olds 5 vear-olds 6 Vear-olds j ) 9 ibs. Distance 2J miles. Craven Stakes..r^ ' 3 a lbs. n .. ^ Older 1807. Ascot.5 year-olds -^ 5 lbs. According to present scale : 4 year-olds \ 5 year-olds ^ 6 vear-olds ^ g lbs -. April. to present scale : 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds ^ 6 year-olds 9 ibs 3^ lbs. 5 .

Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. May. 4year.. April. } . : Difference in weight According to present scale . 6 year-olds " . Older 1830.olds 5 year-olds g lbs ^ 2 lbs. June.. : Distance According 1 mile. " . ^ " . older 1850.. } August. Newmarket.. Distance 2J miles. ^ " . Older 1830.. 44 yards. 2 furlongs. : Gold Cup.. / " " . " . Gold Cup. " „ Older 1830. ^ " . Difference Doncaster.44 1830.. \ ^ ' Distance 2 miles. Epsom. According to present scale : Difference 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds ^ g lbs "^ 3^ lbs. 44 yards.. jo. 6 year-olds " . in Craven Stakes. 2 furlongs. 4 year-olds \ 5 year-olds ^ ^ q ibs ^ 4 lbs. *^ 6vear-olds Older 1850. Ascot. Manchester. : June. : Difference weight to present scale 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds 1 6 year-olds / 9 ibs ^ ' 4^ ^ lbs. lbs. in Craven Stakes. } September. Older } . According to present scale : Difference in weight 4 year-olds \ 5 year-olds \ 6 year-olds ) 7 ibs . weight : Distance IJ miles.. etc. : Distance 1 mile. } Newmarket. } October.. York. Distance 2 miles. According to present scale : weight : 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds ^ 6 year-olds j 7 lbs 3 lbs. r^ " *^ ' " " Older 1850. According to present scale : Difference in weight . According to present scale : Difference in weight 4 year-olds \ 5 year-olds ^ 6 year-olds ' 9 jbs ^ 5 lbs. Distance 2 miles.. in Gold Cup. „ " . 5 furlongs.

.. Difference in weight: Difference in weight as per scale of 1861 and 1881 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 year-olds | ^ 1 stone. 45 1850. Distance 4 miles... 44 yards.. and those without heats were only held for horses of the same age. / ^^^^^^ 5 lbs. 5 furlongs. 5 years Flying Dutchman. for our purpose use. Older 1832 to 1850. ^ " ^^ 1 stone.... . The few suitable examples which follow will suffice. however. 9 lbs. Older 1851.. ^^ ^ " 1 ... 6 vear-olds O'lder " ' " }0 Distance : 0. 2 lbs. etc. 2 lbs. 6 year-olds J " . Distance 2 miles. 1 lbs. ^^^ 2 " . 1 stone. Orij^in and Change in the Weig^ht Tables.. \T . St. . October.. Match. (won) ^^^ ^ ^^^ J ^ any compile examples of the King's Plates which can be of most of the King's Plates were formerly run with heats. : Difference in weight According to present scale 4year. 8J lbs. o . n ^ " o ^ " } 2 „ ^ " ^ ' . } . York. Difference in Ascot and Manchester. weight: } 1850. 9— 10 lbs. September. Older „ . n u . Newmarket. 6 year-olds and older York. Difference Doncaster. as : — 1820.olds 5 year-olds | \ lbs. weight: Difference in weight as per scale of 1861 and 1881 3 year-olds 4 year-olds 5 year-olds \ ^ 2 stone 10— 13 lbs. / } o 2 c. " . . . 3 lbs. 5 jbs r.3.• York. 1 mile. i I Mav. Difference in weight as per scale of 1861 1881 and Difference in ' 3 year-olds \ 4 year-olds \ 5 year-olds I 6 year-olds { i gtone.. 1850. August.. August. 5 lbs.. 8 It is difficult to weight: .... p. According to present scale : weight 4 year-olds | 5 year-olds =^ 7 ibs 3 lbs.. Distance 2 miles.. Difference in According to present scale o i 4 years Voltigeur. May and June. in Chester. Distance 3 miles. b st.. 2 furlongs. in Gold Cup. Distance 2 miles.

or even later. From we might suppose that the improved four-year-old would more closely approach the five-year-old and older horses. From these weight differences can be seen that the abihties of four. 4 year-olds 5 year-olds 6 year-olds and older — 6 — o stone 4 lbs.. | 9 10 / 4 . with the following weights According to present scale 2 Stone. In other words. this above) a progress in the development of three-year-olds.46 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. as in the same time (shown four-year-olds. the frequent and very early two-year-old races seem also here to have impeded the favourable development of horses after their fourth year. An improvement of horses. to-day) between three till the race became a Handicap in . five and six-year-olds.. five and six-year-olds changed very Httle up to 1850. In this race from 1834 two-year-olds The weight •*nd four-year-olds remained stationary difference of 1 stone (11 lbs. but has stopped the further improvement of six-year-olds. and set apart for two-year-olds and older : horses. As a further example to confirm above conclusions. . it etc. . and still more of must be assumed on account of the weight differences. \ 8 9 9 . after six years old ceases gradually altogether. { | " ^ ^^s. over a course of IJ miles. the continued improvement of five-v ear-old and older horses must be all the more appreciated. . . more than according left out.. and three-year-olds is here only 1 lb. . The are w-eight difference between two to present scale. „ „ „ Two-year-olds in this proportionately long distance of li miles had no chance (Oiseau was in 1811 the only two-year-old winner). Accordinglv horses at six years old reached the height of their capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit)..... which ought to be seen by a diminution in the weight differences. 11 lbs. Therefore the following changes were arranged in 1826 : — ^ Difference in weight 2 year-olds 3 year-olds 5 stone. . let me here mention the This race was founded Thoroughbred Fitzwilliam Stakes. After 1850. 10 lbs. The preservation of the capabilities of four. three and four-vear-olds. five and six-year-olds up to 1850 in the same proportion to each other (in spite or in consequence of the two-year-old races) is all the more remarkable. .. 3 lbs.. the influence caused bv two-year-old races and mentioned on page 42 with the weight-differences between two. As up to about 1850 this diminution did not take place. in 1807. has not affected the carrying capacity of four. at Doncaster. on the other hand.

. We may. In the Doncaster Cup. with the assumed quicker and better development of two and three-year-olds. the w'eight difference between these two ages ought also to have become larger. one point is very noticeable that the weight differences between two and three-year-olds are almost the same to-day as they were at the end of the eighteenth century. Voltigeur won by half a length. 1850. and in the Match. and that. four and of the present scale. however. it is remarkable to have to say. weight differences between three. down lbs. 8 stone. in 1838 to even 12 lbs. in the Doncaster Cup. 5 lbs. This. Flying Dutchman. In the gradual building of the weight scale.e. 1851. is not so. therefore.. increased in 1834 to 6 lbs. Voltigeur. that the v^-eight carrying capability of two and three-year-olds has been much improved. There was each time a close finish. celebrated In the Flying Dutchman. i. on the 20th of September. the w'eight carrying If this capability of two and three-year-olds. Voltigeur. between four and five-year-olds 1850. Against these conclusions one may. 47 The weight difference. and decreased in 1839 to The 7 lbs. against 5 lbs. etc. race between the three-year-old. Flying Dutchman won by one length. against 1 stone.3. however. The weight difference was therefore 8h lbs. IJ lbs.. the four-year-old. carrying 8 stone. answer that it is just in consequence of the many and early two-year-old races. up.. with 7 stone. at five-year-olds. The consequences. Therefrom follows that the present four and five-year-old racehorses are each 3J lbs. would of course be that the four-year-old and older horses could not improve in such proportion as to justify the Therefore. On the other hand.. when twoyear-old races were just beginning. therefore. whilst according to the present day scale the difference is nil. the above-mentioned increase of weight differences of 2-7 lbs. would become much higher. four-year-old. the zero point from which we count.. In the year later. came to in 2 six-vear-olds 1834 and five between weio-ht difference and remained so to 1850. four and five-year-olds must become less. over a distance of 2 miles. of May. to present scale. 12 lbs. the greater weight differences which were formerly extant. Furthermore. carried 8 stone. according 8J lbs. however.. between two and three-year-olds speaks for itself for the healthy development of two-year-olds in the years from about 1800 to 1850. it is very doubtful whether the present two and three-year-olds are really better than they were in the middle : . therefore. In other W'Ords. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables. as well as in consequence of the progress made in the art of training in the second half of the nineteenth century. assume that the then existing weight differences corresponded with the average capabilities of three. then. were so. in that well known match of the 13th York. the and 7 lbs. the five-year-old.. worse than those in the middle of last century. over a course of 2^ miles. there was a weight difference of 1 stone. three-year-olds have almost approximately reached that point of weight carrying capability which was formerly only held by five and six-year-olds.

from 1861 a gradual deterioration of stock appears probable if looked at from this standpoint. Blink Bonny. There is. however. as can be seen from the figures of the table printed in larger type. There is yet the possibility that the two-year-olds became worse. I seem. If this really be the case to such a great extent as to justify the above mentioned large weight differences. It is. The Baron. According to above comparisons of weight differences in 1861. considerably higher than to-day. we have only to deal with one point. If one takes. appears very probable. one must consider the diminution of weight differences always as a sign of deterioration of stock. the capabilities of tw'o-year-olds as a standard.^ Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. compared with those of the scale of 190G. \\'est Australian. Voltigeur. Orlando. and also appears probable. however slow.. as can be seen by comparison. etc. therefore. that two-year-olds themselves are much better than they were before. 1881 and 1906. In breeding. need not be at the expenses of three-year-olds. no plausible reason for this possibility. Touchstone. probablv in consequence of the races for two-year-olds. weight differences of the first weight scale of Admiral Rous of 1881. The weight differences in the scale for King's Plates from the year 1861 The are. then the progress in the average records of time should be more remarkable than the comparisons show hereafter. although an improvement. the weight differences could rise. there still remains a grave doubt whether the Even . for the sake of comparisons. to be assumed that as everything improves. in taking the capabilities of two-year-olds as a standard. in comparing with the capabilities of other ages. Cotherstone. We have no proof of this. Thormanby. etc. through training and racing as two-year-olds. Fisherman. and that. if the pretended greater capabilities of present two and three-yearolds were approximately right. SurpHce. rather. This. therefore. a diminution of weight differences has taken place. in the course of time is desirable. Such horses as of the nineteenth century. are thev reallv worse horses than our present day champions? All these said racehorses yet belonged to those times in which there approximately existed for different ages that difference of weight which we have mentioned above for 1850. As the weight difference between two and three-year-olds as above-said are the same as they were one hundred years ago. Stockwell. the records of three-year-olds suffice for comparison. Finally. however. show. one can hardly speak of a general progress. The increase of weight differences between two and three-year-olds after 1800 has been shown above to be a result of the improvement of three-yearolds. therefore. twoyear-olds also improve in course of time. where only two-year-olds improve. that also in the last twenty-five years. namel}'. whilst the assumed improvement of three-vear-olds. Fl^'ing Dutchman. to be justified.

etc. and with the existence of the many short Handicaps. . these observations justify us in assuming that. denotes the turning point. the improvement of racehorses took place about up to the middle of the nineteenth century. that a favourable development of four-year-old and older horses up to the sixth year existed. Taken altogether. and also specially. in the chapter on the capabilities of the Thoroughbred formerly and now. 49 lessened development capability of foiir-3^ear-olds and older horses has also produced a lesser resisting power. as we show later on. Origin and Change in the Weii^ht Tables. considered from the standpoint of the altered weight differences.3. Furthermore. that simultaneously with the frequent occurrence of races for two-year-olds partly in the beginning of the year. a retrogression of the development of racehorses after their third year began soon after the second half of the nineteenth centur\^ The time in which the number of two-year-old racehorses began to exceed the number of three- year-olds.

has produced the Thoroughbred of the present day." That this passion.CHAPTFR !V. even the Trotters. These two have as if by magic produced a passionate love for this breeding. This love works with more power. unfortunately. but in the breeding of horses one very great factor has co-operated which is more or less absent in the breeding of other animals. produced the required steel in their breeds. have. and. then wise counsel must step in namely. without doubt true in horse breeding. the justThoroughbreds. but this counsel must not it happens often. as it has been done in England and Ireland. wisdom. as all conscientiousness of the most industrious of men. the words of the Apostle St. are called "edles "high quality Half-breds. is ." Halbblut. Paul apply The prominent position occupied by the : greatest of these is Love. Battle and sport are the foundations of horse breeding. kill the principal lever for the breeding of mentioned passionate love. has no half-bred horses^ Breeding carried on for two hundred years and for a set purpose. If this happens. All half-bred horses of the old and new world. This mighty factor was passion. otherwise so useful. Breeders of other animals have also done great things in the same time. as contrasted with the cold-blooded heavy or draft breeds of horses." All of these light breeds as well as the are also called warm or hot-blooded horses. by mingling with the Thoroughbred. " The well as to all that lives. General Observations on the Value of the Thoroughbred for other breeds. The facility with which the horse acclimatises itself everywhere has produced the spread of breeding of Thoroughbreds all over the world. where soil and climate constitute an environment admirably adapted to horse-breeding. may also lead to erroneous paths." which means itself Thoroughbred . America and as quickly. which are summarized in Germany under the general term " Kaltblut. Thoroughbred in the breeding of equivalent in the breeding of any other animal. ' In Germany all improved light breeds of horses. save the Thoroughbred. ingenuity and industry than all book wisdom of the wisest heads and To horse breeding. which otherwise could not have been produced as well and Even the breeds of the Steppes of Russia.

stallion. That was a time in which there were often matches between Cossack horses and Thoroughbreds. inclusive of Turks. less) are not enough to recommend larger importations of Oriental blood for the breeding of light horses. Steppe suitable . in England. The race took place on the high road. had in this race at first 28 lbs. unfortunately. Two Cossack horses started against two Thoroughbreds. 18-25. in fact.. near St. Sharper had won as a three-year-old. distance 75 versts. whilst. The most celebrated of these races took place on the 4th of August. Amazon. without having any success. The most important spheres of action of the Thoroughbred have been mentioned pretty exhaustively above. namely. Lately. by the mixed Anglo-Arabic breeding. that no Oriental stallion could produce any great influence on the breeding of Thoroughbreds. during the fight for libertv against Napoleon in the West of Europe. as a four-year-old. it is more than probable that in future original Oriental breeds could be improved by Thoroughbred stallions than vice versa. more. he caused to be imported manv Thoroughbred stallions of good. about a hundred years ago. When the celebrated Cossack officer. The good results which have been obtained. up to the middle of the last century. Petersburg. on the other hand. after the importation of Godolphin Arabian in 1730.e. Thoroughbred Orientals.. by Octavious and Y. and other fine breeds derived from same. into the Cossack breeding stables near the Don. won easily in 2 hours. It is very remarkable. have. according to proposition. These facts and figures (36 lbs. about 80 kilometres. by the introduction of Thoroughbred stallions. especially in the South of France. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. later 36 lbs. more (3 stone). two small Handicaps and a walk-over. The consequence was that Russian cavalry soon after. in their own homes. later with 18 lbs. If the small mistakes made in breeding Thoroughbreds were avoided. and of the best class. Trotters. learned to know and to esteem the Thoroughbred. The Thoroughbred. and the neighbouring Steppe breeding places. i. born 1819 in the stud of Lord Egremont. less weight. In the Goodwood Gold Cup x^nglo-Arabic horses were favoured from 1835 to 1896 with 14 lbs.. were mounted on the best horses an army ever possessed. with the aid of Thoroughbred stallions (often. 48 minutes. and as a five-\ear-old. and the rider of Sharper broke a stirrup in the middle of the race. less to carry. seem to lead to the conclusion that one could perhaps also improve the Oriental horse. less. inclusive of two King's Plates. although in many races Oriental blood was favoured by lighter weights. Platoff. influenced the capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of their horses. three races. of very low quality).4. In England. Berbs. Hetman Platoff (the celebrated Hetman born 1836. they have tried to improve Thoroughbreds by the infusion of Arabic blood. 51 Australia. including the Arabs. although he carried 40 lbs. Sharper. for example. a small selling race. the offspring of Eclipse and Highflyer had in many races to carry about 3 to 5 lbs. but in vain. was called after him). etc. Half-breds.

g2 horses. in my opinion. for within everv breed the so-called early maturity can be obtained in a short time by a corresponding practice. and finally gets off his feed. the Half-bred. has been amassed than in the present dav drafter. but I Apart from the motion of exorbitant in different industries root districts. and over worse roads. viz. at longer distances. through many generations. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. is required. etc. heavy horses. etc. effeminating method of rearing. which has been bred into them by pampering them. To make good use of food when doing nothing. There still remains to be mentioned the coarser In crosses of Thoroughbreds on some Coach Breeds and Heavy Breeds. will also here beat the Thoroughbred. There is also no doubt that the Thoroughbred will bear a load corresponding to its weight.. because — . That the heavy horse breeds have not amongst themselves produced a " Thoroughbred " drafter {sit venia verbo) as a representative of what they are capable of. is the regrettable consequence of the breeding which was built up for show without testing capability. in spite of his Irrational breeding. The expression. 20 cwts. or working at a comparatively slow rate. as often speaks of the better use of food with is think this it based on a wrong idea. in trotting. carry a larger load than a Thoroughbred. with considerably less food a fact which I have noted at Beberbeck with teams composed of drafters and Halfbreds. Neither as regards its earlier capabilitv nor as regards its earlier breeding capacity. on account of its heavy weight. energv. It is not quite the same as what is called in the breeding of other animals early maturity. a good Belgian horse carrying about 80 cwts. rests together with early decay. That the drafter of to-day. " early maturity. it is to be expected that a reasonable breeding of cold-blooded stock. to be eliminated in the breeding of horses.. As long as the breeding of drafters is carried on in this one-sided way. can. more muscle power. There has not been sought for prominent performances. successes the and these cases also the Thoroughbred has been successful. is a large load. (which.) quicker. The great popularity and spread of the heavy breeds is based principally on their easy temperament. The socalled early maturity of the cold-blooded stock. is unquestionable." ought. In a Thoroughbred. the draft horse falls still more behind. would probably have been more frequent if the said breed had not become spoiled and too heterogeneous through pampering without trials. With quicker work. without at the same time causing the shortening of life which accompanies early maturity. one cannot expect any progress in the capability for employment (for use and breeding). He requires still more food. considering the usual weights of practice. based on performance. perform the daily slow work of the drafter in agriculture. for example. is the drafter earlier mature than the Thoroughbred. and also the and in the beetThoroughbred. That a drafter bred on performance will be just as easy in temperament as the actual draft horse is highly improbable. does not mean much. and Oriental breeds. but rather for zoological attributes. on its One loads. Of course. however.

soon lost their type. will always influence the good quality of The great mistake made in comparing different breeds of the material. if required. Thereby nervousness ensues. whilst the softly raised draft horse is most Pure-bred Percherons. Flying itself most with the worst of them. Morgenstrahl. winner of the Fanfarro Race. which in Thoroughbreds shows 1 have seen Kinscem. A real breed of heavy horses founded on performance tests would not . by Blue Blood and Moba. watery district. 1900. neither the draft horse on the Steppes nor the Thoroughbred on the marsh would prosper. This ease. in the magnificent Steppes of the Russian Royal stud at Derkul. from the meadows to the distant watering-places. quiet and restless temperament of light horses at quick work. just as the Thoroughbred can be raised in a low. Fox.4. and could not stand the rocky meadow-s and strong sun. born 1896. bred the horse is. I have only observed three which remained absolutely quiet and reasonable up to the last quick gallop. stand the life of the Steppes. 53 which are so different and so conand comfort. the more the above symptoms show themselves. one seemed to recognise the Arabian cross-bred. want and use of food. did not offer them the comfort which they were accustomed to. and the two Cadiz fillies. Of course. in Insterburg. which I saw. These three horses were so superior to their comrades that the limits were reached neither in racing nor in training. both winners of the Breeders' Races in Konigsberg.in the year 1887 sensitive in this regard. namely. Within the light breeds the same difference in the temperament of horses is observable. Value of the Thoroughbred qualities for Other Breeds. and had already in the second generation an Arabic appearance. Drafters bred on performance would very likely. Ard Patrick and others. thereby reminding one of their ancestors. or even exceeds it. The long marches. Government Charkow. and the most difficult. violent and nervous temperament is found it is very difficult to is combine two tradictory as the case with powerful energy The less highly in Half-breds when they are taken seriously into training. The pure-bred Suffolks and Clydesdales reared there were soon stunted in their growth. in the vivacity of its temperament. the Thoroughbred acclimatises itself very easily in different districts. as quiet and reasonable before a race as after one. and of heavy horses at slow work. demanded only by easy workmen. Ormonde. Jagdkonigin and Kastanie. In the form of croup one could still distinguish the Percheron in its noble bearing. The same unjust comparison is often made with the so-called Thoroughbred knacker and a picked prominent Half-bred. Of all Half-bred horses which so far have been trained for races in Trakehnen. it is natural that a certain fear to do the work shows itself. which are necessitated by the life on the Steppes. The most pleasant and most reasonable temperament as a riding horse is in most cases the Thoroughbred when it has left the track. for example. as. horses is always the consequence of unjust parallels. If the work which is required from a horse in training often reaches the limits of its capacity. In consequence of its hard training. . and which is necessary to their growth.

is nothing doing through thick which has become of a softer texture. are values Often incommensurable or only light work. become a modern sport. as well as the feeding and training of horses. This question is to the weight. same state of health. one may observe that a soft method of rearing with little movement. at the last Napoleonic Exhibition — in Paris. several . on a definite square measurement of supporting answered by putting the square of the cannon If. unfortunately.54 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. I believe Practical use and that these measures often lead to mistaken conclusions. experience will often lead to other and more correct results.. as a matter of fact. the cube of the cannon girth must be put in proportion how much weight rests surface. 1 the above confirm to seem Bern. and even rewarded.. one must first answer the question how advantageously the weight of the body is supported. in Kramer. etc.e. through hard bred. as well as in that of many Half-breds. The judging of horses only by measurements expressed in figures. of the larger mass of the bones in different cavity of the cannon in drafters.e. In any case. is often very useful in helping the eye when judging of the strength The comparing of cannon of the fundament within the same breed. In the breeding of drafters. definitely) it showing science (without most probably or HalfThoroughbred the of that than resistance of capable therefore less cannons different of examinations The hard work. same standard quality. grown supposition. especially as probably small differences may have a great importance in these experiments. strong. however. if only the ]^ulgus viilt decipi. The isolated attempts to introduce at exhibitions and shows performance tests of heavy horses will become general. If the quality of the cannons is of equal A^alue. and often dangerous. Against all these errors and dangers there is only one remedy. is not sufficient. general public rightly honours same and requires them. Cjuestion is put how easily the supporting column (in this case the cannon) can break or bend. as well as for showing specific One onlv may compare results if they are taken from horses of the gravity. age. For many years the measuring of cannon bones has played the leading part. i. and then only at a slow rate. marrow the present horses of draft blood are the most unsuitable breeds to create in warm-blooded Half-breds. whether it be for weight or dimensions of certain parts of the body. is eminently suitable to produce strong (i.. good and firm fore legs. Professor by value if lose in this subject on examinations comparative that observe here the bones are not bones of well-known horses. has horses of breeds measurements of different The fore foot of a drafter compared. produce the powerful dimensions which are. the girth in proportion to the body weight which it supports. ergo decipiatiir till it is undeceived. if the bones are to be used for experiments in pressing and bending. big) fore legs. same age. etc. In the year 1867. performance tests. which.still demanded. to-da}. namely. One must know genealogy. same breed. different quality of the Apart from the breeds.

That one has to fight against this production of the beautiful sham. The claims of the consumers on the capabilities. and the fact that there are still people enough who are deceived by sham. formerly in the Ukraine. in the course of the last fifty years. things have gone very much to the bad in England. however. The knowledge that sham is easier and cheaper to produce than the real thing.e. similar to a small East Prussian. The hope to get thereby just as nice-looking cavalr}' horses as the other great nations is a sop to vanity. is perhaps thereby under-estimated. so rich in horses. A — for performance is genuine. was very much based on it. like w'e have in East Prussia. Although this showy stock very seldom becomes also breeding stock. have driven away the breeding of the Steppes from the magnificent Ukraine to the Manitsch river. would prevail in the end. bred in Torgel (Estland). however. by a draft horse. one would think that breeding complain about the same thing. Truth. so it appears. is forced to establish a modern system of horse-breeding in order to produce horses for its soldiers. as now' more than half according to some authors even nine-tenths of all Thoroughbred yearlings are brought up for the yearlings' market. result. The difficulty of the organisation of a successful breeding of horses. even Russia. the breeding of horses for the Russian soldiers. but by the colt Wapsikas. Finally. as well as. even in the breeding of Thoroughbreds. i. has just as much a deteriorating influence in the producing of wine and tobacco and other things as in the breeding of horses. The breeding of the real thing. wellstallion in Torgel. over any distance and under any w-eight. on account of the race tests in any case. The prize (I believe the first) was not won. later for a long time the Royal stud Purelv I^>stlandic. will always be difficult to meet. The craftiness of the breeder to produce showy stock very cheaply has often made greater Experts of cattle progress than the expert knowledge of the consumer. prizes were given for horses to their own weight. Since the cultivation of land. and the quality of the breed of horses produced with a beautiful sham appearance is over-estimated. one can see in many English studs which breed for the yearlings' market. 60 degrees latitude. now at the Manitsch river. example. the Thoroughbred Thoroughbreds and Trotters bred for — — — . and from thence still further and further into the unsuitable salt-containing Eastern Steppes. In this respect. prevented a repetition of this proposition. and suppresses the knowledge that horses lose thereby in capability. and the interest of the producer to produce as cheaply as possible. of light breed a small.. Apart from the performances obtained by no other breed than the Thoroughbred. 55 which could carry the largest load in proportion very excellent idea.4. and with it the breeding of cattle and the use of the plough. \'alLie of the Thoroughbred tor Other Breeds. not breeding stock which has an important influence on the breeding of Thoroughbreds it is a pity that through human sin much good material is wasted which was destined by Divine Nature to be chosen material. the unfortunatelv dving out breeding of the Russian Steppes. This unexpected proportioned horse. has.

Book. the chief is We It is clear.56 is Trial of the Thoroup'hbred on the Racecourse. an eloquent proof that the tests to which the Thoroughbred is subject have also had a good influence on its fertility and longevity (as will be shown The number of dams which. the number of brood mares which in the eighteenth century produced seventeen and more living foals is less in the following list : — Register of Thoroughbred Mares in the General Stud Book which have had not less than seventeen living foals. This also superior to all other breeds in various breeding performances. as they have not appeared on the racecourse. according to hereafter by many examples). that in the first book many basis of the Stud Book. Therefore. therefore. As the first volume of the General Stud Book teen and more living foals. General Stud the of the statement is such a large one that for want of space they have been left out of the only mention brood mares which have produced sevenfollowing lists. . etc. have produced sixteen living foals. only appeared in 1793. living foals are not mentioned. the foals born in the eighteenth century are only given in so far as they were known through the Racing Calendar.

Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds.4. 57 .

58 Trial of the 'rhoroue^hbred on the Racecourse. . etc.

59 .4. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds.

.60 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. etc.

4. . \'alue of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds 61 No.

etc.62 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. No. .

63 .4. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds.

17 etc. No. .g4 List of Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Brood Mares in Trakehnen having produced and more living foals.

foals. Thoroughbred mares 22 !n the following list to onl_y Special Breeding Performances of Old Thoroughbred Mares in England- No. Look at Me Lads by Grasshopper Newton's Bay Arabian. — 1731 As a 6 year-old. Had 24 a mare by Ancastor Sterling. 7 of which were Pedigree Mares in — Brimmer. when amongst which Lottery by Blank at first foal . 2399 18 2. . Foundation Mare in Fam. I have to add that there are numerous cases in which Eraglish 29 years old have still brought forth living foals. King's Plates. Brown Far well bv Matheless 1710 16 foals. a mare with : good progeny. . of which were Blank. In its 24th year Miss Meredith. 12 foals. .. Old England.4. foals) . 3. at Newmarket. 65 ril. Hannover. not placed. and in its 25th year. Foundation Mare of Fam. Whisper by Blank. Name and Pedis^ree. 4). 18 foals.527 brood mares. Trimmer. 1. In its 4 to 6 years. or under difficult circumstances. a good racer. 1735 Won old at the King's Plates as a 5 and 6 yearFirst foal at 8 3-ears of Bay Newmarket. 15. such cases are specially mentioned where the offspring of these aged mares have shown themselves to be really good horses. as can be seen from the following examples.. . . ran. 4 d. 13 foals. 26th year Sally. 14. at 32. Volume III. Stud Book. . at 33 its last foal. At 25. were : in its 21st year. Golden Grove. Little I^artlev Mare by Bartlett's Childers out of Flying Whigg. at 30. 4. Spinster by Partner out of Bloody Buttocks. a good rater and brood mare. The superiority of the draft breeds is perhaps EngHsh Thoroughbred over all lialf-breds and shown still more clearl}^ from its special work at a great age. Janus. 1727 Tortoise. a good and a good Brood Mare (11 foals).. Breedinrt Performances. One born in the 20th year (had 16 stakes) one in its 21st year (dam of Sweepone in the 22nd year (dam of Dormouse) and one in the 25th j-ear (dam of Matchem). Godelinde 187-2 bv Goldoni No. Value of the Thorouq-hbred for Other Breeds. Fam. Numana 1873 by Nord No. age. Shakespeare (according to Lawrence sire of Eclipse). 20 years of age. Born.. Sister to Sampson by Greyhound Cur\^"en Bay Barb — 1723 20 racer. Spinster (Foundation Mare in Fam. Foundation Mare of Fam. either on the racecourse or in the stud. Amazon by Blank. 107 . 11 foals.

of which . Mare by Tartar (chestnut) Mogul. to At 23. staff. 24. at 28. which had Beatrice when 20 years old. racer). Briseis. at foal 9 3'ears old. a race as a 4 year-old. : at 23. 7. Mussulman. Ran First 4 — 7 year-old 16 times and won 12 times. Sir John Faland at 25. L. at 20. a famous Foundation Mare in Fam. in Foundation Mare 1748 Fam. amongst which were Remembrancer L. Not run. Kingston. : 15 Calliope by Sloutch out of Lass of the Mill. 12 Mare by Rib out Western. Breeding Performances. Name and Pedigree. old. amongst which were Foundation Cast-off (a good Fergus. 10 foals. 10 Not run. at 20. 16 foals without a break. with 16 foals. 1756 All Fam. 16 amongst which were 10 chesnuts by Eclipse. First foal at 10 years old. Fanny. Born. Mercury. Mare by Syphon. of 1751 Mother at 24. was the Foundation Mare of Marsyas. racer. Duchess by Whitenose out of 19 year-old Miss Slamerkin.. Grey Mare by Snap. 12. dam of 17 foals. King Mare in : Fam. 11 (Bird- and at 27. a good racer . At 25. at 23. Black 3 year-old ran once. Foundation 1749 Spiletta by Regulus out of Mother Western. Sister to Regulus by Godolphin Arabian out of Grey Robinson. Remembrance. — 1750 Lived to 27 years old. 9. of which were catcher). amongst which was Herod. First foal at 7 years old. Cypron by Blaze out of Salome.66 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. 2 at 18. 11 Pratt's Old Mare by Squirt Mogul. and at 20. and at 25. 43. Queen Mab. amongst which a Foundation Mare in Fam. At 24 Purity (by the 25 year-old Matchem). Garrick (own brother Eclipse). At 23. Fam. 1743 16 foals. that gave birth to living twins. were Omphale . 1750 Not run. 17 foals. 1747 of Won Miss 8 years old. Mare in Fam. dam of Rockingham and 12 other foals. Archibald. Volunteer. Hermit. 9. a Mare by Phenomenon. No. 14 and at 25. 13 Polly by Black and out of Fanny. foals. Five grey foals. at 21. Not run. First foal at 6 years old. 1768 4 — 6 year-old : ran six times. Foundation Mare in Fam. First foal at 8 years 14 6. First foal at 5 years old. Pyrrha. a famous Miss Wilkinson By Regulus out Layton. etc. 1757 — Did not run. Foundation Mare in Fam. won twice. First foal when 10 foals. etc. amongst which. amongst which were 12 good racers. foals.

not placed. Mare by Syphon out of 25 yearold Miss Wilkinson. First foal at 10 years old. Jerry Sneak. won a race over 4 miles. at of old 18 Cypher by Squirrel out of 23 yearold Mare by Regulus. which as Firstling Paragon L at 14. 1772 First L). 22 Caha by Herod out of Proserpine (own sister to Eclipse). 4. First foal years old. Was about 30 years when it had last foal. and Mare by 14 — Foundation Mare Fam. Alfred by John 19 Termagant by Tantrum out of Cantatrice. Patriot. 24 Fanny by Eclipse out of 20 yearold Polly. Toby. As a 10 yearold ran six times. As a 12 year-old ran — once.4. 23 Miss Hervey by Eclipse out of Clio. Born Breeding Performances. and was the 26. winning five times. 1776 foals. last foal in its 27th year. 6. 14 foals. winning 17 Mother Brown by Trunnion — Old Eng- land. . Fam. in 11 foals by 10 different stallions. . High- land Fling by Spadille. 1772 Did not run. a good racer. At 21. Sparrow Hawk (3rd in L). Whiskey and at 24. as a 3 and 4 year-old four times. 1775 43. At 24. sire of many good racehorses . a of At 35. Evelina. 13 foals. a very 8 3'ear-old. As an 11 year-old ran six times. at 8 won twice. First foal at 11 years old. 10 foals. At 23. and 16 Cervantes 20 at 27. Lady Charlotte. Value of the Thoroughbred tor Other Breeds. . 16 1767 Ran once. 4 year-old ran six times. dam . ran again four times and won four times (amongst which was one King's Plates). 67 No. grandmother Nabocklish. winning twice. As 8 year-old. At 20. at 23. foal at 12 years old of (Edmund 2nd At Paulowitz. Foundation Mare of Fam. at 25. 19. 3 a. Mare by Bagot. 11 foals. which was Volante O. 12 foals. in Fam. 1775 3 year-old ran once. 4 12 year-old ran 39 races and won 20. First foal at — Blank. 1775 3 and 4 year-old ran eight times. 22. As a 9 year-old. fine racer. of Not run. amongst First foal at 8 years old. 21 Calash by Herod out of Teresa. in Ireland. Orville. Haphazard by Sir Peter Sir Peter. Name and Jo by Spectator Pedijiree. and in foal.. Fam. 1772 4 year-old ran once. Had 6 foals. dam of Cwrw 2. after foaling. foals without a break. 3 Foundation Mares Bull. winning five times (one King's Plates). 1771 won 2 11 years old. a splendid racer in Ireland. won as a 13 yearold.

No. .68 Trial of the Thorouq-hbred on the Racecourse. etc.

Lalage year-old 4 1797 a Ran once. L). 1797 of Faith 3 — 9 \'ear-old a splendid racer. at o — Herod 33).4. 11 years old. racer 2 — 4 year-old. ran nineteen times. Monimia. At 25. At 25. and 3 year-old. 9 foals. a good racer. 1794 Not run. Oiseau by Camillus. Ran three times as a 3 year-old. At 25. 3 c. a good Mare by Precipitate 1796 Not run. Mare bv PotSos out of Editha. No. Neville. ^'alue of the Thoroughbred for Olher Breeds. 12 a. won twice as a 2 year-old. by Mercury sister to 1792 Ran once First foal as a 3 and once as a 4 year-old. 19 foals. won by Chocolate out of 21 Lalage. First foal at 7 years old. a 2 year-old and became a good brood mare) at 27. 16 foals. In its 27th gave birth one eye. The Captain. Miss Cantley. First foal at 7 years old. Miss Crachami. Sister to Silver bv Mercurv Herod. Paulowit. — used for many years as a riding and carriage horse. 12 foals. Y. Wiseacre. both Foundation Was Mares year it in Fam. and had only one eye. Akarius (a very good Adelicia (ran as . — magant (19 year-old). and Foundation Mare in Fam. IMarcia by Coriander out (3-7). At 22.^ by Sir Paul. At 22. won First foal at : 7 foals. Leger). 69 Name and Pedigree. First foal at 14 years old. amongst which were Marciana (Foundation Mare in Fam. 1795 Not run. Belvoirina. in De Vere Ireland. (own years old. creeper. — Wood- pecker. O. a good racer and Foundation Mare in Fam. 13 foals. a good INIare 1797 racer. was not placed in the St. 2 a. . 42. grandmother of Hetman Platoff and Don John At 20 had her last foal. racer. twenty- eight times. 5 b (Marigold). 12 foals. four times as a 2 11 foals. and lived to 28 years of age. 17 foals. At 25. Platina O. the grandmother of Fam. Born. 1790 Ran and won as a 1 year-old at Newmarket. to a foal with old. and was shot when 28 years Evelina by Highflyer out of Ter- 1791 3 5 year-old ran eight times. once dead twins. First foal at 8 years old. won three times. by Feramorz. Mare by Skyscaper out of Isabel. At 24. Breeding Performances. at 27. at 23. famous racehorse — 12 year-old won races. which At 27. First foal by Ruler out of Tree- at 12 j-ears old.

First foal at 2. Foundation Mare Lived to 31 j^ears of age. in 13 foals. Lived to 26 years Parasol by ella 1800 Ran and won foal. ran nine times. 52 1806 A good 7 racer 3 and 4 year-old. as a 2 year-old. Oblivion. at 21. Born. petta. 1802 Not run. racer 2 — 4 year-old. out of years old. 3 —8 year-old. Muley. 11 foals. Rosamond by Buzzard out of Roseberry. At . Galantine 53 I Miss W^asp by ' 1807 Won old. First foal at 6 years old. both good racers at 23. Y. and at 24. 16 foals without a break. Altisidora L. 15 foals. The Colonel L. and Mare by Delpini out of Tipple Cyder. Whisker. at 20. 26. at at 24 her last foal. Mandane by PotSos out of 1800 Ran twice. Foundation Mare in Fam. Sir Catton. — Remembrance Solomon out of 20 year-old Queen Mab. 9. by Sir 1805 A of very good racer 3 — 5 year-old. At 24. foal won 5 once. 1806 A good years old. Pastille 2. The Captain. 1801 A very good racer 2 at 8 years old. First foal at 10 year-old. Rosicrucian. (Miami. of age. at 9 years old. Black Agnes. First foal at 6 years 17 foals. First foal at 7 j-ears 23. First foal at 7 1. at 6 years old. and at 21. at 8 years in First foal : PotSos (No. At 22. Lottery by Tramp. 54 Mare by Walton out of 19 yearold Y. Pindarri 2. 20. Y. At 24. old. foal won foals. Partisan.). Lisette by Hambletonian Constantia. Ran First Folly. Thomasina by Timothy out of Violet. won three times. a famous racer. Not run. etc. 5 a. Noisette. Clearwell Snowdrop by Highland Fling out of Daisy. At 22. a Mare by . 1806 Little Folly by Hi. O. Barefoot L. and 26. 13 Camilla. I I . amongst which were Mannella O. At First foal at 8 years old. First at 4 : years old. Brutandorf by Blacklock and at 22. First foal 5 year-old. a in Fam.^-hland Fling out of Harriet. Foundation Mare in Fam. 28. amongst which were 19. Waxy out of Trum1808 j At 21. dam of Liverpool. three times as a 3 year-old. and at Vespa O.70 Trial of the Thorousfhbred on the Racecourse. Foundation Mare etc. 13 foals. Mare by Tramp. At 23. Wildwood. 1798 3 and 4 year-old a good racer. 11 foals. Fam. Name and Pedigree. 14 foals. Breeding Performances. six times as a 2 and 3 year-old. dam Springy Jack and grand-dam of Daniel O'Rourke D. won twice. 34) out of Prun- ran four times and 12 foals.

At 22. amongst which were Memnon L. 1811 Ran twice as a 63'ear-old. Foundation Mare 9. . two good racers. Octaviana bv Octavian 1815 2 and 3 year-old a good racer. by Dick Andrews out of iNIandane (No. Belshazzar and Belluno. First foal at 14 years old. Bellona. ran in race. Fam. Strathcona. At Verulam at 26. 8 foals. — Shuttle. Lacerta by Zodiac out of Jerboa. in At 24. Gohanna 3 — 4 year-old First foal at 6 — Orville. Belzoni. First foal at . bone) 8 years old. 1809 3 — 5 3'ear-old ran thirteen times. Foundation Mare in Fam. Not run. at foal. Margelina (had 19 foals). of Surplice D.). foal at 8 years old. 11 (Fisherman. 20 foals. Ophelia. moderate racer. then was used at 25. at 24. 1816 years old. 3 Fam. At 22. Wire by (sister to Whale- 1811 3 and 4 year-old a good 17 foals. — 4 year-old At Fairy. 11. 43. Little Wonder D. racer. Waxy out of Penelope. 25. a Mare by Priam or Zinganee. 13 foals. 15 foals. 1. by Waverley (ran as a 2 year-old. First by Beningbrough out of Peterea.horse. the first First foal at 4 years old. Founda- year-old Mare by Salt- tion old. 19 without a break. etc. Miss Lydia. Bonney Bonnet. won : three times. and became Foundation Mare in Fam. 22. a good racer. grand-dam Angela. Nutwith L. at 24. 17 foals. Silvertail bv Y. 2d. Little 21. and lived to 26 years old. amongst which were Tranby by Blacklock at 22. last Foundation Mare of the Fam. Foundation Mare in Fam.4. 5). 22. Miss Bowe. Born Breeding Performances. the last foal Lady Sarah. and of St. Lived to 28 years of age. Nitocris. 15 foals with- out a break. First foal at 2. Value of the Thoroui?hbred for OLher Breeds. First foal at 6 20 3'ears old. 14 foals. ]\Ianuella O. 3 Lady by of the Sorcerer Lake out of 1809 — 4 year-old Mare in a good racer. First foal at 8 years old. and at 25. won At once. Sister to Cordurov by Shuttle out of 18 yearold 1812 Not run. 1812 her last foal. . -Simon's dam. Name and Pedisjree. 1816 At Not run. had 11 foals. : Mare b}' Orville out of Miss Grimstone. 44. Crucifix O. L. at 21 and 22. First foal at 10 years old. 15 foals. at 20. in Mare by Comus — Delpini. 45). as a riding. dam 62 15 foals. the two chief Foundation Mares in Fam. Foundation Mare Fam. 1815 5 years old. and last foal at 27 years ram Bella . 21. St. 71 No. 24.

70. . etc. No. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.

Name and Catherina Pedigree. . amongst which were Newminster L. Tom iSowline. winner in the Stakes). as a Agnes by Pantaloon.). Cs. Galli- Red Pape by Rowton out of Pigmy. Auricula (dam of Nuneham and (dam 2. 14 foals without First foal as a 10 year-old. amongst which were Stockwell L. and Evelina. . grand-dam of Moorhen. Black Agnes year-old 1831 Ran once years old. splendid racer. De Clare. Bowstring. of Wellingtonia. 1835 Not run. firstling. King Tom. Bee's Wing 1833 2 — 9 year-old 51 times. . Araucaria 1 O. The Knight Ayacanora at 25. times and won 81 times. Dalesman. which ran a race as a as a 3 year-old. won 6 times.. not 15 foals. 176 of bv Whisker out of Alecto. A old. 12 times as an 11 year- First foal at 16 years old.. 12 foals. 2 without a break. 16 foals Nothing known after. First foal at 17 by Velocipede out of 23 Mare by Walton. Blanford). Ran Iris nine times as a 3 and 4 year-old. ning. ran 64 times. won : times. a splendid racer. and Phaeton. plan Dcp. Foundation Fam. a break. at 21.. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. at 27. and three splendid Foundation Mares in Fam. Mare in springs 7 foals. Criterion At 22. Breeding Performances. without winCm.. Garland by Langar out of Caststeel. Longbow. 28. First foal at 6 years : old. Catherina (Xagara). Vertumna. -Patrick 24. nine times Gcp. 6a. and at 23. Pocahontas by Glencoe out of Marpessa. Rataat of Kars. Miss Bowe by Catton out of a 22 year-old 1834 65 Orville. nule's ran 24 times. 8 Nunnykirk 2.. Foundation Mare 19.4. ran O. Chamont and Rayon d'Or L.3 year-old. iBorn.. of : King-of-the-Vale. 1832 2 —8 year-old a very good racer. 23 (of which one was a firstling). won foals. amongst which was. which 6 were good racers (Sweetheart. : bv Dr. 1^30 . placed. last foal. ran 2 —11 A'ear-old 9 foals. Knight-of-St. Lived to 33 years of age. Burletta bv Actaon out of Comedv. dam. 2. At 24. Y. amongst which were two good Foundation Mares in Fam. 1835 in 3 — 6 year-old Fam. amongst which were Mare by O. and dam of the four offKing Tom Oueen-of-the-\'ale. 1837 Covered at 3 years old. Camelia Cd.. winner in July Stakes. Foundation Mare in Fam. Svntax —Ardrossan. . 8. — 5 year-old Criter. 16 foals. 73 No. First foal at 11 years old.

amongst which were Blink Bonny D. Thormanby D. Lady Audley (Touchet's dam). won First foal at 5 years old. Altogether 16 foals. that is. Mare by Beirani out of Addy. 1839 2 —3 year-old ran ten times. then killed. at 22. Foundation Mare in Fam. Blinkhoolie. 1838 foals. and had 7 foals without a break. Dcp. 10 foals altogether. Gcp and Dcp twice. old. amongst which were 6 Foundation Mares in Fam. and at : 27.O. amongst which were Buccaneer. 19 foals (and one dead foal). Alice Hawthorn — 7 year-old a splendid racer. Lived to 29 . 4 c. Stars-and-Stripes. Bonnie Doon. 12 First foal at 13 3'ears old. Lapwing by Bustard 1837 Not run. of Covered at 2 years old. 15 Not run. . 6 times. won Fam. etc. 3 splendid Foundation Mares in Fam. foals.74 Trial of the Thoroug'hbred on the Racecourse. after she had had 22 foals) slipped. at 19. Foundation Mare 1841 8 a. First foal at 8 years old. which afterwards. First foal at 7 years 17 foals. Mare by Little Red Rover out of Eclat. 14. grandof Aspirant. three times. and Flippant. 1843 Ran four times as a 43'ear-old. and won 501 times. at 21. Breeding Performances.. which were Macaroni 2 D. First foal at 4 years old. 14. which included 17 King's First foal Plates. and also Lord Fauconberg. (Firstling) j Queen Mary 1843 by Gladiator out of a 3 year-old Mare by Plenipotentiar3\ Not run. Physalis by Bay Middleton out Baleine. Afterwards she slipped and had 3 more foals. dam Florence by Velocipede out of Margarette. racer 3 to 5 year-old. Foundation Mare j'ears of age. 20 foals without a break. 1838 10 foals without a break. amongst which was Christabelle. of which were Terrona (grand-dam of Queen Esther. 1841 A good won 6 times. and at 24. Not run. 17 First foal at 7 years old. to having made a journey France and back. Legacy. Not run. Born. Foundation Mare in Fam. foals without a break. Lived to 27 years of age. Covered at 2 years : old. in Fam. had first — Muley. 1&39 Revival by Pantaloon out of Linda. 1841 of 2 — 5 year-old ran 22 times. Oulston and Findon. Boarding-School-Miss by Plenipotentiary out of Marpessa. ran 71 times by Muley Moloch out of Rebecca. in At 23. Sir Niel. 8 foals in spite without a break. won twice. the last in her 29th year 3 Altogether 17 foals. at 11 years old.. First foal at 6 years old. : Jocose by Pantaloon out of Banter. ran 22 times. amongst at 24. Name and Pedigree. 3 b. : 17 foals. 10.

a splendid racer. 1847 3 — 7 year-old Ou a very good racer. — 6 \'ear-old 9. 98 Torment bv Alarm 1850 As a 2 and 3 year-old a very good First foal at 5 years old. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. Dcp. 16. . Fam. 27 years of age.) Mare by Kettledrum. — Hetman 1850 Not run. won once). won once. J\Iaid of Masham 1845 by Don John out of Miss Lvdia. amongst ALare in Fam. 1850 Not run. First foal 14 foals. at Sir Bevys D and Hampton Gcp. 13 foals. last foal Lived to 27 years of age. Mares in Fam. B 14 foals. Agnes Lived to Sorel. Reflex (ran as a 2 and 3 year-old. and Timothy /Vcp. living twins. 22. Foundation Mare Caller . 13 foals. . Fam. Foundation Mare in Fam. — Glencoe. amongst At 22. At 21. 16 foals. tion 22.4. by Lanercost out of Coastance. Last foal at 21. Mare By Birdcatcher Platoff. Noisette bv Nutwith out 1850 of 2 — 9 year-old ran 91 times. and at Peine de Coeur (dam of Despair and Caris- sima). which was Catharina Haves O. As a 9 ran four times without foal. in First foal at 6 years At 22. 12 foals. First foal at 9 years old. amongst which were Lady Langden (dam of 24. Mar- once as an 8 year-old. Lentil (ran four times as a 2 year-old). Breeding Performances. at 25. both Foundation Mares in 3 at 8 years old. Faraway. Gertrude bv Hautboy out of Middle. by Venison out of Partiality. Xenophon. At 22. at 21. 16 foals. 1844 Not run. 75 Name and Ferina Pedigree. Foundation Won year-old. At 23. Aliss Agones by Birdcatcher Agnes. 6 years old. L. in Fam. 10. At 22. First foal : by jNIango the or 4 Lanercost year-old at 8 years old. Tormentor O. 1850 2 — 4 year-old old. First foal at 5 years old. racer. Carnation last foal at 25. 3. amongst which were two Foundation Mares in Fam. winning. 7 Founda10. Solon. Ran 2 — 4 year-old. in 9 foals. Born. 1850 2. Peter Hrd. which was Acceptance. 10 foals. Lady Masham. a very good racer. Pretender 2 D. including Flat and F Sharp. Foundation Mare at 25. Haricot out of (Firstling) the latter also dam of the two own brothers. First foal at 10 years old. Queen Marv. at 22. Marquise de Caux. First foal at out of amongst which were six prominent Foundation Mares. won 17 times.

amongst at 25. 23. 14 foals. 1858 Not run. at 23. 1861 Ran once First foal as a 2 and once as a 3 year-old. etc. Foundation Mare Fam. Lady Sefton by West-Australian out of Clarissa. 14 foals. Cd. 20. 15 foals. o' in among which were Scots. Cm. won 5 times. 1851 3 Xot run. First foal at 5 years old. and won 4 times The Palmer Driver out of as a 2 year-old. St.. amongst 21. at 22. . At 20. two Foundation Mares Fam. OD. Bathilde by Babette. Musa O. three times. and See Me OO). 1851 Heron — Zimmerman. Ran times. Lonely O. by Milton out of Geane. Hawkstone. (had 20 without a break. Jessie. won 4 times. amongst which were Fl Dorado. and at 24. First foal at 7 years old. 3 c. At 25.. Born. 17 : Jenny foals). First foal at 6 years old. and Romulus F. owned by L. 3 61 8 : times and won 11 out First foal years old. last foal. Breeding Performances. Palmaro (ran and won as a 2 and 3 jxar-old). at 5 years old. Breeding Performances. Aura (dam of Orcan). three Foundation Mares in Fam. 17. Foundation Mare Fam. At 23. Nelly Hill Springy Jack out of Anne Page. 17 foals. : amongst which were in Sefton D. 14 foals. which were j : Nautilus at 23. Foundation Mare 1853 Fam. Florian. King Pompeja. I Vergogne F. First foal at 7 years old. in four times.D. 24 times. and 3. by Ran 2 — 4 year-old — 6 year-old at and won as a 3 year-old 14 foals. 1823 i First foal at 7 years old. Foundation Mares in Fam. Stockwell foal at 8 }'ears old. Meudon Stud in France. Quid Pro Quo by Isonomy. Name and Vittoria Pedigree.76 Trial of the Thorou£rlibred on the Racecourse. Lived to 34 years of age. Bothwell 2. and at 24. Name and Blue Bell b}' Pedigree.O. 18 foals. Lowland 1859 and in Queen Bathilde. Sorcery (dam of Aspirant in Fam. Palmflower by 1874 Ran foals 2 — 4 year-old 13 times. 25. Ran 2 —5 year-old 14 times. and at 23. out of Ran First 2 — 6 year-old Chief. which were four Foundation Mares in Fam. Anonyma by Stockwell out of Miss Sarah. Napoleon. 18 foals. At 23. Katherine Logie by Flying Dutchman of Phryne. amongst which were three Foundation Mares At 23. 25. Born. Spec ial Breeding Performances of Old Thoroughbred Mares from abroad. First foal at 5 years old. at 24. Christabelle by Fernhill 1854 — Beiram.

4. 77 No. Value of the Thorouphbred for Other Breeds. .

etc. . No.78 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse.

79 . Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds.4.

80 Trial of the Thorousrhbred on the Racecourse. No. etc. .

81 Age No. Years. Born. Names of Stallions. Sires of Stallions. 114 .4. \'alue of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. reached.

. etc.Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.

\'alue of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds.4. 8'] .

. . 12. .. ... 28 28 25 . . .. 38.... . .. 28.. . . 30. . ... 10. 11.. . 25 31 .25 .33 .. .33 . 32.. 2.. .. 21. 1. 40. . 25 . . 25 . 34.. . ... .. 5.. 28 28 25 . . . 28 . . . etc. 33. Register of the Thoroughbred Stallions born in America which have attained the age of 25 years and more. 23. .. ... ... .. 18... 7.. .27 .. . . 13. . .. .. . .. 26. . 29 26 25 27 . 6.. 20.. 35. 27 25 26 . 27.. 16. 41. .. 37. 36. . ... 39.. 22. 26 25 ..35 .. . . .... Old Friendship 1783 by Apollo Centinel 1800 by Diomed Peacemaker 1800 by Diomed Sir Archy 1805 by Diomed Eclipse 1814 by Duroc Manalopan 1828 by Johnson's Medley Wagner 1834 by Sir Charles Grey Eagle 1835 by Woodpecker Y. . 17. . 29.. 31.. 14. 19...30 .. 26 . 4. 8..25 . 28 26 26 25 .. Langford 1840 by Langford Revenue 1843 by Trustee Davis 1849'by Glencoe Lexington 1850 by Boston Wild Irishman 1850 by Glencoe Brown Dick 1851 by Margrave Rifleman 1855 by Glencoe Asteroid 1861 by Lexington Norfolk 1861 by Lexington Ansel 1862 by Lexington Baltimore 1862 by Revenue Morris 1863 by Lexington Pat Malloy 1865 by Lexington Vauxhall 1865 by Lexington Exchange 1866 bv Endorser Glenelg 1866 by "Citadel Enquirer 1867 by Leamington Longfellow 1867 by Leamington Lyttleton 1867 bv Leamington Regent 1867 by Bonnie Scotland Bigaroon 1868 by Bonnie Scotland Eolos 1868 by Leamington Nathan Oaks i868 by Bonnie Scotland Spindrift 1868 by Bonnie Scotland Joe Daniels 1869 by Australian Springbok 1870 by Australian Grinstead 1871 by ... 25.. .. . . ..26 . 24.. . 25 .. . . .... -28 years old.. . ... .. .. 9.. .29 .29 .. Star ... .84 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse....28 ... Jolly Friar 1783 by Janus 25 25 27 Q..Gilroy Big Sandy 1872 by Australian Fiddlesticks 1874 by Lexington Himyar 1875 by Alarm Falsetto 1876 by Enquirer .... . Celler 1776 by Janus was .. 15...

The Jacobite 187G by Prince Cliarlie was 29 years . No. . . 42.. . 45..4. 43. Register of the Royal Country Stallions in Celle which attained the age of 25 years and more. King 1876 by Lonofellow Foxhall 1878 by King Alfonso Onondaga 1879 by Leamington 25 . .. 26 25 ... Value of the Thoroug-hbred for Other Breeds.. 85 old.. Irish 44. .

etc.SG Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse. No .

4.

Value of the Thorousrhbred

for

Other Breeds.

87

88

Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on

the Racecourse,

etc.

No.

4.

Value of the Thorouq-hbred

for

Odier Breeds.

89

No.

Name

of the Stallions.

I

Born. Age
^

Produced the following progeny.

20
21

Echo,
Alfred

(?)

Fam.

23.

8

22 24
24 25

Fam 1. Magnum Bonum
Monimia,

10

25 25
26

Mare born 1773, Fam. 2. 11 Purity, Fam. 24. 8 (Dam of Rocking-ham) Mare born 1774, Fam. 2 f. 9 Mare born 1774, Fam. 21. 7
Espersykes Hollandaise L Tetotum O, Fam.
Sincerity

26
28 28

26.

7 (Firstling)

28
28 28 28

28
28 28 28
12

Fam. 3. 7 (Firstling) Puzzle, Fam. 1 a. 10 (lived to 32 years Miss West (Dam of Quiz L by Huby) Cora, Fam. 23 a. 11 Orang-e Girl, Fam. 31. 7 Mare born 1777, Fam. 4 a. 9 Mare born 1777, Fam. 9 b. 9 Mare born 1777, Fam. 15. 9 Mare born about 1777, Fam. IS. 9
Y. Marske
Folly,

of age)

Marske

1750

20

20
20

20

22
23
13

Magnolia, Mare born Mare born Mare born

Fam. 8 c. Fam.
1771, 1773, 1774,

10
5.

G

Fam. 4 b. 11 Fam. 23. 10 Fam. 17. 9
7

Snap

1750

20
21 21

Madcap, Fam.
Lisette,

15.

28
28
14

Fam. 18. 8 Middlesex, Fam. 3. 6 Miss Euston, Fam. 13. 9 Mare born 1774, Fam. 24.
Mare born Mare born
1771,
1772,

9

Syphon

1750

20
21

Fam. Fam.
L)

17. 9
15. 7

(had 15

foals)

(Dam
21
first

of

Tommy
1772,

Mare born

Fam.

43.

7 (had

16 foals-

foal at 11 years old)

22 24

Tandem
Miss Pratt, Fam.
31. 7

Wildair

1753
1758

22 20 20 20
20-

Tommy L
Expectation,

Herod

Fam.
12.

4.

12

Luna, Fam.

8

20

Mare born Mare born Mare born

1779, 1779, 1779,

F'am. 4

a.

10

Fam. Fam.

24. 9

37. 10

90

Trial of the Thoi-out;hbred on

the Racecourse,

etc.

No.

Name

of the Stallions. ^Born.j Age.

Pruducfcd the following progtnv.

21

Phoenomenon L
Bagot Maid of the Oaks O, Fam. 3
Macaria, Fam. 4. 9 Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 a. 6 Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 a. 7
b. 7

21 21
21

21
21 21

21

22
17
I

Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 Mare born 1780, Fam. 7. Editha, Fam. 3. 6
Queen Mab, Fam.
old Tartar

c.

6

6

Eclipse

1764

20 20
21

9 b. 9 (out of the 28-year-

Mare)

Violot,

Bobtail,

Fam. 13. li Fam. 3 b. 7

21 18

Serpent

Florizel

1768

20 20
21

Tartar

L

Lucy, Fam. 2. 13 Ninety-Three L
Shuttle

19

Y. Marske

1771

21

22 22 23
2(J

Mare born Mare born Mare born
Mare born Mare born Mare born Champion

1794,

1794,
1795,
1794, 1794, 1796,

Fam. 2. IT Fam. 23. 11 Fam. 8 d. 12

P(jtSos

1773

2(J

20 22 23
24

Fam. 1 12 Fam. 3e. 7 Fam. 17. 11
12.

D

and L
10
11 (had

Dabschick, Fam.

Tyrant D Grey Duchess, Fam.
21

6.

19 foals,

and

lived to be 28 years old)

Woodpecker

1773

20
20
21

Chesnut Skim, Fam. 5d.

7

Mare born
Catherine,

1794,

Fam.

11.

9
of

Fam. lib.

9

(Dam

Golumpus by

2:s

24 24
24

Gohanna) Ephemera O, Fam. 3 b. 18 Mare born 1798, Fam. 6. 12 Mare born 1798, Fam. 12 a. 13 Mare born 1798, Fam. 24. 10
Ball's Florizel

22

Diomed

1777

23 27 28

Archy Duroc
Sir

23 -+
I

Saltram

178(J

24
20

Mare born 1805 (Dam
PersepoHs, Fam.
Berenice,
12.

of Timoleoii)

Alexander

1782

10

Fam.

3 b. 9

4.

Value

of the

Thoroughbred

for

Other Breeds.

91

No.

Name

of the Stallions.

Born.! Ai^e.

Produced the following progeny

22

I

Berenice,

Fam.

14. 10
14.

24
26
27
'2o

I

Boadicea, Fam.
Thalestris,

10 15

Delta,

Fam. Fam. 2 f.

2

c.

14

Trumpator

1782

20
21

23
25

26
-<3

Mare born 1803, Fam. 9. 10 Woodnymph, Fam. 4 b. 14 Mirth, Fam. 26. 9 Pawn, Fam. Id. 11 Prue, Fam. 11. 10
Cervantes Pea Blossom, Fam. 12 Zoraida, Fam. 25. 10
a.

Don Ouixote

1784

21 21 21
j

10

22
I

Amadis
Petronius
I '

-^
I

Sir Peter

1784

20

L
f.

20
20 20
21 21

Clinker (2nd in L.)
Isis,

j

;

Plover,

Fam. 2 Fam.

13

27. 10

Peruvian
Fadladinida,
I

Fam.

13. 11

21
21
21
1^8
,

Jametta, Fam. 1. 14 Opal, Fam. 3 b. 7
Zaida,

Fam.

25. 9

Waxy

1790

20 20
,

Blucher D Wire, Fam.

1 b.

12 (had 17 foals)
1 b.

20
21 21

Prudence, Fam.

11

Whisker D Minuet O, Fam.
I

1 a.

12

24 24
j

24
I

24

i

26 26
26
27

Corinne O, Fam. 2. 16 Loo, Fam. lb. 12 Mare born 1815, Fam. 3 a. 10 Mare born 1815, Fam. 23. 13 Duchess of York, Fam. 5d. 9

Emmeline, Fam. 12 a. 16 Pawn, Jun., Fam. 1 d. 12 Dulcamara, Fam. 12 a. 16

29

Gohanna

1790

2:)

Wasp, Fam.
Harpalice,

3 d. 8
3
c.

28

Fam.
1814,

10
5 a. 9 8
c.

23 80

Mare born

Fam.

Hambletonian
Stamf(jrd

1792

20 23

Mare born 1813, Fam. Cherub, Fam. 16. 6

15

81

1794

20 22
25

Chromatica, Fam. IS. 13 Hambletonia, Fam. 18. 13

Mare born about

1820,

Fam.

4 b.

14

0-2

Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on

the Racecourse,

etc.

Produced the following progeny,

Sorcerer

1796

Haphazard
Quiz

Orville

Walton

Castrel

Selim

Whalebone

4.

Value

of the

Thorouijhbrcd

for

Other Breeds.

93

No.

Name

of the Stallions.

Born. Age.

Produced the following progeny.

40

Catton

1809

41

Com us

42

Muley

rs

Tramp

44

Trial of the

Thoroughbred on the Racecourse,

etc.

21

Legerdemain, Fam. 3
Raillery,

a. 11

21

22

22 23 23 23
24

26
26

Fam. 14 a. 12 Windhound Molly, Fam. 2 b. 17 Aurora, Fam. 2 c. 17 Agnes, Fam. 28. 14 Miserrima, Fam. 3 a. 12 Sabra, Fam. 3. 13 Crystal, Fam. 2 f. 16 Lady Audrey, Fam. 6 a.

15

48
j

Velocipede
Sir Hercules

1S2C

23 20 23 27 27
27

King

of

Trumps
b.

49

!

182G

Subterfuge, Fam. 9 Ada, Fam. 1 c. 15

14

Gunboat
di Vergi Macaria, Fam. 4 a. 15 Lifeboat

Gemma

28
28 28

Lady Langford, Fam. 2 Miss Hercules, Fam. 12
Voltigeur
Sacrifice,

f.

Ifi

a. 9J\

50

Vol tail

1826

20 20 20
21

Fam.
1847,

4 a.

16
34. VA

Mare born
Lord

Fam. Vivandiere, Fam. 2 e.
of the Isles

17

51

Touchstone

1831

20
20

De Clare
Rifleman
Bracelet,
Artillery

20 20
21 21

Fam.

4 e. 17

21

22

22
22

22
23 23 23

23
23

23
24 24 24
25

Fam. 20 a. 13 Fam. 8 b. 16 Tournament Lady Ann, Fam. 18. 15 Lady Harriet, Fam. 4 e. 17 Rosa Bonheur, Fam. 3c. 14 Bessie Bell, Fam. 4 e. 17 Electra, Fam. 2 f. 14 Oakleaf, Fam. 19 a. 14 Sprightliness, Fam. 22. i3 Terrific, Fam. 20 a. 13 Tunstall Maid, Fam. 18. 15 Griselda, Fam. 1 e. 15 Miss Digby, Fam. 13 a. 17 Prelude, Fam. 19. 15
Scalade,

Minie,

Wamb-;t

4.

Value of the Thorouarhbred

for

Other Breeds.

No.

9fi

Trial of the

Thoroughbred on the Racecourse,

etc.

No.

4.

Value

of the

Thoroughbred

for

Other Breeds.

97

No.

No. etc. .98 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.

99 No.4. Value of the Thoroue:hbred for Other Breeds. .

IXame of the Stallions. 81 Galopin S2 83 84 Waisenknabe Kisber Spri no-field 85 Chamant 86 Master Kildare . etc. No.\ge. Born. .100 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Produced the following progeny.

and formerly the tests nearly always took place in several heats. as we have no records to go through as to how quickly the former Thoroughbred could cover distances of 1 to IJ English miles if . and the confession of Thoroughbred breeders fundament by the infusion of Thoroughbred that an improveis very seldom at all possible. whereas from a correct calculation follows a record of only 15 metres in one second. however. which is so important. would not be a sufficient proof of the improvement of the Thoroughbred in general. in a second. which William Pick makes in his Turf Register. in other words. It is to be assumed that the present day Thoroughbred for a distance of 1 to IJ English miles is quicker than the Thoroughbred of a hundred years ago. to compare them with the performances of to-day. howone can breed Thoroughbreds which are able to give the necessary stamina for the fundament. cannot answer this question from records impartially. to that well-known query. especially as regards its adaptability to improve Half-breds. 1-2. especially in respect to fundament.CHAPTER A V. The answer to this question leads. This alone. or.. raises the question as to why in this respect. where he reckons out the record of Flying Childers to be nearly a mile a minute. comparison of what Thoroughbreds have done previously and what they are doing at the present time. This erroneous opinion probably originated by a wrong division. therefore. whether our present day Thoroughbred has not become worse during the last century. p. Besides. the Thoroughbred may not be improved. The records of Flying Childers at Newmarket over the Round Course and the Beacon Course were until now incorrectly said to be the best. first of all. even an exact and reliable measure of time would not be a safe guide as to the different capacity. We have not got enough exact and reliable statements of time of the races in former years. and. The ment importance of a solid and lasting formation of legs of this in the breeding of if Half-breds. V'ol. because the distances for which horses were trained have changed so much. and even unsurpassed records of Thoroughbreds on a racecourse. I. that is to say 8-2^ feet = about 25 metres.

which took place in the year 1872. The following examples (from the earliest times to 1832) give the best record performances have found starts for the I : — . are insufficient to Epsom we have the time from the from the year 1810. Also. and the St. and much better than Ormonde. As the measurement of time can onlv give a correct measurement of proven performances for races of steadv motion (as I have already shown mathematicallv in 1899 in my treatise entitled. or perhaps the speed of the present day Thoroughbred has not improved so much for longer distances as for shorter ones. The tables given on the next page are characteristic. Leger go on. etc. the quicker getting shorter races than in the longer St. Sceptre. as this alteration caused the first incline to be less difficult.102 trained Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. especiallv for the York races. Leger distance (in 1826) lias been shortened b\' 56 metres. especially when these measurements have to be compared with those of a hundred years ago. Galtee More. one must not lose sight of the fact here that since 1872 the Derbv distance has been lengthened by 23 metres. The times given for the St. The reason probably is. it is not at all surprising that the above measurements are an insufficient criterion for the capacity respecting the c|uality of horses. Sir Tatton Sykes. the measurements of time which the last fifty years. ought to be much better than Ormonde. Melton and Kettledrum. Persimmon. IMost measurements of olden times are given in Orton's Turf Annuals. Leger would make us believe that Troutbeck was the best of all. A great deal of these measurements has. According to the Derby time. that with the invasion of the American jockeys. and of the Oaks winners. and not for 4-mile heats. To draw a definite conclusion as to capabilitv. it is possible that the changing of the effected an Derby and the Oaks. especially by the method in vogue to-day. Persimmon. Furthermore. " Das Vollblutpferd in seiner Bedeutung fur die Halbblutzucht "). off made more dift'erence in the Leger. and Pretty Polly. and the celebrated Wheelof-Fortune would be the worst. Ormonde ought to be worse than his predecessors. Of course. As a matter of fact. from these measurements we can see that the Derby and Oaks times have become considerably shorter than those for the longer distance St. Of the Doncaster St. unfortunately. Persimmon and Galtee More. has improvement of the time. : we have for classic races for about Of the Derby and Oaks at year 1846. which if it had been trained for races is without doubt an improved for that distance. reliable measurements f)f time seem to be out of question. again. Leger. born 1843. Or. been given for races in which insignificant horses ran. one. Cherry Lass better than La Fleche. For example according to these measurements. Ard Patrick. etc. even from the latest. and that Challacombe was as good as Pretty Polly. Flying Fox. the very moderate Cicero would be a by far better horse than either Ormonde.

-^o rt[o >0 00(MOOC^Oi-H'M'-0i—ICOi—ICOCO^M<C0 01000t—iC0 1OC5C0(MC.'o ril-n in the Past and Present.5.^ "S -G > oj o C S 3 c o 40 ^ o 1^ ^ ^^ H c/i O^ .L0 ^-^r^(^^(^^c^^^-Hl—ic^icoi—icvit^iT—ii—ii—ii—ii—ii—ii—ii—((>ieor-Hi— -tlJ^ ct'LCC^liO Mtu? r^so -lioTilio —X^n lOOi—looooo 1O-*iO (?D(XicooocococccococccoTOcocccococococococococococococococccococo 5 S m tu ^ c o Uh OJ c c. The Thoroup-hbred c. <P o o >-o o p:ii^ S O '"' D = . 103 «Wr-liO eiVo^^hn ^'hn-f^n *l^^ .

1809. 9 stone 1766. 7 lb 1802. 1830. 8 stone. Bay Malton 6 year-old by Sampson. Witchcraft 3 year-old by Sir Peter. 1804. 8 stone. Cade 8 51 301 8 32 28 25 30 2. Distance U miles = 2414 m. 8 stone. Distance 2 miles = 3218. 9 stone 1759. 8 stone. 1804. 7 stone. 54 47 51 49 50 47 These two races were run at Doncaster. 3 lbs. .6 m. Sandbeck 6 year-old bv Catton. 8 stone Abron 4 year-old by Whisker. Maleck 3 year-old by Blacklock. 5 lbs. 1826. 10 lbs Mulatto 4 year-old by Catton. 9 stone. 10 lbs 1803. 8 stone. 8 stone. . 7 lbs. Sheba's Oueen 3 year-old by Sir Solomon. 2 lbs. Min. 4 lbs. ]\rAdam 3 year-old by Tramp. Min. Min. Distance 4 miles = 6437. 1829. 8 stone. 1805. . 5 lbs.2 m. 6 lbs Helenus 5 year-old by Soothsayer. Medoro 3 year-old by Cervantes. . 5 lbs. 8 stone 3 3 3 1824. 20 13 17 21 12 17 20 15 18 4. 1826. 8 stone. Beaufrement 6 year-old by Tartar. 8 stone. Velocipede 3 year-old by Blacklock. 12 lbs Fortitude 4 year-old by Whisker. 1824. 3 3 . 1826. 7 stone. 1824. 9 lbs 1809. Distance 1| miles = 2816. 1804. 1801. 10 stone Careless 9 year-old by Reguliis. Sec. 8 stone. Velocipede 4 year-old by Blacklock. 1815. 5 lbs. 8 stone. 8 stone. 1827. 8 stone. Sec. all the others at . 5 lbs Chancellor 3 year-old by Catton. 3 lbs. 2 lbs. Haphazard 6 year-old by Sir Peter.' Alonzo 4 year-old by Pegasus. 8 stone. 3 3 3 3 . 5 lbs. Min. etc. 5 7 by Cade. Catton 6 year-old by Golumpus. 8 stone.3 m. 8 stone Lady Brough 3 year-old by Stride. 5 lbs Sir Hercules 3 year-old bv Whalebone. 7 lbs 1793. 1830. 7 lbs 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 York. Silvio 5 year-old by Cade. 8 stone. Sec. Saxoni 5 year-old by Delpini. 40 33 28 34 33 29 3. 1832. 8 stone. Petronius 4 year-old by Sir Peter. 6 lbs Mauto 3 year-old by Tiresias. . Quid 3 year-old by Star. 1827. 3 lbs Retainer 3 year-old by Jerry. 1759. 1828. Sec. 5 year-old . 7 stone. 8 stone. Huby 5 year-old by Phoenomenon.104 Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse. 5 lbs 1810. 1827. 8 stone. 1827. 1829. Theresa 5 year-old by Hambletonian. 7 lbs 1764. 8 stone. 8 stone. Belzoni 3 year-old by Blacklock.^ Sir Solomon 5 year-old by Sir Peter. 9 stone 1759. 8 stone. Fair Charlotte 6 year-old by Catton. 8 lbs. 1.

213. Turf Register by Pick. the following interesting performances are Distance 6120 m. Sec. Bethlem Gaber 3 year-old by Sorcerer. Vol. Racing. 1811. . 1 1 1 1808. 8 stone. 44 yards =1046. 138 yards. 1827. 1829. Besides the known 1. by Grey Middleham.' 2. 8 stone. I.Magazine. Y. Sec.6 m. 5 lbs. Min. Min. = l mile.. Vol. . 5 lbs. 1^32. 1830. 1773.. 152 yards =1145 m. Velocipede 2 year-old by Blacklock. Sec. . at Newmarket. 1827.. 1 lbs. at Newmarket. C.5. 7. 1824. Turf Register by Pick. 15 12 Distance 1 mile =1609.3 m. 2 2 1828. Clarence 2 vear-old by Comus. Sec. 8 stone. Min. 5 lbs Voltaire 3 year-old by Blacklock. C. Vol.6 m. Sec. in the Past and Present. and Sporting. ." 1755. 5 lbs. 5 lbs Slut 2 year-old by Tramp. p. MorningPost and Daily Advertiser. 8 stone. 327. p. p. Mare 2 year-old by Jack Spigot. . 1751. Min. Flying Childers 6 year-old. 8 stone. 8 stone.Calendar 1773. 8 — 4J 30 20 15 Distance 1610 m. 3 lbs At Eclipse's time several horses 3. p. 8 stone. p. Pond. 11 lbs. 136.'' Flying Childers. IV. R. 14. I. 6 Tom Jones 3 year-old' by Abjer. 1 12 Distance T. 93 yards. Vol. =4 miles. 6 year-old 1792. p. I. 9 Stone. Min. * Raciana by Muir. 1773. " Turf Register by Pick. "' . Sec. The ThoroLig-hbred 5. 162. Chorister 2 year-old by Lottery. . iNIoonshine 2 year-old 8. 8 stone. 1 yard. 8 stone. 8 stone. : — above. 6 furlongs. 1830. Brother to Miss Fanny 3 year-old by Walton. 1721. 20 15 9 14 14 8 11 well 1 1 1 1 . p. 8 stone. furlong. 8 stone. Distance Redhouse at (Doncaster) = 5 furlongs. 2 lbs Androgens 2 year-old by Minos. =5 furlongs. 8 stone. Round Course =3 miles. 12. 7 stone. 1826. 19th April. 105 Distance l\ miles = 201 1. 7 7 7 1721.. 8 stone. Min. 8 stone Mare 3 year-old by Figaro. 2 lbs 6. Vol.2 m. at Newmarket. 1 1 1 40 43 47 49 . 325. 7 lbs Hambletonian 7 year-old. 5 lbs. 2 lbs 6 1 48 Distance 6764. 1826. 1828. 2 lbs. II. 8 stone 1 Sporting: Calendar by J. Middlethorpe 2 year-old by Shiitde. 1827.. 2 lbs. Min. B. Laurel 4 year-old by Blacklock.^ Matchem 7 year-old. 5 lbs. M. Sec.^ ' Firetail 4 year-old by Squirrel.

" and the others took the report from the newspaper. and appears to me be incorrect. maximum performances : — Distance Meter.106 Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse. in the second. The time measurement in the race of Firetail at Newmarket over a mile shows a record performance of ahiiost 25 m. etc. Possibly a printer's error crept in the " Mornincr Post. . The remaining time to measurements show^ the followine.

Only within the last few years the American method of riding. and its quick pace all along.e. The compilation of the best records of ancient all and modern times. To judge of the influence of the earlv and frequent two-year-old races.11 metres) 3.fth bringing so-called first-class raceyear again on the track. I eight-year-olds have given. and to prevent greater differences of time as happened previously. born Australian. with 7 four-year-old.41 was Leger St. with its quick getting off. as a four-year-old.5. Every sportsman will acknowledge this regrettable fact. . horses. was 14. in the following tables. that the galloping capabilitv of the present day Thoroughbred has been more developed than the less developed fundament can stand. The difficulties of training racehorses. after taking into consideration accessories. Buckstone's Cup of 18G3.10 metres. show therefore. seems to have affected a little the shortening of the time. and how often altogether as two-year-olds. Gentlemen's flat races are not menhave I tioned. Gold Ascot the In metres. but the more celebrated steeple-chasers I have noted. 9 stone. neither a progress nor a retrogression in the capability of the Thc^roughbred. and especially the difficulty of horses after their fourth or fi. after a dead heat. and in the year 1897. Persimmon's record. 107 makincr comparisons. However. stone. the of winner 1850. can Just time present as of the St... 15. I have compiled. i. beginning with the most ancient times up to the time of the celebrated Fisherman (therefore about the middle of the last centurv).000 Guineas. are well known. as well be abotit the distance which the better kind of racehorses period lived the this of middle the about do. West celebrated for the metres. with the sires as well as with the dams of the respective racein which month they first ran as two-\'ear-olds. Sires of horses which have won races at a great age have also their own performances mentioned in the same manner as a comparison. 15. compiled on the basis of the male ascent. I have only taken such horses that have won flat races as and above that age.982 (distance Cup Ascot Gold lbs. Leger. Where the dam did not run at all as a two-yearold I have not mentioned her at all. In order to get an actual basis to compare the performances of older Thoroughbreds of former times with those of the present time on the flat. the one on the left shows the age at which the horse first started racing. As a rule. fundament of the and are caused bv present day Thoroughbred. was 16. 8 a as record. the for record its Also •2.08 metres. the English race calendars show that there exists a marked difference in the endurance of older horses. the most prominent performances of older horses on the the insufficient resisting capacity of the flat. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. and Derb_v. Of the figures given under each horse. and the one on the right shows the age at which it won last on the flat. A little more than 15 metres to the second seems to of former.

Pilgfrim 1762 by Sampson. Its last win was as an eight-year-old. COXCOMB 8 — 4. won a Blackcock 1782 by Coxcomb.]^08 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. Maltoii 1760 by Sampson. 4—7. Cliilders. etc. at 17 year-old Match over 2 miles \vit>h heats at St. 4 9. The Provost 1836 bv the Saddler 2 (May 3 times)— 6. 1711 by Darley's Arabian. 1768 by Engineer (s. 2. Otho 1760 by Moses. Childers. 1. 1715 by Darlev's Arabian. Pinclier 1765 by Shakespeare. Hobgoblin 5—9. Foxhuilter 6—9. Darley's Arabian bom 1. and altogether twice as a two-year-old. and altogether as a two-year-old three times. SpCOIkI 1732 by Flying 5—11. M AM BR IN O 5 2. ALEPPO 5. The Provost ran as a two-year-old first in May. Blaze 1733 by Flying 5 1. MOSES 4. then up to 18 year-old used as a hunter. Bay 4—8. 3. 1. 1746 by Foxhunter (Cole's). and won at last as a six-year-old. 1702. August twice. 1771 by Otho. Ives. (Half-brother to Conejskins. . 3. Its dam ran first as a two-year-old in August. FLYINO CHILDERS 6—8. 1711 by Darley's Arabian. means. Eiij^^ineor 5—10. 1. Alp ran first as a three-year-old. 1724 by Aleppo. 1755 by Sampson. to — 7. Alp 184G by The Provost 3 —8 Dam 2y. 2. (Half-Brother to — King Fergus). —8 (up to 11 year-old without winning). America). 4—12. — 7 (up to 10 year-old without SAMPSON 5 winning). BRISK 5. 1745 by Blaze. 3—8.) (Cole's) 1727 by Brisk. SHAKESPEARE 1745 by Hobj^oblin.

also in Give and Take PL). 1. by Snip. 2. Snip 5. 2. 4—8. [Brown. 4. Eclipse 1764 by Marske.5—8. Holly m 4—10. 4—6. —8 1. Jerry 1777 by Sweetbriar. and 1750 by Squirt. 1776 by Goldfinder. 2. 2. to Virginia). 4—6. 1. 5. 4. DOCTOR 3—9. MARSKE 4 (5 1. 1751 by Blaze. EXCISEMAN 8—12. Cliang:eling' 1767 by Scrub. 3Ietai»liysician 176. Suuirt 1"32 by Bartlet's Childers. 1"36 by Flying. 4—10. o u n t 2. 1807 by Jerry Sneak. •2. 1. 3.3 by Snap. 1781 by Sweetbriar. Prize 1767 by Snap. 4—10. 2.50 SNAP 6—7. BARTLET'8 (Not run). of 25 year-old 2 (October. ('^r (s. 5 Bleeding-) Childers about 1716 by Darley's Arabian. Mexican 1775 by Snap 3—8. 1. 1774 by Goldfinder. Mother 4—11. 1772 by Lathom's Snap. 6 year-old without winning). STARTING TOM 4—10. 1812 by Jerry Sneak. SYPHON 4. Lathonrs Snap 1759 by Snap. fioldfinder 1764 by Snap. Sweetbriar 1769 by Syphon. 109 4. (up to 11 year-old without winning. Solon 1766 by Sampson. 5—6. SCRUB 4—10. 17. 3. 1. .0. 4—8. Sneak 1796 by Chocolate out once)— 13. 1750 by Squirt.Childers. Sweet William 1768 by Syphon. 1. 5—9.] Fitz jerry 2—9. The Thoroug-hbred in the Past and Present. KNIGHT ERRANT . CHOCOLATE 3—5. 4—8.

Inheritress 1840 by The 2—10. Telescope 1786 by PotSos. 1. Dcp. 1. 3—8. Waxy 3—6. 2 (Sept. Noble 1816 by Waxy 2. to Russia). 1773 by Eclipse. Lapwing-). to America).110 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. The Saddler 1828 by Waverley. 1790 by Pot8os. Lawrence 1837 by Skylark 2 — 10. etc. Druid 1790 by PotSos. Javelin (later 3. April once. 3. 1. POTSOS 4—10. Marc 3—9. Confusion 1832 by Starch. —11. Skylark 1826 by Waxy Pope 3 4. 1. (s. 7—10. 3—8. 2. 2 (May. (1836 s. 4—8. Waxy Pope 3—6. 3—8. Waverley 1817 by Whalebone. Antrim) 1795 by Javelin.. Gossoon 1818 by Waxy Pope. Shadow 1836 by The 2 Saddler. 1. Alp 1846 by The Provost. Chance 1780 by Javelin (s. Chester Cup). The Provost 1836 by The [Saddler. Pope. 2. — 8. 1807 by Waxy. y. Alderman 1787 by Pot8os 3—9. 5. D. Saddler. Aug-. Coriander 1786 by Pot8os. Dam 2 y. 3—8. 1. 4—9 3. 2—8. (10_vear-old 2. 3—10. D. 1772 by Eclipse. twice. Dam 2y. twice)— 6. — 8. 3 times)— 6. JA 4.. 4. . to Virginia). 1806 by Waxy. VELIN 1. 1. (Half-bred). 3 2. i a 1797 by Coriander. Whalebone 3—6. 3. 3—5. (or St. Starch 1819 by Waxy Pope. Helmet 1788 by Javelin. D. 2.

2. Ithuriel. twice. once. — 2. 2. (s.. June. 2—8. Cotherstone 1840 by Touchstone. 3. 4.) 2. (2nd D. 1865 and 1869 2nd in Liverpool Grand National. 3—7. July. 3—5. 3. 3—8. Sir Rowland Trenchard 1848 by Camel. 2 x 1. 2 (Sept. once. 2 (Juni. m The Saddler.) Acp.. — 9. — 10. D. ' 8 year-old Cm. 2—8. Bordeaux 1847 by Cotherstone. Caravan 1834 by Camel. (1852 3rd 6. The Widow 1839 by Abbas Mirza. 2 x Dcp. Busk 1824 by Whalebone. Sir Isaac 1831 by (Not run). The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 3. 1. Yardley 1840 by Sir Isaac. 5 times) 5. 5—9. 5. Abbas Mirza 1831 by Camel. 2—8. 3. Saddler).. Sambo Sutton 6 1834 by Waverley. 1. once. Radulphus 1843 by The Saddler. 3—8. 2—9. Ithuriel 1841 by Touchstone. A famous Steepler.5. 6. Acp. Dam 2y. twice)— 3. 2 2. Fractious 1853 by Orlando. A famous Steepler. The Bard 1833 by Waver ley 2 (June. twice. 7 — 9 (10 year-old without winning. April. Miss Burns 1840 (Own brother to The by The Bard. Dam 2 y. D. Sir Peter Laurie 1873 by 3. Sept. Octavia 1849 by Orlando. Touchstone 1831 by Camel. 4. ' 3. Liverpool Grand National. Dam 2y.) in Hall Court 1859 by Sir Peter Laurie. — 4. 5. 2 y. 3. Dam 2. Orlando 1841 by Touchstone. Camel 1822 by Whalebone. Dam 2 y. twice) to Russia). Queen of the Gipsies 1840 by Camel. 9— S. 2 (Oct. July. Vesta 1843 by The Saddler. 2 — 9. . Camelino 1836 by Camel. 2—14. twice)— 6 L.

2. — 4. — 5. The Baron 1842 by 3. steeplechase. 1868 and 1870 winner in Liverp. 6—8. twice) — 5. Sir Hercules 1826 by Whalebone. 3. 4. Merman 3—9. Birdcatcher.112 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred tin the Racecourse. steeplechasers). Knight of St. King Cole 1833 by Memnon. Ran as 17 year-old in Liverpool Grand National. (Sire of many good Birdcatcher 1833 by Sir Hercules. 1. 1844 winner in Liverpool Grand National. (later Famous Steepler. . George 1851 by Birdcatcher. etc. Magnum Bonum 4. 2nd Liverpool A famous Steepler. The Sea 1830 by Whalebone. 5—9. Dan [O'Connell.. 3. 7—12.. Zouave 185o by The Baron. Later in Steeplechases.. D. 2 (Oct. The Liberator 1869 by 3 [George. 5. 2 (Sept. Grand National. 3. 1856 winner in Liverpool Grand National. St.. 1849 also in Liverpool Grand National. L. Freetrader 1849 by The Sea. 1826 by Whalebone. once) —4.. L. (Dam 2. o. twice 2. 1879 winner in Liverpool Grand National. 4 times) —3. Sept. Dan O'Connell 1858 by Knight of (Not run). 2y. The Lamb 1862 by Zouave. Cs. 4. (s. Discount) 1838 by Sir [Hercules. 6. 1. 6 — 15 y. once and 1 w. Memnon. 3-8. A famous Steepler. 3—6. Seventy-four 1833 by 3. Nation. Memnon 1. 2 (Sept. 7. 3. 2—5. Kingfisher 1842 by Birdcatcher.) 2 (Oct. Gr. 1. Blarney 1847 (or 48) by Birdcatcher. Bodice 1831 by Whalebone. L. twice). 1822 by Whisker to Russia). Wh i s k e r 1812 by Waxy.

2 2. 2—11. Oliver 1791 by PotSos. Parasol 1800 by Pot8os. Kiny Fergus. Jerry about 1830 by Catterick. 4—8. 1799 by Beningbrough. 3—8. 9. . 4—9. JUPITER 3 1774 by Eclipse. KING FERGUS 3—6. 3. Keren-HappHch 1789 by Satellite. The Thoroug-hbred 2. 3—8. June. 1\'^ Catterick 1822 by Whisker. SATELLITE 3 1774 by Eclipse. 3—8. Oakley 1838 by Taurus. once. Hungerford 1848 by John o'Gaunt. Orville. 1. Caniock 1785 by 2—9.3—6. 6. Thereabouts 1792 by Pot8os. (Half-bred). 3 (and up to 7 year-old without winning). ^ Orville 1. Roderick Random about 1832 by Catterick. 1. 4. 1. A famous 2. Muley 1810 by 5. 3. Dorichs 1790 by PotSos. 2. 2 (August. (Half-bred). Halki)i 1786 by Jupiter. 1840 winner in Liverpool Grand National. Taurus 1826 by Morisco (1839 (or s. —6 (up to 9 year-old without winning). 2. Dam 2 year-old. 7. 4. 3—7. Atlas 1826 by Muley. John o'Gaunt 1838 by Taurus. 4—9. 1.3—7. Catherina 1830 by \\'hisker. A famous 3. (Half-sister to Waxy). July. Jupiter. — 8. Steepler. 8. in the Past and Present. 3—8. — 4. twice) — 8. L. '^ 1775 by Eclipse. brother to \'olunteer and Mercury). 3—5. 1. Dam 2 y. 10. r riffle 2—8. Steepler. L. 3 times.5. . BeNi)igbroug]i 1791 by . 1795 by Pot8os. Morisco 1819 by Muley. (Own 1. to Phantom) Germany).

Bellissima 1835 by Bizarre. Muley Moloch 1830 by Muley.St. Nicholas. 3rd in Liverp. California 1833 by St. 3—4. twice) 1. 1. 12 y. D.) Tom Tough 3-. Gcp. Fitz Orville 1812 by Orville.. 2. Grano 3—7. Dam 2 y.Aug". July. Gr. — 9. Priam 1827 by Fmilius.) 2 (. 3. twice) 1. Miss Kitty Cockle 1834 by Cadland. 2 X Y. Grillade 1852 by St. .8. Cadland 1825 by Andrew. Nike 1830 by Bizarre. Dulcet 1842 by Dulcimer. Dcp. twice. 2 —7 (7 year-old. (Half-bred). and Great-grandmother not run. etc. 2. (1840 s. D. —3. Lawrence.3—5. 3—6. (Not run). Priam (later Wild Hero) 1836 by Priam. Bizarre 1820 by Orvill(\ 1. Mus 3—8. Orville. 6. D. Gondolier 1826 by Fitz Orville. Nicholas. 2. 2 (Oct. 4—9. 3.. Hawthorn 1838 by Muley Moloch. 2—8. Lawrence 1833 by St. . Andrew 1816 by 3—4. to (jermany). Romeo 2_10. 6 races. 3. . 3—9.[]^4 Tri. Nat. twice. Dulcimer 1836 by Muley. — 5. 3. 2 X Alice . 2 (May. 3—10. 2. 3—8. Nicholas 1827 by Fmilius 2 (Sei)t. mother. 4 5. 1. Fmilius 1820 by Orville. won). Dam 4.ii of the 'rhoioughbred on the Racecourse. 4. Priam.. Mother. Master Henry 1815 by Orville. once. Morpeth 1841 by Muley Moloch. . 2. 2y. Sept. 3—8. St. 1833 by Bizarre. 1850 by California. 3 times. 1840 by V. 3—6. 2. Gcp..

1.\ (Half-bred.Mcibiade 1860 by The Cossack. Physician 1829 by Brutandorf. 2. — 9.5 The Thorouehbred in the Past and Present. 3—5. 4 times) 1. 1842 winner in Liverpool Grand National. Gcp.3—9. b_v li: "2. Dam 2}'. 2 9. ^Laid of 2 Team Valley 1846 by Velocipede. . Velocipede 1825 by Blacklock-. 1804 by Beninsbroush- Actiion 1822 by . Dam 2y. but very good). Wh 4. Waterfall 1848 by Cataract. Dam 2 y. . 2 (Oct.. 3. 2—8. I860 winner in Liverp. Cataract 1840 bv Hornsea. once. ?— 8. 4. Brutandorf 1821 by Blacklock. 3. Blacklock 1814 by Whitelock. June. 2. once) — — 5. Brownlock 1822 by Blacklock. Blacklock ]825 by Blacklock.. 2 (. Zoroaster 1836 2 Priam. Hambletoiiian 1792 by Kin^ Fergus. D. i t e 1 o c k 1803 by Hambletonian. Steepler (Half-bred). 3—8. (up to 8year-(jld without winning-. 3. PiatolT 1826 bv Brutandorf. April. 2. Nat. June. Dam 2y. — 9. Scud 3—4.Scud. . Valentissimo 1832 by Velocipede. 4. — 3.-. Hetman 3—4. 2. . — 4. April. 1. 3. twice. Actiion. 4—10.3—4. L. Aristotle 1839 by Physician.Aui. Aimwell 1835 by 2 2. Timotheus 1848 by Hetman Piatoff. 1. 3. once) Platot'f. 3 times) — 5. 3—6. — S. 3—6. Are tic 1833 by Brutandorf. 2. once. The Cossack 1844 by Hetman 2 (July. Y. 1.) Gay Lad about 1833 famous by Brutandorf. once. 3—8. Gr. 2 (April. . Hornsea 1832 by Velocipede.

Hippona 1794 by King Fergus. 4—9. 4. 3—7.]]g Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. A famous 2. 1836 by Voltaire.) 1. 2 (April. Dam 2 y. FLAMER . Revolution 1827 by Oiseau. 4—8. Charles XII. 5. 7. . 2 (Sept. once. 1812 by Hambletonian. — 6 (ran 2 as a 5 year-old in the famous bet of Mr. etc. Terror 1825 by Magistrate. 1858 winner Gr. a t t y F 1 a n a g h a n 1792 by Oueensberry. to Anierica). Oiieensbcrry (later Picadilly) 1794 by King Fergus. S.5—9. twice) —3. — 9. Oiseau 1809 by Camillus. Famous Steepler. 2y. n. 1812 by Hambletonian. May. Warter 1794 by King Fergus. (Own brother to jupller and \'olunteer). 7. 5. C 3. 3—8. Nat. 3—9. 3—8. 3. Tranby 1826 by Blacklock 4 (s. 2 (April. 2—8. Little Charley 1848 by Charles XII. in Liverp. MERCrRY 1778 by Eclipse. Faith. 3 times. Mas-pie 1834 by Y. TIFFANY 4—8. and 1 w. 2. Gar us 3—9. 5. (Half-brother to Fleur de Lis. a m i 1 1 u s 1803 bv Hambletonian and 3—7. Dam 3. Voltaire 1826 by Blacklock. L. 3—5. 4.. Lou^h Bawn 1848 by Magpie. 6 times. Blacklock. 3. 1. 1775 by Eclipse. K 6. Anticipation 3—7.) — 5. Osbaldeston). 3 — 6. (Half-brother to Clinker). June. Presentiment 1821 by Anticipation. I-am-not-a\vare 1835 by Tranby. Steepler. Coroner 1825 by Magistrate. 3—10. to Russia). 5 times) — 7. Placrow 1826 by Blacklock. Magistrate 1814 by Camillus (s.o. 1776 by Eclipse. 2. 3—9.

— 8. St. 3—10. 4 times. 3. Precipitate 1787 by Mercury (J 808 s. 5 2. 5. 1. 2. Medley (b\ [Gohanna). 1. 4. p u s (Own o 1 G u m 1802 by Gohanna. Cistercian 1826 by Catton. 3—10. y. 1. 7 — 9. Diana 1828 by Catton. M R L a o t r a n n e e 1795 by a 1797 by Precipitate. Crabbs 1844 by David. Dam 2 June. 3— D. 3—5. to Virginia). Cerberus 3 9. May. Dam 2y. David 1829 by Catton. July. twice. 1. 2—8. June. 7. (Not run). brother to Precipitate). to Russia). 3—5. 8. s. 117 Old Gold 1787 by Mercur\'. Coronet 1825 by Catton (1837 3—11. 3—8. 1 1 Precipitate. Dam 2y. The Chancellor 1827 by Catton. Election 1804 by Gohanna. 1802 by 2. A famous Steepler. (Own brother to The Nun). Discord 1837 by Mulatto. Bobtail 1795 by Precipitate. (Own brother to Gohanna). Ah-ican 1839 by Mulatto. Leah 1814 by Election. 4 times. in ihe Past and Present. Manfred 1814 by Election. Catton 1809 by Goluinpus. 6. Later a famous Steepler up to 11 yearTwice Leam. 3— S. 2-8. Bilberry 1826 by Manfred 4 or by — 9. 3—9. 3—8. — (Sire of many good racers). Mulatto 1823 by Catton. The Thoroughbred 1. 3—10. The Poet 1826 by Catton. (Half-brother to Despot). 3. . 2. 4. won. Dcp. 7. twice. Dam 2y. 2. 3—8. 3—6. old. 3—8.5. by Mercury. 3. 3. 3 — 5. Gohanna (s. a n g t o n 1802 by Precipitate. 1. Gohanna 1790 3—10. 2. 3—9. Ch. to Virginia). The Nun 1829 by Catton.

8. of ?Ielenus). 1. 4. 0. progeny by Lottery winning up to 7 and Brutan- Lottery 1S29 by Lottery. to — 0. in Winner L\'p. Zohrab 1831 by Lottery. elc.3—6. times and 1 \v. Dcp. (Dam 4.Mtisidora dorf). o. Weathercock 1851 by Weatherbit. 1857 and 1858 2nd in Liverpool Grand National. 3. Oct. but — ought 1839. 1. Tromp 1844 by Lanercost (s. 2. A famous steej^ler. Orange 1853 by \nn Tromj). Dam 2y. . Red Rover 1827 by Tramp. (earlier Dennis O!) 1778 Eclipse Dick Amireii's 1797 by joe Andrews. 4. Liverpool 2 (Sept. Vagrant 1828 by 3—10. Nation. 3 — L. 5 10. Lottery (farlier Tinker) 1820 by 3 Tramp (1833 s. — 8. (A year-old. Z 4 u 1 e i k a ISIO by Gohanna. 2. Xaworth 1837 by Liverpool. 2 (July. 3—10. larij'e [France). 1828 once) b_\- Tramp. T r a ni p 1810 by Dick Andrews. — Lanercost 1835 by Liver|)ool. (Not in the Stud Book. (s. 'J'ramp. Brigadier 1792 by Mercurv.. Little 3—4. 3. Prince of 2 2.) to Russia). 'iVaveller 1828 by Tramp. 1. 2—9. half-brother to . Collingwood 1843 by Sheet Anchor. 3—7. . 2. 3—7. C w r w -2. once. 18lt9 b\ Dick Andrews.118 Trial of the Thorou^libred on the Racecourse. 3-4. Weatherbit 1842 by Sheet Anchor. to (iei'mruiv). 2—9. 1. 2. \"rin Cm. 9. Sheet Anchor 1832 by Lottery 3 — 4. Gr. 3 — 7. 1. Gcp. 5. Steepler. 4—10. 5. to be a Thoroughbred).. Sliavcr (earlier Little Wirley) 1792 b\- Mercurx l)y 6—10. JOE ANDREWS 4—9. 5.

ERASMUS 3. ALEXANDER 3 1782 by Eclipse.5. METEOR 3—7. 3—9. s.. (Own brother to Spread Eagle D. — Wh 3 7. Bourgeois 1850 by A British Yeoman. (Own 3-8. Bitcephahis 1802 by Alexander to Russia). 4—8. — 7. 4—5. 3—11. 14. Birkenhead 1843 by Liverpin)!. 11.3 o u n t a i n e e r 1802 by Maggie. 1. 3. Magic 1794 by Volunteer.. 119 Liverpool. 13. Whiskey 1789 by Saltram.) A 12. Ambo 1809 by Meteor (or by Diamond). (Not run). 4 times. (s. 3—13. i 1798 by Whiskey. — (Half-brother to Pcg^asus). 3—11. i s t o n 1821 by Ambo. 2—11. Meteora 1802 by Meteor. 1. \'irginia). to — 9. The Thoroughbred 3. M 2. O. (May. Don Quixote). O. la SALTRAM 3— 5v D. Eagle 1796 by Volunteer (s. (Own 6 brother to Alexander and 8. D. 2. . L 15. July. S p y 1803 by Whiskey. twice. once) —6. 3—7. — 9. British Yeoman 1840 by 4. Esher 1795 by Erasmus. (Own brother to Soldier 1779 by Eclipse). 1781 by Eclipse. R u m b o 1800 by Whiskey. (Half-sister to Sorcerer and i dam of Muley). GUNPOWDER 3 1784 by Eclipse to Russia). half-brother to Didelot D. 1783 by Eclipse. (s. A 2. 2 (Oct. New Brighton 1850 by Birlcenhead. 3—10. — 5. s m o d e u s 1807 by Eagle. 1780 by Eclipse (1793 to Russia). 4. r 1 g- i g- 1798 by Whiskey. 1. in the Past and Present. (Own brother to Mercury and Jupiter). . Dam 2 y July. VOLUXTEER 3 (later Cornet) 1780 by Eclipse. 6 times). 4—10. Dam 2 y. Eleanor 2. 3—4. 3—8. brother to Erasmus and Don Quixote).

twice. b}- Pegasus. (Half-bred). SHUTTLE 3—5. SERPENT 3—10. 1. 16. 2. Engraver 1807 by Shuttle. . . Hippomenes 1802 by Pegasus. Par)iassiis 1797 by Pegasus. L. M . 3. 3.^8. 3. DON QUIXOTE 3 — 8. Y. 4. Sancho 1801 by Don Quixote. July. Marske. Marske 1771 by Marske. Novice 1795 Shum Sheer Jung) 1795 bv Pegasus. 1784 by Eclipse. 4—8. — in a day). 1788 by Y. 3—4. (Dam of Dr. Dam 2. ?— 8. (Half-brother to Rattler and Ruler. TRIMMER 3—8. — 9. 2 y. 1784 by Eclipse. . Magnum Bonum). — 5.\ a g c about 1820 by Amadis. Erasmus and Alexander). 17. P 2 a m e r n 1816 by Amadis (s. 5—11. Aggravator 1832 by Palmerin. L. High Eagle 1790 bv 3(?)-9. 1. 3—8. 2. Marske. (Half-bred). brother to (Own Cannon-ball 3 1810 by Sancho. (May.120 Trial of the Thorouglibred on the Racecourse. 2. (Ran and frequently won several times — in a day). 2—8. Artichoke 1802 by Don Quixote. (Half-brother to Grimaldi and sire of hunters and Steeplers). Laura 1800 by Pegasus. PEGASUS 4—7. (Half-bred). 1793 by Y. i 18. 2 (Ran and frequently won several times 8. Marske. 1 i to — Russia). many good Counsellor 1821 by Cannon-ball (or bv Childe Harold). Eady by Rubens). 2—8. etc. 4. Cambric 1807 by Shuttle. 3 6. (earlier King Edward 6—8. once) 4. 3. Amadis 1807 by Don Quixote. 4. 5. 1.5—12. RULER 3 1777 by Y. 1786 by Eclipse. Stripling 1765 by Marske. famous Steepler. 1. 2. 1. 2.

Partner. 1. SLIM 3—10. Hepliestion 1771 by Marske. 5—9. 2. 1. Florizel to Diomcd 1777 by 3—6. (s. 121 4. 23). 1771 by Squirrel. 4. Squirrel 1754 by Old Traveller. MISS PROCTOR 5 (or — 11. (Up to 13 year-old Smallhopes) 1733 by Bartlet's Childers. 4—11. America). 1. 3. Foundation Mare in Fam. Partner 5 I7is by jigg. 4—7. 5). 1768 by Herod. 1. (earlier Partner) 1743 bv Partner. D. (Sire of Old Ebony. Miss Elliot. SEDBURY 4—10. 1. 1766 by Dainty Davy. DAVID 4 3. (King) Herort 1758 by Tartar. Foundation Mare in Fain. G r e y D i o m e d 1785 bv Diomed. 5. TARTAR 5—7. (Sire of 2.5. — 12 (also in Give and Take Plates). born about leso. 1735 by Partner. 2. WEASEL 5—11.a-oft's) (Not run). FLORIZEL 4—6. Traveller. Give and Take Plates). 2. — S. BASTO 6 1702 by Byerly Turk. (^i-. without winning). (Up to 10 year-old without winning). OLD TRAVELLER 4—7. 4—9. 3—8. JIGG about 1702 by Byerly Turk. 1. 3 1766 by Squirrel. Tantiyy 1749 by Sedbury. Byerly Turk 1. Grimcrack's Dam. 4—11. 1740 by Partner. The Thoroug'hbred in the Past and Present. (Up 5 to 10 year-old without winning). . 3. Dainty Davy 1752 by Old Traveller. FU RIBAND — 10 (also in 1767 by Squirrel. PARTNER (Grisewood's) 1730 by — 14. LITTLE JOHN 4 — 8. 1734 by Partner. Skim 1748 by Old 4—8. (15 year-old without winning). 2. — 8.

Windlestone 1783 by Masnel. G 1 a Li c Li s 178G by Dionied. 2 (. 3—10. to Fraice). 1797 by Clirmticleer. 1. 2.. 4—9. 4. 2. 3. Ulysses 1777 by Flori/el (s.inia).3-8. 3—8. 1771 bv Herod. 1. Vivian about 1824 by Fencer." Chanticleer 1787 by Woodpecker. 3—8. 1773 bv Herod. MAGNET 4—9. 2. B o b Booty twice) 1804 by Chanticleer. (18. Napoleon 1824 by Bob Booty 2—9. 4—9. 2—8. Spartacus 1808 by Swordsman. Shovel 1785 by Mai. Ag a m e m n o n 1790 bv Diomed. — 3—9. Play 3—9. 2 (Sept. Prizefighter 1784 bv Florizel. Kitty 1785 by . i r d i n a n d (later Kini. 3. Fencer 1807 by Swordsman. 4—7. Rutland 1783 by Bacchus. 1770 by Herod. 3—10. to Virginia). 2—9. Bacchus. Bacchus 1788 by Bacchus. 3. 2. 1. . S w o r d s m a n 1796 by Prizefighter. 4.April. o r P a v 1791 bv I'lvsscs (s. Seagull 178G bv W'lMxlpecker. 6 times) —8.3—9. 2. 2.-net. Traveller 2—9. 2—9. 3—10. •). S r F e 2—12. 1. 3. 3—12. WOODPECKER 4—7. 4. BACCHUS (Not run). . 1. 1834 1843 a famous Steepler.- Bladud) 1792 by Fortunio.33 s. Noodle 1781 by Mai^net. Bustler 1784 by Florizel. to \':ri. 3.122 Trial of the Tiioroui^hbretl on the Racecourse. etc. 2. 2. — 4. Fortiiuio 1779 bv Florizel.

in and 1851 winner Steepler. 3—9. 6—13. 2. 1798 by Buzzard. In- Champion. Champidu 1812 by Selim. 4. Despot 1S30 by Sultan.) Miss Mowbray about 1843 by Lancastrian.alf-bred) 1^52 winner in I-iver|).. Sultan 1816 by Selim. 3. 1 w. Lancastrian 1S25 bv Merlin. 1. 2—8. —8. (lsf>4 s. but not Sire of many good Steeplers. twice. 128 America). Nation. to Quiz 3—9. D read 3— S. a i n w o r m I'^Ol 2—8. Alpheus l'^3() bv Sultan. m 1802 by Buzzard.. Woddpecker —7. Bustard 1813 by Castrel. Sell 4—6. B r h t 1800 bv Buzzard. 3. bv Buzzard. 2 (July. 3—9.5. Liverp. o. a r d 1801 by Buzzard. n o u i^- 2. Bust 2—10. 1. A famous 1^5(1 2. 3-5. 2. 3 year-old in racing" stable of Lord jersey. (Hrdf-brother to David by Catton). 2. 3 times) —4. bv Buzzard. Gr. [run. 3 — 11.A faniiais . The Switcher 1842 by Tshmael. L. . Euphrates 181G by Quiz. *i. (Sire of many ^L^ood Steeplers). (H. 3. 1833 by Bustard. -Merlin 1815 bv Castrel. C a s t r e 1 18f>l 3—4. once) 1. 1. Donnin^ton 1828 3—10. Alonzo 1847 by Alpheus. 1. Gr. Tho Thoroiiohbi-fd 3. in the Past and Present. Remnant 4—10. 1. 2.. 3. Roller 1«14 by Quiz. o. 2 (Oct. John Dory 1846 bv Alpheus. Lshmael 1830 by Sultan. Steepler. Abd-el-Kader about 1840 by lshmael. Nation. (Half-bred). Bii-~aid 1787 by 2 (Oct. twice) 1. — 8. 2 (Aug-. 2.

Dajn 2 year-old June. Jereed 1834 by Sultan (1846 (Aug. steeplechases. Gay lad 1846 by Greatheart. 3-9. 3 — 10. twice. Greatlieart 1840 by Jereed. Lady Flora 1838 by Hampton. 2—12. o. 2 (Oct. Woodpecker 1794 by Woodpecker. Philip L Potentate 1832 by Langar. Caliph 1832 by Sultan. Dam 2 year-old June. The ALirciiioness 1846 by Leander. 1. twice.).3—5. 1833 by Sultan. Eady 1816 by Rubens and Laura 8. 3.124 Trial of the Thoi-oughbrecl on the Racecourse. and half-brother to Gaffer Green by Obadiah). (Half-bred). 1819 by Rubens. 3—10. etc." 2. s.. twice) —9. Hampden . 3. 3—13. (Sept. Bishop of Romford's Cob 1840 by Jereed. ]. 7. 3. 1815 by Rubens. Gainsborough 1813 by Rubens. twice. 2—10. 1. 6.. Adrian 1834 by Sultan. Thurgarton 1841 by Jereed. (Half-bred. Dam 2 year-old Oct. Hampton 3. Vandyke 1828 by Rubens. 4 3. Wouvermans 2—8 6 4. (Half-bred) and in Steeplechases. 3 — — 7. 5 10. ISOo by BuzAavd. Olive 1787 by Woodpecker. Rubens . 2. 2. also in hurdle races). Philip 2. 3—11. once. 2—9. 2—10. — 3. 5 — 10.. (Hall-bred. and 1 w. . Langar 1817 by Selim. 7. (Not run).3—5. 2. Montague 1846 by 3-8. 5. twice). 3. in 11 }ear-old 4. to Russia). — 12. Guildlortl 1826 by Hampden. Y. Dr. 1. 1828 by Langar. Leander 1832 by Langar. ->.. 4. 6.

(Not run). Gr.5—8. Highflyer.3—4. 9. Trijle 1782 by Justice. s.5. Vol. (Sire of many good . 4—8. 17 1. 1774 by Herod. Cannon-ball). 3 4. 1. — 8. 3—12. 1773 by Herod. A famous [Steepler. 3—8. 3—9. 7. ni a n 1SU7 by Y. Brother 4 to \'ivaJdi 1799 by Woodpecker. 1802 by Delpini (Half-brother to 3—5. Rasper (later Douglas) 1782 by 3—9. HIGHFLYER 3—5. 5—9. S 1 e n d e r 1841 winner in Liverpl. 3—9. 125 W cod 3—8. 8. R p p e r s t o n 1808 by Delpini. (Half-bred). 6. races won). {\c\te\. Woodpecker.Whip) 1792 by Justice. Woodpecker. Justice. 89). in the Past and Present. Scorpion 1785 by Il'mio. Patriot 2—8. The Thoroughbred 1. 3. 1S32— 183G a famous Steepler. Bustler. . Midnight 2—10. (Half-brother to Sweetbriar). 1807 by Delpini. 1774 by Herod. 2. Sporting Magazine. 3. JUSTICE . Grimaldi . Pantomime 1820 by Grimaldi 4 — 16 in Hunter Stakes. hunters). LABURNUM 4—9. 2. 1774 by Herod. 1. 1. Bill y 180S by Y. 2. Nation.o. Dcp. FITZHEROD 3—9. Bennington 1791 by Rockingham. The Major 1822 by 3—W. Bustler 4—6. 1790 by Roclcingham. IL'MIO 3—5. 1. Rockingham 1781 by 4 — 7. 2. steeplechases. 14 2. Dclpini (earlier Hackwood) 1781 by Highflyer. Grimaldi 1820 by Grimaldi. year-old. Mufti 1783 by Fitzherod. — 11. 6. 2. 1774 by Herod. Mentor 1784 by Justice. Charity 1830 by Woodman. (G year-old. (Half-breed.

. — 4. etc. inferior horses). Haji Baba 1821 by Filho da Puta. 3—9. Reform 1829 by Don Cossack. 1. L. Orthodox 1821 by ImIIio da Puta. Troy 1820 by Filho da Puta. 2 (Sept.126 Trial of tlie Thoroui^hbrcd on the Racecourse. I-'austus. A famous Steepler. 3-9. 3. 3—9. Gr. i. Yestris. and 1 w. 6.3 — 11. Faustus 1822 by Filho da Puta. 6—8. Sir Peter 17S4 bv Highflyer. Liverp. Sir Sol o m o n (earlier Tankersley) 1796 by Sir Peter. Dr. T e a z e 1793 by Sir Peter. Nation. Sir Soloinon. Pumpkin 1829 by Trov.3—9. 3. H a p h a / a r d 1797 by Sir Peter. r. 4. 1. 10 times. A m b r o s i o 1793 by Sir Peter. .. 3—6. Dam 2 year-old \l:[\\ twice. (Often 2. 6—8. once. o. 3 — 10. The Tartar 1821 many times in a day). 1 M 3. 3 — 9. (Not in Stud Book). Cambrian 1804 by 3—11. 6 — 9. (Often many (Not 2. o. D. in times in a day). Dam 2 year-old May. Prosody 1818 by Don Cossack. Matiiew 1838 by Y. (Not run). 4. 4—13. — 2. Teazle. Jesuit 1834 by Dr. 3—5. ]. L. 3—10. (Half-bred). Conductor 1820 by Filho da Puta. 1. Harlot (earlier Connilass) 1783 by Hiijhflyer. 3. ' 3. 4 (Ran only in unimportant races against verv 9. 3—0. Don Cossack 1810 by Haphazard. Huntingdon 18136 by Ambrosio.) Filho da Puta 1812 by Haphazard. ]\an and won at 24\"ear-old? . in 1847 winner 3. 4. Oswald 1832 by Conductor. Stud Book). 3-4. 3—6. Vestris 1806 by Mr. Y. by' Don Cossack. Forester Lass 1821 by b'ilho da Puta. A famous Steepler. 1.

to PZast Prussia).) — Sailor (later Gaffer Green) 1839 by Obadiah. 2. Ghico 1825 by Filho da Puta. 3—6. [wood 1820 by Filho da Puta. Langar). — 14. 1862 winner 4. in the Past and Present. (1832 s. 1.3—5. 8. 7. 1. (Half-brother to Potentate by 3. The Chandler 1836 by Dr.3—5. Patron 1826 bv Partisan. 7. 3—10. (Often 3. Independence 182() by Filho da Puta or by Sher- 2—9. in Liverp. 2—8. Figaro 1819 by Haphazard (1831 to Mecklenburg). Partisan 1811 by Walton. 9. D. also in hurdle races). 127 2 (Sept. * Isaac 1831 by Figaro. to Mecklenburg). X'anish 1625 by 2. 1. . A famous Steepler. year-old 3 times very well run). Obadiah 1834 by Dr. Sunbeam 1833 by Vanish.5 The Thoroughbred 2. (Half-bred. 1848 winner in Liverp. \'ictorine 1816 by Haphazard. 2. (Half-bred). jocko 1823 by Filho da Puta. Faustus. 2 5. Tupsley 1837 by Dr. Spectre 1815 by Phantom. o. 3—5. (8 Giovanni 1828 by Filho da Puta. and half-brother to Gaylad by Greatheart). s. 1824 bv Partisan. Gr. Phantom 1808 by Walton 3—4. 4 times) — (1836 s. 3. Phantom 2 (June. 4-9. Nation. Faustus. . Zethus 1831 by Mameluke. D.. 3—4. 3—8. 3—11. Granby 1823 by Spectre. Huntsman 1853 by Tupsley. once. 3—9. Wa 3—6. Faustus. Gr. 3 — 7. 10. (Up to 15 year-old. Mameluke . many times in a day). Nation. 1 t o n 1799 by Sir Peter. 4. 6—14. and 1 \v. 3—4.

Napier 1840 by Gladiator. D. 3 — 9. Daniel 1832 by St. 4 times) 2 —4.. (Half-bred). Boy-blue 1825 by Paulowitz. 2. 6. 1. 3—7. 1. once. Gr. 3—5. Ion 1835 by Cain. 2 year-old Oct. Dam 2. Patrick 1817 bv Walton. 2 (Sept. 2.. — 4. Patrick. 1. o r k 1804 by Sir Peter. 4. 3. Barney Bodicin 1830 by Cain. 8. I Paulowitz 1813 by Sir Paul. Garry Owen 1837 by St. Cardinal Y 3—5. 3. Indian Warrior 1849 by Napier. Waterloo 1814 by Walton. (Ran and won often several times 2. Steepler.Sept. 4—8. Dam 2 year-old . 3 — in a day). 2—8. Conquest 1822 by Waterloo. Little 2—9. 3—4. . 7. 2—8. Patrick. Sir P a u 1802 by Sir Peter.128 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. St.. Changeling. 2 (July. 3—7. Peter Sunple about 1839 by Patron. Luzborough 1820 by Ditto. 3—9. etc. 3 times) —3. Nation. Poodle 1849 by Ion. L. 2— lo! Ditto 1800 by Sir Peter. Venison 1833 by Partisan. — 9. 2—8. 2. 1. 5. Gladiator 1833 by Partisan. New 3—10. 3. Forestdeer 1841 by Venison. Herbert 1846 by Venison.1828 by Paulowitz (or Swap). 3—5. 1849 and 1853 winner in Liverp. (2nd D). 2—8. 3. Caleb 1828 by \\'aterloo. 2—8. 3. Patrick. A famous 3. 2 (July. St. (Half-bre'd). once) 1. once. 4. Cain 1822 by Paulowitz. Francis 1835 by St.

Star 1785 by Highflyer (1811 2 (Oct. Pioneer 1840 by Advance. George 1789 by Highflyer. 1846 winner in Liverp.5. (Died at 16 year-old through physic in training for Welter Stakes in Bibury). — (Own of of King of Diamonds). 4. Gr. 1843 winner in Liverp. Walnut 1786 by Highflyer. Diamonds sister to 1809 by Diamond. Gr. Mr. once) to America).3— 8. 3—8. 3—5. (Half-brother to Anticipation). Phaeton 1787 by Highflyer. Tidy 1789 by Highflyer.3—8. Nimrod 1820 by Topsy-Turvey. of King 14 Trumps King Diamonds. 6. — 8. 1. 13. George. A famous 5. Clinker 3 — 4. (Half-bred). St. A famous Steepler. racers). 3—8. 7. Clinker 1806 by Clinker. 11. 3—11. King . Steepler. 3—5. Grouse 1790 by Highflyer 3. 3—8. 10. Vanguard 1835 by Advance. Topsy-Turvey 7 — 10 1805 by St. . 3—10. Diamonds 1827 by 1810 by Diamond. (4 and 5 year-old without winning). 1797 by Grouse. 1. 10.. 1804 by Star. Q 3 u e e n 7. First Fruits 2—9. (s. Lark 1792 by Highflyer. Nation. 2. Diamond 3—8. Sling 1789 by Highflyer. Skyscraper 1786 by Highflyer. —6. (Half-bred). Gundy 3—9. . 1805 by Sir Peter. 3—8. Steepler. s. 3—11. 9. 12. . Lignum Vitae 3^ 1797 by Walnut. 6—10. P o u 1 t o n 1805 by Sir Peter. 129 Advance 1815 by Cardinal York. A famous 9. 2. Nation. D. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. (Sire of many good 8. 1792 by Highflyer of to France).

BOURDEAUX 4 — 6. 15. 11. (Own brother to Florizel). GUILDFORD 4—9. 1795 by Master Bagot. Dam 2 year-old July. s. 1. Driver 3—9. Hesperus 1820 by Hollyhock. . 1. — 8. 2. (Half-bred)". FORTITUDE 3. 2. to America). Cornet 1792 by Rover. Admiral Nelson 3 18. Master Bagot 1787 by Bagot. John Bull 1789 by Fortitude. 16. 2—8. Dawdle 2. 1775 by Herod. Louisa 1792 by Highflyer. BOXER 3—8. to America). 15. 16. ROVER 3—9. Loyal 1796 by Bagot.[30 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. 17. PHONOMENON 3—5. 3—9. 1777 by Herod. 1780 by Herod (1803 s. Hiiby 1788 by Phonomenon to Russia). 3—8. 3—8. 19. BAGOT 4. L. 10. Hollyhock 1804 by Master Bagot. 13. ANVIL 4—9. 4—10. 12. 14. 1774 by Herod. Soldier 1758 by Tartar. 1795 by John Bull (s. 1777 by Herod. DRONE 3—10. 4—9. 1798 by Huby. 1777 by Herod. 4—9. 4—7. Delamere 1793 by Highflyer. 3—9. 1780 by Herod. 4—8. 1776 by Herod. etc. (later Tom Tug or Tug) 1777 by Herod. 1777 by Herod (s. (Half-bred). 3—8. 3 times. Highlander 1783 by Bourdeaux. to America). D. 3—5. GOLDEN DUN 3—11.

CARABINEER 1765 by Y. 1761 by Matchem. 3. . ]31 Godolphin Arabian bom 1. 1784 by Mentor. 5—6. 1. 1758 by Y. 1759 by Y. Cade. CONUNDRUM 4 1762 by Matchem. 4—9. RANTHOS 4—9. 4—10. 1. (Not run). 1. Cade 1^47 by Cade. 1765 by Matchem. 6. Chailg'elillii' 1^47 by Cade. CHYMIST 4—6. l''34 by Godolphin Arabian. Mentor 1773 by Turf. TrilllHioil 1"47 by Cade. TITANIA 4—11. BACHELOR 4—9. HUXCAMUNCA 7—11. 1763 by Matchem. 3—5. 4—6. YOUjVG DATY 1760 by Scampston Cade. TURF 1760 by Matchem. Cade. MOTHERN BROWN 4—11. (Half-brother to Morwick Ball by Regulus). — ICl. (16 year-old without winning). 2. 4. Tysiress 1770 by Banker. (Own brother to Matchem). Cade. 3Iatchem 5—10. BANKER 3—9. — 8. 2. 1771 by Trunnion (Dam of Jerry Sneak). 1774 by Trunnion. LE SAN(J 1759 by Changeling. (7 to 11 year-old without winning). 1''48 by Cade. 1. 5. 3. Cade. 2. 4—10. Y. 4. 1724. DAMEL 4—10. 2. CADE 6. 1. 4 1762 by Y.5 The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. . n. 3.5—11. 4— S. Thetford 1772 by Conundrum. Scampstoil Cade 1747 by Cade. BUFFER 4—10.

Syntaxina 2—8. 1767 by Matchem. Nation. 1. Syntax. Syntax. PIP AT OR 1786 by Imperator. B e e's W i n g 18-33 by Dr. to Russia). 1. 3. 2. Welcome 1819 by Recordon. A famous 2. 1767 by Matchem. (Half-brother to Aimwell D). Syntax. 2. Buffer 1784 by Pantaloon. Steepler. 1808 by Paynator. once) —7. 1791 by Trumpator (s. Gold Cup etc.3_8. Imperator 1776 by Conductor. 1767 by Matchem. AIM AT OR . (Not run). Steepler. 3—8. Syntax. Driitigist 1775 by 4 6. 2—9. 1. Pipator. 2 (July. CONDUCTOR 4—6. GOLDFINCH 3—10. to Russia). 3—4. 2 (July. Rememhrancer 1800 by . 3—8. Gr.]32 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Syntax. T A F h e Doctor 1834 by Dr. 4. 5—9. 8. Chymist. Trunipator 1782 by Conductor. Syntax. 4—8. 2—9. Sir William about 1830 by Welcome. 7. (Half-bred). .3—4. 7 year-old in Chester and 6 other races. 4 times) Offa's —9. Merry AiulreAvs 1783 by Pantaloon. A famous (Half-bred). Syntax 1811 by Paynator. L. 6. 1790 by Trumpator (>. 3—12. PANTALOON 4—6. 1. PAYNATOR 1.5— 18. j a X 1838 by Dr. 1838 winner in Liverp. Marksman . •2. 2—9. Dr. 1838 by Dr. Hope about 1838 by Dr. 3—8. a m a 1838 by Dr. Dcp. — 8. Dyke (earlier Occator) 1807 by Paynator. 3—5. R e c o r d o n 1807 by Remembrancer. 2. 3. 5.

5.

The Thoroughbred

in the

Past and Present.

133

3.

RE PEAT OR
3—9.

1791 by Trumpator.

4.

SORCERER
3—5.
1.

1796 by Trumpator.
to

Sootlisayer 1808 by Sorcerer (1823

?.

Russia).

3—5.
1.

L.

We

b e c k 1815 by Soothsayer. (Not run). Bedlamite 1823 by Welbeck.
1

3—4.
Saul 1835 by Bedlamite.

3—10.
2.

H

e

1

e n u s 1821

3—8.
2.

by Soothsayer (1835 to Germany) 4—8 and Zuleika

Comns
3—4.
1.

1809 by Sorcerer.

Reveller
3—8.
1.

1815 by Comus.

L.

2.

Oberon 1827 by Reveller. 3—11. 2. Bosphorus 1836 by Reveller. 3—8. Corinthian 1819 by Comus.
3

5.

(Half-brother to Jerry).

Russel 1826 by Corinthian.

3—S.
3.

Humphrey Clinker

1822 by Comus. 3—5. Melbourne 1834 by Humphrey Clinker. 3 5. (6 year-old very good but did not

win).

Sir

Tatton Sykes 1843 by Melbourne.
L. 2.

3—4.

Mr. Sykes 1850 by Sir Tatton Sykes.
3.

2—9. (Half-bred). Smolensko 1810 bv Sorcerer.
3

4.

D.

2.

(Sire

of

many

racers which

frequently ran

several races in one day, as, for instance, Thorngrove,
1827).
1.

Banker
3

1816 by Smolensko.
2 year-old August, twice.

7.

Dam
g h
t

2.

N

a u

y

T

o

mm

y 1820 by Smolensko.

6—11.
3.

J e r r
3.

L.

y 1821 by Smolensko. (Sire of man}' 2 year-old winners).

Tomboy

1829 by Jerry.

3—5. Nutwith 1840 by Tomboy. 2 (June, 3 times) —3. L.
1.

Noisette 1850 by Nutwith.

2—8.

134

Trial of the

Thoroughbred on the Racecourse,
2.

etc.

Knight
3.
1.

of

Kars 1855 by Nutwith.
of Kars.

The Colonel 1863 by Knight

A famous

Steepler.

(Half-bred).

1869 and 1870 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation, (s. to Germany).
2.

New

Oswestry 1864 by Knight

of

(Half-bred).

[Kars.

A famous Steepler, and sire of many good Steeplers, amongst which were 1. Zoedone 1877 by New Oswestry. 1883 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nat. 2. Savoyard 1878 by New Oswestry. 1887 2nd in Liverp. Gr. Nat.
:

4.

Bourhon 1811 3—6.
1.

b}'

Sorcerer ^s. to Russia).
o

C

o

m

t

e

d'A

r

t

i

s

1820 by Bourbon.

3—8.
2.

Alder m
2—7.
3

a n 1822 by

Bourbon

.

(s.

to

Russia).

(2nd L).

3.

Fleur de Lis

8.

5.

VERNATOR
3—5.

1822 by Bourbon. Dcp. Gcp. 2 X (8 year-old Gcp.). 1796 by Trumpator.

Ronico 1804 by Vernator. 4—9.
6.

7.

REBEL 1796 by Trumpator. 3— 9. Dam 2 year-old Oct., once. CHIPPENHAM 1796 by Trumpator.
3—8.

8.

SIR DAVID
2—9.

1801 by Trumpator

(s.

to Russia).

9.

ALFRED
4.

(Own

1770 by Matchem. brother to Conductor).

Tickle Toby 1786 by Alfred.

4—9.
10.

CRITIC
3—11.

1771 by Matchem.

11.

MAGNUM BONUM
4—7.
Ratler 1784 by

1773 by

Matchem

(s.

to Russia).

Magnum Bonum.

4—9.
12.

(Half-brother to Ruler by Y. Marske).

ESPERSYKES
(Not run).
1.

1775 by Matchem.

2.

Conqueror 1779 by Espersykes. 4—11. (9 year-old Gold Cup. Chester). Sir Peter Pellel; 1780 by Espersykes. 3-8.
1'753

6.

.SportsmaiJ 4—8.

bv Cade.

5.

The Thoroughbred

in the

Past and Present.

135

7.

HorO
.5—13.
1.

(earlier Slape)

1753 by Cade,

FRIAR
4

1768 by Hero.
(Sire of

— 11.

many good

racers).

2.

AUOMS
.5—11.

1772 by Hero. 1776 by Hero.
s.

3.

LALAGE
4—12.

8.

(Dam of Y. Lalage 1797, Northumberland i"54 by Cade.
4—5.

p. 69).

BUFF

1766 by Northumberland.

4—12.
9. Silvio 1"54 by Cade.

4—11.
10. SprillU'htly 1"54 by Cade.

4—9.
11.

Flylax
6—11.

1756 by Cade.

12. Eniilius about
"i

17-56

by Cade.

3IAYDUKE
7

1765 by Emilius.
(Also in Give and

— 13.

Take

Plates).

2.

DORMOUSE
7

1738 by Godolphin Arabian.

11.

(Also in Give and

Take

Plates).

1.

Valiant 1755 by Dormouse.
4—10.

•2.

Dorimont
4

1758 by Dormouse.

10.

(Sire of

many good

racers).

3.

KEGULUS
6—7.
1.

1739 by Godolphin Arabian.

Cato
4—11.

1748 by Regulus.

2.

Trajan
•5—9.

1748 by Regulus.

8.

Careless 4—9.
4—9.

17-51

by Regulus.

4.

DionysiuS

1752 by Regulus.

FORESTER
4—12.
5.

1765 by Dionysius.

Apollo 1755 by Regulus.
4—10.

JOLLY BACCHUS
.3—9.
6.

1768 by Apollo.

Sultan 1757 by Regulus.
6—9.

7.

Morwick Ball
4

1762 by Regulus.

7.

(Half-brother to Carabineer by Y. Cade).

]^36

Trial of the

Thoroughbred on the Racecourse,
Ouintus) 1784 by Morwick Ball.

etc.

1.

CAYENDISH
3—8.

(earlier

2.

GUSTATUS
4—8.

1785 by Morwick Ball.

8. vSejaiiUS 1764 by Regulus. (Half-brother to Herod). 4.

CHEROKEE
4—10.
9.

1780 by Sejanus.
1764 by Regulus.

Bucephalus
4—9.

10.
4.

Denmark
4—8.

1764 by Regulus. 1740 by Godolphin Arabian.
Stallion.

THE GOWER STALLION
(Not run).

Sweepstakes
5—10.
5.

1749 by

The Gower

BABRAHAM
6—9.
1.

1740 by Godolphin Arabian.

Alcides 1753 by Babraham. 5—7.

TONZER
4—9.
2.

1768 by Alcides. 1754 by Babraham.

BosphorUS
4—9.

3.

Traplin
4—9.

1754 by Babraham. 1755 by Babraham.

4.

AmeriCUS
4—11.

5.

Cardinal Puff 1760 by Babraham.
4—9.

6.

Fop
4—11.

17G0 by Babraham.

6.

BAJAZET
5—10.

1740 by Godolphin Arabian

Selini 1760 by Bajazet.

5—9.
7.

BLANK
5—10.
1.

1740 by Godolphin Arabian.

Lottery 1752 by Blank.
5—11.

2.

Contest 1753 by Blank.
5—9.

3.

Horatius
4—9.

1756 by Blank.
1758 by Blank.

4.

AntinoUS
4—9.

5.

Pancake
4—10.

1759 by Blank. 1762 by Blank.

0.

Chatsworth
4—9.

5.

The Thoroughbred

hi the

Past and Present.

137

7.

Paeolet 1'63 by Blank.
4

7.

(Also in Give

and Take

Plates).

Y.

PACOLET
3—4.

1780 by Paeolet.

Citizen 1785 by Y. Paeolet. 4 9. (s. to India).

8.

Paymaster
4

(earlier

Jesmond) 1766 by Blank.
racers).

8.

(Sire of

many good

9. AllCaster 1"68 by Blank.

5—10.
8.

OLD ENGLAND
AmaranthllS
4—9.

1741 by Godolphin Arabian.

5—8.
1^66 by Old England.

9.

MOGUL
4—10.

1''41

by Godolphin Arabian.
1749 by Mogul. 1762 by Whistlejacket.

Whistle jacket

CORIOLANUS
4—7.

Coquette 1783 by Coriolanus.

5—8.
10.
11. 12.

WHITENOSE
8.

1742 by Godolphin Arabian.

MIRZA
6—9.
6.

1749 by Godolphin Arabian.

CRIPPLE
?

1750 by Godolphin Arabian.

1.

Oimerack
4—11.

1760 by Cripple. 1760 by Cripple.

2.

Tantrum
8—10.

(Sire of

Termagant

1772).

COPPERBOTTOM
3—10.
13.

1776 by Tantrum.

LOFTY
4—6.

1753 by Godolphin Arabian.

Slim

1762 by Lofty.

4—11.

Alcock's Arabian bom
1.

about 1703.

CRAB
1.

1722 by Alcock's Arabian.
1731 by Crab.

5—7.

Grasshopper
5—9.

2.

Crab
5

(Routh's) 1736 by Crab.

9.

(Up

to 12 year-old

without winning).

3. 4.

Rib
6—9.

1736 by Crab.
1741 by Crab. (Beaten by Othello as a 9 year-old

Bustard
6

8.

;

own

brother to Othello and Oroonoko).

X38
1.

Trial of the

Thoroughbred on the Racecourse,

etc.

GAMAHOE
1.

about 17-58 by Bustard. Noble 1767 by Gamahoe.

4—11.
2.

Hippolitus 1767 by Gamahoe.

4—13.
3.

4.

Olympus 1767 by Gamahoe. 4—8. Cromaboo 1774 by Gamahoe.
4—6.
1.

DUCHESS
3—8.
3—11.

1785 by Cromaboo. 1789 by Cromaboo.

2.

SHAMROCK

0.

Olyinpia 1777 by Gamahoe.

6—11.
6.

Waterjiian 1779 by Gamahoe.

6—10.
7.

8.

Farmer 1779 by Gamahoe. 6—8. Ranuuciiliis 1782 by Gamahoe.
4—10.
1766 by Bustard.
1781 by Lennox.
to 9 year-old

2.

LENNOX
0—7.
1.

Tom Turf
4

7.

(Up

without winning).

2.

Peeping'

Tom

1782 by Lennox.

3—9.
5.

Othello
5

(or

Black and All Black) 1743 by Crab.

9.

(Also in Give and

Take

Plates).

Ci.

Why
Crab
4—12.
1.

Not

1744 by Crab.

7.

1744 by Crab.

MILKSOP
5—13.

1760 by Crab. 1764 by Crab.

2.

CHAMPAIGNE
4—10.

8.

OrOOlloko 1745 by Crab.
.5—6.

FLASHING 3I0LLY
8—11.
9.

1756 by Oroonoko.

Shepherd's Crab
(Not run).

1747 by Crab.

SPY
10.

1759 by Shepherd's Crab.

4—8.

Spectator 1749 by Crab.
1.

SULPHUR
4—9.

1762 by Spectator.

5.

The Thoroughbred

in the

Past and Present.

139

2.

MARK ANTHONY
3—9.
1.

1767 by Spectator.

(Half-brother to Highflyer).

2.

George 1780 by Mark Anthony. 3—8. Mark-ho 1783 by Mark Anthony. 3—8.
1769 by Spectator.

3.

DAMPER
4—10.

11. Brilliant 1750 by Crab.

4—6.
1.

NABOB
4—9.

1762 by BriHiant.

2.

BELLARIO
3—8.

1763 by Brilliant.
1763 by Brilliant.

3.

RICHMOND
4

8.

(Sire of

many good

racers in Ireland).

2.

GENTLEMAN
.5—11.

1723 by Alcock's Arabian.

The Darcy White Turk
(or

born about igto.

Sedbury Turk),
,

HAUTBOY
l!

about 1690 by Darcy White Turk.

1. (irey

Hautboy about 1698 BAY BOLTON 1705 by
5.
1.

by Hautboy.

Grey Hautboy.

(Godolphin's) >Vliitefoot 1719 by
.5—9.

Bay Bolton.

MOLOTTO
2.

1736 by Whitefoot.

Fearuoug'ht 1725 by Bay Bolton.
01(1 StarHiig'

3.

1727 by

Bay Bolton.
1738 by Old Starling.
Plates).

4—7.
1.

ANCASTER STARLING
.5

9.

(Also in Give and (Also in Give and

Take Take

2.

rORISMOND
.5

1739 by Old Starling.
Plates).

7.

3.

SKIM
4—6.

1746 by Old Starling.

Tiiicy 17-56 by

Skim.
1748 by Old Starling.

4—13.
4.

JENNY J ESS AMY
PERSEUS
.5—9.

5.

1754 by Old Starling.

4.

Looby (Bolton) 1728 by Bay Bolton.
.5—12.

2.

LAMPRIE
7

1715 by Grey Hautboy.
to

— 10.

(Up

10 year-old without winning.

Own

brother to

Bay

[Bolton.)

14(1

'J"rial

of the Thorc)Uf,rhbred on

the

Racecourse,

etc.

2.

CluniSey
1.

Jibout

1700 by Hautbo}'.
1714 by Clumsey.

OLD FOX
1.

Ooliah 1730 by Old Fox.
6.
1.

CHAMPION
5—10.

1739 by Goliah.

2.

HUNT'S
4

J ICG 1741 by Goliah

(Mare with— 1

free

10.

[generation.)

2.

J^Sg ^/ J^^S^^ 1~45 by Hunt's Jigg (and the dam 4 7. |by Hunt's Jigg). Merry Andrew 1730 by Old Fox. 5 11. (Up to 13 year-old without winning).

FRIBBLE
6—8.
3.

1746 by ISIerry Andrew

.

Cub 1739 by Old Fox. 5—8. (Also in Give and Take

Plates).

CLERICUS
4—11.
2.

1763 by Cub.

FOX CUB
8.

1714 by Clumsev.

Dunkirk 1725 by Fox Cub. 6—11.
-'5.

Old
1.

Windham
CINNAMOX
6

1719 bv Hautbov.

5—11.
1722 by Old

Windham.
winning)

7.
1.

(Up
5

to 9 \'ear-old without

Dismal 1735 by Cinnamon.

S.

(Up

to

10 year-old without winning).

2.

Brisk 1737 by Cinnamon.

5— S.
2.

GRF.YLEOS
5

1725 by Old

Ulndham.
without winning).

6.

(Up

to 10 year-old

Belgrade Turk bom
Y.

about irio.

BELGRADE
6—8.
2.

about 1729 by Belgrade Turk.

1. Tollllltecr 1''35 by Y. Belgrade.

Old Standard

1^36 bv Y.

Belgrade.

^6.
JASOX
4

1749 by Old Standard.
(Sire of

11.

many good

racers).

5.

The Thoroughbred

in the

Past and Present.

141

Lister Turk, bom about
1.

leso.

(LISTER) SNAKE

about 1705 by Lister Turk.
Lister Snake.

Driver (Beayers) 1^32 by

LITTLE DRIYER
-5

1743 by Driver.

— 12.
1.

(Give and
4

Take

Plates).

Y. Drirer 1758 by Little Driver.

7.

(Also in Give and

Take

Plates).

'2.

f ic^TO 1765 by

Little Driver.

4—10
2.

CONEYSKINS

7.

(8

1712 by Lister Turk. vear-old without winning).

Holderness Turk bom

about lees.

HARTLEY'S BLIND HORSE
6.
1.

about 1720 by Holderness Turl

Forester (Croft's) 1736 by Hartley's Blind Horse.
(iUST.4TUS 1745 bv Forester.

2.

^11. RIPON
;5-ll.

1749 by Forester.

Oxford Bloody-Shouldered Arabian bom
1.

about 1710.

BOLTON SWEEPSTAKES
.5

1"22 by Bloody-Shouldered .Arabian.

6.

(L'p to 11 year-old without winning).

Turner's Sweepstakes
(Not run).

1743 by Bolton

Sweeepstakes.

TREXTH.4M
3—10.

1766 by Turner's Sweepstakes.

Driver 1783 by Trentham.

4—8.
2.

BRISK
5.

by Bloody-Shouldered Arabian. (L'p to 9 year-old without winning).
17-26

above schedule all horses born before 1800 and all steeplechasers are there remains 214 horses which have won at seven years and older. 132 of them have parents which did not run as two-year-olds. 53 come from sires which ran as two-year-olds (only 6 of them before June), '21 come from dams which ran as two-year-olds (only 4 of them before June), and onlv in 8 cases did both parents run as two-year-olds. Of these 8, 2, namely Master Henry and Lanercost, won races up to the age of only seven inclusive.
If in
left out,

but the dam. Buzzard. Out of the great number of the chief founders of Thoroughbreds which won as six-yearEclipse. Dr. and mistakes may have. Election.e. — : as two-year-olds. Matchem. with few exceptions. 5. Most stallions and mares which ran as two-year-olds. Beningbrough and Touchstone. Hambletonian. ran up to their eleventh year inclusive. grandsire of Eclipse. Squirt. Regulus. The most famous steeplechasers in the first half of the nineteenth century are descended. Haphazard. Taking it altogether. Alice Hawthorn. the following champions of Thoroughbreds w^hich appear almost in every pedigree of our present day Thoroughbred horses several times. and Mambrino. The using of horses on the racecourse up to a great age seems to strengthen their breeding power in producing first-class racehorses and The most significant examples of this are prominent stud stallions. Cerberus and Langar. the examples of prominent performers at a great age already diminish before the middle of the nineteenth centur}^ (see tables. although they only won up to their eighth year inclusive. Paynator. Muley Moloch. The running as two-year-olds in more than two consecutive generations seems to deprive the parents of the suitability to produce racehorses who run for long with success. pages 108-141). Whaleolds. Waxy. and yet pro- . Performances on the flat at a great age are more certainly inherited from sires and dams who did not run themselves as two-year-olds than from those who did. i. Little Red Rover. 4. namely. The use of stallions with race performances at a great age for breeding purposes decreases more and more during the first half of the nineteenth century. Catton.Vntony. etc. 2. Paulowitz. won again as a twelve-year-old three good races. and dams ran on an average less than twice as Horses which only won up to the seventh 3^ear inclusive are only mentioned in exceptional cases. however. granddam and greatgranddam of Alice Hawthorn did not run at all. Woodpecker. Quiz. from parents which did not run Further. foundation stallion of the American trotter. won up to their tenth year inclusive. won up to their eighth year inclusive. here and there. their seventh vear inclusive. sire of Bee's Wing. Master Henry. In spite of the increase of Thoroughbred breeding.]^42 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. Herod. whose sire. we may safely draw the following conclusions from the above-named dates: 1. PotSos and Gohanna. let me here mention only the following eight bone. the sires two-year-olds. won up to Imperator. Chanticleer. Reveller and Sultan. Pipator. ran as a two-year-old in May. and that mistakes are verv difficult to avoid. ^lark . Syntax. which as a nine-year-old won four races. Orville. Joe Andrews. won up to their ninth year inclusive. Whisker. 3. I do not claim that the above tables are complete. King Fergus. crept in. Such and similar compensations may often be found in the cases mentioned above. Everyone who has studied old horse-race calendars will know how diflicult and wearying such tables are.. Lanercost and Collingwood.

who won as an eightyear-old a Handicap in iVlexandra Park. and Perth (under 9 stone). 9 stone. and seldom more than once or twice. 143 duced horses which could run for long successfully. the following examples of excelperformances on the fiat may serve. Australian Peer. 3 ran seven times. come from dams which did not run as two-year-olds. a marvel on the Australian racecourse.. Of these 63 horses. Of the remaining 36 dams. 2|. of which 9 did not run as two-year-olds. The above 63 horses have 50 different sires. as well as Merman. who did not run as a two-year-old. Of the remaining 41 sires. ran as two-year-olds late in the vear. generallv only one to three times. and three others. especially against the early and frequent ones. which month. or Ireland still won in England born 63 horses inclusive of and 1906. corresponds to our July. Australian Star. races. it is remarkable that in examining the question from this point which speak against two-year-old points brought out there are still actually In the last ten years. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. for the sake of comparison. there are some horses given which. Therefore a retrogression in this respect is distinctly recognisable. 4 lbs. the sire of Australian Star. up to The number 63 is a very small one flat races as eight-year-olds and older. Of course. Amongst the latter is especially to be mentioned Australian Star 1896.miles. carrying 9 stone. and sire of Merman. of view. several American and Australian horses won in England as eight- — year-olds and older. lent . 2 eight times. and his dam Alibech ran once as a two-}'ear-old in September.. Further. bv Grand Flaneur out of Seaweed. and Grand Flaneur. belong to an inferior class. only 19 ran before the 1st of June as two-year-olds. in January. ran and won as a two-year-old only once. did not run as a two-yearold. To further show the hardness and stamina of the Thoroughbred up to about the middle of the nineteenth century.5. Also. 12 lbs. against the four-year-old Scintillant. As in our time nearly everything which is healthy runs as a two-year-old. from the point of view of the regular racecourse frequenter. and 1 ten times. with 8 stone to 9 stone. 27 have dams which never ran as two-year-olds. Also. won the Gold Vase at Ascot. who. 1| miles. Merman 1892. He was born in 1895 by Common. by Australian Peer and Colours. Osbeck ran and won longest up to its twelfth vear. considering that the breeding is to-day five to ten times more extensive. only 14 ran before the 1st of June. against five four-year-olds. as an eight-year-old.

1. o -^ J- M 6 J M ? > » > j» J- n »> J M '-' O 1 J M 11 4 O '-' n 11 ? .144 Trial of the Ihoroughbred on the Racecourse. ran 5 year-old 2 times. won J» ' > 2 times. No. Partner 1730 by Partner. etc.

5 year-old 2 times. No. 6 .5. ran .. 14.. .5 3 times. The Thorousrhbred in the Past and Present. won „ 1 time. Giistavus 1745 by Croft's Forrester ran .5. ..

ran 5 9. amongst which at 25 years Jerry Sneak. St. No. 1 Furl. after foaling. ran won 20 times.. etc. won 33^ times. incl. 12. 6 won 6 times. 4 times as second. twice second in big races. and had 6 good foals. and once second. 49 times. 4 year-old 6 times. and once second. and times „ ran 10 at Newm.146 Trial of the Tho^ou^hbred on the Racecourse. ran 4 year-old 6 7 10. second. No. 11 7 9 Craven Club PI. incl. s. 24. incl.. Q and twice as second. 138 Y. 4 year-old 5 times. against 7 B. and 39 times. No. PotSos 1773 by Eclipse. and Jockey 3 Newm. 4 year-old 5 times.. 1 King's PI. 4 I\i. . O 1 V 8 9 10 11 12 was in foal.^ won 26 times. C. 4 behind. 138 Y. jockev Club PI. = 4 ^l. Newm. 7 7 won times. B. C. Trentham 176G by Sweepstakes. won < 1 times. won 3 times. 1 Furl. No. -2 Mother Brown 1771 by Trunnion times. ran . ran 11. No. . Titania 1774 by Trunnion. King's PI. 9 10 ran 37 times. 1 incl. and twice second and once second. vear-old Nottingham. at at Newm.

1 times. 1 •5 incl.. 2 times.. . o " without report.. '2 27 times. and once second. and once second. .1 . 1 King's King's PI.. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. incl. Xf)..11 ran . one 6 year-old.. 1 time. 1 . and twice second in good company. 5 King's PL. . . 18. 11 ran 4 year-old 7 times. . . 1 . . 3 behind. r. incl. Kino's PI. incl. . 1 King's PI.o.. and once second.. 4 ... won 11 6 times. ]47 ran 10 vear-old '-2 times. and once second. won . in good company. 6 year-old Cherokee beaten twice. 1 King's PI. . PI. incl.alage 1776 bv Hero. incl. won .. 4 miles with heats.. . won IT times. King's PI. 5 and once second. 1 2 times.

against 4 year- old Peggy. 10. O. against 2 6 year-old. 7 St. and ran 5 times second. C.. 3 INIiles. O. ran 16. 7 St.= o Furl. At Warwick. Newm. 7 st. 4. 1 Mile. . against 3 year-old Mare by Jupiter.= 5 Furl. 8 st.-o. Newm. against older.= 5 Furl. 8 st. 7 and 8 st.-o. 44 times. won 24 times. 12. Heats. 4 Miles.. 4. (Eager D). 11— 8 St. 12 agst. 9 St. Xewm. Sst. O. 8st. 2 Y. 8 St.. No. 9. 7 st. 12. 2 5 v. against 3 y. ran 1'^ vear-old 12 times. 2 Y.148 Trial of the Thoroucrhbred on the Racecourse. 8. 3 4v. C. 6.l3. 7 st. Mentor 1784 by Justice. Derby not placed. 1 Mile. On the following day. etc. Heats. Xewm. 136 Y. 2 Y.-o. won 7 times. 8 St. 136 Y. 3 and 4 year-olds and one On the following day. 8 St. 136 Y. against 5 vear-old Stallion by Espersvkes. 12. 3 vear-ol won 1 time. C. 2 (Brother to Sir John). in year-old 5 times. 11 and 8st.

of 3.. 4 . 5 heat.... 149 ran 7 year-old . 6 at year-olds.1 1 time. 1. Dead the Lewes. and 3. . . .. 4. won . with 8 st. and twice second.5.8 7 3-|- in the best company. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 8 st. -i times. 5 year-old Her- mione O. which won 5 races in the same year.

incl. 7st. 8 St. ran . against 2 5 year-olds. No. 9 St. . 8st. at Lewes. 1 6 year-old. 11 2 6 year-old. etc. 4 . vear-old 6 times. 6 and twice second.e^hbred on the Racecourse.150 ran Trial of the Thorou. 2 King's PI. 8st. 7 st. won 26 times. 8 6 8 8 7 st. 12 and ran 48 times. 10 2J Miles. Hambletonian 1792 by King Fergus..> 21. 6 year-old 5 times. 8 St. n C^ •2|- Miles.2 1 older. 7 1 Mile. st. won 8 times. 4 7 st. at Lewes. won 6 times. against 2 4 year-olds. 7 against 1 4 vear-old. 1 5 year-old. 8st. Dcp. L.

Dick Andrews 9 st.. Penelope 8 st.-o. D.. third in the Derby. 8 St. Lignum Vitae 8 st. 3 vear-old 5 times. The ThoroLiP'hbred In the Past and Present. No. 13. Eagle 1796 by Volunteer. 4 Newm. "M. -2 Furl. G 6y. = 2 M. 44 Y. J. 8 st. Xewm. v. M.-o. 9. 151 Y. „ 4 ran ran .5. 97 agst. won 3 times. Newm. ran 9 vear-old T times. 7 St. 1 3 y o.. Surprise 7 st. 7 agst. 44 Y. 2 Furl. 38 times. 4 6y. ran 23. y.-o. won 24 times..-o. ran 1 1 agst. 10. 8 St. won 4 times.

No. 8st.-o. st. inch 1 King's PL 4 . Doncaster St. to 9 st. . (amongst which was Sir Paul).. 7 St. Xo. 3 y. ran 27.. 5.. times. and 1 4 y. 28 times.'s PI. 6 st. Gold Cup York.-o. No. 9^ agst. 2J Miles at Ascot. Sir David 1801 by Trumpator. inch 2 Ivine. 12 to 10 St. 9 and 4 5 y.. won 20 times. 8 st. 44 Y. Marcia 1797 bv Coriander. amongst which many good „ ran 11 racers. Selling race. 1 King's PL. 6 st. 1 older. and 41 times.. etc. 5 won 2 times. 7 st. 1 King's o 1 PL y 2| Miles at Ascot.-o.. 7 st. ..-o. 10. 8 st. 1 time. year-old 2 times.1 26.-o. Rumbo . won won .. « 1800 by Whiskey.-o. agst 3 3 y. 4 M. 10 11 Gold Cup 8 St. 7. .. times. 7 St...-o. 1 3 y.-o. 7 and 4 ran v. 2 4 y. agst. at Newm. 6 11 7 4 y. Gold Cup at Newcastle. ran . . incl. 9 St. agst.. 7 3 5 y.-o. 2 F. 1 M. 2 times. agst. won 19 times.1 . . 25. 7 st. always against young horses incl. 2 6 y.15-2 Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse.-o. 7.. year-old 1 time.

2. Vandyke Sst. 3 year-old 4 times. Dead ran heat. Sst. 44 Y. 153 5 Newm. Y.5. agst. 5 y. I. C. won Sl^ times.-o. No.. agst. won 1| times. Deceiver 8 St. won 3 times. Sst.-o.= F. 1 M. ran 28. 8 ran 9 year-old 2 times. 7. 4y. The Thorouerhbred in the Past and Present. 136 Y.-o.angton 1802 by Precipitate.. Morel O. 3 Miles. 4. 7. M 4 . at 7 y. 8st. Newm. O. 2 F. Xewm. 45 times. 2 10. St.

154 Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse. etc. ran .

-2 at Basingstoke. Honeysuckle 1. and twice second. 1 3 v. 13 . 6 at 1 . 3 •2 5 y.-o. 5 . Canterbury. at Lewes.^50.3 . /:50 agst. 3 . 9 St. Races 9 St. 4 1 4 v. 11.-o. Marksman Barbary 8 9 st. Selling race agst. .-o. 2 Miles. 1] agst. 2 Selling at at Lewes.-o.. . won 1 time. agst. 6 st. 9 and 8 st.-o. St. The Yeomen's PI. 8 st. 1 to 7 st. 8 .. . 9 st. 9 St. 11 4 y. 4 3 y.. 1 1 4 y.. 5 „ . (3 IG . 4. agst. 7 St.. at Town PL. st.-o. 18 y.-o.2. agst.1.. 1 agst. The Town'Pl. Wells. 9 4 1 5 y. (Honeysuckle by Whalebone) 1 4 y. 9 St. 1 agst. 1 3 y.. with Hastings.-o. at Basingstoke. which in the same year. . 7 St.-o. 2J Miles.-o.-o. ran 78 times. 7 st. . 10. . 11 18 . ^50 7 st. 6 St. (Jack Bunce by Y.-o. had won races and twice second. . . 8 St. with Heats. 2 3 y. won 32 times. The ThoroLig-hbred in the Past and Present. Sept.8st. 4 1 older 9 horses.-o. 8 St.. last race 14 3 y.. 8.-o. 3 y. 2 AL. 7 st.-o. the Heats. . with Heats. 3 AL. (Roderich b\- Randow Regent) agst. .. 155 ran 14 year-old 4 times. Tunbridge st.5. 2 4 y. 6 1 6 y.-o.. Gohanna) 1 Gy.. at Ahford. .. 3 .-o.. 3 horses. . with Heats.-o. 12 1 5 y.. . 8 St.3. 15 . 8 17 5 . 6 y. 7 horses.

31. won 2 times 4 . No.156 Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse.. ran . Cannon-ball 1810 bv Sancho. etc. 3 year-old 2 times.

2 Miles.. 157 No. and 6 v. 8st. to 6 y. won 5 times.-o. 10 4 3 Gold Cup at Preston.. 8 st. 3 M. 8st. 8 st. 3 st... 2 M. 8 St. 12 6 v. 7 agst. 1 4 v. 7 agst. 4 y.-o. Reveller L. 3 3 v..-o. 8st. 12 agst. 1 Gold Cup 4 y. 8 st.. 8 St.-o. agst...-o. 12 8 st. St.-o. 12 8 St. 10 agst. 8 st.l2 .-o. Gold Cup Gold Cup 9 at Richmond. 9 agst... Gold Cup Gold Cup at Lancaster.. at Lancaster.. andl . Paulowitz 8 st. 8 st. i . 6 6 at once second Gold Cup 1 voung horses behind..4 .-st. 12 st. 3 M. 3 at Pontefract. 4 M. Newcastle. 10 agst. 4 M. 12 Gold Cup at Richmond. 1 agst. 6 st. St. 9 agst. 4 M... Dr. St. M. 4 horses.. times. Gold Cup at Richmond. Gold at Lancaster. agst. 8 St.-o. in the Gold Cup at Lancaster St. 8 agst. 8st. Richmond M. 12 Cup at Preston. 2 4 y. 8 St. 10 st. 4 y..-o. 1 at Xorthallerston. 6 49 times. .-o. 5 y. Gold Cup a£.-o. second 11 4 . ran 32. 8 good racers. 8 st. 6 4 4 y.3 won 36 .-o. 8 10 1 5 y.-o. 4 M. 8 at Preston. 1 5 y. 3 y. in the Gold Cup st.. 12 1 older 9 st.-o. 7 and 6 st. and twice second Preston in the Gold Cup at and 12 ran 5 .-o. 2 3 y. 3 M. ^^2 . 3 vear-old 8 times.The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 10 agst. Reveller L.-o. 3 st. Syntax 1811 b}- Paynator.-o. 2 4 v. 1 3 y.

agst.. Euphrates 1816 by Quiz.158 Trial of the Thorout>'hbred on the Racecourse. third. 8 St. D.2 3 y. 1 5y. Syntax fell down immediately after winning. 4 won 1 time. n . 4 M. No. Gold Cup at Richmond. 4 horses. ran 33.9 agst.l0 1 4y. etc. In this last race Dr.-o. and L.-o. not placed 2. 9 st.8st. but without damaging itself. 3 year-old 5 times.6st.-o.

at Lichfield. St.-o. 13 . 10 . ran 30 year-old 11 times... King's PI.. Sampson 8 st. st. 2 agst. 5 and 5 y..-o. . 1 4 y. 9 st. 2 I\L. 6 Gold Cup at Oswestry.-o. 3 M. 9 and 9 st. 12 agst. ... 1 4 v.-o. 8 and 1 6 y. 4 12 St.. Hesperus 9 st. Gold Cup at Worcester.. 8 and 1 5 y.-o. 3 Miles.-o. 1 4 y.-o. and 5 y. Gold Cup at Oswestry.-o.-o. Melody 6 st. 96 times. at Chester Gold Cup 9 n 8 3 . King's PI. st. agst. 12 12 and 5 y. 3 Miles 3^- agst. agst.-o. st. Alayfly. 4 y. 159 st. M. won 42 times. .-o. 1 6 y. at Oswestry. 6 and 8 y. 5 4 y.-o. 3 ..-o.. 12 agst.. Hesperus 8 King's PI. 4 y. and twice second. 1 older agst. st. Mayfly 7 st. 9 2 agst. 3 y.2 agst. Longw-aist 8 st. 4 M. 10 9 St. BJ M. 8 12 9 st. o and 2 5 y. 8st.-o. 1 agst. 3 y. 1 4 y.. 12 and 3 times second in good races with large fields. 3i M. 3 ^Miles. Cymbeline 7 st. 3 Miles.-o.-o. . 2 4 y. 12 .-o. 9 st. 4 y. Heats. Heats.-o 8 st. Alderman 12 st. King's PI. 9 . 3 horses. 9 2 6 Gold Cup at Ludlow. won 5 times.-o. 10 agst. at Chester 9 st.-o. 7 Gold Cup at Wrexham. and ran 5 times second.-o. st. 4 M. Gold Cup at Ludlow.-o..-o. Euxton 9 st. 4 y. at Lichfield. agst. Gold Cup at Oswestry. 7 y. Cain 7 st. 8 st. . Mufti 8 st. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. and 5 y. B littler 8 st.. 8 St. and 6 y. 9st.. agst.5. 8st. Heats. 10 Cup at Wolverhampton. Alcaston 6 st. 5 . agst.-o. 8 agst.. Town PI.. at Lichfield. 4 y.

2 Miles. first..5 . 4 Sept.. 4J Miles with Heats.. October. second. won times. 4 Miles with Heats (three times. second. and immediately dead heat. .les with Heats (3 times).. 2 Miles with Heats. at . third. first. and immediatelv after about 2 Miles with Heats. first.. second. 5 . 2 Miles.. 2J iNIiles with Heats. 17 Sept. 3 year-old H times. first. first. and immediatelv after 2 Miles with Heats. 11 .Miles with Heats.. Prosody by Don Cossack. first. 13 July. first. 2 Miles with Heats.. also second. twice . and on the same day 1 Mile.6 . first. first... 18 Sept.. 2 Miles with Heats (three times). 2 J Miles with Heats. 4 times winner two davs one after the other over 1 and 2 ^Miles with Heats.. 7i . . 2 J Miles. 6 August. 2 Miles with Heats (3 times). first. 10 . second. Slides. . 18 . 7 August..4 . second. about 2 Miles with Heats. third. 7 . first. Goodw. and immediately after 2 Miles with Heats. 2 July. first. after Ij Mi.. and won the same day about 2 ^liles with Heats. 2 .. not placed. . IftlS -2 etc. then Won 25 August. and once second. the 3 first races with Heats. and 2 Miles with Heats. 13 August.... . 2 Miles with Heats. 11 . 2 Miles with Heats. 4 October. 7 July. second. 4 . ran 84. 11 . 26 August. .... 27 August. and 4 times second.. twice first).. No. . second..If^O Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. and 5 times second. about 2 Miles with Heats. 2| Miles with H^eats. once dead heat. 28 August. second. 15 Sept. . 1 July.

28 August. 1 5 v. and on the same day about 2 Miles with Heats.. 4 agst.-o. first.. first. always younger horses.. second. 13 Sept. 6 Sept.-o. second. 5 Sept. .-o. 3 August. 2 5 y.-o.-o. July. on the same day..9 n 6 .. first. 1 5 y. 2| Miles with Heats. >. under 7 st. first. about 2 Miles with Heats. 15 August. 21 August. second.. 2| Miles. behind.. won 39^ times. 11 . behind.-o. 2J Miles. 2 Miles with Heats. and 2 5 y. 2^ Miles. second. . and 4 y. third. about 2 Miles with Heats. first... 6 August. first against 1 5y. 24 August. about 2 Miles with Heats. Sept. 1 5 y. Conquest.-o. 3 Miles with Heats (3 times). 2 Miles with Heats.. 25 August. and 2 4 y. 7 August.-o. 15 Sept. first.-o. first.-o. 2| Miles with Heats. 1 . 2^ Miles. 2J Miles with Heats.. agst.. 8 St.5. and on agst. and 1 4 y. and twice second. 1 6 y. 1 Mile with Heats. 7 .-o.. 2 Miles. 2 3 y. ..-o. 12 Sept. 1 and 29 12 13 24 7 st. 2| Miles with Heats. second. 2 . and immediately after against 2 J Miles with Heats. about 2 Miles. 10 . once dead heat. 3 Miles with Heats. 4 Miles with Heats. .. first. third. 2 Miles with Heats. second.-o. ran 83 times. about 2 Miles with Heats (3 times). second. once first).. 4 behind). and 1 4 y. not placed. and 2 4 y. first. 161 first. 16 x^ugust. won 8 times.. first (Gold Cup at Exeter. first. second. the same day 1 Mile with Heats (4 times. 16 Sept. Sept. ran 8 year-old 13 times. not placed. agst. and on the same day about 3 Miles with Heats (3 times). 7 Sept. 23 August. The Thorouijhbred in the Past and Present. 9 St.

6 St. agst. second. 1 5 y. of which several won good No. 4 Sept. 5. and 1 3 y. and had 6 foals. Hesperus 1820 by Hollyhock.. 7 3 Sept. won times.-o.162 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.-o. . third. 2 Miles with Heats. 8 St. etc. ran 5 35. 2 Miles with Heats. 4 year-old 3 times.. covered at 11 years old. Was races.

-o.. 1 3 y.. 6 y. and once second. 11 Handicap at Bath..-o. 3 4y. C) .. 3 Miles.-o. .. and and 3 times second.-o.1 >» Selling Race in at Bath. . agst. 8 . 7 . 2 Miles. 5 horses. 8 st. Heats. 10 to 8 (Sinbad) and 2 6 y. and Cup. st. 9 st.-o.. Newport. at Abingdon. 3 Miles. about 2 Miles. 5 horses.-o. 4 y.-o. 3 6 y. 3 4y.11 . 10 . agst. Jocko 9 3 times second. agst. 5 Gold Cup at Warwick. 12 . IJ Miles. Won 3 Selling Races. 163 st. 9 st. 8st. . 2 Miles. . horses. 3 5 y. 5 . 2 st. 7 st. .. 1 3 y. agst. 9 st. 5 y...-o. 2 agst..-o. 9 st. 10 agst. .9 9 agst.-o. 2 Selling Races.-o. 8 St. agst. won 50 times.-o. 2 agst. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 7 Selling Race at Abingdon. Harry. 1 3y. 8 Cup and ran 9 year-old G times. 7 .-o. young horses.. 4 Miles.-o.. 2 agst. 7 13 at and second J » Gold Cup Newport.3 . . -t^: • 'A . at Abingdon. 8 st. and 2 5y. and 1 6 y. 9 St. 3 4 y. Heats.. 4 y. . won 3 times.-o.-o. 12 . . at Gloucester. Beaufort St. . agst.. 3 Miles. Selling Race St. . . 7 st..5.. 13 Paradox 8 st... Thorngrove 8 st.. agst. IJ and 2 Miles. ran 96 times.. 4y. 6y. 7 on the same day 1 st. 8 St. 7 andl .. and on the following day City Member's PI. agst. over 2 Miles. 2 and 9 (Bryan) st. at Cheltenham. 3 Miles. at Cup agst. Salperton St. 3 3 Miles. 2 Miles. 8 st. 1 agst. 13 .-o..

. 3 year-old 4 times. 18-2-2 etc... 3 times. '1 . 4 . Dcp. Fleur de Lis by Bourbon. 7 . not placed. No. won . ran 37. L.164 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.

2 Ran on Miles with Heats. 10 1 '^ . second. not placed. 2J Miles with Heats. incl. O. ag^ainst 4 good horses. 2J Miles with Heats. about 2 Miles with Heats. Osbaldiston to ride 200 miles in 10 hours. at Dorchester Tradesmen's PL. then 8 Minutes. '3 won . injuring itself inwardl}^ and had to be killed.. not placed. and ran on the following day at the same place Yeoman's PL.. — Tranby ran and won twice at Newmarket in a well conbecame Sire of " I am not aware. 10 Seconds. with 29 horses.5. L. and was then sold to America. amongst which w-as the 5 year-old Tranby by Blacklock. 42 minutes. J J 40.. but fell second Heat. Won in 8 hours. where he got renowned as sire of Vandal's dam. horses. 4 5 M M .. ran .. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 1831. 50 8 . 4 .. 2 Miles with Heats.. Tranby No. . 2 J Miles with Heats ber's (3 times).. 11 . at Exeter Mem- PL. Ran on the 13th Sept. the 26th Sept. at the same place Handicap PL.. Catherina 1830 by Whisker. not placed. . 2 year-old 2 times. 39.. — No. twice King's PL . and on the 12th Sept.. about 2 Miles with race- Heats (3 times). which had to go four times. 155 and on the 29th August at the same place Member's PL. 8 . November took for the : — 1st 4 rallies 2nd 4 Miles 3rd 4 Miles 4th 4 Miles In the next year tested race. in and won on the same day Ladies' the PL. in the Tranby 1826 by Blacklock." who won races 2 9 yearold. any number of horses. and was victorious immediately afterwards in the City Member's PL... 15 8 . against 3 good race- won the first Heat. with about one hour's pause each time. twice second. The famous bet of Mr. )» M 10 19 n . 6 20 . 4 miles each time. times.

-o. 3 4 y. agst. 1*^ >' 25 .-o. about 2 Miles agst. St.-o. 7 st.-o. The Tally-ho Welshpool.. 4 horses. 5 horses. at M 8 . The Tradesmen's Cup at Burnlev. y. 7 year-old 18 times. 2 5 Miles. 5 1 5 y. -2 Manchester. The Tradesmen's Cup 21 Miles. 1 3 y. 11 agst. 25 . 5 agst. 5 ag-st. Sweepst. . 2 4 y. 9 . ]2 . 8 st. 7 st. 1 older 8 St.166 ran Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. at Burnley. 1~ . 6 times. 7 2 4 y. 10 . 3 3 y. and immediately The Town PL.-o St.-o.-o... Heats (3 y .-o. times) agst. 10 1 older 1-1 St.. 8 st. 4 horses. King's PI.. 10 St. 2 4 y. .-o. and 1 5 y. once o . at agst.. Heats (3 times). about 3 Miles.. and after 1 4 y.-o. Ladies' Purse at Chester.-o. and on the following day Sweepst.-o. 1 agst.-o. The Shadow and 5 y.. 4 y. 11 agst. 7 St.. won J) King's PI. 9 St.-o. St.-o. Heats agst. 7 and 12 1 5 y. 5 horses. st. Heats agst.-o.. 2 Miles agst. 4 y.. 8 St. 1 2|- Miles. etc. Lancashire St. about 3 Miles. 1 about 2 4 y. 2 3 y.-o. incl. Miles with Heats agst. agst.. and 4 times second. 1 4 y. 1 3 y.-o. .-o. and 1 5 y. at Chesterfield. 8 agst.-o. Leonard and immediately after A free PL. 4 horses. 1 5 2 Miles. 1 4 y.-o. 2 1 older 9 st.

11 St.-o. Hautboy 9 and on the following day st. agst. 3 behind.. won 12 times. 2 Miles. immediately after not placed Race over 2J Miles. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. On the 6th October Sweepst. Heats agst.-o.ugust second in Race over IJ Miles with Heats.. Tenbury. and on the following day second.-o. On the following day third in a Race over 2 Miles. and on the same day second in a Race over 1| Miles with Heats.-o. 3 Sweepst.-o. 11 agst. 167 and on the fo41o\ving (3 times) day IJ Miles. at Bridgnorth. and 1 older. 8 . 4 y.. 1^ Miles with Heats (3 times). about 2 Miles. and on the same day Tally-ho St. 11 Innkeeper's Purse. 2 Miles in at agst. second in a Race over about 3 Miles. 1 5 y. at Welshpool. about 2 Miles agst. 1 4 y. about 2 Miles. Purse. Heats (3 times) agst. 2 3 y. 2 5 y. (4 times). and on the following day winner in Town St.. Cup. 8 3 older 8 agst. 1 4 y. 9 st.5. Knutsford. On the 14th October third in a Race over 2 Miles with Heats. IJ Miles. 10 11 to 9 st. Heats (4 times). about 2 Miles and 1 older.. The All-aged Heats St.-o. 5 horses. 5 agst.-o. 2 4 y. 1 4 y. 1 5 y. at and 2 5 y. 7 and 8 st. The Innkeeper's Heats ran 11 year-old'28 times. and immediately after winner in Pottery St. 8 st. 2 Miles..-o. st. and on the following day A Gold On agst.-o. the 30th xA.-o. 1 3 y. On the 28th Sept.-o. st. Heats.

agst.168 Trial of the Thoroue^hbred on the Racecourse. and 1 older. 41. . 4 won 1 time. No. etc. 3 st. Isaac 1831 by Figaro. Heats (3 times) ap-st. 2 older 9 7 St. ran 176 times.-o.. at Leek. . 8 and 9 st. won 81 times. about 2 Miles.l 3 v. ran 3 year-old 2 times. 2 3 v.-o. 13 (amongst them Kitty Cockle) 18th October Moorland St. and had 9 good foals.

6 st. at Shrewsbury.-o. and 2 5 y.. 16th Sept. 5. over 4 Miles. second Gold Cup.-o. 9 st. not placed. agst. 2 4 y. 3 Miles agst.-o. and immediately after third in King's PL.. 8 and 7 st. 7 st. Immediately after w. not placed. 5 13 and 8 st. 4 agst. 2 Miles. 7 and 9 st. 6 st. 5y.-o. Worcestershire St.-o. King's PL at Leicester agst..-o. 11 5 times. 10 agst. 2 Miles. 2i Miles. 1 3 y. 9 St. 1 3 y. King's PL. 1. 5 horses. 3 Miles On agst. Caravan behind. 13 Heats (3 agst. li- Miles. 5 agst. 7 st. won 4 y. 17th Sept. about 3 Miles. 4 and 7 st.-o.-o..5 The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present.-o. Cup at Oswestrv. 2 4 y. 5 y. and 6 st.-o. 9 st. and Member's IJ st. and on the following day Gold Cup.-o. 3 Miles agst. at Warwick. 2 3 y. 10 Cup at Oxford. "Heats.-o. St.-o. On the following day second in the Warwick Cup. 8 st. 13 5 and 8 st. 1 3 y. 5 starters. and on the following day King's PL. . and 1 5 y. St. 2 4 v. st. 2 Miles.-o. 7 st. 1 3 y. 18th Sept. 2 Miles. andl 1 6 y. IJ Miles St.-o. 109 Leamington 8 St. ran 9 year-old 15 times. 6 2 6y.-o. Gold Cup at Shrewsbury. 8 Miles. o. 9 st. the following day Stand St. 3 7 agst. 7 1 5y. 3 Miles. Caravan. and 1 4 y. 10 (King Cole) agst.. times). 3 horses.-o. 7 st. 7 St. 2 (Caravan) agst. 5 good horses. 2 Miles.

6 st. 7 to 8 St. 1 3 y. 11 horses. St. and on the same day second in Member's PL. 1 older 8 St. 9 agst. not placed. 2 Miles. 8 to 8 st. 4 at Newm.-o. 5 2 5 v.170 Trial of the Thoroue:hbred on the Racecourse. ran 10 year-old 13 times. about 2J Miles. St. etc. Heats. 5 st. Gold Cup at Wrexham. 7 St. 1 st..-o. 10 1 older 7 st.-o. Handicap at Warwick. In the Cesarew. 8 1 6 y. 9 st. 9 St. st. 6 St.-o.. 5. 7 11 12 . 12 to 8 st. about 3 Miles. 9 4 4 y. 7 agst. 7 and 8 st. 9 4 agst. 1 3 y. agst. 3 to 6 st.-o. 7 1 4 y.-o. 2 Miles. 4 3 5 y. 8 st.-o. 3 horses. won 1 time. 1 Handicap ag-st.-o. 7 St. 6 4 y.

. 4 agst. No. 2^ Miles. 4 horses. 2 6 y.. 1^ Miles.5. .-o. 4 often ran twice on the same day. The Potentate 1832 by Langar. 3 agst. 6 .. ran 83 times. 9 agst. ran 2 year-old 3 times. . often won twice on the same day.10 . won 36 times. IS . ' . 4 . won 2 times. Gold Cup Eglinton Park.. 7 won times. 13 6 1 older 9 st. 171 often ran and won twice on the same in day. 7 1 5 y. 2 4 y. ran 9 year-old 11 times. 12 St. 9 st.. mostly in Races with Heats. 3 43. 9 st. last Race at Kelso. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present.-o. 12 st.-o. St.. 4 (Cardinal Piifif) 1 older 12 st.

) at Newcastle.-o.-o. 3 y. Trial St. No. Lanercost Acp. L. Gold Cup' at Ascot. 9 st.-o. at Gold Cup Newcastle. ran 2 year-old 10 times. 2 3 y.-o.-o. Gold Cup Miles Charles XII. .-o. 4 45. 4- horses. 9 Gold Cup at Stockton. and ran 6 y. Adrian 1834 by Sultan.-o. ran 8 year-old 10 times. 2 4 y. Calypso 8 5 st.-o. st. at Chester agst. 3 11 1 4 y. 3 agst. 3 horses. 9 St.-o. 3 horses. Attila 6 y. older.-o. 7 St.l 3 y. 9 st.-hbred on the Racecourse. and 6 y. 64 times.-o.-o. 8 agst. L. won 9 times. 4 horses. 6 3'. Cup at Doncaster Shadow.172 Trial of the Thorouc. Charles XII. at Doncaster agst. 5 y.-o. agst. Shadow asrst. etc. agst. 2 agst. 4-y. 6 st. won 1 time. 7 1 5 y. 2i Miles agst. won 51 times. 2 Miles. Gold Cup agst. 5 y. and 2 older (of which were Lanercost Acp. 5 agst.

The Shadow 1836 by The Saddler. won 2 times. The Thoroui/hbred in the Past and Present. twice Kingf's PI. 173 No. not placed. year-old 4 times.5. ran -2 46. O. „ 3 .

4 1 3 . No. 1 St. 113 times. older 8 st. Gentleman Rider. 1 at Aberdeen. 2 year-old 6 times. 1 etc.. ran 10 vear-old T times.-o. Lawrence 1837 by Skylark or Lapwing. ran 3 47. St. IJ Miles. 8 andl 11 ran . st. won 2 times. Handicap 9 ag-st. won 04 times. Mile agst. Welter St. . won time... 2 9 1 13 1 ..174 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. 5 6 y.. 1 . 3 older.

7 Mile with Heats. Chester Grand Stand Cup. 7 St. Ran in good Races company. 10 1 older 8 st. 5 agst. 6 agst. 6 and 5 st. 10 12 agst. 11 horses. 10 2 5 y. 12 to 6 st. 1 4 y. 5 horses.-o. 7 st. 2 3 y. 11 6 and 6 st.. Heats. 2 5 y. about 1^ Miles. 12 st.-o.-o. st. 6 St. 5 St.-o. agst. Ih Miles. 8 St.. Leominster Volka St.... 7 agst. 4 st. 4 4 y. 7 agst.-o. 10 to 7 st. . Shrewsbury Handicap. 11 and 7 st. 7 st. 3 horses. IJ Miles with Heats (4 times). o. 15 . 4 . 7 St. 1. 6 St. 2 5 y.-o. 1 . 12 agst.-o. 6 St. 9 . t) 11 M 20 . 2 agst. 2 to 7 1 older 8 St. 5 agst. 5 1 st.-o. 6 3 6 y. 8 st. 7 st. won 4 times. 12 to 5 11 to 6 13 1 older 7 st..5. 7 older 5 st. about 5 St. and on the same day 1 Handicap.-o.-o. 10 1 6 y. JO . st. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 7 st. 1 Mile with st. 11 horses. 6 st. . 1 5 y. 3 3 y. and 5 times second. 7 St.. 1| Miles with Heats (4 times).-o. 1 Mile. 12 3 7 4 y. 6 and 8 st. Newport Handicap.-o. 4 st.. 7 St. 2 1 6 y. 1 5 y. 5 3 y. 8 agst. f Mile. Chester Handicap. 175 ran 9 year-old 15 times. 4 agst. and in good Wrexham Handicap.-o. 5 horses. 5 St. 13 agst..o. 8 St. 13 agst. Shrewsbury Sev. 8 st. 10 2 4 y.. st. 4 horses.

and in good „ 13 „ 14 not run. agst. Inheritress (Foundation AJare of Veilchen) 1840 by The Saddler. in several big Handicaps in good company. St. st. ran 50. st. 7 3 4 y. 8 agst. Ran in good Races company.. 11 1 13 ran 109 times.-o.176 Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse. 1 and 8 agst. etc. No. 3 won 1 time. with Heats (4 times). 6 -2 st. won times. 11 st.. 6 horses. 13 to 7 st.-o. 8 . 1 3 y. 1 3 y. about 1^ M. won 2o times.-o. 8 St.-o. Walsall Member's St. M . 2 year-old 4 times. 7 and 2 4 y.-o. ran 12 year-old 10 times. 7 6 y. 7 st.

(Plaud it) 2 Miles. 2 y.. 5 1 C) st.. Dundas York. 6 horses. 8 1 St. st. ]77 and on the same day King's PL. ol. 3 year-old 6 times..-o. Richmond Handicap.. twice King's PI. 1^ M. won 1 time. 4 horses.. 2 1 6y.-o... 9 st. 3 horses. 9 St. 9 st.-Q. . and on the following day The Cleveland Cup at A\V)lverhampton. 7 4 times in 3 1. 7 St.-o. 104 times. 2^ Miles. 5 1 4 y. 10 agst.-o. 6 st. 4 1 older 7 st. 2 Miles. the agst.-o.. ran . 1 3 y.. Heats. 1 3 y. 5 6 and and ran 1 P) y.-o. at Wolverhampton. li Miles. 8 St. 1 3y. 4y. 9 St. ran i) year-old !) times. at St. not placed. Caledonian Handicap. 6 1 4 y.-o.. 5 . 4 5 . 12Jtimes. 8 St.-o.-o.-o.-o. st. 12 to 6 4 st. 2 3 y. second and 10 . 8. 5 agst. 1 time. St. 1 i)'3 1? ») ii'J** . 8 agst.o. 19 3 -' . 2 st. 1 . 3 3 v. won 48 times. 13 st. 1^ Miles. agst.-o. 8 st. Second in Wolverhampton St. 5 1 4 y. 13 agst. Dulcet 1842 by Dulcimer. 4 10 St. Handicap big Handicaps not placed. 8 2 8 agst. 5 agst. 1 4 y. 8 St. 2 Miles. 6 agst. 3 horses. 11 and 6 st. 6 st. Handicap at Nottingham. 6 st. 4 in 4 big Handicaps not placed. agst. agst. 4 3 y. 3 Miles. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present.-o. St. Cesarew. won . No. 3 behind. 7 st.

6 St. .-o. Berkshire St.-o. not placed. 3 4 won won times. 6 horses.= 5 Furl. 2 3 y.-o. 3 4 4 y.. 5 1 6 y.-o. 7 st. 9 and 8 st. and Cambr.-o.178 ran Trial of the Thorouej'hbred on the Racecourse. 30 Starters. 8 St. f Mile. 136 Yds. Radulphus 1843 by The Saddler.-o. 12 2 4 y. St. Cesarew.-o. 6 st. 7 St. 7 horses 10 twice second in big Handicaps. 1 3 y. St. 2 5 y. 2 Y. C.. 7 agst. 4 to 1 4 y. 5 agst. 10 agst. not placed. 2 3 y. 4 3 y. 6 1 5 y. and 8 st. In the Royal Hunt Cup at Ascot.. 7 St. etc. 7 St. 6 horses. Once second and once Handicaps. 7 1 6 y. 12 St.-o. Handicap at Newm. O. won times. 13 agst. 7 Cobham PI. Handicap Newm. 6 st. ran 2 year-old 1 time. won 21J times.-o. 6 2 5 y.-o.-o. 8 agst.-o. 7 year-old 5 times. not placed. 7 St. No. 1 Mile. at Reading. 6 horses- 10 to 8 1 st. 7 agst.-o. 1 4 y. . 6 times.. 5 st. 58 times. 52. third in big 43 Starters. 8 (Russborough) second 1 6 y. 7 St.-o. In the Tradesmen's 11 ran PI. 8 St. st. 2 Miles. 12 and 6 st. 6 st. 9 aqst. 7 12 and 7 st. Handicap at Epsom. twice not placed. 7 St. 8 agst. 7 St.

7 agst. 1 1 older 8 st. 4 Member's PI. 9 M 8 .. 2 :\Iiles.. 4 1 4 y. 5 t o 8 st.5. 8 st. Handicap at York. 10 to 9 st.. Handicap at Warwick. 4 .. 7 st. 6 1 older 8 st. 13 .-o. at York.-o. 2 3 y. 1 4 y. Fitzwilliam Handicap at Doncaster. 4 2 5 y. st. 10 andl ». . agst. and 4 y. ag-st.and 5 y. 4 Trial St. Handicap at Richmond. | jMile. 8 St. 5 3 y. 9 St.. 2 3 y. .. IJ Miles.-o. 10 n 10 . in big Handicaps. 12 agst.-o. 1 Mile. won 4 times.-o. 13 to 7 st.0 . 2 agst.-o.-o. 7 St. 2 3 y. 4 and 7 st..-o. Iris 8 st... 7 st. 8 horses.-o. 5 y. 5 agst. Selling Race at Epsom. 2 12 . 5 to 6 st. 10 agst. 7 . 2 . 9 agst. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 1^ Miles. st. 9 st. 5 agst. 5 3. 9 . 1 IMile.-o.-o. 10 . 5 1 5 y. 2 . 2 Trial St.-o.. 5 horses. 2 st. 3 agst. 11 . agst. 1 3 y. 8 st. 3 agst. 6 . | Mile. 5 st.-o. .-o. 6 st. Sweepst. at Paisley. behind. 9 st. 7 St. 4 2 y. 9 to 7 st. at Paisley.. 3 horses. 2 to 5 st. 9 st. 2 3 y. 3 y.-o.. and on the same day second in Railway PL. 6 st. Craven St. 8 St. 11 Miles. 9 st. at Airdrie..-o. . 7 st. 6 and 3 5 y. 12 ao-st.-o. 12 and 4 4 y. 4 horses... 9 St. li Miles.-o.-o. Lady Agnes 6 st. 8 horses. 7 st. St. IJ Miles..[79 ran 8 year-old T times. 9 and 1 older 9 st. 9 1 4 y. 9 agst. 9 St. 2 1 older 9 st. st. . at Lanark. 9 M 11 M 9 .4 . 9 and 1 6 y. 5 Furl. 2 to 8 st. 4 3 y. 6 horses.-o. 5 st. 8 St. 8 agst... 5 agst.

h\' \o. 5 9 and 1 6 y. 7 st. etc. at New- 105 times. D.-o. agst. 4 ^h\. and won ran 2 Gentlemen's Races market over ^ Mile. won 33 times. 2 horses. an 3 vear-old 9 times. ^7 St. 1 Mile.180 Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse. wr)n 4 times. 1 3 y. Sellino- Race 11 at Ripon. 11 agst. won 4 times. ran 14 vear-old 12 times.-o.. „ . 1 1 „ „ . Alonzo 1S17 Alpheiis. about st. not placed.

Poodle 1849 by Ion. won 2 times. •2 54. ran ..o. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. vear-old 3 times. 181 No. 3 .

-o.10 ran . which accomplished extraordinary performances. 55 examples from 1730 to decrease after Inheritress. 1 older 7 St. ran 9 year-old 13 times. we have obtained that in our highly improved light breeds.English Height and miles. 65 times. The most imposing performances of the above 1850 begin with Marksman. as the classical defender of the present day racing svstem. or. born 1760.. cannot be clearly shown." is supposed to have been only 14 hands. says. All these facts go to prove that the hardiness and endurance of the Thoroughbred. increased. 8 in above list." Yes. born 1808. 3 inches. won 2 times. . agst. Whether at the same time the speed of the Thoroughbred. and only a few with anything like these performances. . decreased about the second half of the nineteenth century. as in this period the follow- ing horses. Sh. The Shadow. but it is probable. In spite of the enormous increase of Thoroughbred breeding- not find any examples in the second half of the nineteenth century which can show better performances in this respect. 2 agst. 9 at Lincoln. . equalling 141 cm. Lawrence.. Zohrab. were born. after 1850. etc. 6 St.]^Q2 Trial of the Thorou£?hbred on the Racecourse. for distances up to li. Isaac. No.. 8 3 y. 1 5 y. : St. 5 st.. inches. appearance have been improved. The celebrated Gimcrack. 10 to 5 12 to 7 10 st. and Inheritress. 13 horses. equalling 160 cm'. namely Catherina. we do the best time seems to have been 1830 to 1840. and especially the resisting capacity of its foundation. 9 6 st. 3 inches. According to the above examples.. and ought therefore to be now 15 hands. to which Admiral Rous points somewhat contemptuouslv as a " generally small horse. but also at the same time a retrogression in the performing capacity which is required outside the racecourse. Admiral Rous contends that in 1700 the average height was 13 hands.-o. City Handicap 7 St. Admiral Rous. and that since then this average height has risen every twenty-five years bv 1 inch. . and slowly born 1840. Bee's Wing. The Sailor. 3 . in good Handicaps. Potentate. IJ Miles.-o. 4 3 4 y. 13 hands. " We have bred more for size and strength. according to other statements. St. won 10 times.

. No. The Thorouerhbred list in the Past and Present. 188 The following stallions which I have been able gives the sizes of the most important Thoroughbred to obtain.5.

. Size in No. Names of Stallions. cm. Hands. 4S .184 Trial of the Thorouirhbred on the Racecourse.Sire. Inches. etc.

15 hands. must be attributed the fact that the nerves and health are more quickly destroyed. One must. Jsonom\born 1875 162. 1893 167.. 16-2.. due to railways. one must take into consideration that the races of to-dav are run over shorter distances. — Average.. — size. 1877 165. it can be seen that the height of the Thoroughbred in England has increased somewhat quicker than Admiral Rous supposed.The Thoroutrhbred in the Past and Present. size... Birdcatcher — size. .. The present day situation of racing and breeding seems to be aporoaching nolens volcns a further increase of height. and will From above probably very soon onlv be possible at the expense of the fundament. 16-2.. and the numerous racecourses.. Hi hands. as well as to the many short races...5 cm..6 .75 cm.9 . St. 1883 165. 2^ inches= 158..6 cm.5 162.5 .6 Sir Peter 1784 . it is neces. 3 inches= 159.0 157. . 2nd Period Middle of the Nineteenth Centurv. Gallinule 1884 1()2. The desire to increase the height seems to me tr) be dangerous. Ormonde . and on an aA'erage at a considerably quicker pace than was the case 100 years ago. The question as to whether the Thoroughbreds of 100 years ago would not also have deteriorated quicker if they had had . and then get the following interesting results : — 1st Period Second Half of the Eighteenth Century.6 .9 .to take six of the stallions from the above table for three different periods. and also that the increased pace makes greater demands on the fundament. Gohanna 1790 154.5 cm.6 cm. Eclipse 1764 157..6 160.. Newminster Stockwell Buccaneer Macaroni 1833 1842 1849 1857 1860 160.9 cm. expect that the resisting strength of the fundament will be more quicklv used up. Simon 1881 163. Persimmon . . AJatchem born 1748 154. Herod 1758 160. therefore.1 . 15 hands.0 .. Bend Or . as regards their general capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit). which require a quick getting off.0 160. and without heats. Average. ^ inch = 164. size. Touchstone born 1831 157. 3rd Period The Last 25 Years of the Nineteenth Century. size. To the more intensive use of racehorses in a shorter time.sar^.6 Orvillc 1799 .. To judge rightly of the retrogressive movement in the breeding of Thoroughbreds. 185 most important we In order to arrive at a fair comparison.1 .. .0 Average.

in the year 1851 to 70 per cent. especially of the tions. are distinctly recognisable. i.186 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. by manv retrogressive signs.e. also outside the course. The following list. from about 80 per cent. we must assume that the present over-exertion. in recent vears. Book. if the supposed causes have lasted and had an : influence for several generations. These unfavourable which are an especial consequence of the many earlv races of two- year-olds. On the basis of physiological observations and practical experiences. younger Thoroughbred stock. to undergo present day methods. may be answered as follows Both cases can only happen slowly. etc. for manv consecutive genera- an unfavourable influence on the constitution. would not have held out longer under the conditions of 100 years ago. The most conspicuous of these consists in the fairlv regular decrease of the percentage of pregnant mares. has effects. on the other hand.of the figures of which are taken from the General this retrogressive movement : — Stud Year .. gives an exact summary. and as to whether the present day Thoroughbreds.

The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present.5. 187 Year .

: — Year . mares seems also to have increased in the first half of the nineteenth According to some superficial tests. and are as follows century. The statistics in the General Stud Book begin onlv with the vear 1846. etc. I have found that the percentage of foaling mares varies in the years 1820 to 1840 from 74 to 75 per cent.188 of foaling- Trial of the Thorouf^^hbred on the Racecourse.

as well as the more reasonable training of would lead one to expect longer lives.5.. especially if the enormous increase in Thorough- bred breeding is taken into consideration. . This conspicuous decrease of the length of the lives of the stallions is all the more remarkable. One can distinctly recognise this decrease about ten years later than in England. . but one may well assume that the length of the lives of the mares has decreased just as much as that of the stallions. and this fact is proved by the list given on pages 78 83. A change in the length of the lives of English born stallions in the first half of the nineteenth century is not the recognisable from the above list. horses. as shown following five examples. however. After 18(30 the length of of stallions at '29 years. .. improved The decreased performances — stabling. and the which have attained 25 years is much too small in proportion to the remarkably increased breeding. 189 foals. The middle of the nineteenth century From shows also in this respect a distinct culminating point. I can only mention 4 in the above table.. as well as their special of brood mares as regards the number of performances at a great age. and other conditions.. Rosicrucian. I am not able to give a sufficiently long list of the longevity of the mares as a proof. a further consideration of the table (pages 87 to 100) we can glean that the capability of the sires to produce excellent breeding and racehorses has also decreased from about their twentieth year.. Hampton. and here I may make the following remark (1) Rosicrucian is a son of : . in the short period of fi\-e }-ears : — by Forbidden Fruit born 1853. Already in the following two decades a distinct decrease is recognisable 3 800 to 1869. . as the progress of hygiene. 31 29 . The ThorouijhbreLl in the Past and Present.. and that considerably. this has taken place in the human race. we can also gather that the length of their lives has decreased. but it is more sudden and more apparent. ... namely. must be taken to verify the fact that the longevity of the mares in the second half of the nineteenth century has somewhat decreased. Of the stallions which have excelled after 1860 through prominent production. 30 31 . these long lives seem once again to occur. life decreases slowly but distinctly. . and 1870 to 1879. died Kentucky 1853 . \n the middle of the nineteenth century. Hermit... since the middle of the last century. Unfortunately.. The number of stallions which have attained 25 years and more has been in no decade greater than in that of 1850 to 1859. Thunderbolt 1857 . Buccaneer 1857 . As a matter of fact. Gunboat' 1851 . number : 20 stallions. and Galopin. 30. namely.. From the list of American born 'i'horoughbred stallions (page 84). 24 stallions.

62 m.. Of the remaining stallions Not only in theory. and as a 27-year-old Talpra Magyar). Simon. as at the age of 24 he could still produce two such good horses as Golden Gleam and Rouge Croix. the movement to . ran twice as a two-year-old. and the power of the bookmaker. 38 seconds ( = 16.. the mile in 1 minute. Lord Jersey. who first of all became celebrated bv working out the scale of weights. Buccaneer. the remarkable phenomenon blood of Old Stockwell seems to have had some effect still. but also various statistics (as already given).. but he carried. and the number of two-year-old racehorses (see page 29) begins to exceed the number of three-year-olds (1856). also as a five-year-old. the first time in July. (3) Hampton is a son of Lord Clifton (by Newminster). The most energetic opponent of the races for one and two-year-olds. who only ran three times as a two- first time in June.42 m. on the then existing track. Even St. per second). first time in August. born 1875. 57| seconds). in the shortest time (9 minutes. born 1877. as in In the the last eight years he could not produce any winner of importance. as I mentioned in the chapter about weight-differ- ences. seems after his twentieth year to have deteriorated with regard to his former very prominent breeding power. which did not run as a two-year-old. 1 stone less).D. and as a 2o-vear-old. Beadsman. up. In 1849 Stockwell was born. the who only which lived a long time and produced prominent stock at a great age. etc. 5 lbs. Beauclerc. (4) Galopin is a son of Vedette. after 1860. and St. attained 25 years. It is worthy of note that it is just at the time when the almighty Third Dictator of the Turf. Bend Or. The number of short races (1 mile and under 1 mile) begins to be more than half the races run. and therefore beating any mile performance before or since. and as long as the race was run. who reached 27 years. and Gold Rioch. Radium. vear-old. and Ollyannincs PL. became Handicapper of the Jockey Club (1855). pe-r second). but produced in the last six years only 5 unimportant winners. are finally the causes of the races for yearlings being held for four consecutive years (1856 to 1859). Abd-el-Kader won in 1850 the Liverpool Grand National. as a 25-year-old Feneck OD. one may mention. Springfield. The impatience of many racing stables anxious to get money. 26 years old. (2) Hermit is a son of Xewminster. Simon. the following horses in England: Springfield. All his ancestors in the male line never ran as two-year-olds. point repeatedly to the middle of the nineteenth century as a period from which the retrograde in the development of Thoroughbred breeding in England seems have begun.190 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. U. in the largest field (32 competitors). and in the last six years produced only 1 unimportant winner. Beauclerc. died in 1859. Admiral Rous. case of Bend Or. also attained 25 years. which only ran twice as a two-year-old. ran as a five-year-old his last race at Salisbury with 9 stone. born 1857 (who still could produce as a 24-year-old Budagyongye X. Certainly Bendigo ran in 1885 a mile in 1 second quicker (=16. born 1873.

as a 21-year-old (5th of May. Dcp. One must. Simon's progeny 47 races in one year. 1853. 9. The number of pregnant mares reached the never before attained number of about 80 per cent. Blink Bonny D. The St. the whole English Thoroughbred breeding/ most probably the last Thoroughbred stallion born in England ^vhich as a •24-vear-old could produce an Epsom Derby winner. who have won 506 races. while Stockwell. 12. and 1866 in the Derby. Stock well 2 u. and St. Wild Dayrell D. 15. 14. 1855 u. consider that St. The number of foals born exceeds 1850. The Wizard 2. as well as the seconds in the Derby. who who has become famous because Stockwell's progen\' has won 17 times classical races in England (amongst these 3 times. on the other hand. The Thoroug-hbred in the Past and Present. that is. and the Oaks. ! breeding as has never occurred before or since in such a short period. namely. Rataplan Gold Vase Asc. Iroquois and Doncaster were the last Derby winners who could still win big races as five-year-olds. 1855. 1858 and 1859. 1851. furthermore. L. Isinglass. Simon. 1851. Stockwell had a breeding power so as to produce in one year the winners of the Derby and the 2. Leger. namely. Voltigeur D. Simon reached 27 years. : — The 3. Even at 20 years of age. Iroquois. Stockwell. West Australian 2. the Derby Simon progeny has also won up to now 17 classical races. St.147 races. 1. only 160 winners (up to 1907 inclusive). u. 1858. Doncaster did not run as a two-year-old Stockwell is in modern times most nearly approached as a sire by St. 1852.000 Guineas. however. 191 champion Leamington.028 foals). 11. 1857. unfortunately.000 Guineas. Dcp. . 13. and England herself had become the first world power In this decade were produced such a great number after the Crimean war and never-to-be-forgotten pillars of Thoroughbred champions of racecourse of is born 1853. 1853. who have won 1. Amongst these 16 champions honours. English Thoroughbred breeding was in every respect in the zenith of its performances. Albans^ L. Amongst these was one of the greatest heroes. 6. Saunterer Gcp.041 foals) and in 1859 the second thousand (2. and the St. u. u. Xewminster L. 1860. L. 1850. D. Thormanby D. u. 5. 18 King's Plates. (1851). has produced 209 winners. The 3 first places were occupied b}^ Stockwell's progeny 1862 in the 2. died six years earlier. 1849. amongst them twice the Derby and 4 times the St. In their best years Stockwell's progeny won 132 races. 1 never attained classical ^ but have also numbered Fisherman. 2. 1857. Leger 6 times) and 16 times ran as seconds. \>dette 2 u. 1860.5. Simon. 4. 1860. 7. Doncaster. L. St. 10. St. 1870). 1858. O. Beadsman D. 16. but were only 10 times seconds. Teddington D. the first thousand (1. 8. following examples demonstrate this The Flving Dutchman D. Fisherman Acp. Gatien. L. St. Leger.

namelv. Also the trotter king in America was born at the same time. sire of about 000 horses. stud this defect was not inherited by his progeny. Hambletonian 1849 by Abdallah. namely. and never leave a grain in the manger.'5. Osborne says (vide Ashgill & Radcliffe. to what it was when : I . unfortunately no longer in the same degree. light weights. He admits breakdowns of Thoroughbreds. who also lived in the times preceding and succeeding the above-mentioned zenith of Thoroughbred breeding. the attribute of our present da}' Old Tom Parr used to sav very characteristicallv of Thorougfhbreds. was born at almost the same time. and of the larger fields. Soon after this high tide mark of I'lnglish Thoroughbred breeding. more and more notice was taken of ideas which tended to a deterioration of the llioroughbred. were especially Americans. verv likelv in consequence of an inflammation of the eyes. and raced every day. but they yer\' plainl}' inherited his longevitv. Tlie classical and very clever advocate of Thoroughbred breeding. published in 1852. Admiral system with its short distances. earl V the numerous and (born 1795.'). Rous Against the opinion of Admiral Rous we have the interesting judgment of a practical man. 19f seconds. Lexington (1850 by Boston and Alice The Carneal).192 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. greater pace. I am speaking of the well-known jockey. " On the laws and practice of horse racing. hx the hitherto unattained performance of Lexington in the match against time (4 miles in 7 minutes. page '' The method of training horses in the present day is quite different 428) Horses are very much lifjhter now. Finally. Fisherman " He would ne\er begin to go until he had run two miles. I must here remark that Lexington became blind as a six-year-old. volume 18. and then in both. which had greater attractions than the starting point of the retrograde movement could have. thev beean. amongst which '236 winners." of note that also in American Thoroughbred breeding the It is worth king of all Thoroughbred stallions. how he could be trained on a turnpike road. who rode his first race in 1846 and his last race in 1892. lie is perhaps the last representative of that liardiness and toughness which are. first : \- During his -21 vears activity at the in the rieht eve. performances. John Osborne. Admiral Rous. thcjugh he ate more solid corn than any other horse. in 1S. which has increased very much in conseciuence of the shorter distances. corresponding to our Stockwell. and concludes therefrom that the Thoroughbred has never been as good as now.)." and 1870 in Bailey's Magazine. born TS33. who are believers in time astonished at Xew Orleans. died 1877) passed his best years just at the height of Thoroughbred breeding. " Racing Past and I^^uture. carrying 103 lbs. etc. but attributes them He further points out the to the too frequent starts caused by railways. and then he would wear the heart out of anything on four legs. the Admiral points to the same champions of Thoroughbred breeding as mentioned above. in the preface to his book." a defence of the present racing and many bets. between the age of two and six he ran in 119 races and won 09.

— : — different ages. with the result that the great majoritv of the horses are too finely built. (2) Decreased capability of the older racehorses on the flat. I cannot point to the cause of it. if one might sav so. in the old times they were sweated a good deal. Heavy cloths were put on them. The decreased number of foals. If they were subjected to that now they wouldn't be able to come out of the stable for a month after. Of course. run three and four mile heats. trainers have gone in for speed too much. (3) (4) (o) The decreased percentage of pregnant mares. I am certain that the constitution of horses of in sweating and bleeding. The Thoroughbred hi the Past and Present. hardiness." The follow'ing points show that Thoroughbred horses in England have deteriorated from the middle of the nineteenth century as far as capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit). Charles Lund. twice the size in substance and power in comparison with the present day racehorse. tion in the stoutness of the modern racehorse. and they were galloped three and four miles in I don't know them. The shorter lives of Thoroughbreds and the decreased prepotency at a great age. . 2 stone heavier than those of the present day. and I have ridden in four mile races but never in four mile heats. expresses himself as follows (Ashgill. horses like Touchstone and West Australian were. I am fully convinced the constitution of horses of the present day is not as strong as It puzzles me to account for the degenerait was fortv or fiftv vears ago. and the whole constitution are concerned : (1) Diminution of weight differences between weights for horses of . and comparatively weedy in appearance.o. Now. on the average. That plan has been discontinued for many years. The decreased breeding performances of the brood mares difficult at a great age and under (6) circumstances. page 430) " Racehorses in the olden davs were. I have had some experience mvself of riding horses in heats two mile heats. most of which are light of bone Present day and substance. the present dav would not stand such work the modern breed is neither so Formerlv it was quite a common thing for horses to robust nor so strong. speaking about this question in the vear 1899." The well-known Malton trainer. 193 have neither the bone nor the substance that Thoroughbreds had fifty years ago. Old John Scott was a great believer that sweating is weakening to a horse. really.

rests partly on the fact that This oldest reproach against the Thoroughwe over-estimate our knowledge of this matter. difficult weights. which those propositions entail. observations made in the previous chapters. of cleverness. Our present day Thoroughbred is the outcome of race propositions. temperament. there seems to be no doubt that our present day Thoroughbred needs improving. We must not forget that from chipping come chips.on our inexperience in the judging of horses in training. Want Want endurance for long distances. . justified. and parti}/.conformation. and what is much worse. and breedings. 1 call to mind the opinion of the Landstallmeister von Burgsdorf. of food. After the shall we be able to still more improve our Thoroughbreds. those people who stood outside the domain of Thoroughbred breeding. on which it is built up. The great and important duties which the Thorouglibred accomplishes in the breeding of other light horses.CHAPTER VI. as w-ell as by reasonable breeding and rational training. and of the manner of breeding and training. 3. These propositions are made on human under- standing. Only by clever and purpose-answering race propositions. expressed He went on to say that most English in 1817 in a special brochure. Faulty conformation. •2. to criticise the basis of all its performances. and even also obliged. by many side interests. and that of course every kind of breeding must produce a certain percentage of faulty 1. is just as certain as agreeable. Thoroughbreds had spavin. A too weedy and light fundament. 6. 4. and its room for improve- ment bred 1. and the bad use bred. and that the English Thoroughbred must shortly disappear. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement and Breeding of Tlioroughbreds. A want of capacity to carry heavy Nervousness. and are influenced by human misunderstanding. and on which it continues. The chief attacks which have been made up as follows : may be summed up of — to now against the Thorough- Fault \. 5.

and in which long shin bones were considered an advantage. etc. be dispensed with. Military commissioners can be as strict as they like in refusing to buv irregular walkers. but acquired for itself the right to be judged as such bv beating competitors. also changeable. The history of Thoroughbred breeding teaches that even without such police rules as Biedenweg's instructions are. Training and racing. gracefully and beautifully as Ard Patrick. moreover. who. the substance used must be very good indeed. as in fhe breeding of Half-breds. . and beat Rock Sand. Anybody can prove this statement if he will only examine the same horses two years later at the troop after manoeuvres. whilst a non-Thoroughbred with the same faults in most cases could not do anything. as history teaches. The so-called Biedenweg's instructions for judging horses competing for State prizes. for example. by picking out the regular walkers for the stud or military service. but they will never be able to judge as keenly and as correctly as the winning post. won the Epsom Derby. and are. In short. see that the Thoroughbred. but are well led in. The views as to what form a horse should have differ. w'e rob those horses which are supposed to be better of the opportunity of showing that they can perform better things. and will often change in the future. I know of no breed which produces so many horses which w-alk so correctly as the English Thoroughbred. which are still in vogue in the Prussian State. our doctrine as to the conformation of a horse will always have its limits. If. One cannot lay down laws to judge the conformation of a horse to suit all cases. Where is the half-bred stallion in Germany which without freshness walks as correctly. it is interesting and instructive to as. The best example of an effective elimination of faults by racing is perhaps the walk of the Thoroughbred. at shows. He will find there are more irregular walkers than in the racing stables. and vice versa. If with faulty conformation it is still capable of doing well. disappears very often with working as butter melts in the sun. but by training and the struggle on the racecourse. in my opinion. but probablv very rarely followed. even with such great faults. can. however. I also believe that many so-called faults in a horse of 100 years ago were more dangerous than they are to the present day horse. and Sceptre? The eradication of horses with the four-year-old irregular walk is not done in England. faults are finally eradicated automatically. besides. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. Biedenweg's instructions exclude a priori certain conformation. is still capable of performing very astonishing things. There have been times in which long-legged horses were preferred to short-legged ones.6. according to the experiences which we gather from the racecourse and from the other uses to which the horses are put. The regular walk of horses that have not worked. 195 individuals. or as they do when buying horses for military mounts. Races and other tests of performances will in themselves destroy what is useless. show up many little faults in form which would not have been noticed when merely looking at a horse Nevertheless. The better form has not been proclaimed as such by the vacillatingopinions of judges.

e. thev were wrong in their breeding efforts. long distances. the We Thoroughbred Not only representatives of Half-bred breeders. Generallv the above reproach is applied to the former long races over 4 miles with heats. one did not go far enough in the shortening of distances. unfortunately. should be to improve A flat race. and not damage the temperament of young horses by too manv short races. The making of racecourses. over 20 kilometres or more (in Moscow the stock. for example.[Qg Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. however. its record in 1818 of 3 minutes per mile to 2 minutes to-day the American Trotter to-day shows more endurance for every distance The improved record of Russian Trotters since 1860 than the Russian. and This reproach is the most of endurance for long distances. however. have also no value for breeding. breeders of Trotters in America tried in the middle of the last century to After that they wanted 20 miles doing get 100 miles covered in 10 hours. The practical Americans soon found that the right distance for testing breeding stock is the one on which one can train horses. for example. the case in England. the American Trotter has improved secondly. Those handicaps. have proved that no other race of horses has attained the endurance of in manv long distance races. (there are no reliable statements for former years) is mainly due to the establishment of good racecourses (hippodromes instead of roads). that is to say. They. The result is. over uneven ground (as more detailed in No. so much loved by the bookmakers. as thev took place in the time of Eclipse. result.shows us. mav also have a favourable effect on the form of Thoroughbreds bv eradicating everv unharmonious conformation of racehorses. but rather their value as breeding stock depreciated. and of the training for this test. which — — . but also breeders and admirers of Trotters and Thoroughbreds. but that the object of this test. have ahvays rightly aimed at the production of a horse with the greatest possible endurance as the goal of As history. Thev also in 1 same time that the health of the horses suft'ered. . prepare them without damaging their health. for these different faults. Race propositions must therefore offer sufficient opportunity to eradicate and not protect. The there exists one for 20 versts) does not improve the stock but ruins it. firstly. for distances imder 1 mile. etc. however. and should be much more restricted than is at present. and they found and I think they are right that Russian Trotters kept to their this right distance is 1 English mile. — Want common. not to use a stronger expression. for example. 2. and as we shall soon see.. i. the roarers. not leave too much to chance. We must. horses of all ages. emphasise that the removal of these long races with heats was the first step towards progress. The errors made must be found somewhere else. 3). a verv ill-considered one. with the light weights. and to the introduction of sulkies instead of the four-wheeled droskies. demanding performances over too great distances in order to reach this goal. observed at the attained this hour. that horses did not improve. Thev forgot that races shcRild not onh' prove which is the best.

i. looked at from the above point of view. is the right one for flat races.000 metres. The Doncaster miles.400 metres. Second Class Autumn Meeting and In the course of time the art of training has. and in 1907 the best record for the same distance 2 minutes 14 seconds. St. but rather the reverse. In 1860 the six-year-old Wehsar from Chrenowoi. In England there are now no races over 3 one over 4 miles. and in 1S96 the best record was in a sulky. may be useful and instructive. The question. 6. as long as the number . without considering whether the stock is hereby damaged or not. The former have for object the improving of the production of capable breeding stock. 4. 27 seconds.6. The gallops which were still in force twenty years ago. cult.200 metres is the correct and most useful test distance. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. etc. It is a mistake to have races over distances which do not improve the rightly trained stock. To train horses for different distances at the same time. were raced over these distances. trainers have learned that gallops for more than 2. of course. one ought to distinguish tests for breeding stock from tests for stock in use. whilst the latter serve to show what the maximum performance is. have almost totally ceased. but rather do it harm. Trotting races for distances over more than 1 mile are justified and useful as a test for an individual horse in use. To fix the right limit with certainty is very diffibut the Derby seems to be the utmost limit for a useful race distance. in 1896 the best record for 1^ versts was 2 minutes.e. in metres. and in in Hoppegarten. just the same as all kinds of longdistance rides for Thoroughbreds and Half-breds. The classical Derby is now run in all countries over about 2. for example. and I should consider it a sign of progress if all so-called classical races.200 In Ireland there The Grand Prix de Paris over 3. if need be. Races held for long and short distances. Germany. still requires solving. what distance. ran in a four-wheeled drosky 2 versts in 3 minutes. The longest races are in France. flat is a mistake to have races for longer distances than about 2. a race over the Derby distance.000 metres. also in preparation for the Derby and longer distances. such as serve for breeding stock. and for two-yearolds 1.400 metres. the year in which sulkies were generally introduced.400 metres. made much progress.800 metres. incline to the opinion that and which were often run like Most trainers such long gallops do not improve the condition it of the horse. If that is so. My own opinion is that for three-year-olds 2. At the time of Eclipse the chief races were run over distances of 4 miles. as is now demanded. is still the Prix Gladiateur. 2 versts in 3 minutes.. and especially for very short distances of 800 to 1.937 metres. are bad. as is the case with Training would not only be facilitated thereby. is of no use whatever for breeding stock. in order to use stock which is not used for breeding. 13J seconds. but the horses would also prosper more. 197 weighed two and more puds heavier. 15J seconds. and how it may possibly be best attained. Leger 2. the American Trotters. As a matter of principle.000 to 2. tlijC record performances of Russian Trotters have made very little progress indeed. and two over 3 miles. Since 1893.400 metres.

On the whole distance d the advantage of the stayer amounts to d M. as opposed to a flyer. endurance. the racing galloping ceases more or less. the flyer will have to increase somewhat its special pace. and the special pace — of the stayer as well as of the fiyer {ceteris paribus. by the ground. The above comparisons apply in general only to horses of approximately . show in which degree the horse is a stayer or a flyer. The less the obstacles. is not the same as what is^ called a staver on the racecourse.. which perhaps just corresponds to its special pace. The quickest pace in which a horse can gallop a certain given distance without endangering the speed necessarv for the finish. but only in so far as s"^ s becomes larger than d. In the case of horses which we call stayers. I reallv believe that flyers are often more suited for long distance rides and other feats of endurance. in horses of approximately equal class) becomes pretty equal.e. I would like to call This special pace diminishes in the case of every horse its special pace. M. and s^ equals the speed of the flyer. In races of such great distances as in the above-mentioned 20 verst race at Moscow.000 metres for three-year-olds and 1. this diminishing of special pace is less than in the case of those which we At the same time the former have to put in a less speed than call fivers. For the same reasons there should not be too many selling races and handicaps. is kept in moderate bounds and suitable to the requirements. the breeding of What is called generally a horse with plenty of horses for endurance. through its superior speed. and therefore one specially suitable for long distances. M. the more even the ground. therefore. and the amount of the latter. The scale at which this decrease takes place.to believe that races of 2.^gg of these races Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse. < Si— whether the flyer on a given distance can. It is wrong. the more advantage there is for the stayer. on the other hand. The staver therefore in steeplechases is prevented from fully developing its chief The flyer. > si— s or d. 1 would like to further remark that the stayer can increase its speed only very little or not at all after t a pace which of the stayer is under its special pace. i. viz. with the growing distance.200 metres for two-vear-olds would give little chance to so-called stayers. than stayers.. If s equals the speed of the staver. Here reserved speed. gains d. as well as for steeplechases. namely. etc. the fiyer will very often have the advantage. gain the advantage which the stayer has obtained on the way (about to the distance) on account of its greater special pace. t^ The flyer. and would thus endanger the aim and end.M. can make use of the pace necessitated force. the question is whether The stayer. special pace is greater than the special pace of the on the way per metre a distance equal to M. The pace in steeplechases is limited by obstacles and the ground. in case of such unraceable distances. and put on a better speed at the finish. For this reason. If this be not the case.

as it further increase the cleverness of the ThoroughIn consecjuence of of rearing and other tests. hunters and military horses). The Epsom Derby course is known as a hard and very reliable test.. As a rule. very likelv is possible to still bred by a different method their peculiar rearing up. requires great efforts in the cleverness of the horses. that roarers. which enables the horse This to adapt in time the pace to an uneven ground and to sharp corners. The best proof as to whether two horses belong to dift'erent classes will be found in the fact that one of them can beat the other with the tactics of the stayer as well as those of the fiyer. 3. Of the classical courses which I know. Plaisanterie. that the race tests for many generations only on flat. Quite level and flat tracks. for example. Such a one-sided capacity might example. exist. for example. It is possible that this too long galloping-stride results from a — — conformation that has not the necessary symmetry. for example. — This reproach has a certain justification. such a one-sidedness might enable them to go better down hill. mav have a greater speed than a horse of the third class which In a race between the two. are not suitable. Ormonde. it will be verv difficult. Finally. those of Newmarket. Or. 199 equal class. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. etc. in the special cleverness to climb up a hill well it possible over-built horses with strong hind quarters might excel here. which is at the same time a staver. w'ith its The uneven and several sharp bends. level tracks. the Derby Epsom course is the most suitable for testing to and rewarding the ability to go up and down hills and pass such sharp bends as are found on very few steeplechase courses. which shows a better developed fore part than hind part. The very strong incline. Kincsem. school horses. last incline before the winning post. ^Vant of cleverness. or the horses Mauerpark of Sababourg (Beberbeck). favourable influence in cultivating and rewarding cleverness. To these qualities belong chiefly cleverness. I would say that racehorses between whom there is more than a stone belong to two different classes. as.6. about half a mile from the start. also probable. the Steppe horses. again. therefore. demands so much from the horse. mav cause neglect of several useful and important qualities of the horse in use (riding horses. this at Epsom unavailing one-sidedness might be a too long galloping-stride (Galoppsprung). is one-sided capacity does not avail. etc. are certainly It is reasonable to expect and superior to the Thoroughbreds in cleverness. which is best cultivated and tested brought up in the But also the shape of the flat racing track may have a in steeplechases. unfit horses. Isinglass. and those of inferior quality and without sufficient stamina. often varying ground. A horse of the first class. for want of a reliable standard. to decide whether they are stavers or fiyers. Its chief value consists in the following 1. drop out very early or have finished : with the 2. . A for . have need to put on his better special pace. 3. the latter will not is a typical fiver. In the case of such champions of the course as Gladiateur.

in all propositions for steeplechases both here and abroad is that geldings have to carry 3 to 5 lbs. with its 3-2 jumps. straight course like In the breeding of Half-breds.200 metres. and an ideal mating stallion for Half-bred mares. Then also steeplechases would supply more useful sires. Boadicea (Banter's dam). of which each is a great performance. through Optimus and Obelisk (the dams of which were daughters of Colonel) one often finds in Trackehnen. and admit at most only of a good hunting gallop up to the distance (the finish). won 1878 and 1879) has done the same feat in the Auteuil great steeplechase. run over a distance of 7. Steeplechasers have often been used with good results. track. will at once admit that such a performance is just as imposing as a Derby victory. The Colonel. Perhaps this accounts for the fact that the same horse (Peter Simple. if at all possible. was a gelding. The Colonel. who. Abd-el-Kader.. etc. The distance ought to be in proportion to the topograph v and soil. 7 lbs. between its seventh and twelfth year proved itself an excellent A great mistake hunter. Manifesto) has won and obtained places more than cjnce in the Liverpool Grand National. about Obstacles as well as 6. who ended her career as a steeplechaser as a winner of the Grand National Steeplechase in 1880.000 metres. uneven fields with sharp corners. stock.200 lack of Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. and as a 19-year-old produced Touchstone's dam. one of the best known sires in Irish Hunter breeding. has produced well. An obstacle course which has to be used also for the test of breeding material. The best known example is Touchstone's grand-dam. for example. whilst only one horse (Wild Monarch. weight for age. which. and from him are derived the good and strong limbs which. . and 19 starters. the ground should prevent an uninterrupted flat race pace. winner of the Lancashire Handicap Steeplechase. Steeplechase courses like Auteuil ruin the material more than difficult tracks like Liverpool. Such classical steeplechase races as the great Liverpool National should only be for colts and fillies. among them in 1889 Red Prince by Kendal. less weight. and who could admire the 11-year-old Manifesto cominp. instead of having to carry 5 lbs. The number of Steeplechasers which have been successful in English Thoroughbred breeding is indeed very small. with a run in of at most 500 metres. carrying 12 stone. according" to the observations just made. Everybody who has seen the Grand National steeplechase at Liverpool. The value of steeplechases as a breeding test depends on the kind of Manifesto. symmetry would be less troubling on a level and Newmarket perhaps it should even be of some use. Empress by Royal Blood. because the kind of obstacles . more. the distance. twice winner at Liverpool. produced still 9 good foals.in as a victor for the second time among 28. besides. and the only thing to be regretted is that The mare like many other steeplechasers. and varying. In Beberbeck. Steeplechase tracks like Auteuil are less suitable for testing breeding and the ground there admit of nearly the same pace as in flat races. is too long to be a useful test for flat racing. ought to consist of difficult obstacles. The Lamb.

like they do in England. more correctly the galloping capacity. finally. might also prevent a modern return of the times of ancient Greece and Rome. future breeder of influence on racing propositions. and. especially where bookmakers exercise much even for flat It is very clear that the special trainers are afraid of the work and preparation necessary for horses for such steeplechases. work will also cultivate the love . This ticularly to gentlemen riders. we do not here speak about flyers which are only very quick over 500 metres. but about such which. whilst the former makes more demand of course. which are especially valuable for stock. large over to get able they may be that jumped. carrying 80 kilos. especially for gentlemen riders or officers.000 and more metres. so important as tests of breeding becoming more and more scarce. Unfortunately. and over about 30 different jumps. All these qualities have great influence in the consider it I practical breeding of horses. racing propositions (many handicaps and short selling races). The latter will certainly measure is. after a gallop of 6. this work will produce and animate the love of sport and the daring w hich soon disappears in long periods of peace. 201 must admit of a real struggle in the best pace. on the speed of the horse. finally. etc. especially of military horses. are all noble Half-breds. One will find more often amongst stayers high-legged and narrow horses with upright shoulders and straight pastern than amongst flvers. must be so far prepared that they are always They well in hand and always willing to suit their pace to the ground. dTi^erent to a test on the flat. after having surmounted the last obstacle. just as in a flat Such tracks would.6. and here Germany is probably on top. especially as ver}This work belongs parfew of them are sufficiently conversant with it. they must A test over such a course still have enough speed left for the final struggle. Moreover. and. and without which every people would soon decay. for tion the winner of the great Auteuil steeplechase hoping to get a good hunter Horses who have chanced to win on such will verv likelv be deceived. an advantage that on such courses so-called flyers have a greater chance of winning than stayers. docility. but they are also guarantee for characters. Finally. and have more energy than the stayers. Whoever buys riding and jumping than is the case at Auteuil. The further spread and reserve of steeplechases. tracks as I have just described. still retain enough energy. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. whilst the Grand Seigneurs looked on and applauded. It is very noteworthy and interesting that the development of a great speed over short distances requires a horse to be svmmetrically built. force and breath to be able to put on enough speed to succeed in the final struggle. so carefully must be very and various' obstacles safely at the required pace and without giving too much awav. on the cleverness. successful training. and knowledge which are essential to the Thoroughbreds and Half-breds. such steeplechases. These are not only performances worthy of recommendation. in which slaves did the fighting and dancing. naturallv. demand a much more careful prepararace. especially as the flyers are more symmetrically built. temperament. of course.

unfortunately justified. especially as it avoids the effeminate treatment In which is resorted to in Europe without any advantage whatever. and the 22 hours' rest in the stable of the Besides. As typical examples of these kinds of performances. the American training method. and to give them plenty of walking exercise. We have seen respect. but they were put right and won races again. the in Germany several such Irish Half-breds on our steeplechase courses. may be considered the chief cause of a general retro- gression in the capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of the as of the special deterioration of the Thoroughbred. stronger. Scotch :\Ioor 1895 by Town Moor. and even bevond that. as well sequence of the early two-year-old races. to keep them in motion twice daily. even there the steadv increase of races for two-year-olds in the early part of the year (even beginning in January). that the two-year-old races. perhaps since then.. next to the Steppe horse come the Irish Half-breds. The law which has been in force in France since 1867 that two-year-olds must not be run before the 1st of August is very . Gardenia 1888 by Reveller. weak point in the whole Thoroughbred breeding. Handv Andy (Half-bred).e. which really cannot be over-estimated. Teviot 1886 bv Harden or Lucebit. and any rider who knows the Thoroughbred outside the racecourse will confirm that the galloping capacity Whoever has of the same is a greater one than the fundament will stand. Balrath (Half-bred) 1898 by Alban. however. It is clear that the movement connected with life on the Steppes. on hard meadows (in summer day and night). Sportsman (Half-bred) 1894 by the Dethroned. 4. i. Faulty and is too light fundament. dryer and firmer fore-legs than the 2 hours' training fundament. which often takes place in July. Every Half-bred breeder knows how difficult it is to improve by the infusion of Thoroughbreds the important fore-legs. is the breaking in of the yearlings. A yearlings. and the dangerous The yearlings lose through these causes the trials of same in autumn. and they did performances on three legs which a classical Thoroughbred can very seldom perform. Certainly they broke down now and again. produces better. as well as from the list of horses whose fundament admitted of their successful use on the racecourse up to their eighth year. from the observations made in the chapter on weight differences. etc. long-extended grazing influences the production of good fore-legs can best be seen with the Steppe horses and Half-breds in Ireland. seems in this respect to be very effective. America in 1893 I thought that the American Thoroughbreds possessed better fore-legs and a more regular walk than our horses. as well as of the many early entry closings. This reproach. Et Cetera 1884 by Town Moor.•2(32 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse. let me mention the following Thoroughbreds and Halfbreds :— Red Nob (Half-bred) 1866 by Neville. and especially those which are It is fairly clear run early in the year. Sixpence 1889 by Man-of-War. How much the benefits of grazing. may also have had a bad influence in this respect. In this ridden Steppe horses will know what good fore-legs can stand.

that horses with prominent performances at great ages. races may be run for two-year-olds (at most two on each race day). health. for distances of 2. and can therefore produce well in spite of two-year-old races. are derived in the majority from stallions and clams which did not run as two-vear-olds. however. without doubt by nature the best and hardest horses.400 metres. In Germany. and especially to improve the fundament. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. only in France and Germany. these young horses. objects to this. of capacity for carrying — ]]^ant The statement . ences seem to prove that the few two-year-old races not run too early in the year have had a favourable effect on Thoroughbred breeding.000 metres. heavy weights. Yet I believe that the complete elimination of two-year-old races would be the best means to improve Thoroughbred breeding. lose benefits which nothing can replace. which I have discussed above. One mav expect the unfeeling energy necessary to carry out such a trenchant rule. that most classical winners are derived from dams which have also run as two-year-olds. this reproach justified. a change wdll scarcely be possible in England in this respect. ran and won as two- year-olds. That the two-year-old races are a good thermometer as to hardness. the question seems to be justified.000 francs. or in consequence Those fillies as well as colts which can stand the two-year-old race tests are. against the fact stitution. since 1905. the fact that most classical winners of last fifty about the years are derived from dams who of. first of all. such as the one year's grazing. together with prudence and careful work. and especially for countries in which grazing is interrupted by a long winter. as the bookmakers and their following are so powerful as thev have been hitherto. in which five and six-year-olds and older horses were tested under great weights up to 12 stone. mostly for 4 miles with heats. . produced so well. we have the other fact. just as surely as we can accept their directly injurious influence. to work them well through the winter. however. and to send them again as two-year-olds in the summer 5.6. as to whether these dams have the two-year-old tests. which is especially useful for the whole conMoreover. through their early training. As long.000 or 2. so that in July also. in spite of. to break in the yearlings late in the autumn. In Germany. for a distance not over 1. to grass. Besides. for a prize up to 5. and also to ofter the best prizes for four-vear-olds and older horses. as well as the champions of steeplechases. etc. 203 reasonable. I do not consider so often heard that horses carried heavier weights formerly is only correct in so far as the so-called King's Plates are concerned. the 2nd of June has been fixed as the earliest date The above particulars on changes in weight differfor two-vear-old races. If one. if they come out as winners. this law has been extended since 1907. If two-vear-old races are altogether abolished. and more particularly the fundament. Unfortunately. and quality of young horses can be taken for granted. one might attain an improvement by forbidding two-vear-old races before the 1st of September. especially I would recommend.

account of the above observations. but the power of the bookmaker has always prevented it. Leger. of the St. the never beaten Eclipse carried. 8 stone. Establish well-endowed races for four-year-olds and older for 2. 2. varying and uneven ground and sharp turnings. The worse and more unreasonable the rider. If a chronometer must go as well as it ought to. and bad use of food. especially when it works hard. to In right hands. also under — 1. for was weight colts 7 9 lbs. especially as the danger to the legs would thereby be increased without obtaining any advantages. 7 lbs. all handicaps for two and threerules. and no good Thoroughbred can bear. The weights of the Derby. was the usual weight for four-year-olds. France and Austria with 54. first races for two-year-olds (1780) the and in the first classical races for two-year-olds (1786). hippologists have often tried to do away with this. bred is neither nervous nor difficult. 6. as a five and six-year-old. 2 lbs. America and Russia with A three-year-olds in classical tests does not seem greater weight than 58 kilos for to be desirable. Lay out flat races over uneven ground with sharper turnings than Germany up to now. the less is he suited to handle a capable Thoroughbred. have been increased by 1 stone since their inauguration.600—2. and the same thing applies to the Thoroughbred. in 5. for example. are the feather weights. Nervousness. namely. etc.000 metres. with age weights for gentlemen — riders. Abolish all races under 1. In Germany 58 kilos. In the second half of the nineteenth century 8 stone. Besides. Regulate distances for three-year-olds and older in breeding races to 1.204 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse.. is colts Arrange steeplechases as breeding races for four-year-olds and older and fillies on courses with great obstacles. 6. and In the the Oaks. against 9 stone of to-day.000 metres. all hurdle races. The Thoroughbred demands only a reasonable. : On 1.000 6. which are English earnest still usual in England in many handicaps and selling races. stone. in its remaining 8 races. England with 57. for example. and uses his food better than any other The above reproach is a race of horses.15 kilos. and who Thoroughbred in use..400 metres.0002. not a tender treatment. you must handle it in a proper manner. in the 11 King's Plates. for 4.400 metres. after the model of Epsom. difficult temperament. the Thoroughstand a whole day or longer in the stable. 56. I only mention this altogether unjustified reproach on account of completeness. 3. usual 4. however. year-olds. A great mistake.9.000 metres. only 8 or 9 stone. Then follows the Derby weight is the highest. the Thoroughbred not know characteristic judgment of people who do in training from the racehorse distinguish the cannot thoroughly. and the so-called Biedenweg . I make the following proposals Forbid two-year-old races before the 1st of September.

the proud words. If. the influence of bookmakers and other business people should increase in the framing of racing propositions. and increase the interest in the breeding of hardy yearlings. and are the cause that good horses often cannot run in important races. put heavy taxes on breeders. Increase breeders' in the rewards. to reorganise the race trials in the . etc.^ 7. In other words. " pro repuhUca est diim ludere videmur. and will persist in going on as they have done up to now. and several generations will have to work before that standard can be reached to which the Thoroughbred of to-day has attained. Half-bred breeders will then be forced to apply to their own breeding the care and expense which has been the cause of the origin of the Thoroughbred. as is unfortunately the case in England. however. further." will soon be no longer true as regards race tests. as they lead to too early trials. S. and if. that is a long way off. the representatives of Thoroughbred breeding will decline above-described or a similar manner. Half-bred breeders will themselves have to produce a sort of Thoroughbred. OQ. and they will be forced to demand from their own breeding stock those tests of performances which have made the Thoroughbred so capable.6. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement. so that more breeders may participate earnings of races. Of course. —-Abolish the early entry closings.

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II. Heredity. .

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The most important and ditTicult work of the breeder is the mating of brood mares. but also a sharp eve and an impartial consideration are essential. on the other hand. General Observations on Heredity. The former doctrine that the sire usuallv transmits the forequarters and the dam the hindquarters is not correct. The breeder's eve must be able to distinguish what is due to the mating and what is due to the rearing with respect to the soil. not onlv many some. nothing great is produced. people have an idea what an amount of natural capacity.CHAPTER 1. in horse breeding. there are. both dam and sire have the same proneness to transmit the peculiar characters of their body and temperament dowm to the minutest particular. It is acknowledged that the breeding of horses is more difficult than Darwin contends that only few the breeding of our other domestic animals. even with the wisest mating and the best breeding material. more or less. mating and the manner of rearing are the fundamental factors Even if we have to acknowledge that the first work. There does not exist a fixed regularity of transmission. on the other hand. is horse breeding vears' practice. but also of (Uir other domestic animals. is that one expects everything from the sire and its mating. either on the part of the dam or on that of the sire. to become an expert breeder of pigeons. yet. qualities which they do not themselves possess. Generally. dams who generallv transmit the same characters. not onlv in the breeding of horses. Also. but which (as Darwin contends) one of their ancestors as far back as the twelfth generation are generallv or mostlv transmitted We possessed. other things being equal. mating. how much more wearijudging from the results of mating. the mistake which most frequentlv occurs. Even if there are sires who nearly always transmit certain parts of the body or intellectual characters. is the more difficult part. Besides the breeding material and the soil which are at the disposal of the breeder. and omits to give that care to the rearing without which. . namelv. much more difficult. and how many How vears' practice are necessary. ! do not know anv general rules or laws indicating which characters bv the sire and which by the dam. they mav transmit. and above all. more complicated.

for example. and often change. unimportant matters are recalled. Sexual characters are also transmitted in the same ecjual manner by the sire and dam. In physiological psvchologv they speak of a muscular memory. Eyen if both parents generally take equal shares in transmission. different growths of the real and grafted picea. winner of the Oaks 1806. yet in eyery instance different combinations of the mutual heritages will arise. even of a memory of matter. On the other hand. And The innumerthese results cannot always be foreseen. one can distinctly see how memory acts in transmission. Transmission works lil^e the memory — often far distant. but also by sires descending from families where twins have often been born. and which only can be produced by grafting with the top shoots. Sunflower. Castrel. But her sire. and even later. down to the Half-bred stallion Optimus. In Trakehnen. able combinations which are thus possible are the cause of the different fine shades of indiyiduality and. Sunflower also produced twins. Stallions which fertilize badly. does not therefore attain that regular straightness which dis- tinguishes its mother type. for example. through Melbourne to Wizard and Odoardo. 4). and transmitted this quality to four consecutive generations. and bad covering stallions also produce dams which come badly and seldom in heat. descended on its mother's side from a family in which there had never been twins up to its foundation mare. Even the qualities to produce twins are not transmitted by the dams only. remembering too much its position and duty on the mother tree. as the ingrafted branch. whilst the daughters of Venezuela succeeded very seldom. argentea. for example. Venezuela's sires were much better than the sons of Journey. often nearer and more important ones are passed over. It was the same case with . for example. who produced twins four times. and vice-versa. born 1813. This peculiarity in transmission often continues through many generations. This is the consequence of the results of the fights which are fought out between mutual heritages in the segmentation nucleus (fertilised egg). transmitted this quality. In this case we must suppose that her sire. The supposition that transmission is also somewhat determined bv the memory of the germ plasm is in the same manner justified. pungens. In the Goos tables we find many examples of dams which had conspicuoush' cleverer sons than daughters. There have also been many stallions whose transmission dift'ered in the same way. also produce dams which conceive badly. the Journe\'-mares excelled in their splendid produce. and transmitted this C[uality several times. was own brother to Bronce. down to Rigolboche. In contrasting. finally. as. Lavton.'210 Heredity. for example. Barb Mare (fam. Stockwell and Xewminster were distinguished principally on account of manv good sons. while Melbourne and King Tom produced more good daughters. and perhaps still further. also of variations. which excelled very conspicuously through having better daughters than sons. sire of the Derby winner Cremorne. Castrel.

and Selim.I. Thev will transmit the best part of the blood of dam M. the retention of the blood of the dam ]\f. In any case. : — Family 3 wuth 72 . The equal value of sires and dams in transmission is contrary to the doctrine of Bruce Lowe. estimates the effective power of transmission which a good brood mare can maintain for following generations. is untenable. and that is not the case. as his daughters. can be seen already from this that the breeding theory of Bruce Lowe. to breed always from her direct daughters. In the book published in 1901 by \V. The families according to that are as follows stallions. 211 Crystal (born 1851 by Pantaloon). notwithstanding the consequent influence of other blood. has produced by a sire B. again transmittincr this quaHtv. . by her son M. — — take equal share in the transmission. and with several other sires less good dam products have been produced.1. the transmission power of dams must be Besides.. It is therefore not absolutelv necessary.I. to Rubens and SeHm. Bruce Lowe overfrom the Figure system." he gives on page 101 the number of stallions which have been produced by each family as sires Lowe has not figured out the Sire-families in the families. i.. is to be recommended. her twice.e. but has estimated of classical winners. in order to preserve the blood of a wellproven dam. who was dam. improved by B. all things being equal. Bruce totallv different to that of sires. produced twins inbred to Castrel. " The British Thoroughbred Horse. that certain breeding characters (Running and Sire families) are for several generations always transmitted by the dams. The same purpose a generation later by breeding from the daughters of her son. is attained The correctness of this procedure stands and falls.1 1 . vet no ancestor on her mother's side ever had twins. if well done. If the Bruce Lowe theory that there are special Sire and special Running families were true. a prominent sire product M. are taken as brood mares to the stud. It same way as the Runningthem without figures. with the generally acknowledged doctrine that sire and dam. If a dam M. General Observations on Heredity. of course. Allison.

from this point of view. but for the sire quality he can. Leger. and better than the SireThereb}^ the affirmed difTerence between Running and families 8 and 14.000 Guineas Stakes and in the St. have an equal influence on their progeny. not justified. four 2. one Oaks. are. good as the celebrated Sire-familv 12. and lead to wrong conclusions. according as it has won one or three classical races. sire and dam. The proportion of running. is sire of three or seventeen classical winners. This does not. If the Bruce Lowe doctrine were true. and outside families changes in the pedigree of a horse with every generation so much that the value of a horse differs according to the generation which is taken as aJjasis. interesting if it were true wanting. 11. the above table. As a winner in the 2. are. Statistical comparisons of the figures which represent the classical winners and of those which represent the sires of classical winners. we must take into consideration that a classical winner can only be counted once. this fact gives. and she ought Very to be able to seal her Sire or Running-character on her family. six St. 1 and 2.000 Guineas. surmount this obstacle by saving that perhaps the best sire blood was brought by the sire of the mother or by the sire's sire. sire.000. for example. the one foundation mare ought to have a greater influence than the other about 17. like Stockwell. Bruce Lowe's Sire-families. however. an interesting figure proof of the if looked at from a above contention that both parents. as well as of sires of classical winners in Sire-families. A sire of classical winners. obtain seventeen or even a higher number.000 ancestors. Moreover. according as he has produced one Stockwell. The followers of the Bruce Lowe doctrine. can be counted one to about seventeen times. far superior to just as Even the outside family 6. therefore. — ! In the figure estimate of the different families as regards the production of classical winners in Running-families. Legers. then in the case of the present day racehorses of about the 25th generation. According to one's wish. and three 1. judge a horse favourably or unfavourably. This shows distinctly that the value of the figures which determine the quality of Running or Sire-families cannot be taken as a standard. According to Chamant. 12 and 14. reconcile itself with the fundamental idea of the contended transmission of sire or running qualities only through the dam's side.212 Heredity. is Sire-families special point of view. and with seventeen numbers in the sire quality of the same family. Derbv winners. also the three best Sire-families. A classical winner can only obtain number three for the running ciuality of his family. when judging of the pedigree of a prominent racehorse whose sire does not come from a Sire-family. Stockwell is marked with two numbers in the running quality of familv 3. the proportion of sire and outside families changes as follows — : — .000 Guineas winners altogether seventeen classical winners. or at most three times. and the two Runningfamilies. for example. one could. however. is 8. as regards the production of sires.

Running- .

than a mare of less value. for a single is good.214 Heredity. have produced which all dams winners in the Thoroughbred tables correspond to the Royal stud and country As in all breeding of animals. especially as he can be more covering. The classical nothing great are left out. than a good mare. has a greater influence on the progeny than the sire. i. therefore. and that it is therefore important to use It is taken as a matter of course that the stallion as good a dam as possible. it only follows that a good or prominent mare has more. as well as in in quality.. . and the investigator obtains an easy survey and insight It is a mistake. in the same manner as purpose the Thoroughbred dams in the Goos tables. whilst from the above. easy means to judge rightly and quickly the chances of a good heredity in every single instance.e. the stallions will on an average excel the brood mares The chief thought expressed in the Goos tables. i.e. more favourable influence. to conclude that the dam in transmission affairs. piled according to the families on the dam's side. easily obtained.. bv far more female than male stallions. are used to serve this in the In these tables stud books of the Royal studs at Trakehnen and Beberbeck. animals are necessary. is therefore based on the claim that a division of the blood on the mother's Through it the practical breeder will obtain an side may also take place. the tables just mentioned in the stud books of Trakehnen and Beberbeck.

constancy and individual prepotency. can be transmitted. The ingenious Darwin theory of natural selection in breeding has latterly been much attacked. must. the case of dogs.CHAPTER The Transmission of II. The opponents of the doctrine of the transmission oi acquired character admit that those acquired characters of the body. and not of such a kind that transmission We . in the case of and abrin-proof mice. or. not strong enough. as in irritation. even if only in a very small degree. is subject to every such The cutting off the tail. for example. assume that the germ plasm nourished by the body. it is possible that this transmission of immunities by the dam is deceptive. however. as far as my observations at Beberbeck and Trakehnen go. just like the controversies about pure breeding. without it. to transmit a certain immunity. rizin the case of rabv-proof rabbits and tetanus-proof mice. for example. The destruction of the unfit is. Mares which have suffered from severe glanders and got over them seem. The development of the genus horse is a proof of the Darwin theory. Acquired Characters. easy The creation of the fit. Critics. if remains an enigma. transmission of acquired characters. All characters acquired by the body exercise an irritation through the acquirement. to prove that sires transmit such immunities. and thus connected with the same. have not yet substituted it by anything better. according to Darwin's theory. very likely produces an irritation of the germ cells. which is. Of course. The question therefore arises. which when acquired influence also the germ cells. therefore. to speak more correctly. on the body and on the germ cells and the transmission of characters thus acquired. and by Ehrlich. which of the characters acquired by the body do not influence at the time when they are acquired corresponding these germ cells? The above opponents admit also the effects of climate and food. The controversy as to the transmission of acquired characters seems to me to have become a war of words. which he speaks of. the corresponding so-called "determinants" of the germ cells. The transmission in of immunities has also been proved bv Tizzoni. is explainable by the to prove. and has only been I have never been able transmitted to their progeny by the milk of the dam. however.

For example. or if she were fastened up. had accustomed herself not to be fastened up. De Gaste. and reckons with the transmission of many acquired characters. the trotting exercises have. horse breeding is based on these important and fundamental truths. for example. without a tail follows. climate. I noticed as a very remarkable thing in the meadows that the foals of Trotters. tions. health. Thus is explained the transmission . On the other hand. which breeders can bring about. Only irritations which for a long time and regularly. In the celebrated stud Palo Alto (California). not acquired characters. so suitable for drawing heavy loads. hardiness. October. This is most noticeable in the case of breaking in young horses for jumping. Foals from parents which have been harnessed in their youth are more from parents which have never been harnessed. and the construction of the skeleton. probably in consequence of an accidental opportunitv. and flatter withers. which the Frenchman. have led to the acquirement of certain characters. takes to be the result of exorbitant trotting exercises. food and manner of living exercise on the complete organism of animals in every kind Important changes in the breeding stock may be effected by of breeding. example for this which I personally know is the previously mentioned change of the Percherons in the Russian Government Stud. To these belong first of all. to get loose bv cunning or force. 1893. The best of changes produced by the continuous influence of ground. Pirna transmitted this quality to several of her progeny. a stunting of the ischium. which commences when they are weaned foals. habits. just as little to acquired characters as the circumcision of Jews both are changes made from the outside. and transmitted. power. and the less developed withers into prominent ones. in the course of several genera- produced straighter pasterns. Likewise the more upright shoulders of the draft horse. combined with the action and changed by certain exercises. especially in early years. and the diminution of the shoulder angle. consists for the most part in a prolongation of the ilium. as a matter of fact. unlike foals of easily broken to harness than foals . The cutting: off the tail in the case of dogs belongs. the trotting training of Trotters. have been produced bv degrees and transmitted in consecjuence of constant practice in drawing heavy loads through many consecutive generations. action. Derkul (Government Charkow). longer middle. The deformation of the skeleton. It is more difticult to break in for riding foals the parents of which have not been ridden or verv little than those from parents which have been ridden for a long time. which was caused by the Steppes. as. In Trakehnen the brood mare Pirna. Darwin has especially emphasised the great influence which ground.21C Heredity. Practical changes in the mode of living. the firmly established and early begun galloping exercises of the Thoroughbred have transformed the previous more curved hind legs into more straight ones. will be able to influence the corresponding " determinants " of the germ cells in such a manner that a favourable aptitude for the characters acquired from the parents is more or less transmitted.

The last four were soon after taken away from race training. both of which were brought up in the Mauer Park of Sababurg. were put to training for the Half-bred breeding races 1907 in Konigsberg infuse : — Ackerdrossel by Pomp and Achtbare by Optimus. their racing chances. Nos. by reason of their ancestry and conformation. 6. In the following are giyen a few examples showing that the explanation of progress or retrogression in breeding by yariation and selection alone seems to be insuflicient. 5. Jutizratin by Geheimrat and Justicia b\. hardiness. but all those characters which are acquired by continuous exercise of the same and according to the effect of the acquirement they may either injure or benefit the breed. the following ten fillies. The Transmission of Acquired Characters. Apis. mare Satanella.Passyan. Geheimrat. Poesie by Geheimrat and Poststrasse by Lehnsherr. Thoroughbred sires (Pomp. which were brought up in Trakehnen. Elwin and Elfenbein. Looked at from this standpoint. Hohkonigsberg by Pomp and Hohle by Apis. If we consider the three different fillies and Greif) of the aboye ten of equal yalue. Art by Pomp and Argolis by Elwin. nearly always trotted. Briefly. 1907. 5 and 6 were the slowest. In August. ought also to haye transmitted these characters better than the stallions Orcus. if they were urged on by a handkerThere was onlv one foal which galloped more than trotted. 9. and stronger heart and lungs. not only habits and cleyerness are transmitted. had there acquired better faculties for going. 7. "2. and all things being equal. to judge the sires of the dams of these ten fillies in order to rightly estimate. first of all. Lore by Pomp and Louisa by Elfenbein. among the two-year-old fillies which were destined to become brood mares. the Americans liked until recently to Thoroughbred blood into their Trotters. If we belieye in the transmission of acquired characters. the transmission of habits and faculties is in horse breeding a fact proyable by many examples. Julisonne by Greif and Julia by Orcus. howeyer. was about in the same order as shown by the aboye table. and the most important means for the improyement of the breeds. Lautenspielerin by Geheimrat and Laute by Lehnsherr. the merit of the ten fillies in the last autumn trial. 8. 1. The stallion Palo Alto and mare ^Nlaud S. by reason of the ancestry of the mares. As is well known.2. 3. 1906. Finally there only remained the four . 217 Thoroughbreds. are the best examples of this experiment. As Darwin has proyed by many examples. Leibeigene by Pomp and Leibrente by Optimus. In the summer. and that foal was the product of a Trotter stallion out of the Thoroughbred chief or whip. in Trakehnen. 4. near Beberbeck. we should haye. we must assume that the two Halfbred sires. Optimus and Lehnsherr. 1906. and therefore had less chance of exercise and galloping from their earliest youth. 10. Heimatlose by Pomp and Heidenelfe by Elfenbein.

we find in the above tables (pages 108 141) man\' examples pro\ing that horses which did not run as two-year-olds. remains a puzzle without the transmission of acquired characters. after 1730.218 Heredity. and afterwards transmitted so well the faculty fc^r trotting that he became one of the most favourite trotting sires The well-known American in Kentucky. on the 20th July. or as the descendants of the alreadv earlier imported Byerl). only be explained if a good fundament were an obstacle for successful racing as twovear-olds. Trakehnen. then trained several years for trotting. Dr. which were imported into England after Godolphin Arabian. in July. On account of influenza in grand-children of Optimus and Lehnsherr. had already been used as a stallion for breeding of Trotters He produced badly. but — up to their eighth \ear and older. Mambrino Chief was his progeny were not able to win any trotting races. i. wanting.) by Mambrino Paymaster. How is it. Mambrino Chief (H. two-year-old winners. . always try to avoid horses with bad fundament as much as pcxssible. We can find many similar examples of this in horse breeding. then. amongst them the celebrated Bee's Wing. successfully produced progen\. that the reverse happens so much more seldom? All these and similar occurrences can be much more easily and more naturally explained if we accept the theory of transmission of accjuired characters. did not inherit the capability for running in the same measure as the children and grand-children of Godolphin Arabian (Cade and Matchem). and it Thoroughbred breeding — as illustrated above the retrogressive movement — as a consecjuence of the many and earlv two-vear-old races. It is also unjustifiable to explain by variation and selection alone would be somewhat artificial to Thoroughbreds.vouth.which distinguished themselves as two-year-olds on the racecourse. The fact that racehorses possessing such a good fundament that thev still win flat races as eightyear-olds and older are mostly derived from parents which did not run as two-vear-olds can. 1907. for all that. Trotter. Darle}' Arabian. for example. Syntax. The race took place. and a bad fundament can scarcely be considered as a necessary accompaniment of variation. and before he was trained for trotting races. without a transmission of acquired characters. and there the four fillies passed the post in the same order as above list.e. ran and won between the age of 3 and 12 years. however.. Selection will. time necessary for variation and selection is selection alone. we were unable to send any horses for racing to Konigsberg.Turk. The deteriorain explain this striking fact by variation and Above all. On the contrar\-. which produces at tion of the fundament of the the same time racing capabilit\' in earl\. therefore. 1907. which increases slowly from generation to generation.Orientals for the transmission of acquired characters. one may give as an example the fact that man\. at Trakehnen. In the history of Thoroughbred breeding. and produced from several mares which had not run as two-year-olds.

for example. Highfl}'er and Eclipse were given in manv races extra weights of about 3 to 5 lbs. offspring of Oriental parents in several races (in the Goodwood Gold Cup. i. In my opinion. with respect to racing capability.). The other explanation of this fact. The Transmission of Acquired Characters. the heritage. if we consider the few generations and the not too numerous individuals coming into consideration for selection in which the difference of transmission was alreadv distinctly recognisable. 0]^C) and many In spite of the less weights which were accorded to the others. The breeder would have much less pleasure in his work once the most interesting part of stud work disappeared. the whole controversy about the transmission of acquired characters seems to terminate on this or that wrangling. The belief in the transmission of acquired characters the chief . unless we suppose that the variation of the germ plasm has been at least guided by the acquired characters of the body. bv variation and selection.e. is for the breeder stimulant to diligent and well-considered work. as descendants of Godolphin Arabian. but that the activity necessary to acquire new characters had a direct influence on the germ plasm. the later imported Orientals could not compete any longer against the progeny of the earlier imported ones.. the offspring of Herod. Without this belief there would be a great danger of breeding material being neglected. as a contrast to the offspring of Matchem and Conductor. In consequence of the transmission of acquired characters. the followers of U^eissmann's theory may say that it is not the acquired characters of the body which have guided the formation or variation of the germ plasm.2. is.. somewhat artificial. On the other hand. 36 lbs. who was later imported than Byerly Turk (foundation sire of Herod and Highflver) and Darlev Arabian (foundation sire of Eclipse). has slowly increased. Finally.

. and only designates the constant direction of the breeding. Constancy and Individual Prepotency. are scientifically better founded. and doctrines expressed careIt is difficult lessly and regardless of correctness. to decide who was the original author of the doctrine of individual prepotency. above all.e. and characters of same. Johann Gottlieb A\"ollstein (born 1737). Xathusius calls the products of capable parents " highly bred. the teachers of the present time have the advantage of regarding these questions from the pedestal of the latest biological researches. There are often only wordv wars. Xathusius and Settegast. (died 1824). that of Buffon). Heredity in horse breeding is all the more . short-lived doctrines (as. Of course. is more constant the longer the line of ancestors which has been trained in serviceable management to acquire the intended performance. There has been much dispute over the question as to how surely the characters of breeding stock. which. especially the just-mentioned changed With the exception of a few extravagant. Johann Christoph Justinus The doctrines of the old Justinus (Allg. all the more corre- purpose of horse breeding in short. Of course. are inherited. which are considered classics still at the present time.CHAPTER The Doctrine of III. sure. and which has been favourably tested. i. and his eminent disciple the Imperial Stud Inspector. for instance. Aristotle taught in his celebrated work. if somewhat less thoroughly than it is taught to-day. did. the same theory of congreat disagreements of the doctrinaires. the word " constant " admits progress in the intended capabilities. the unimportant deviations of the different doctrines from one another are just as remarkable as the Even in ancient Greece." According to this the sponding to the . and they are therefore enabled to give to these questions more precise and more explicit answers. causing a long book war. about 300 years B. have been later parti v rearranged more precisely but at the same time have been impaired by von \\"eckherlin. Wien 1815).. Grundsatze zur Vervollkommung der Pferdezucht. just as later the professor of the Vienna veterinary school. v. H. H.C. stancy and even individual prepotency. V. Historia Animaliuvi.

with their obscure origin. The Doctrine of Constancy and Individual Prepotency. afterfinallv. the Cleveland Bays. In recent times some stud books of Half-breds give some information. alreadv ruined many formerly capable breeds. as. These horses which have been rewarded at shows cannot generally be recommended when breeding for performances. but also the proof of a rational rearing. V. without taking into consideration the performance. of course. bv The is stant heredity of and especially b\^ natural selection in the is the more can one rely on a conIn every breed where the method of these natural breeds. According to this we could not call the Merinos. somew'hat more difficult. as there are no race calendars. and more or less the so-called zoological attributes. as they record especially the brood mares which have received prizes at shows. not meant in the zoological sense. for example. The puritv of breed coming here into consideration does not only require a pure pedigree.3. one which serves the purpose. especially if it is continued for several generations. Such breeding stock would not transmit constantly in the sense of their breed. puritv of breed. and will generallv be based on the manner of rearing and the condition of the soil.e. but by transmitting their own acquired characters. after several generations. as H.. the above sentence could also be The hereditv is all the more constant the purer the breed is bred. for example. as. wards constant hereditv. the Suffolks. 221 above sentence could be summed up as follows The heredity in horse breeding is all the more constant the more highly bred ancestors are found in the In so far as in so-called pure breeds a guarantee pedigree of both parents. and in recent times perhaps also a part of the Clydesdales. i. more or fight for less life. the breed degenerates. is guaranteed ing. The exclusive attention paid to a recorded pure pedigree (and as long as it is possible of the just-mentioned zoological attributes. of course. as recorded in the stud book. consisting in effeminacy and lack of capabilities. at first the intended capabilities disappear. For example. with the aid of unreasonable shows. i. pure bred. judging is. is given that their ancestors are highlv bred. There ape horses which. Nathusius requires. but it is just as necessary.. according to their the stud . In natural breeds. which reallv is the base of all) has. read : : is.. as regards pedigree and capabilities.e. for example. Steppe horses and Arabs in their own homes. i. and not even the present day Thoroughbred. local conditions surer this guarantee management irrational. thev would transmit a character opposed to the object of breed- Puritv of breed thev would not transmit constantly in the sense of their race. Everv sensible breeder of Thoroughbreds or Trotters can obtain from book and race calendar the necessary information for the correct judgment of the breeding stock from which he may expect a constant In the breeding of Half-breds heredity.e. Thoroughbred breeding would lose every prospect of success if breeding material were used which had been pampered without training and tests. as well as of sufficient performances of their respective ancestors.

as I have found of certain individuals carefully chosen. action. or had not sufiicient exercise)." acter. and sometimes extraordinarily. there would be no objection to the mixing the . and I have experienced it myself at Trakehnen. is a priori probable. Sebright has made special experiments in this respect. The which in this way becomes more the cause of progress kinds of breeding. The chief characters of Trotters and Thoroughbreds which are required to be combined are hard sinews and bones. but which pursue same purpose and have attained approximately the same results. as everywhere else. strong heart. and everything seems There are breeds which are not related to each other. The progeny from the first crossing of two pure breeds is. but not to breeding. however. alike in char- to be simple. are pure Trakehners. be very difficult to produce a new breed which would represent a good average of two different breeds or kinds. scarcely two of their progeny will be alike. By improving valuable. but having been irrationally reared (perhaps they have not been taken to grass. According to what I have just said. Cross breeding. however. It in the case of pigeons. in all stock for breeding. Neither Justinus nor the other old teachers of the doctrine of constancy have ever believed in unchangeable breeds in the sense of the progress of their performances.2-2l2 Heredity. Sir J. therefore cannot have a constancy. The best example of a successful cross breeding in the history of horse breeding is the mixing of the American Trotter and Thoroughbred. even if it otherwise miscarries. Coarse crosses of either English or Oriental Thoroughbreds on Draft breeds may be prominent products well adapted to of success in crossing different breeds patibility of the The chances certain practical uses. That breeding with such stallions in Trakehnen cannot lead to good results. depend on the commost important characters which the two breeds possess. well developed lungs. the intended characters of the products can also be improved. but without success. The performances and other characters required in every kind of horse breeding are much surer of being transmitted the longer the line of ancestors which have been bred on favourable soil in connection with a rational method of raising. If one. is the soil and other things. L'nreasonable wishes will remain wishes here. and one gets a clear idea of the great difficulty of success. and on the possibilities of realising the new breeding form aimed at by crossing and its performances to be produced. acts on fertility and good constitution just as favourably as fresh blood. fairly. pedigree. pairs these crossbreds for a few consecutive generations. as well as of the selection of the most capable heritage. and which possess an intended would. Darwin writes about cross breed- The possibility to form different breeds by cross breeding has been very much exaggerated. in spite of so-called purity of breed. thev cannot be taken as pure-bred Trakehners. and healthy nerves. Certainly many cases are known which prove that a breed can be modified by an occasional crossing ing and its success as follows : " character.

On the other hand. with the East Prussian horse breed. would act favourably as an infusion of new blood. there are sires and dams which. as. on the other hand. and. trained for longer distances. The characters of the American Trotter. but on account of their verv different training. or a bad action.. trained for the mile. the two champions of the racecourse. they possess different forms. Arabian and Persian stallions have produced well in the East Prussian Military Studs. their progeny was noted for bad hocks. it would tend to favourably influence constitution. on account of performance. it seems to me that a mixing of the Russian and American Trotters would be very precarious. would probablv have good results. These two breeds are not of equal value regarding the kind of their performances. this lack of In every breeding. energv. progeny be ever so it be ever so pure. The abilitv of breeding stock to transmit the characters desired in the case of every breed in a prominent manner is called individual prepotency. The manner of rearing these two Trotting breeds is just as different as their conformation. In the same wav also.3. I have known horses with excellent hocks. The use of Thoroughbred sires in the Steppe breedings of Russia has led to very good results. The Doctrine of Constancy and Individual Prepotency. nevertheless. 223 of such breeds. and may the rearing of its one will always find individuals which transmit the desired breed characters particularly well. such a mixing. and vet their progeny performed little or nothing at all. There have been Thoroughbreds which belonged to the best on the course. Cotherstone and Gladiateur. the mixing of a military horse bred perhaps in Australia. especially with a breed which ranks higher. transmit the same very seldom or not at all. Whether those individuals which excel by new formations of nature (according to Darwin's single variation) One of the most important tasks of the breeder . individuals which transmit them badly. On the other hand. may rational. Sires as well as mares may have a special individual prepotency. Such mixings between the Thoroughbred and the different noble breeds in all parts of the world have taken place with good results.e. sires with special individual will be to get prominent prepotency. but almost a cross. Of course. The mixing of the same would not be an infusion of fresh blood. with all its dangers. but yet not without prospects for a final success after long and systematical breeding. On the contrary. and again others with a splendid action. caused by different race propositions. and cannot therefore be classed as of whollv equal breed. transmission is not the rule. not on account of the various blood which predominates in these two breeds. even when (if only exceptionally) thev do not themselves possess in a prominent manner the character which thev prominently transmit. although themselves possessing in a high degree the desired breed characters. however. cannot be so easilv mixed with the characters of the Russian Trotter. i. and possessing the necessarv characters. for example. vigour and fecundity.

2'24 Heredity. It is possible that generally such stallions are specially endowed with individual prepotency. as far as horse breeding is concerned. . and to establish and make the greatest possible use of these characters by Of courscy one will naturallv prefer to inbreeding. use stallions with individual variations or modifications which appear favourable for the purpose of breeding. The aggregate is — — of filly yearlings therefore always more equal than that of colt yearlings. is a question which. cannot as yet be In anv case. prone to take on individual variations than female products. male products in horse breeding are more definitely answered. are as Settegast says endowed with a special individual prepotency.

whose abilities and capabilities are to be seen in the racing calendars since 200 years. Even the book by Davenport (" Principles of Breeding"). Numerous regularly appearing considerable and America. 1907. From this is derived the tions " Q . By " free generaledge. It shows how enormous is the material we possess in the Thoroughbred. to my knowinvestigations of scientists in biology The — — formulated in our country. must altogether run five generations before entering the blood of Pocahontas and The Baron. by three generations. is removed from the dam. Laws of inbreeding are. with 1 to 17 millions of ancestors. which gives many very interesting insights into the mathematically-expressed laws of transmission. Therefore the common blood of the basis. but only in progress. and this field is. especially in England also in Germany. and that it is without equal in any other breed Common ancestors constitute the basis of inbreeding. amongst which is one that is especially worth}^ of notice appearing in England since 1901 under as the name the name of " Biometrica " (Professor Pearson). neither " Biometrica. From the Thoroughbred of to-day are already known 20 to 25 generations of their genealogy. unfortunately. published in America. Orville. Pocahontas. up to the present not wholly familiar to the scientists. not other civilised countries." We ! is meant the number of generations between the common ancestors and the sire on the one side. IV. and transmission have made. most periodicals have lately been created regarding this subject. In the following example of Stockwell. in which already indicates all mathematically tangible phenomena of biology and transmission are discussed. The Baron. however. nor in the just-mentioned It appears to me the reason is that the material for such investigations in animal breeding is available to a sufficient extent only for the English Thoroughbred breeding. and from the sire. and between the common ancestors and the dam on the other side.CHAPTER Inbreeding. the common ancestor. by two generations. could therefore make their pedigrees. leaves somewhat to be desired in its chapter on inbreeding. Orville.

226 H credit}'. term "five free generations. and accordingly supports or increases the inbreeding of his son that We Stockwell on the same basis." It can also be seen from the same example Waxy and Penelope form the basis of a different inbreeding with six further can notice that The Baron free generations. Stockwell Pocahontas The Baron Glencoe Marpessa Echidna Birdcatcher Sir Clare Muley TrampoHne Sultan Miss Pratt Economist Guiccioli Hercules a S W « dd D3 ^ . himself has four free generations to Waxy and four free generations to Penelope. three on each side.

and Table the same in a lucid pedigree form.) = 1 2. and 2 e. all ancestors. shows the heredity share of the various generations. one can eliminate 2 e and write instead 2 e (1 + 2 e + 4 e. me. But whether and in what manner Galton has furnished a mathematical proof of it is unknown Table to I. figure as mediators of the remaining part 1 — . is transmitted on the offspring by each parent as mediator of his ancestors. To each of the parents may be therefore ascribed half.. which is ascribed to the total of the ancestors. The last column in Table I. gives a scheduled classification of the heredity shares for 10 II.= 1. . =1 the offspring equals 262144 = 2 ^*. If one adds the remaining heritage of the still further removed generations of 512 the whole heritage of the offspring = 2 ^Ms obtained.4. The value of this series quickly From the above equation 1) . 007 I myself know of no law of breeding which can be settled or confirmed by the system of removes. Inbreeding.Accordingly the four grand parents have the share 2 e 2 e = 4 e^. of all generations One sees that each higher genera- Below is shown the total and including the tenth. also all = 1/4. as well as spring. accordingly generation. one can multiply Thereby the heredity unity is the share of an = 2'^ and the heritage of ancestor in the tenth generation. have heredity shares on the off- how great is the share of each of them. Now the question arises how much of this half each parent individually transmits.) Thereupon follows of its total that each parent individually transmits only the half heritage. equal to the series in equation therefore e = 1/4 3. and how much of it he transmits as mediator of his ancestors.) As 1).+ 8 e-'' : — 1) . all it As is numbers by 262144. . : — in which the 1 figures as the entire heritage. The heredity share coming from each parent must therefore be considered to consist of two parts which as is shown at once must be equally great. The second generation consists of two parents. . the eight great grand parents 2 e 2 e 2 e = etc. . At first a still unknown fraction e is supposed to be the individual heredity share of The question now arises — — Both parents therefore individually possess 2 e shares. This is known in England as the so-called Galton's law of ancestral heredity. generations. up to . decreases until thev soon become infinitesimal. 2 e + 4 e= + 8 e'^ + 16 e^ 1. tion has the half of the share of the preceding one. while the other half. Both parents. One sees that not quite 4-millionth represents the heredity share of an ancestor in the tenth inconvenient to count wuth fractions.) one parent. both of which possess equally great shares. Thereby follows the demand that the fraction e is also A-alid for all former generations. the value contained in brackets near the 1 it is follows by substitution 2 e (1 + = 1. The heritage will 8 e^ total thus be represented by .

228 Heredity. Table <n I .

Inbreeding. 229 1—1 CD CM w < CQ fcJD C .4.

:3G Heredity. O >. -a o o G^ .

231 J 1. Accordingly.2 The inbreeding amount equals 6. as a unity to be absolutely described is unconceivable. The unity to be chosen an arbitrary one. thereoneself of the exactness = follows in case of 2 free generations 6 free generations : : F= F= 2 2 ^ (^-2) ^ (^"^^ ^ 2 ^ = 256 =2°=1 and simple means for the Accordingly the free generations are a practical calculation of the inbreedino. therefore their product also indicates in powers to 2 the inbreeding amount.2 The or a in ^^ = simplest function which reads as follows : fulfils the condition that becomes if a^ words : =o 1 J 1.4. is constructed. but the inbreeding amount as settled by the free generations.. is the effective agency which asserts the influence of the common ancestor in memory and in transmission with the power of the inbreeding amount. which the inbreeding by reinstance according to column iii. Inbreedino- amount in the case of -r .) the product of the hf-redity shares Accordingly Table IV. Table IV. is F= in 9 2 (fi-f) which is f 1 = that number 1. not the quantity of blood. one can calculate at once the inbreeding amount F as of the basis. It = One can convince for garding the values 1 in Table IV. From the number of free generations. Inbreeding.amounts.. of free generations to amount fore f supposed 6. The heredity shares are powers to 2.

Much of the blood of Eclipse has been spoiled by inbreeding too.2 = quantity of blood = a : . As amongst these 128 ancestors there are very probably several of inferior value. . dam of the Derby winner Sir Peter.2. Only on the basis of inbreeding the prominent ancestors is a better chance of transmission to be If all ancestors were faultless and equally prominent. If we construct the case theoretically that two animals are mated with each other. but is equal to a^ a ^^ + a ^ a ^^^ + a^^ . every inexpected. . Too much inbreeding in Thoroughbreds as well as in Half-breds has often ruined good tribes. As further examples for the failure of inbreeding with the progeny of following mares will serve : — free generation . if this prominent ancestor appears as a basis of an inbreeding.3 for = J 1. to each of the 128 ancestors in the seventh generation. we must ascribe to each separate ancestor of a generation. therefore. The question now arises how close useful inbreeding shall be to-day. for example. In Thoroughbred breeding I recall the too frequent inbreeding undertaken by Lord Derby (9 times with 0. The inbreeding of any developing breed must necessarilv be very close at first. undertaken almost at the same time. the most celebrated family of all Thoroughbreds. Whilst the inbreeding mania of Lord Derby was a distinct fiasco. . and her daughter Penelope. a great part of the blood of Thunderclap. There is yet a broad and uncultivated field before us for further mathewill here only point out that if the basis of I matical considerations. and we have lost at Trakehnen in the same way. . pedigree of the product. where B 1. The best part of the female progeny of the celebrated Papillon was ruined by it. Furthermore. 6 times with 1.. the same possibility and chance of the thorough heredity of its characters. and 9 times w'ith 2 free generations) with the daughters of Papillon. can show any inbreeding whatever. inbreeding occurs oftener than twice in the pedigree the inbreeding amount cannot be equal to a ^ a ^^ a ^^^ . in the thoroughly transmits as well as the prominent ancestor.2 which we can also write + a ^^^ B 1. in the reasonable limits of at least 2 free generations. has produced from the valuable blood of Prunella. In every kind of animal breeding. It is evident that the merits of a prominent ancestor have more chance of being ports. ^ + a ^^ Thereupon we could still establish special values for the inbreeding supAnother consideration would be necessary for the inbreedings wnth more than one basis..2.. breeding would be dispensable. the breeding of the Duke of Grafton. and how often it shall be repeated. on which ancestors as a basis the inbreeding must be founded. there is just as much probability that the inferior ancestor transmitted. a ^^^ + J 1. one has sought and attained improvement and progress by inbreeding to prominent ancestors as a basis.232 Heredity. for the breeding of which the mating is made. which neither in themselves nor in mating with each other. as will be shown later on.

As Grey Diomed is a noted son of Diomed. celebrated by his famous match with the American Eclipse in New York. they. 3. of the products with free generation is omitted in Goos' There are yet man}^ other examples in which this exaggerated inbreeding would have had a favourable opportunity to manifest its eventual merit. the basis of St. — — — mare may be the basis of inbreeding. I have only found one good racehorse in the American breeding. for example. determine themselves the closest limit of the inbreeding. Diomed). and dam of iMeteora O. Termagant. Good mares will only be able to serve as a basis for an inbreeding in those cases sire as well as a will.. The sire of American Eclipse equally prominent on the racecourse as at the stud was Duroc 1806 by Diomed Grey Diomed. but from Medley. Sister to Parrot 1812 amongst which 4 with free generation. Among the many instances of free generation I have not found a single one in the American Stud Book which has been of importance to breeding. in mating one will aim at inbreeding to a stallion. Its failure is the most plainly recognised through their progeny as well as in the case of the children of Papillon not having played the role to be assured of a place of honour in the Goos' tables. in most cases the stallion forms the basis of inbreedincr. The few mares which serve as basis of inbreeding belong to the most prominent. of course. therefore.. Inbreeding. his good characters can be recognised much more easily and quickly than those of a mare.4. 233 witii 1. it often happens that good mares give place to the nearest good son as a basis for the inbreeding. Pocahontas. with 8 foals. and that is Henry 1819 by Sir Archy-Diomed (i. a fine performance indeed But.e. with two different prominent products on each side of the pedigree. jNIaid of all Work 1786 by Highflyer. among-st which 6 2. tables. whilst most good mares have produced a few good offsprings. 1823. and exact investigation in the American Stud Book proved to me. As. free generation. but as the stallion have a more numerous progeny. of which 9 are mentioned in Goos' tables. Simon's inbreeding. The progeny — — There has been also much damaged by exaggerated inbreeding in the American Thoroughbred breeding. Duroc also appears to be bred to Diomed with free generation. as for example. in most cases good stallions have produced several good offsprings. by Walton. with Penelope. The excellent performance of Duroc on the racecourse and at the stud made me sceptical. Sister to Resrulus 1743 Avith bv Godol. Generally. etc. especially if she has only produced well by one stallion. as will be seen from the above. that the aforesaid Grey Diomed is not descended from Diomed. 16 foals. A where. a son of Gimcrack. therefore. Banter. Arabian. must be specially mentioned as the mother of 18 foals. ! . moreover. Velocipede's dam. own sister to Cowslip L.

We find them : — With . In order to correctly estimate the most successful inbreedings in Thoroughbred breeding.. 1 free generation 11 stallions 2 free generations 23 stallions (only 3 or 4 successful) 3 .234 Heredity. we have classitied the following examples of the best stallions^ according to the degree of their inbreeding.

has been of no importance in Thoroughbred breeding. 2. ran as an eight-year-old without winning. His own brother Heel-and-Toe ran between the age of four and seven without winning. God. Arabian. be confused with Hedlev by Gohanna born 11. Lucan 1796 by Sir Peter out Highflyer. 1818. of Maria. Woodpecker— Herod. Sharper 1700 by Bajazet out of Sister God. 6. . 9. George 1793 by Dungannon out Eclipse. a moderate racehorse. Sire of 2 unimportant winners. Filch 1761 by Bajazet out of Sister to Regulus. Old Cartouch. of Sister to Soldier. Hedley 1802 by Sir Peter out Highflyer. for Half-bred breeding. to 10. Brown Stout 1804 by Highflyer. 8. and that had this not happened he would probably have been much better than his less closely inbred brothers and sisters (see Family In any case. Sold -as stallion to America and worthy of mention there as grand-sire in the female line of Sumpter. of whom is asserted that he knocked his hip when in embryo. with —1 free generation. Sire of 5 unimportant winners. Sir Peter out of Brown Charlotte.4. As I never found recorded a foal by him. I the stallions with free generation the following 13 (up to of found no more in the General Stud Book) are worthy good or moderate racehorses : — mention as Silverleg 1743 by Cartouch— Old Cartouch.3 cm. o. Papillon. the supposition is that he was infertile. he 43). Inbreeding-. and beat Little Driver. Among now 1. 4. Arabian. Robin Redbreast 1796 by Papillon. Arabian. to Regulus. Cocoa-tree 1797 by Herod. I have yet found in the General Stud Book Regulus. (Not 1803). of Brow-n Charlotte. born 1764. of height. 0Q5 was a good racehorse. Ran and won between the age of four and nine. He was set apart as covering stallion in Richmond in Yorkshire for 3 guineas. ran and won between the age of four and seven. to Parrot. by Regulus out of Sappho by Regulus. God. 13 h. Arabian. 3. and was then used as a stallion inbred. also in Give and Take Plates. Agonistes 1797 by Sir Peter out of Wren. Sir Peter out of Wren. Trap 1759 by Blank— Godol. 7. by Sir Archy. 3^ inches -. 1 Ivanhoe 1817 by Phantom out of Sister Walton.140.

Omar 1752 by Godol. Have never found recorded a foal by him. Xisa. amongst which the Derby. born 1760. 2.•236 Heredity. and was the sire of many good racers. Confidence's dam. He is also 4. 13. Arabian. Mare. Phantom out of Sister to Parrot. He was Stallions with 1 Free Generation. half-brother to the winner of the Oaks. 2. — 1. born 1758. As a three year old remarkable racehorse. who had 9 foals. 5. Godol. 2. He was sire of: . Marplot's dam. Babraham Blank 1758 by Babraham. Trentham. 1. and Eryx born 1816. worthy of note as being the Milo 1802 by Sir Peter. Blemish. No. Mare by Basto. Arabian. among which Rosalia. Papillon. . Miss Spindleshanks. Cedric D. who had 11 foals. 2d). ran and won as a three and four-year-old. Foundation mare in Fam. born 1766. who ran and won between the age of three and nine. 4. Durham. He was sire of : 3. 18-21 by Walton. ran nine As a five year old times. Bellissima. 1. grand-dam of Ithuriel (Fam. I Of the staUions with free generation only know the following. was set apart as stud stallion in Lambton Grange. sire of Carbuncle. Lady.four : which have had any influence on Thoroughbred breeding Turner's Sweepstakes 1743 by Sweepstakes. Fam. 9. 8 and dam of Sharper 1788 by Ranthos 3. 3. x'Xrabian. Godol.

5 Snip Evelina 4 Regulus Arabian 4 Godol. Arab. Childers Bart. Childers Herod o Cade (by Godol. Arabian) 6 11 Regulus 1869 Wellingtonia Pocahontas 2 Touchstone 1 Chattanooga 4 Araucaria 5 Selim o Orville Whalebone 6 Waxy 6 Penelope Stallions with 2 Free Generations. Inbreedini •237 No. Childers) .4. Amphion 2 1886 ! Rosebery 3 Touchstone Newminster 1804 Suicide 7 Whalebone lerne ^fFI. Childeis Bob Booty 2 Chanticleer 5 Godol. Childers Orest 1 Orestes 4 Selim Touchstone Ladv Louisa 4 Waxy 4 Penelope 10 PaLllo\vitz 1 Highflyer 1 1813 Termagant (3 Sir Paul 4 Regulus (by God. Birdcatcher 5 Woodpecker 6 Eclipse Maltese 4 Sorcerer Sir Hercules o PotSos 6 PotSos (by Eclipse) The Miner 1 1861 Rataplan 5 Orville 6 ^Manganese 7 7 Birdcatcher Sir Peter 7 Orville 7 Waxy Trumpator Waxy Penelope 1790 I G Penelope 7 Ninety Three 1 Herod 1857 ! Florizel 4 Flying Childers Xosegay 3 Snap 6 Flyino^ Childers 6 Bartl. I Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Tension 5 6 Friponnier 1 1864 Orlando Orville Chevalier d'Industrie 5 Orville 6 7 Walton Whalebone 7 Walton 1798 Waxy Calia 6 Darley's Arabian 6 Betty Leedes Highland Fling 1 Spadille 4 Partner 4 Herod 1851 Regulus Knight of George 1 St. Childers ^\Bart. Arabian) 5 Squirt (by Bart. 4 Blaze Godol. Arabian Fl.

138 Heredity. . No.

239 Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Janette 3 Touchstone 6 Bee's Wing's dam Janissary 2 Stockwell 1887 Isonomy 3 Birdcatcher 5 Touchstone 5 Melbourne Muley Moloch 2 Bening-brough (by 1830 Muley 4 Eclipse Nancy 3 Eclipse 4 KingEclipse) Fergus by 5 Herod Herod 4 Highflyer 5 Eclipse Orville 2 Herod (by Tartar) 6 Regulus 6 1799 Benino-broug'h 3 Tartar Evelina 4 Blaze 4 4 Miss Slamerkin 6 Godol. 5 Selim Priam 2 1827 Emilius 3 Highflj-er 5 Whiskey Herod 1828 4 Eclipse Cressida 3 Herod 3 Matchem Castrellina 5 Eclipse The Saddler 2 Waxy 4 Sir Peter 5 Highflyer Waver lev 3 Highflyer 5 Matchem Sainfoin 2 Stockwell 1887 Springfield 5 Sultan of 6 (Grand-sire 6 Touchstone Pocahontas) ) Camel p^^^^^^ ^^ 6 Banter / Touchstone Le Sagittaire 2 Strathconan (by 1892 Le Sancy 3 Newniinster) 6 3 Alice Windhound Hawthorn Melbourne 5 Touchstone . Snap Regulus 1873 Petrarch 2 Touchstone 7 Lord Clifden 6 Laura 4 Paynator Whalebone (Grandsire of Selim Touchstone.Inbreediner. Arabian Partisan 2 Highflyer (by Walton Herod 3 Snap 4 Regulus 3 6 Partner Parasol 5 Regulus Arabian Herod) 3 Eclipse 4 6 6 Godol. Arabian 1811 Regulus Ruby Mare 4 Godol.

No. .240 Heredity.

Inbreeding:. Arabian) . Arabian) 1767 Arabian) Conductor 3 Partner (by ]\gg) Matchem 5 Mare by Snap 4 Partner's 6 Bverlv Mare by Spanker dam (Sire Turk by Jigg) Domino 3 Lexington (by 1891 Himyar 7 Alulev Mannie Grey 2 Lexington Boston) 7 Grand-dam 1 Glencoe Reel (by Glencoe) 2 Boston Eclipse Old Country Wench (1 Hautboy) by Snake Lister by 4 Snake 3 Sister to 6 7 1734 Alarske 5 Hautboy (Grand-sire Old Country Wench and Snake) of Spilletta 3 5 Snake Hautboy 5 Lister Turk Turk Hautboy Coneyskins by Lister Grand-dam (Ruby Mare) 3 Coneyskins 4 Hautboy 1820 Grand-dam (Mother Western) 3 Turk Hautboy 5 Brimmer Emilius 3 Highflver (by Herod)' 4 Eclipse 6 Orville 2 Herod 6 Regulus (by Godol. Arabian) Carbine 3 Brown Bess 5 1885 (by Musket 4 Touchstone 4 The Mersey 3 Touchstone 4 Camel) Touchstone 1825 Camel Camel The Colonel 3 Highflyer Whisker Herod 4 Snap 6 Cade (by Godol.4. Arabian) Emily 3 Eclipse 4 4 Herod Blank Blank (by Godol. Arabian) e Blank (by Godol. 241 Names Cain of Stallions Born Sire Dam Mare by Paynator 4 Rachel (Dam of Highflyer) 5 1822 Paulowitz 1 1 3 Highflyer Highflyer 6 Blank Termagant Regulus (by Godol. 3 Mare by Delpini 5 Tartar 5 6 4 Herod (by Tartar) 4 Eclipse 7 Blank Regulus Blank (by Godol.

.242 Heredity. No.

4. Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Isola Bella 4 Sir Hercules 4 GuiCCloh Isonomy 3 Birdcatcher 1875 Sterling 5 ^^'haIebone (Sire of Sir Hercules) ^ Parents J catcher Grand-dam : 2 Sir Hercules King Alfonso 3 Glencoe 1872 Phaeton 6 Orville Capitola 5 Orville 5 Muley (by Orville) Lexinoton 3 Sir Archy (by 1850 Boston 2 Diomed Florizel) Alice Carneal (by 6 Highflyer (by Diomed) 6 Herod. Tnbreediner. Arabian Arabian 4 Partner Mare by ^Mark Anthony 3 Godol. Arabian 4 Mare by Basto (dam of Snip) Pero Gomez Lady Moore Carew Tramp) 5 Camel 3 (by 1866 Beadsman 3 Salamanca 4 Velocipede Tramp 5 Orville Privateer 3 Touchstone 6 Orville 1878 Adventurer 4 Orville La Favorita 3 Touchstone 6 Orville . 243 No. Sire of Florizel) 6 Saltram (by Eclipse) 5 Eclipse Marske Lottery 3 Eclipse 1820 Tramp 3 Eclipse 4 Mandane 4 4 4 Woodpecker (by Herod) Herod Cade (Regulus \Sister to Regulus Trentham 5 Herod Melton 3 Stock well 1882 Master Kildare 4 Birdcatcher Violet ^lelrose 3 Touchstone 4 Pantaloon 5 Touchstone 6 Bee's ^^'ing" Grand-dam 3 Touchstone : Muncaster 3 Birdcatcher 1877 Doncaster 6 Black lock 7 Windermere 7 Orville 7 6 Banter Whalebone Buzzard Orlando Selim (by Buzzard) o Alexander 3 1841 Touchstone 4 Alexander Vulture 3 Buzzard 3 "j 5 Buzzard 5 Eclipse 5 Sir Peter Mare by Alexand. Parents I I oi (by Eclipse) Selim 6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 4 Sir Peter 6 Highflyer 1791 Paynator 3 Trumpator 4 Godol. Snap (by Snip) 5 Godol.

244 Heredity. . No.

.Inbreedinir. 245 No.

No. Stallions with 4 Free Generations.246 Heredity. .

Inbreedinj 247 No. .

. No.248 Heredity.

. Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Mare by Highflyer 4 Godol. .Arabian Arabian Childers Wench Partner D. Aiabian 28 Ha 111 bur o- 1895 Hannover 2 \"andal (by Glencoe) Lady Reel 3 Lexington 4 Lexinj^lon 6 Glencoe 5 Glencoe Grand-dam 2 : Lexington 29 Hannibal 4 1891 Traclienberg 7 Zania 3 Touchstone 5 Touchstone Bustard 4 Stock well Camel 30 Haphazard 4 Rei^ulus (by Godol. Childers 5 Fox 1864 \FI. Childers 5 Re^ulus Childers 5 Crab 6 Godol.Arabian and Betty Leedes) Snake n Darl. Childers Arabian) TBart.Arabian 6 Betty Leedes 33 Kendal 4 Birdcatcher 1883 5 Pantaloon I5end Or C Touchstone 6 Muley Windermere 7 sire Buzzard (Grandof Pantaloon) 7 Orville at Kingston 4 1849 Venison 5 Fclipse 6 Smolensko flyer) Queen . . In breed insf.Arabian Mi.Arabian 4 Bart. Arabian 4 Partner 27 Hambletonian 4 Tartar (by Partner) 1792 King Fergus (Bart.Selim) 7 Orville Camel Pay n a tor (by Trumpator) (by Benins^- 6 Selim 7 Orvillc broLioh) 32 Joe •5 Andrews Bart. 249 No. 1778 (by lu-Iipse 3 Sister to try 4 A ma ran da Old Coun3 Ciodol. Childers 5 Fl.4. Childers 31 Hermit 4 6 Newminster Trumpator 5 Beningbrough 5 Seclusion 3 Suit an (by . .\nne '"g Hii"hnvcr 5 Sir Peter (by High7 Eclipse Herod 35 Kingston Melbourne 5 Glencoe 5 Touchstone 4 1884 Spendthrift 5 Fmilius 6 Selim (Grand-sire of Glencoe) Kapanga 6 Blacklock 7 Whalebone (Grandsire of Touchstone) . 4 4 Godol.ss Hervey 4 Godol. 1797 Sir Peter 3 Rej^ulus 4 Godol. .

No.250 Heredity. .

.InbreedinPf. 251 No.

62 Sir Hercules 4 Cap a 2 Pie Paraguay 4 PotSos Waxy (by PotSos) WaXV 4 Penelope . Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Frenzv 4 Godol. Eglentine 4 Tramp (Grand-sire of Phantom 5 Orville 6 Buzzard [own brother Palmer] 59 4 Pocahontas 6 Touchstone to The 1882 ' 7 Priam) Buzzard Royal Hampton Hampton 7 Princess 4 Sultan Whalebone (Grandsire (Grand-sire of Touchstone) of Pocahontas) I 5 Whisker 60 Saphir 4 Pocahontas 6 Touchstone 6 Gladiator 7 1888 Chamant 5 Emilius 6 Orville Sappho 6 Touchstone Grand-sire : 2 Pocahontas Emilius 4 Grand-dam Touchstone 1826 : 61 Sir Hercules 4 Eclipse Whalebone 3 4 Peri 3 Eclipse 5 5 Herod 5 Highflyer 7 Herod Snap Herod Snap 1843 Austral. No. 1773 Eclipse 3 Sister to try Arabian Old Coun- Sportsmistress 5 Ancaster Turk Wench Araucaria 5 Orville 4 Snake 57 Rayon d'Or 4 1876 Flageolet 5 Partisan Touchstone 5 Selim 58 Rosicrucian Priam 5 Whalebone 4 7 Selim 1865 Beadsman 3 Mad.252 Heredity. Arabian 53 Phonomenon 4 Blaze 1780 j i Herod 7 7 Leedes Arabian 7 Hautboy Spanker 54 Plenipotentiary 4 Sir Peter (by flyer) 1831 Emilius 8 Hio-h flyer 4 Eclipse Harriet 4 Hig-h flyer 6 Eclipse High- 5 Highflyer 7 Eclipse Plutus 4 Emilius (by Orville) 6 Selim 1862 Trumpeter 4 Selim Mare by Planet 3 Sultan (by Selim) 5 Orville o Penelope 56 PotSos 4 Godol.

253 No. Sir Peter 3 Regulus 4 Godol. . Childers 5 Regulus Arabian) 5 Snip (by FI. Inbreeding. Arabian Arabian) 65 Sultan 4 1816 Selim 3 Bacchante 3 Herod (by Herod) Herod Herod 4 Highflyer 5 Matchem 3 Eclipse 4 Eclipse 66 Sweetmeat 4 1842 (by Sir Gladiator 4 PotSos 4 Prunella (by flyer) Lollypop Blacklock Walton Peter) High- 6 Sir Peter (by flyer) High- 6 PotSos 7 Highflyer 1831 67 Touchstone i Camel 4 Highflyer Banter 4 Eclipse Alexander (by Eclipse) 5 Eclipse 5 5 Eclipse Herod 5 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) o Buzzard 6 Highflyer Tranby 4 1826 Blacklock 3 Highflyer Mare by 3 Herod Orville King Fergus 4 Highflyer 4 Eclipse 4 4 Eclipse 5 Herod Herod Trappist 4 Camel 1872 Hermit 4 Bunsh 4 Lottery Camel of 6 Selim (Grand-sire Camel) 70 Trumpator 4 Partner 4 Godol.4. 4 1810 Sorcerer 2 Matchem Wowski (by Cade) 1 3 Herod Snap 5 Godol. Arabian 6 Fl. Childers Fox Grand-dam : 3 Godol. Arabian 5 Fl.Arabian 64 Smolensko Herod Snap 6 Cade (by Godol. Childers) 4 Godol. Names Sir Paul of Stallion^ Born Sire Dam Pewett 3 1802 4 Regfulus (by Godol. Arabian 1782 Conductor 3 Partner Brunette 4 Partner 5 Brown Farewell .

. No.i Heredity.or.

Inbreediner. 255 Stallions with 5 Free Generations. . No.4.

256 Heredity. No- .

Inbreediiiir. 257 Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam ]\Io\verina 3 Donovan 5 1886 Galopin 2 Voltaire (out of Bay Middleton (by Sultan Phantom) — Phantom Mare) Sir Hercules 4 Eclipse 5 Touchstone Muley 5 Birdcatcher 6 Sultan Faugh-a-Ballagh 5 1841 Woodpecker (by Herod) Guiccioli 2 Bagot (by Herod) Grand-sire : 5 Herod 2 : 6 Eclipse 6 5 Highflyer Grand-dam 3 Herod Herod Herod (by Herod) 6 Highflyer Fitz Gladiator 5 Buzzard 5 Mare by Alexander (by Eclipse) 1850 Gladiator 4 PotSos (by Eclipse) 4 Prunella (by flyer) Zarah 4 Sir Peter 6 Eclipse 6 High- Herod 5 Sir Peter (by Hig-hfl3'er) 5 Gohanna 1870 Flageolet 5 Partisan (by Walton) 7 Plutus 4 Emilius La Favorite Whalebone Grand-dam 3 Walton 5 : Whalebone 1867 Flibustier 5 Tramp [own brother Waisenknabe] 1880 Buccaneer 3 Edmund (by Orville) Sweet Katie 5 Tramp 6 Orville 6 Sultan 7 Orville of o Pavnator Fulmen 5 Birdcatcher (by Sir Hercules) Galopin 2 Voltaire Lightning 5 Sir Hercules Glencoe 5 18:31 Mercury Sultan 4 Herod 4 Eclipse 4 Highflyer Trampoline 4 Highflyer 4 Eclipse 5 6 Eclipse 6 Herod 1834 Eclipse) Herod 6 Highflyer Harkaway 5 PotSos (by 6 Highflyer 7 Economist 4 Eclipse 4 Mare by Nabocklish 4 Highflyer Herod (by Herod) Herod 5 Highflyer Grand-dam 2 Highflyer : Great Grand-dam 2 : Herod .

No.258 Heredity. .

.

No.54 Waxy Birdcatcher 5 Woodpecker 6 Eclipse (Grand-sire of Ennui o Waxy . Florian 5 Ion 6 1891 St.260 Heredity. Giantess 6 Mercury 5 Trentham Woodpecker Herod Herod 6 Eclipse 6 46 Mare by Herod 1892 Sir Visto 5 Pocahontas 5 Newminster 6 Banter Barcaldine 1 Vista Dar'ing's dam 4 Banter 4 Pantalooz? (by Birdcatcher) of (Dam 5 Touchstone Touchstone) 47 St. Simon 6 Sultan Palmflo\ver o Bay Middleton o Touchstone Bay Middleton (by Sultan) 48 Saunterer 5 18. Names Perth of Stallions Born Dam 42 181)6 War Dance 4 7 Primrose 4 5 Newminster 5 Stockwell (by Dame The Baron Banter Newminster Touchstone 4 Stockwell 6 Birdcatcher The Baron) Grand-sire 2 Bee's : 2 Touchstone Winij 43 Pyrrhus the 5 Buzzard (by 5 First 1843 Epiriis 3 Sir Peter 4 Fortress 1 Whalebone 4 Woodpecker) Diomed Hii^hland Fling Mare by Alexander (by Eclipse) 5 Herod 5 Eclipse 5 Buzzard 6 Woodpecker (by Herod) 44 Rataplan 5 Orville 6 1850 The Baron 4 Pocahontas o 6 Waxy Gohanna Mercury sire of Orville) Waxy 4 Penelope 6 Penelope 7 Highflyer (Grand- 45 Sheet Anchor 5 Woodpecker (by Herod) 6 Eclipse 6 1832 Lottery 3 Eclipse 4 4 jVIorgiana 2 Y." 5 Penelope Penelope Waxy) 6 Whiskey 6 Sorcerer 49 Scottish Chief 5 Orville (by Beningbroug-h) 1861 Lord of the Isles 5 Buzzard 5 Mare by Alexander (by Eclipse) 6 Beninirbrouch Miss 7 7 Ann Eclipse) Woodpecker Mercury (by 6 Selim 7 Buzzard (by Woodpecker) .

. 261 No. Inbreedincf.4.

. No.262 Heredity.

263 No. Inbreedinir. .4.

.264 Heredity. No.

.

Atlantic 7 Orville . No 30 Names of Stallions Born Sire Dam Mineral 1 Wen lock 6 1869 Lord Clifden 6 Whalebone Paynator Birdcatcher Orville 7 Orville 7 31 West 6 Australian 1850 Melbourne Termagant 5 Trumpator 4 6 Evelina Mowerina 3 Waxy 3 Penelope (by Highflyer) Trumpator Peter 5 Highflyer 6 Eclipse (by Trumpator) 7 Eclipse 7 Sir 6 Sir Peter 6 Eclipse (by Highflyer) 82 Woodpecker 6 Darley Arabian 1773 Herod 7 Miss Ramsden Leedes Arabian 7 7 Hautboy Spanker 33 j Y. Melbourne 6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 1855 Melbourne 4 I 5 Termagant Trumpator Clarissa 4 Buzzard 4 Mare by Alexande*" o Highflyer 6 Eclipse o Sir Peter Grand-sire 2 Sir Peter : Stallions with T Free Generations.266 Heredity.

.

is strongly supported by the sire Orme (5 Pocahontas and G Birdcatcher) and a little by the dam Vampire In the case of Friponnier (1 Orlando. Golumpus is the only one that can be mentioned in which the sire also had only 2 free generations. The great majority of the horses mentioned in these lists are the very best stallions of the more and most recent times. Of stallions with 1 free generation in modern times. We : Gohanna. Wisdom. and mav be taken as a proof of the here again see it confirmed that 4 free generations repreexample. In the case of 5 and more free generations in former times are specially to be mentioned Herod.. born 1793. Partisan. Matchem. VCe can therefore come the conclusion that a Also amongsr the many examples with only 2 free generations.e. as a simple calculation This is a very will show. In the case of the most successful stallions with a ck^se inbreeding 4. on an average. (1 and 2 free generations). i. ing than in modern times. 7 (2 Vedette and G Birdcatcher). It seems to me to be an open question. with Paulowitz (1 Highflyer and 1 Termagant) the more removed inbreeding of the same is most strongly supported. whether either of them will be the founder of such a successful line as Paulowitz. viz. Also the sires and dams of the above-men: — 1. the following may be mentioned as especiallv prominent Brutandorf.\lso in the case of Flying Fox (1 Galopin). Among the stallions with 2 free generations in the past. have.e. as well as by the sire Sir Paul (4 Regulus) as by the dam Evelina (4 Regulus).13) free generations. ancient and modern times are about equal. Orville. 6 Regulus. 7 Walton) the more removed inbreeding is strongly supported by the sire (5 Orville) and by the dam (5 Walton). etc. a further removed inbreeding of the same is supported in nearly every case by a corresponding inbreeding of the parents. 4 and 5 free generations. Arabian is strongly supported on the dam's and sire's side. the more removed inbreeding of same. 6 Stockwell and 7 Pocahontas. Highflyer. Golumpus.. . tioned 270 stallions with 1 to 8 free generations. a it can be seen that the sires of stallions with 1 free generation free generations. but the further removed inbreeding on the basis of Godol. little had at least 4 (on an average Ah) more than the remaining stallions with further to removed inbreeding. for example. : 3. Waxy. Marske. In former times we find more successful stallions with close inbreed2. King Fergus. sent the most favourable inbreeding for successful breeding material. In the case of the Derby repetition of such close inbreeding has not been successful. in any case it has vet to be proved.•268 Heredity. and Woodpecker. Sorcerer. As regards the repetition of closer inbreedings. only Barcaldine and Flying Fox can be considered really successful. remarkable and interesting result. In the case of 3 and 4 free generations. 4 (exactly 4.. As equal to these in modern times we can only mention Galopin. From these examples mav be drawn the following conclusions The greatest number of approved sires are to be found amongst those with 3. Humphrey Clinker. . and Sainfoin. Orville. i.

e. has again the requisite support of his inbreeding by 6 Glencoe. with Hanover the more removed inbreeding to Emilius. etc. and those the very best. are supported by the inbreedings of both parents and both grandmothers. sire or dam. In contrast to Eclipse. and 7 Coneyskins. i. This support of the inbreeding of prominent stallions by the inbreeding of their parents is also often strikingly visible in the case of stallions with 7 and more free generations. Tammany. This is probably the cause of the Eclipse progeny. 269 and 2. etc. Beningbrough. each on a dift'erent basis. excelling most others as regards breeding value. 5). The following more removed inbreedings 4 Snake. Pot8os.000 Guineas winner Cadland (1 Sorcerer. with Petrarch the more removed inbreeding to Selim. himself a prominent racer. Gohanna. but his best son. Herod and Matchem. Here followed two consecutive generations (Herod and his two : . the more removed inbreeding is supported by the sire Andrew (5 Herod) and by the dam Sorcery (5 Herod). Inbreedings of the best stallions are supported bv the inbreedings of 5. Such stallions are also easier to get at for mating. page 241). in spite of the many good racehorses which Highflyer has also produced. but not quite as successful at the stud. on the same or related basis. Among the stalhons with 2 free generations. show already distinctly the desired supports. for example. in whose case also the closest inbreeding (3 Sister to Old Country Wench) is not directly supported by the inbreedings of the parents. with Wisdom to Orville. No. Joe Andrews is the only son of Eclipse who answers himself the above demands. Mercury. as is to be seen (page 266. it is advantageous not to support this close. or both. under 4 or 5 free generations. with Partisan the more removed inbreeding to Snap and Regulus. the support of more removed inbreeding is visible by a correspondinginbreeding of the parents. 4 Glencoe. In the following table of the most important male blood lines the above rule of inbreeding support is distinctly recognisable. It is therefore always advantageous to have several inbreedings. outlast in their progeny intermediately one generation without this support. 12. the other two foundation sires. 4 Highflyer [by Herod]. with Priam to Herod. 4 A\'oodpecker [by Herod]) also. 6 Hautboy. and Hambletonian. does not show the support of his inbreeding which is required above. if such exist. Stallions in the cases of which these inbreeding supports are especially visible. Their sons. with Janissarv to Touchstone. as is explained in Xo. as well as their sons (with the exception of Florizel. Inbreeding. If the inbreeding is a close one. show a much smaller. and King Fergus. Diomed). and his dam. sire of the first Derby winner. Waxy. Eclipse left behind him four important male lines. in the case of most. whose sons. as in the case of Atlantic. with The Saddler to Highflyer. Highflyer and Woodpecker only one each. One of the best examples of this is Eclipse himself (see No. but more removed inbreedings.4. The Derby winner Iroquois.. as in the case of Eclipse himself. and in some cases no inbreeding support at all. have stood well one generation without this inbreeding support. 4. as.

The efficacv of inbreeding supports can be most instructively seen in the long male line from Highflyer down to Fels (page 282). beginning modestly with Humphrey Clinker. was early sold to France. Syntax line.e. The Smolensko-Jerr}' line. Only the Pantaloon line (page 285) shows some Eclipse inbreedings. Matchem line. did not possess sufficient inbreeding supports.. Highflyer Heredity. Chamant. as onlv in their pedigree the requisite inbreeding supports became significant. Sorcerer and Paynator. well supported by Eclipse inbreeding. even yet little supported. The Sultan-Glencoe line. born 1782 by Conductor. Dutchman line. with his double connection over Tramp and Orville. born 1787 bv Woodpecker. The Sorcerer-Comus line. and Buzzard. The Matchem blood has undergone a similar experience. more rarely as the basis of their inbreedings than the Eclipse line itself. See Saw was perhaps sufficient regarding the building of the pedigree. In the Herod line. for example. but generalh' inferior to the Herod connections. A similar picture is found in the Matchem line (page 286). whose best son. but Flibustier (and his own brother Waisenknabe). Trumpator. were the first to succeed in influencing Thoroughbred breeding to a greater extent. Kisber was not such an one. West Australian. has also had its chief importance in America. From the following list of male blood lines we can further see that the Herod and Matchem lines possess Eclipse. Only in the case of Wild Dayrell and Buccaneer is this support somewhat deficient. there is no Eclipse inbreeding at all (page •28-2). in consequence. ConNevertheless. Waxy. Pot8os (all Eclipse's progeny) inbreedings.270 sons. which remained here. and \\"ooclpecker) without the requisite inbreeding supports. On this account his heredity did not come up to expectations which were founded on of the . which also remained here. and. and Thormanby. Herod and his son Highflyer have proved themselves to be a very good basis of every inbreeding. and in the Highflyer line. Fortunatelv. i. showed the first somewhat effectively supported Eclipse inbreedings in the case of Melbourne and W^est Australian. as his son. The Walton line (page 283) has been more fortunate. In the Bay j\Iiddleton-Fl. This is very probably the reason that Melbourne is the only remaining scion ductor. Kisber was the third member of a male line built up with insufficiently supported inbreeding. Europe only retained Glencoe's celebrated daughter Pocahontas. as well as the Paynator and Dr. or Eclipse progeny. but of too little class. sire of Barcaldine. born 1784 by Highflyer. the first Eclipse inbreeding. The latter and the Pantaloon line have also produced the best representatives of the Herod blood in Sweetmeat. occurs in the American bred Boston. one had to wait for a son of Buccaneer endowed with a more distinct support of inbreedings in order to effectively continue this line. as well as his two sons. Solon. the Highflyer inbreeding prevails. The Herod blood onlv commences to produce more sires for Thoroughbred breeding with the much better bred Sir Peter. West Australian left behind him in England a stallion well strengthened bv many Whalebone. does not show any Eclipse inbreeding at all.

7 Orville. but not sufficiently so 4 Bay Middleton. 6 Orville. 6 Sultan. Good Hope (6 Tramp. dam 5 Cervantes). with Kisber's chances. had not sufficient inbreeding supports in the building up of their pedigrees. dam 3 Comus. Nil Desperandum was bred a little more favourably. might have been a great success. and Pirat (5 Cain. dam 2 Touchstone. Buccaneer with his inbreeding (3 Edmund and 5 Paynator) was certainly difficult to handle so as to obtain the required inbreeding support. 5 Sir Peter). Flibustier. and perhaps also Waisenknabe. 6 Sorcerer. Inbreeding". 7 Sultan. dam 7 Orville).4. 271 In England. : o Whalebone. Also Fenek (6 Tramp. . 7 Paynator. his great racing form.

272 Heredity. Highflyer (Grand-sire of 8. 7 13am 3 Eclipse. 6 Snap. Turk (Sire of Jigg). 5 Eclipse.5 Gohanna. 7 Dam . Cade (by God. 6 Paynator 6 Selim. 6 Highflyer. I 7 Orville (by Beningbrough). King Fergus. 5 Woodpecker (by Herod). 4 Herod. Dam 6 Eclipse (Sire of 6 Herod. 1831. Dam Dam 3 Highflyer. o Trumpator. 6 Eclipse. 2. Phonomenon. 1807. Stockwell 1849. 5 Orville. 4. . 4 Snap. 1882. Dam 6 PotSos. 3 Eclipse. 6 Godol. 7 6 Sir Peter. 3 Sultan (b}- Selim i.5 Tramp. 5 Sir Peter. 4 Eclipse. of 7 Highflyer (Grand-sire of Orville). Line. Whalebone. Waxy 1790. 5 Herod. (5. Highflyer (Grand-sire of Orville 6 Waxy. Eclipse 1. 6 Herod. o. 1878. Arabian. 5 Buzzard. Penelope). Camel 4 Highflyer. 7 Trumpator (Grand-sire Whalebone). 6 Orville. Childers. Touc'listoiK' 4 Alexander (by Eclipse). 1848. 6 Whisker. Arabian. (by Dam Trumpator).. 6 Partner (by Jigg) 6 Byerly 3. (by Waxy and Dam 6 Evelina (Dam of Orville. 4 Godol. o Herod. Dam 2 Bagot (by Herod). 8. 6 4 Penelope. Sir Hercules by 1826. 8. Whalebone 5 Highflyer. Blair Athol 1861. Arabian. Penelope). I 5 Godol. The Baroii 1842. Dam . 4 Waxy (by PotSos). Snap. o. and Penelope). o Beningbrough. 6. 6 I 3 Snap.. 6 Partner (Grand-sire of Herod). 6. 4 Fox. 6 Whalebone. Birdcatcher 1833. Hermit 1864. 4. 6 Whalebone Orville. 5 Herod. Newmiiister 5 Beningbrough (by King Fer[gus-Herod). PotSos by Eclipse 1773. (). 6 Mercury. Arabian). 4 Eclipse. 6 Highflyer. Wlialeboue 3 Herod. I 4 Camel. Dam Dam 4 Fl. Tristan 6 Sultan (by Selim). 7 6 Penelope.

Dam 5 Sir Hercules. 6 Orlando (by Touch. (by Herod). 10. 7 Herod). •273 6. Woodpecker (by Herod). Touchstone Camel. Camel. Long'bou 4 Orville 1849. Dam 4 Buzzard ^ Parents of 5 Orvilk 4 4 Mare by Alexander j Selim. 4 Gladiator (by Partisan) Dam 5 Partisan. 6 Herod. Carbine by Musket 1885. Musket 4 Touchstone. Orville. 1856. 6 Melbourne. 5 Buzzard. Dam 2 Camel. Itliuriel by Touchstone Dam 4 Sir Peter. 1882. o Orlando. Flageolet 5 Partisan (by Walton). Grand-sire of Orville). 4 Sir Peter. 6 SeHm. I l^am (by 3 4 3 Brown Bess Touchstone. Dam 5 Whalebone. 7 \\'halebone. Camel). 11. Plutus 4 Emilius (by Orville) 1862. Dam 5 Selim. yordenfeldt 4 Melbourne. 6 I'ouchstone. 9. Dam . Mare by Alexander J o Alexander. 6 7 ^^'halebone. Inbreedins'. Beningbrough ^ Parents of J 4 Evelina 8. 7. 1867. 3 Selim. (2 7. 3 Y. 6 Whalebone. 10. 4 Camel. Trumpeter 4 Selim. Woodpecker 8. 1870. Grand-dam 9. Trenton by Musket 1881. 7 5 Woodpecker. 7 Sir Peter (by Hig-hflyer. 6 Sir Dam Peter. o Touchstone. 3 Grand-dam Walton. Dam 3 Stockwell. 2 Sir Peter. 6. Orlando by Touchstone 1841. Melbourne. . 6 Eclipse. 1841. Le Destrier 1877. Dam 2 Peruvian (by Sir Peter). Spearmint 4 Stockwell.4. 5 5 Highflj^er. Toxophilite 1855. 16. Dam 5 Highflyer. Mare bv Alexander. 3 3 Buzzard ^ Parents of Selim.3 Touchstone 10.

7 Whalebone. 10. 8. 6 9. I Dam Dam 4 Whalebone (Grand-sire Touchstone). Eclipse by Orlando Dam Dam Dam Dam 2 Phantom. 8. 7. 7 5 Selim. Petrarch by Lord Clifden 2 Touchstone. Heredity. 8. 6 Bustard (by Buzzard). 4 Selim (by Buzzard). 6 Birdcatcher. 5 Blacklock. 3 Liverpool 7 Whalebone. 11. 5 Orville (by Beningbrough). Ladas 5 Touchstone. 7 Muley (by Orville) [2 3 Emilius (by Orville). Domino 1891. 5 Lexington. Comus bourne). 7 Orville (by Paynator (by Trumpator). 6 Pocahontas. Dam 6 Eclipse. 1891. Hampton 1872. Dam 4 Beningbrough. Herod). Himyar 1875. 4 Orville. 7. 4 Stockwell. 1855. I 4 Touchstone.274 6. Dam 1 Orville. 1903. 6 Beningbrough. Lor(l Cliften 6 1860. 5 Beningbrough (by King Fergus [by Eclipse] and HerodMare). Ne'wminster by Touchstone 1848. Beningbrough). 6 Whalebone. Troiitbeck 6 Stockwell. Dam Dam Dam Dam 5 Golumpus. 7. 9. The Bard 1883. . 3 Lexington. 7 Banter. Cambuscan by Newminster 1861. 5 Sultan (by Selim). 6 Herod.6 The Baron. Amer. 5 Sir Archy (3 2 Lexington. Commando 1898. 4 Whalebone. Alarm 1869. (Grand-sire of Mel- Defence (by Whalebone). 7. 9. Touchstone. of 7 Selim. 5 Trumpator. Herod]. 4 Sir Peter. 1873. 4 Melbourne. 10. AdTeiiturer by Newminster 1859. Buzzard. 6 Stamford (by Sir Peter). 6 Sultan (by Selim). 7 3 Thormanby. 5 7 Tramp.

2 Stockwell.4. 4 7 6 Alexander (by Eclipse). Oxford by Birdcatcher 1857. 5 Touchstone (by Camel). 7 7 Buzzard (by Woodpecker). I Dam Dam Dam Dam Dam 2 Bagot (by Herod). 2 7. 1890. 5 Touchstone. FaugL-a-Ballagli by Sir Hercules 1841. . Janissary by Isonomy 1887. 1895. Waxy. Locoliatcbe 3 Lexington. 7 Pocahontas. 6. 6 Glencoe. Isoiiomy 3 Birdcatcher (by Sir Hercules and 1875. Dam 4 Touchstone. Energy by 1880. 3 Stockwell. 4 Sir Hercules. 4 Pocahontas (by Glencoe). 9. Dam 3 Touchstone. Dam 2 Galopin (Grand-son of Volt. 4 Guiccioli. 6 Eclipse. Sliere Gallion 6 Stockwell. Grand-dam Tramp. 9. Guiccioli). 7 Voltigeur. 5. Mare by Alexander. Mare by Alexander. Inbreedinp-. Gallinule by Isonomy 1884. 8. Grand-sire 4 Camel. 5 Pocahontas. Dick Andrews. 1889. Dam 5 Banter (Dam of Touchstone). 7. 6 Waxy. 6 Penelope. 9. 4 Buzzard (by Woodpecker). o The Baron. 6 Touchstone. 10. Dam Waxy and 5 Smolensko. 1853. 4 Sir Hercules. 2 Stockwell. 10. 6 1868. Penelope). 4 Birdcatcher. 1904. I Dam 6 Birdcatcher. Pocahontas. 7 Penelope. 4 Selim. Sterling- Dam 4 Sir Hercules. Leamington 6 Woodpecker.). 7 7 Touchstone. 7 Selim (Grand-sire of Camel). 8. Caiman 1896. 7 Touchstone. 6. GouVerneur 4 Touchstone. Onondaga 1879. 7 Dam Waxy. 5 Touchstone. 5 Melbourne. 5 Stockwell. 275 3 Orville. 5 Touchstone. 5 Woodpecker (by Herod). 9. 7 Whalebone (by Penelope). 9. Isinglass 5 Birdcatcher. 8. Sterling' 5 Whalebone (by Waxy and Dam Dam 5 Whalebone. 4 Buzzard. Jeddali 6 Touchstone.

1887. Dam Dam 6 Blacklock. 8. Bend Or 1877. Ajax 6 1901. Dam 5 Whalebone. SeUm (by Buzzard). Waxy. 8. Albans by Stockwell 6 \Mialebone. I 5 Birdcatcher.•276 Heredity. Dam o Flyinaf Dutchman. . Dam (by 5 Selim. 1 6 Stamford. 4 6 Camel (by Whalebone) Langar (by Selim). I Vox 1 Galopin (by Vedette). 1882. Ormonde 1883. Sainfoin 2 Stockwell. Flying- Dutchman. 9. 6 Banter. ^|' Selim. 5 Glencoe. 6 Stockwell. Dam Dam 6 Sir Peter. Selim. 5 Selim. 5 Pocahontas (by Glencoe). 6 Touchstone. 7 13. 4 Birdcatcher. 9. 6 3Iinting- Whalebone Waxy). 6 Touchstone. 6 Pocahontas. 7 7 Dam 4 Hum])hrey Clinker. Pocahontas. Dam 3 The Baron "i Parents of Stockwell. Spring-field 6 Sultan 1873. 8. 7 Dam 6 Orville. 10. 11. Dam 6 Blacklock. 9. 3 Touchstone 4 Pantaloon. 6 Woodpecker. 6 Velocipede's dam. 6 Buzzard. 7 Selim. 6 \Vhalebone. Melton 3 Stockwell. 3 Pocahontas j 8. 10. St. I (by Sehm). Lord Ronald by Stockwell 1862. 12. 6 Orville. Dam 7 Castrel. Master Kildare 1875. 7 Orville. 6 Selim. Selim. 4 Camel. 6 Birdcatcher. f ^^ 6 Pantaloon (by Castrel). 7 Banter (Dam of Touchstone).5 Touchstone. Whalebone. 6 Selim. 1883. 1857. o 6 Selim. -5 Birdcatcher. Castrel. 2 Vedette. 10. (^Castrel. 6 Birdcatcher. 5 Touchstone. 6 -Muley. Doncaster by Stockwell 1870. 9. Flying' 1896. 7 Orville. 1889. 6 Blacklock. Orme Dam Dam 6 Sultan (Sire of Glencoe). . Lord Lyon by Stockwell 1863.

4 Penelope. (by Tartar). Dam 4 Sir Hercules. 4 Snap. of Merman 1892. 9. Arabian). Windhound.5 Hawthorn. 11. 4 Stockwell. 4 Eclipse. 6 Touchstone. 6 Melbourne. I Dam Dam 4 Birdcatcher. Abercorn 4 Paraguay (by 1884. Whisker by Wax} 1812. 3 Economist (by Whisker). Sir Hercules). . 5 Blank. (Grand-sire of Pantaloon). (by Whalebone). 8. 6 Partner (Grand-sire of Herod). The Colonel 1825. 6 Waxy. 6 9. 6 Godol. 3 Herod. Dam 5 Bay Middleton (by Sultan. 1895. Inbreeding. Patron 1890. Kendal by Bend Or 1883. 5 Sir Hercules. Dam 5 Tartar. Sir Hercules 4 1843. 5 Orville. 6 4. 1889. Galtee More 3 1894. I Dam 6 Sultan. . 2 Fisherman. 5 Pantaloon 5 Pantaloon. 10. 5 Newminster 3. Dam Dam 4 PotSos. 4 Pantaloon. Chester by Yattendon 1874. Grand-sire of Pocahontas). 7 I Regulus (Grand-sire Eclipse). I Waxy (by PotSos). (by Pantaloon). Boiiarista by Bend Or 5 Alice 7 Dai 4 Banter. 6 Herod Blank. of o. (Grand-dam Stockwell). I 3 Highflyer. 4 o Marpessa Bay Middleton. I Dam 3 Snap. 1837. 5 Sir Hercules. Cap-a-Pie 2 Waxy. (Grand-sire of Thormanby). Dam (by Touchstone). 5 Emilius (by Orville). by Grand Flaneur 5 Pocahontas. Whisker. 1861. (5 Sir Hercules Dam Dam 4 Pantaloon. Arabian. Dam 5 Eclipse (Grand-sire of Waxy). Grand Flaneur 1877. Cade 4 (by Godol. 5 Camel (by Whalebone). Cylleiie 4 Stockwell. 11. 4 Melbourne. I 4 Pocahontas.^zard 10. Touchstone. Thormanby 4 Stockwell. 4 Whiskev Yattendon 4 Partisan.4. 277 7 Bu.

rCastrel. 6 Godol. Arabian. King' Tom -5 Waxy (by PotSos).•278 Heredity. 5 Cade (by Godol. 1834. Hii^hflyer. 5 Marske. fBartl. Arabian). 6 Herod. Cade (by Godol. 7 Herod. 5. 6 Highflyer. Dam 3 Snap. Whisker by Wax}' 1812. 4. 5 Matchem (by Cade). 5 Castrel. Flying Childers. 7 Dam 1 Touchstone. 4 Eclipse. 4 Snap. 6 Eclipse. / Bartl. 4. Dam 3 Herod. Goliimpus 2 Herod (by Tartar). 1. Mercury by Eclipse 1778. ifif 6 Godol. 3. Waxy. 1802. 4 Eclipse. 6 Godol. 8. Dam Orville). 6 Orville. 5 Mogul (by Godol. 6 Regulus. 1851. Dam 7 Orville. 2 Tartar (by Partner). 1^ Dam Dam 4 Godol. Arabian. . Childers. 5 Penelope. 4 Herod. 7 Penelope. 5 Orville.5 4 Eclipse. ^(Selim. 4 Squirt. Phaeton 1865. 6 6 Partner (Grand-sire of Herod). I Dam 4 Highflyer (by Herod). 5 Muley (by 9. 1823. 1809. Mercury (by 7. Arabian. Dam 5 6 Gohanna (by Mercury^ Eclipse). Catton 4 Herod. 5 Partner. Arabian. 6 Blank. . Gohanna 1790. 4 Godol. Arabian). 5 Highflyer. Foxhall 3 ^'andal (by Glencoe) 1878. 3 Herod. Economist 1825. 3Inlatto 5 Florizel (by Herod). 5 HarliaAvay 5 PotSos (by Eclipse). \Flyin£ Childers. Arabian). 6. 5 Orville. Dam 3 Partner. 1872. 2. King' Alfonso 3 Glencoe. 3 Herod. Dam 2 Highflyer. Arabian. Childers. 3.

5 Confederate Filly. 5 Eclipse. 6- Dam 3 Partner. 3. rBartl. 6 Blank (by Godol. Dam 3 Herod. 5. I Dam 3 Eclipse.4. Arabian). I^Flving. 4 Eclipse. 1820. 4 Matchem. 279 King' Fergus by Eclipse 1775. Childers. 6 Godol.Childers. 4.^ 4 JNIiss Slamerkin. 5 Herod. 6 Herod (by Tartar). 6 Bav Bolton. 4 Godol. Inbreeding:. Regulus (by Godol. Arabian. 5 Whiskey. 1791. Flying. 4 Blank. Beniugbrougli 3 Tartar (by Partner). 2. Arabian. Priam 1827. 5 Fl. Arabian). Childers. Dam 4 Regulus. 4 Herod. Ol-Tille 2 1799. .Childers. Eniilius 3 Highflyer (by Herod). I'Bartl. 1^ Childers. 4 Blaze (by Childers).

Simon Bay Middleton Dam (by Sultan). 7. Voltigeiir by Voltaire 1847. Persimmon by 1893. Dam Dam Beningbrough). Simon 6 Sultan (by Selim). 6 Pocahontas. Dam (by Sultan). 6 Touchstone. 8. 9. 1891. Tela. 6 Orville. 1872. 6 o Voltigeur (by Voltaire Martha Lynn). Speculum by Vedette 1865. Martha Lvnn. Walton (by Sir Peter). St. Donovan by Galopin 1886. 5 Muley. 6 Velocipede's 7 Blacklock. . 8. Cowl (by Bay Middleton). 6 Bay Middleton o o Touchstone. Dam 4 Sir Peter. 6 PotSos. dam. 6 Coriander. 5 Hambletonian (by King Fergus) 6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 3 Orlando (3 Selim) 10.280 6. Simon Bay Middleton Dam (by Sultan).sebery 3 Touchstone. St. 11. 1881. Dam (by Sultan) 5 Bay Middleton. Dam 6 Selim. Te(li?tte 3 Blacklock. 9. Dam 4 Phantom (by Walton). 18o4. 10. Heredity. Dam 5 Pantaloon. 6 Sultan. 9. 6 St. St. Oalopiii 2 Voltaire (by Blacklock). 6 Emma. G Voltaire. 3 Touchstone. 5 Touchstone. 6 Orville 5 Orville. Ro. Matclibox by 1891. Floriaii 5 Ion. 6 Sultan (Grand-sire of Pocahontas). 6 Dam 6 PotSos. (by 6 Beningbrough. 10. Simon and Dam 3 Melbourne. 1872. 6 Pocahontas. Frusquin by 6 1893. 7 Highflyer. St. 10. St. Dam 4 Banter (Dam of Touchstone) 1894. 5 Bay Middleton 5 Birdcatcher. 4 Orville. 10.sqnez 5 Pocahontas. 6 Kin£?" Ferirus. Ard Patrick 1899.

1 6 -5 Mare b\' Herod. 4 6 Eclipse. I Orville. Traiiii* 3 Eclipse. 6 Buzzard. 1832. 4. Dam (by 5 Walton. 6 Herod. of Orville). Dam 3 Woodpecker. Man Tnmij) 1844. 4 Herod. Beauclerc 6 \Mialebone. 4 Herod. 5 Buzzard (by Woodpecker). 4 Priam (Grand-son Whalebone. 6 Herod.Childers) 3. 6. 6 Flvini'. 1810. 4. 281 1. •5 Bartl. o Highflyer (by 5 Trumpator. o Reyulus. Liver]>uoi 4 Eclipse. Herod). I Tramp Dam 4 Cade. 5 Dam 1 PotSos (by Eclipse). Dam 6 Herod. 7. 6 Waxy Yl^'ii'^i^'ts of 8 Orville. 7 Whalebone. 177S. 6. I I -5. 6 Eclipse. Arabian) 1797. I 6 Mercury. AiicJior 5 Woodpecker (by Herod). Slieet Trentham. 7 Buzzard (by Woodpecker). 1875. 6 Eclipse. 3 Woodpecker Tramp. Woodpecker. Joe Andrews by Eclipse 4 Godol. 4 Woodpecker. (3 Snip (by Flying. 10. Childers. •5. I Dam 3 Blank. I' 3 Eclipse. 5 Herod. Giantess. Walton). 5 Highflyer (by Herod). Cllislesliurst 6 Partisan . 9.4. o Gohanna. Inbreediner. Trentham.55. . Weiitherhit 1842.Childers. 2. Dam 3 Eclipse. 6 Herod. 5 PotSos (by Eclipse). I 8. Beadsman 18. 1 Orville. Dam (by Herod). Laiiercost 4 1835. Rosicrucian 1865. -5 Y. 1880. Selim. 6 Penelope J W^halebone. Dam 6 Buzzard. Dick Andrews 4 Blank (by Godol. Arabian. Dam 5 7 4 Phantom. 5 Orville. 3 Herod. Sister to Regulus. 4 Herod. Dam 5 Orville. 1828. 5 \\'oodpecker. Dam 6 Woodpecker 6 Eclipse. Lottery by 1820. (Regulus.

5 Sister to Mixbury. Line. Childers. Dam 3 Regulus. Fels 3 Hermit. 6 Orville. 4f Bartl. 1 Termagant 6 Rep"ulus. 7 Sir Dam Dam Dam 6 Sir Peter. Arabian). 4. . 4 Godol. Sir "Peter 3 Regulus. Arabian. 5 Flying o Snip (by Flying Childers). 5. (Sire of 5 Pavnator. 7. 6 Ion. Herod 1. 5 Flying. Dam 3 Camel (by Whaleb. 8. 3. 7 Pocahontas. Highflyer by Herod 1774. 5 9. 4 Regulus (by Godol. Arabian. 4 Beningbrough Orville). 4 Godol. 11. 6 Ion. 1891. 8 Orville. . Buccaneer 1857. Grand-dam 4 Touchstone. Arabian). Dam 1 Godol. 4 Selim. 7 Sultan. Dam 5 Highflyer. Arabian. 1835. Dam 3 Touchstone 5 Camel. Flibustier 5 Tramp. Paulowitz 1813. 10. 2. Hannibal 4 Touchstone. Childers. 1822. 4 Stockwell. 6 Buzzard (Grand-sire of Bustard 8 Whalebone. 1 Highflyer. Wild Dayrell 1852. 1879. Grand-dam 12. 4 Regulus. ^Flying Childers. 6. 5 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 4 Godol. 7 Ion. Childers. Ion 3 Evelina (by Highflyer).Childers. 4 Touchstone. 8 Selim (by Buzzard). Tramp. 4 Camel. 6 Godol. Cain 3 Highflyer. Sir Paul 1802.). Arabian. 1867. Arabian. Dam (by God.282 Heredity. 1903. 6 Selim. 3 Edmund (by Orville). 7 Orville. 6 Sultan. 1784. and Sultan). Dam r \^ Bartl. Flying Childers. Dam 5 Highflyer. Dam 5 Voltigeur. Traclienberg 7 Bustard. Peter.

3 Penelope. 6 Sir Peter. FaTonius 6 \\'hisker (by 1868. 6 Partner. 6 6. 6 Regulus. 3 Eclipse. Partisan 2 Highflyer (by Herod). Inbreeding. Dam Dam Dam Blacklock. 4 Highflyer. 5. 3. 283 3 Regulus. 1811. j 5 Buzzard. I Sir Peter 4 Regulus. Macaroni by Sweetmeat 1860. 6 PotSos.4. 6 Highflyer. 8. Parmesan 1857. Penelope). 3 Waxy. 6 Penelope. Compiegiie 6 W'halebone. I 4 \\'alton (by Sir Peter). 6.. Dam 5 Regulus. (by Eclipse). Dam 3 Snap. 4 Snap. Arabian. o Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 4 Buzzard. 5 Sir Peter (by Highfl3'er). 6 Buzzard. 6 Godol. 6 Eclipse. Walton by 1799. Sweetmeat 1842. 6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). Dam High- 3 Alexander. 5 Mare by Alexander Gohanna. Waxy and 5 Whisker. 7. 7 Highflyer. Fitz Gladiator by Gladiator 1850. Mare bv Alexander. 5 Partner. 7. Dam 4 Trumpator. 4. . 5 7. 6 Orville (Grand-son of flyer). 1833. 3 Herod. 4 PotSos (by Eclipse). Gladiator 4 Prunella (by Highflyer). 6 \A'axy (by PotSos). 5 PotSos.

1805. 6 Saltram (by Eclipse). Blank (by Godol.284 1. 6 Regulus. 7 Tramp. I 7 PotSos (by Eclipse). 5 Regulus. Dam Dam 6 Highflyer (by Herod). ! 3 Herod.ulus (by Godol. 6. 1864. 4 Lexington. Grand-sire of Diomed). I Herod Childers. Sir 'Arcliy 3 Herod. 4 Crab. 4 Eclipse. Dam Turk. 5 Buzzard. 6 Orville. Grand-dam 2 Sir Archy.i. Glenooe 5 Mercury 1831. i 5 Marske. 5 Dam (by Cade). Timoleoii 1814. Tirg'il 4 Tramp. Arabian). 5 Basto (by Byerly 4 Flyini. 6 Herod. 6 Glencoe. 4. Bald (ialluway. o Blank (bv Godol. 6 Bald Galloway. 3 Flying Childers. Tandal 1850. I Dam Dam Dam 6 Godol. Dam 7 Orville. I 4 Herod. 6 7. Lexiiig'toii 3 Sir 1850. 6 Flyini:^ Childers. Matchem Arabian. Dam 3 Lexington. Archy (by Diomed). j o 7 4 Regulus (by Godol. 6 Marske (by Squirt). Emilius (5. 1833. 4 Godol. 5 Sumpter. 8 Highflyer. Waxy. 8 Herod. 7. 5 Partner. Arabian. 6 Godol. 7 Dam 4 Godol. 2 7 Vandal (by Glencoe). Hindoo 6 Emilius 1878. Trentham. Hannorer 1884. 6 Orville. I (b\- Eclipse). 1861. Dam 5 Darlev Arabian. 4 Highflyer 4 Eclipse. Floi'izd by 1768. Arabian) 7 Childers. 6 Eclipse. 4 Highflyer. 6 Hig-htlyer. 3 Cade (by Godol. 3. 3. Arabian). 5 Flyiny Childers (by Darley Arabian). . o Eclipse. (by Orville) 9. 5 Herod. Hamburg' 1895. Boston 2 Diomed. Sultan 1816. Norfolk 5 Sir Archy.5. Buzzard by Woodpecker 1787. 10. Orville). ?. 7 Squirt. Selim 1802. Arabian). 8. 6 Re. Dam Dam 3 Herod. . Dam Dam Dam 7 Highflyer. 5 Emilius. Heredity. 5. 4. 5 Glencoe. I 6. Arabian). 4 Partner. 2. Arabian. Arabian. 3 Eclipse.7 Byerly Turk) 2. Diomed 1777.

Dam 4 Waxv. 1857. W'indhound). Le Ju. 3 Eclipse. . I (by Highflyer). 5. Dam 3 Y. Atlantic 1871. 7 Sorcerer. 6 Evelina. 1824. 7 7 Buzzard (by Woodp. Dam 2 Highflyer. 7 Sir Peter. Dam 4 Touchstone (Grand-sire of Touchstone. 5. Grand-sire 2 Touchstone. Grand-dam 9. 6 Touchstone. 285 5 Regulus. 7 Melbourne. 1903.)) Parents of Mare by Alexander j Selim. Arabian. (by 5 Buzzard. 7 Orville. 9.5 Windhound. Le Saney 1884. 6 -Melbourne. The Flying: D«tcliniaii 3 Selim. 6 Sir Peter Dam Dam 5 Highflyer. 5 Melbourne. 5 Herod. Maintenon 5 Newminster. 1892. 7. Castrel 1801. 7 Eclipse. 5 Eclipse. 5 Touchstone.stioier by Le Sancy Dam 3 Gladiator. Giantess. Tho'rmanhy 6 Orville (by Beningbrough). 6 Godol. 5 Mare by Alexander Eclipse).4. 5 Highflyer. Le Sagittaire 1892. 5 Matcheni. 3. Dick Andrews Beningbrough. 5 Sorcerer. Bay Middleton by Sultan 1833. 1846. 6 Eclipse. 4 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 6. 3 3 Alice . Arabian). 4 Arethusa. 6 Touchstone. 5 Stockwell. 1860. 4 Eclipse. 6 Regulus (b\- 4. 6. 1847. 2 Pantaloon (Sire of Windhound). 6 Beningbrough. 7. Hawthorn. Dam Dam 5 Touchstone. 3 Herod. Dam J 3 Sultan (by Selim). Parents of Orville. Pantaloon 4 Highflyer. 7 Dam 3 4 Woodpecker (by Herod). 10. 8. j 4 Evelina (by Highflyer). Dollar 4 Catton. 6 Beningbrough. b}- Buzzard Dam Godol. Inbreedine". 2 Strathconan. AYin'dhonnd 3 Peruvian (by Sir Peter).

6 Sir Peter. Sir 4 Priam. Darling's dam (by Bird[catcher). Dam 4 Eclipse. Arabian). J -5 Herod (by Tartar). 6 Evelina (by Highflyer). Comus 1809. Dam 3 Waxy. o Touchstone. L6 Godol. 5 Trumpator. I Dam 5 Regulus. 1796. 6 Trumpator. Arabian 5 Partner 4 Godol. Arabian. I 5 5 6 Whalebone (by Waxy). 6 Eclipse. "] j Matchem. Dam 5 Waxy. 2 Sir Peter (by Highf. 5 Godol. 5 Highflyer (by Herod). 6 Snip. (by Godol.). Solon 1861. 1 6 Pot8os. Matchem Trumpator 1782. 7 Whalebone. 9. Comus (Grand-son Waxy. 4 7 Cade 5 Regulus (by Godol. 7 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). o Tartar (by Partner). 7 6 Penelope (by Trumpator). Arabian). I "» Grand-sire of re Partner.286 Heredity. West Australian 1850. Dam Dam 3 Birdcatcher. of Trumpator). 6 Eclipse. b}' Conductor (b}- Matchem) Dam Dam Dam 4 Partner. 5 Whalebone. 3Ielbourne 4 Termagant. I Line. 4 Partner. Humphrey Clinker 1822. 5 Herod. 5 Snap. 9. 1887. Arabian). . Trumpator. 3 Penelope (by Trumpator). 6 5 Blank (by Godol. Arabian. 6 Eclipse. Sorcerer 2 Matchem. Morion 5 Touchstone. 1834. Trumpator. 7 Eclipse. Eclipse. Barcaldine 1878.

2. 2. Arabian. xx born Engl.29^. Dam: 4 Hambletonian (10). 2. Chief). 3 Godol. A 1.18. Hambletonian (10). Baron Wilkes (4758) 1882 by George Wilkes and Belle Patchen. (insufficient pedigree of the Dam). Dam : 5 Mambrino (Grand-sire by Hambletonian). Electioneer (125) 1868 by Hambletonian (10) and Green Mountain Maid. Dam: 1 Mambr. Maud S. Messenger xx. 2. Rek. Rek. Dam: 1849 by Abdallah I. 2. Dam: ?. Rek. Hambletonian 3 Messenger xx. Idolita 1896 4. 5 Mambrino .01| p. 2 Rek. Grand-dam : : 2. George Wilkes (by Hambletonian [10]). 5 Bay Bolton. 1823 by Mambrino xx and Amazonia. Dan Patch Rek. ?. 2 Hambletonian (10). Turf xx. 1780 by Mambrino xx Dam: 3 Godol. 5 Mambrino xx? Dam: — 1 Mambrino Patchen (Great Grand-son Mambrino. Vasco (10996) 1882 by Harold and Vassar.08g) Abdallah I. Dam: — born Amer. Dam: 1 Hambletonian (10). 3. Hambletonian 3 (10) Messenger xx. Abdallah 1 I. Messenger xx. of 7. Mendocino (22607) 1889 by Electioneer and Mano. ?. born Amer. Dam: 3. Arabian. and Charles Kent Mare. 2 Bellfoundez xx? Dam: ?. 4. by Mendocino and Edith. 2. 287 Trotters. 2 Hambletonian (10) (by Abdallah I). 3 (37323) 1896 by Joe Patchen and Zelica.09J.4. George Wilkes Rek. Moko 2 (24457) 1893 by Baron Wilkes and Queen Ethel. ?. Arabian). Arabian. Dam: ?. Dam: (10) ?. Rek. 2. l. Grand-dam: Mambrino Chief (Sire of Mambrino Patchen). Inbreeding. Dam : 4 Hambletonian (10). Dam 1849 by Abdallah I. 1. Hambletonian 3 (10) Messenger xx. 3 Hambletonian (10). 4 Hambletonian (10). 3 Abdallah I. Grand-dam: 2. 8. Grand-dam: ? 3 Godol.56i p. few of the chief lines in American JNIessenger 3 Cade (by Godol. 5 Mambrino xx? (Grand-sire by Mambr.22 (519) 1856 by Hambletonian Dam). Franko (33991) 1899 by Moko and Fraulet. Messenger XX. 3. 1806 by Messenger xx — Soucroiit xx. 1. Joe Patchen (30239) 1889 by Patchen Wilkes and Josephine. 6 Mambrino Chief. Chief. (10) and Dolly Spanker. 2. JNIambrino xx ? 5 Cade (by Godol. (insufficient pedigree of the 6. Patchen Wilkes (3550) 1882 by George Wilkes and Kitty Patchen. 3. and Charles Kent Mare. and Charles Kent Mare. Grand-dam: 5. 1. Harold (Sire of (413) 1864 by Hambletonian (10) and Enchantress. Hambletonian (10). Messenger xx. 1849 by Abdallah I. born 1874. Arabian). Dam: Chief.

The Baron). 5. because a dam can onlv produce a limited nimiber of foals. The question of inbreeding in the case of mares is less easy to handle than in the case of stallions. Suriosni Bars I. Dam: 6 Messenger xx. Hambletonian (2). 1849 by Abdallah I. the following may be mentioned Jigg by Jigg. 3 Barsik (by Bars). Major-Edsall (211) 1859 by Abdallah (15) (0 Messenger xx)..OQQ 1. 5 Mambrino xx?. Rek. Grand-dam: Messenger xx. and Charles Kent Mare. 3. fr)undation mare of the Fam.29.02:1. Abdallah (15) 1852 by Hambletonian (10) and Katy Darlin£r.18. A Polkan 2 Bars 111. Rek.. i. I. A mare born about 1690 by Spanker and Old Peg (Spanker's dam). and Cream Cheeks. 2. (AUie West) Crescens (26217) 1894 by Robert :\IcGregor (647) and Mabel. Dam: ?. and which became good racehorses. Camel. Bald Peg by 1. his best son Duschak 3 (born 1784)! 1825. I have onlv found the four following examples for a coarse inbreeding. 4. 2. I few examples of Russian Trotters. A mare born about 1730 bv Heneage's jigg and the dam of Heneage's — : — — filly of which there are no further reports. Grand-sire: 1 Mambrino Chief (11). Dam: ?. 2. and secondly.e. 1817 by Lofki I. produced five celebrated foals. — ? man n. 6 Messenger xx. Bars (born 1835). 2. Heredity. with 1 free generation Bay Peg born about 1690 by Leedes Arabian and V. 234). 2. Scharodei 4 ill. grandmother of the two Childers (see Family 6). Bars I. Eeedes Arabian. his best son Ladin 1821. 4. Basto 1702 by Byerly Turk. 1806 bv lAibesni T. was the dam of the two celebrated sires.. Dam: Robert McGre. Dam: 3 Bars. 1862 by Polkan. Dam: 2 Mambrino Chief (11). who also was bred with Of the manv mares with and 1 free generatif)n which have been successful at the stud or have been prominent performers on the racecourse. Old Ladv born abf)Ut 1702 bv Pulleine's Chesnut Arabian Pulleine's Chesnut Arabian. his best son Lofki 1874. 24 (Gohanna. 3. 4 Abdallah (15). Rek. 5 Messenger xx. and Fox 1714 by Clumsey. amongst them Htmt's Jigg (page 1 free generation. incest breeding.iror (647) 1871 by Major-Edsall (211) and Xancy Whit- Hambletonian 3 (10) Messenger xx. amongst them Jigg by Byerly Turk. because there are so many of them. 2 Bars I. produced one six colts — : — .

289 Mares with • Free Generation. . of their „ Mares and Born' 1 ram .4. lies I Sire . /% 5 Names .. Inbreeding-.

1^ 1715 Bald Galloway The Wharton Mare Miss Meredith Fisher Lass 4 Sir Peter (by flyer) Mare Little F^m. Names of Mares and Born About Sire Df their Families Old Ladv Bald Galloway Fam. Fam. Childers Flying Childers Mares with Bellissima O. 1 Free Generation. Giantess Highflyer 6 Eclipse Mare 3 Fam 24 1798 Woodpecker 6 Darley Mare by Herod 3 4i^ Herod Cade Arabian Partner fBartl. Hartley Mare 15 1763 Shakspeare Voltaire 4 Fam. Valentine Mare bv Phantom 12 a 1833 King Fergus (by Eclipse) High- (Dam 7 by Voltaire) 6 PotSos (by Eclipse) 5 Highflyer 4 Y. 3 .290 Heredity.

In breed inc. 291 c .

•292 Heredity. — .

3 .Inbreedirii •293 For the purpose of judging of the more removed inbreedings of approved brood mares. The choosing of these 60 mares is not only a difficult task. I have only gone into the determining of their inbreedings after having selected the mares. but (jne about which one may have very different opinions. The result was as follows : — With 2 free eenerations 8 mares. I have arranged 60 of the best according to the degree of their inbreeding. so as to avoid any confusion by giving too manv examples.

294 Heredity. .

Inbreedins •295 d .

Names of Mares and their Families Born Sire Dc- Fam. 3 1769 Snap 3 Cleveland Bay Peg (by Leedes 6 Arabian. 2 1819 Herod Election 2 Herod Cade Mare by Stamford 4 o Snap Blank (by Godol. 4 1875 Scottish Chief 5 Orville 6 Selim (Sire The of Bay Middleton (by Sultan) Flo\ver Safety 6 Orville 5 Muley (by Orville) Sultan) . Arabian) Grey Robinson (bv Bald Galloway) Mandane 4 6 PotSos 4 (iodol.Feri^us (by Eclipse) 6 (by Herod) Woodpecker (bv Herod) PotSos Herod iNIiss Papillon 4 Bay Bolton 5 Darley Arabian 5 Betty Leedes Fam. Arabian) Matchem Cade (by Cade) (by Godol. 27 1819 Rubens 3 Tippitvwichet 3 Herod Herod of Herod Snap) o 6 6 Matchem Cade Snap 5 Squirt ((irand-sire 5 Curiosity (by 6 Eclipse) Snap Snap 6 Cade 5 Thistle 4 Fam. Camilla Arabian 4 Godol. 7 1824 Whisker 3 4 6 Gibside Fairy 5 6 5 Herod Herod Snap Cade (bv Matchem) Herod Cade 5 Conductor (by Matchem) 5 His-hflyer (by Herod) 6 Matchem Fam.296 Heredity. Arabian Emma 4 Eclipse 4 Brunette Fam.Mulatto o Hi-htlyer 5 Florizel 6 Eclipse 6 Leda o Highflyer 5 Eclipse •5 4 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 6 King. 2 1837 . 11 1800 Cade (by Godol. () Y. 2 Cinizelli 4 Alexander (by Eclipse) 5 Buzzard (by Woodpecker] 5 6 1842 Touchstone 4 Alexander 5 Brocade 3 Alexander 4 Sir Buzzard Peter Mare by Alexander Maria (by Herod) o Eclipse 5 Sir Peter o Woodpeclcer 6 Herod 6 Sir Peter G Hio-htlyer Electress 4 Eclipse 5 o 6 Fam. Grand-sire of Betty Leedes) Byerly 7\irk Hautboy (Grandsire of Bay Bolton) Mare 4 Eclipse 4 Fam. 6 Bald (ialloway Arabian Bald (iailoway Martha Lynn Fam. Arabian) 6 Godol.

297 c . Inbreeding-.4.

the It ing. Arabian Arabian Crab Arabian Partner 4 Godol. Fam. Silverhair (dam of Silvio) 7 PotSos and 7 Orville. is. Alare by Tranby (dam of V^andal) 7 Highflyer. 8 ' 1833 6 Eclipse Dr. Fam. 6 179() Diomed 4 Giantess 2 Godol. Miss Ann (dam of Scottish Chief) 7 Mercury and 7 Woodpecker. 7. 4 Partner 3 Partner 5 Bald Gallowav 5 Flvinq. Suicide (dam of Amphion) 7 W'lialebone. 6 Highflyer O. Wing Fam. 2. following nine with 7 free generations 1. 1. apply to the most approved mares Among the approved brood mares with more just as well as to the stallions. 9. 3. Manganese (dam of The Miner) 7 Sir Peter and 7 Trumpator. unless I have made a mistake. o 12. Syntax 5 Matchem 6 Mare by Ardrossan 5 Eclipse Herod Cade 5 Herod 6 Snip 5 Old Tartar 6 Mare Snap) Marske 6 Angelica (by Bribery 6 Sir Fam. With more than 7 free . Mint Sauce (dam of Minting and The Lambkin) 7 Castrel and Comus. •5. than 6 free generations I only know. 2 1851 The 4 Libel Splitvote 5 Sir Peter Peter Peter) 4 . Giantess 5 Godol. Moorhen (dam of Gallinule) 7 Sclim. : — Jamaica (dam of Foxhall) — 7 Orville. 6. Names of Mares and their Families Born Sire Dam Y. Windermere (dam of Muncaster and Kendal) 7 Orville.Childers Mares with Bee's 6 G Free Generations. 4. 2 [ 1837 Priam 2 Octaviana 4 Highflyer Whiskey Herod 6 Eclipse 6 5 Eclipse 5 Herod Marske Herod 5 Eclipse 5 can be seen from these examples that the same rules as regards inbreedand especially inbreeding supports. 7 This number in comparison with the above-mentioned twelve approved stallions with 7 free generations. a verv low one.298 Heredity. 8.\lexander 6 Stamford (by Sir 6 Buzzard Woodpecker o Sir Peter Crucifix -2.

8. 9 Grev Robinson.. dam of Sweetmeat. Childers. of As the number brood mares used for breeding is much larger than that of stallions. 24 Smolensk! 2. 7 General Peel. 22 Ruler L. 2 Dcp. as above shown. D. 11 Mighflyer. 5. amongst which are the following 1 Adventurer.. I have only left out a few stallions. however. and 2nd in the Derby. dam of Perhaps the further removed inbreedings have been less sucThe ver}^ close inbreedings. and Thunderclap. besides several good generations I Spendthrift. dam of AA'ar Eagle Dcp. Leporello. Lauer. only very small (really only Paulowitz. consecessful with mares than with sires. 16 Mark Anthony. MancTeuvre. In order to judge the inbreeding question with Half-breds. Valentine.. 31 Fl. 3. dam of Grimcrack. Childers. 2 Apology. Grezano. Elfenbein. seem to be less harmful with brood mares than with sires. Unfortunately. dam of Matilda L.O. the following — a few with excellent breeding performances. 4. On page 236 know of one single important sire with free generation. dam of ^^"averlev. and perhaps Flying Fox). 23 Schwindler U. 18 Padischah S. whilst several prominent stallions have been born of mares with onlv 1 free generation. O. Hirtenknabe... Butterflv. Mare 1763 bv Shakespeare. dam of Lioness Cs. These are named the four stallions with four sires have not played any important part in Thoroughbred breeding. 4 Cardinal York. 26 Statesman.. 299 only know Hymenia. however. dam of Xabocklish. Chesnut Skim. 7. 13' Knowsley. partly on account of their insufficient pedigree Edeling. free generation of which I know. 8 Goldfinder. of Election 2. I. foundation mares. Fritter. 28 Thunderbolt. 6. Lollypop. Paschal. Barcaldine.. of course. 27 Theodore L. Miss Elliot. 3 Blacklock. 5 Drome. 14 Liverpool. dam Juliana.. and Aerolite.. 19 Phaeton. dam of Virgil. 32 Bart. 30 Weatherof sires with 1 free generation : measures of comparison.. 6 Foxhunter.inbreeding. Amongst mares with free generation. I have also had to leave out the following 9 stallions because their basis of inbreeding could not be determined.. The remaining 61 Half-bred stallions are divided as follows : : — . GP. D. L. with their own and their parents' inbreeding. is the fact that the number which have done well in Thoroughbred breeding is. ^largaretta. 1 have mentioned in the following list 61 Half-bred stallions which were born in Trakehnen. — bit. 10 Hannibal D. as they had practically no remarkable influence in the Trakehnen breedings. 9. 29 Wenlock L. 21 Pvrrhus L D.. 12 Kisber D. we find : amongst them 1. cannot be taken as equal Conspicuous. the absolute figures alone. ND. 15 ?ilandrake. 20 Przedwit OD.. dam of Sweetbriar and Mentor. I do not quently. 17 Mortemer Acp. 25 Squirt.

as. ' . but by an exaggerated inbreeding much less has remained of him than one might have expected after 21 years' use. In the first volume of the Tralcehnen Stud Book we find many examples showing distinctly the deterioration and final destruction of prominent breeding material caused by exaggerated inbreeding.. still Unfortunatelv.7 . tenderness.. breeds.. 15 11 11 „ . the Thoroughbred. generations less free or still with inbreeding robust constitution. seem. .. Thunderclap should perhaps have been the first sire of Half-breds of wliom one might have been able to say that every Half-bred in East Prussia has his blood in him. .. the breeds for example. especially the pampered ones. .. Even within the modern i more hardened amongst them. . 3 4 5 6 „ . late. was perhaps the best Half-bred stallion He was used for -21 years as Royal Stud stallion. . The evil experiences which Trakelinen suffered in the first half of the last century on account of exaggerated inbreeding should be a lesson to all who care to learn from the experience of others and who do not wish only to appear themselves their own breeding that tlieir great. to stand a closer inbreeding better than most Half-breds.. . with a more endowed of the Steppes. find tliey out from has cost them very dear owing to the mistakes they have made. bones.. 1 -2 free g-eneration 2 stallions. Among the close With the natural inbreedings we find many light boned and small horses.. With „ . themselves. have been also in the breeding of Trakehnen Half-breds the consequences of too close inbreedings. in the Trakehnen Stud Book' we find nianv failures with A weakly constitution. Also in the Thoroughbred breeding we find the most rol:)ust and the strongest individuals among those with more removed inbreedings. ever bred in Trakehnen. as above shown. Thunderclap. light closer inbreeding than 1 free generation. The list below gives a of the results of exaggerated inbreeding in Trakehnen.... 8 3 Total 61 stallions. . as for example. .300 Heredity. even to the if not quite has that of Eclipse.. 7 . born 1810 by ^likle Fell and Toisc.. and finallv sterilitv. yet we find breeders (also in Malf-bred breeding) who ignore till the experiences of their predecessors... but generally too imagined cleverness clever. . improved breeds improved breeds. . same extent as it summary ... . for a Although the dangers of carr\ing inbreeding too far have been known long time. a close modern with the than consequences may be carried on longer without bad the themselves. .

e.. 14 4 1 1 1 ... Favora 1849 bv Thunderclap. The best was Fra Diavolo. and he was mixed Thoroughbred.. to Gradiz. . Names r e. died without pro- An inbreeding in which sire and dam are by the same father. and some without special performances. Family 68. .. Triumphator x 1811 by Allahor x. 1 2 2 — — — — 5 ^ Total 54 times t•^ t 40 By Thunderclap or Daunius. unless I have made a mistake in counting. viz. . Of the 40 brood mares 29 have died out. Of which were . and I'laute (Fam. Inbreeding-. viz. Fionda.. viz. Theresa 1815 bv Meteor.. and produced 44 countr}^ Of these 44 country stallions only one may stallions and 40 brood mares. tt Including 5 cases in which other Stallions had also covered the Mare. 301 In the first volume of the Trakehnen Stud Book. and Somma. 65). Only two of the extinct lines could show better performances by producing the two and Dorimont.. Humanita 1863 by Thunderclap.. i. is mentioned in the first volume of the Trakehnen Stud Book 367 times (84 times with Thunderclap). The three brood mares were : — 1. IIof Stalhons ^ Daughters . a breeding with free generation. and he had two sires and was very likely a progeny of Daunius. Scrapall xx 13 11 6 4 1 1 1 — 2 1 If — — — — — 3 1 - Snvders XX Meteor X Culblanc 1 <» . Teresina (Fam. — their daughters. Costarika (Fam. ducing anything. From this covering the mares became pregnant 264 times. . the breeding has been tried with have covered arc given who In the following list only the stallions tion. this The five stallions which were produced from breeding belonged to a verv inferior class. be classified as of a better class. 137). Two Royal Stud stallions Igor : : .!irori coverea j^^ ^^^j Stallions Brood Mares Thunderclap Oronocco 1 Caril '24 times.. who has not produced anything special and is in danger of dying out. Only threaten to die out. Orselska. The following four families also Lubinka. i. Ormond Oromedon 1 .. 220).e. also sent 3.. 2. was sent to Gradiz and died there without producing anything. three families seem to be able to remain of anv use in Trakehnen.4. some without progenv. . . ^^. there are 54 cases mentioned in which the stallion has 1 free generacovered his daughter.

Two mares came to Neustadt Aurata 1854 by Ibarra. and died there without progeny. with her granddaughter Clara. mares came to Gradiz Mary 1815 by Oronocco II. without any special performances.. and Campelli 1857 by Ibarra.promedon. The first died there without progeny. No. and the latter died finally in Beberbeck.30-2 Heredity. : : Stallions with 1 Free Generation. and Prima 1850 bv . .

Inbreedine:. 303 Stallions with 3 Free Generations.4. . No.

Name }f Stallions Born Sire Dam Flasche Grand-dam : Fliioel 4 ^'ega 6 Catton xx 7 Orville 7 1869 Vorwarts xx 6 Sorcerer xx 6 Orville xx Thunderbolt xx (by Sorcerer xx) 5 Sorcerer xx 8 Sorcerer xx 1861 Hanno 4 Emma (by Danseur xx ('\^'hisker Harriet xx Whisker xx) 1848 xx ^Whalebone xx Ibarra 4 Caril 7 Thunderclap •3 Jupine Trumpator xx 1876 Jemim 4 Pless Thunderbolt xx 7 W^halebone xx 7 Ganges x (by Tigranes x) Jessica 5 Tigranes x 5 Leporello Jenissei 4 \''ecordia 1888 Venezuela 6 Emilius xx Jemba 3 4 Antenor Ganges x xx : 1(1 Massa 4 7 1873 Vorwarts 6 Sorcerer 6 Mater na 9 Sorcerer Vega Thunderbolt xx (bv Sorcerer xx) xx Orville xx Grand-sire 6 Sorcerer xx 11 Merlin 4 Whalebone xx 6 Sorcerer xx (by 1860 Sahama xx o Buzzard o 6 Morea 1 Trumpator xx) xx Evelina xx Trumpator xx (Grand-sire of Y.304 Heredity. 6 Driver Herod xx Trulla Farthings Turc XX ? o Sir Peter xx . W'halebone xx : Grand-sire 2 Sorcerer xx Whalebone xx) 12 Moroenstrahl 4 Pocahontas xx 4 Teddington 5 Orlando xx 7 1896 Blue Blood xx 7 Moba 6 xx Camel xx (by W'halebone xx) Selim xx (Great Grand-sire of Pocahontas xx) /"Whalebone xx (^Whisker xx Camel xx (Grandsire of Orlando xx and sire Great of GrandTeddington XX) 5 Grand-dam Camel xx : 13 Oromedon 4 Mr. No. 1836 J.

. Inbreediiii 305 No.4.

No. .306 Heredity.

Inbreedin< 307 No. .4.

Names Pless 7 of Stallions I Born Sire !)am 1870 Vor warts 6 Sorcerer xx 6 Orville Petze 4 'J'iijranes Thunderbolt xx (bv Sorcerer xx) x xx 7 Whalebone xx Stallions with 8 Vree (jenerations IHock 8 Orville 187.3 Ructic XX xx Popilius 8 1873 xx S Penelope xx Waxy Thebaner S 1876 Whalebone xx .308 Heredity.

as for example. it is to be understood that onh 3. Flirstenberg.Melbourne). Several of the most important mixed Thoroughbred stallions which are not mentioned here show these inbreeding supports verv clearlv. 3O9 manv inbreedings cannot be ascertained. Passvan. Half-bred is. as for example.^. the at present best Half-bred Steepler. sire : 4 Sorcerer xx : Trumpator and grand-sire of Tigranes) dam G Trumpator XX. as we have already pointed out when dealing w ith Thoroughbred breeding. Half-bred stallions. as far as possible. as for example. 4 Sorcerer xx (bv \\'ax\- and Nobleman xx and G Penelope xx (bv Trumpator). which on account of their colour could claim a more indulgent criticism. Probably. and sire 8 Comus]. mate to get the best results. \\'hen mating the parents. only two are inbred to Half-bred as a basis. When breeding purely for conformation it is very . As in the pedigree of Half-breds. and part of Hanover). \'or\varts. it is recommendable in Half-bred breeding to direct the inbreeding. as for example. excellent in their conformation but with insufficient inbreeding support. Of all better stallions. Morgenstrahl. one \yould obtain the best results with mares inbred to Melbourne or Pocahontas' blood. an inbreeding to typical Half-bred ancestors will often be advisable. Ganges x with -I Sorcerer xx and sire X with 2 Tigranes x. Yet the statistics of above Gl Half-bred stallions show that in 49 cases Thoroughbred (inclusive of mixed and questionable Thoroughbred) has served as a basis of inbreeding. dam are often very difficult to Half-bred in 12 cases only. just as mentioned Iroquois for Thoroughbred breeding. Melbourne xx. pedigree is so incomplete ihat Precisely tiie : further. 1). Inspector x with G Sorcerer xx and the sire 4 Sorcerer xx. Malteser. show the same inbreeding supports either on the part of their dam or of their sire. very best stallions. etc. mav Apis (page 303. the best of them. Tunnel. in this respect often very difficult to handle. say a line figure. to a Thoroughbred ancestor. with coach horses (Oldenburg. is more important than capabilities. on account of insufhcient inbreeding supports. born Hanover 1899 by Lorbeer (lieberbecker) and Rosamunde. or of both. as is shown in the case of the best Thoroughbred stallions. and these two were the black stallions journey and \^enerato. Holstein. Ready. therefore. In breeding Half-breds in which a certain type. Optimus (7 Humphrey Clinker |bv I I 7 Wlialebone and 10 Sorcerer [sire of Comus]). Comus.. of course. dam 3 V. prominent ancestors common to both should be chosen as basis of inbreeding. Xo. Inbiec'dini. however. As an example for an unsatisfactory heredity of an otherwise first-class : : : here mention Half-bred stallion.4. with 7 Melbourne xx. sire 4 West . Orcus. Thoroughbreds are generally the best ancestors. All the 11 stallions with G free generations have Thoroughbred as basis of their inbreeding.Australian xx (b}. to gi\e an example from the racecourse. Melbourne (by Humphrey Clinker) and Pocahontas are the two cardinal points in Optimus' pedigree. X'enerato. Final!}-.

Besides. High legs in the heredity of a stallion (for example have here made. know the great influence which the exterior of the basis of in- breeding often exercises. in distinct inbreeding support.. of course. it follows of classical From the list given below that the inbreeding has been a useful factor in the production of in good stock surprising that 4 free generations seem to be the most favourable limit of inbreeding with the The idea of best racehorses just as well as with the best breeding horses. dam : 2 Herod). Rataplan. Voltigeur. Optimus can be mentioned as a generations each. form the most suitable tvpe in Thoroughbred as well as in Half-bred. Should a stallion even be inbred as much and as often to Herod as a basis. lasting up to the third usual with Thoroughbreds. but so nearly related to it that bv the increased and well-chosen addition of Thoroughbred blood the HalfXeither Thoroughbred breeders nor bred tvpe can onlv be improved. 7 Humphrey Clinker. 4 Herod. vear. and breeding must.e. he can never become ultimatelv more Herod than Herod himself was. would be diminished by the early training An extended grazing. the type to be obtained is in no 1 way opposed to that of the Thoroughbred. Doncaster. In all breedings for militarv and riding horses. The strength of the Half-bred. male and female winners. West Australian. or 3 bv a close and repeated inbreeding with example. and Bend Or. Simon. Thormanby. and rightlv so verv much esteemed. Perth. as for example. Flibustier. St. . Capabilities will automatically i. Birdcatcher.e. i. more Geheimrat) are.e. as for instance.. i. which gives type and value to the Half-breds. in riding and militarv horse breeds. and he also had a very far removed inbreeding. and many others with 6 free In Half-bred breeding. and many others with o free generations each. Stockwell. increases that strength. based on a lack oi reflection. Half-bred breeders ought to be frightened away from their main purpose. Chamant. as for : the case of Blacklock (3 Highflyer..310 essential to [-leredity. without thereby attaining the close inbreeding to a basis characterised by short legs. if onlv the breeder will mate and rear his animals chiefly with respect to capabilities. b}' fear of a change of type. The individual prepotencv has nothing to do with close inbreeding. in this case of successful racehorses. Lord Clifden. according to experiments which sLirelv removed bv a close inbreeding to a short-legged ancestor than by mating Avith a short-legged mare (for example Moba). capabilities are the most important thing. in the case of Flying Fox (] Galopin). producing breeding material with special individual prepotency by a very use. The most stallions who have shown a special individual prepotency had a proportionately far removed inbreeding. Xewminster. be directed to that end. Sire is Herod. Buccaneer. which is so desirable. capabilities. and therefore cannot transmit more Herod peculiarities than Herod himself did. stallion endowed with unusual individual prepotency. It is (lose inbreeding.

17. 13. 1782 by Justice. Gohanna 8. 12. Birdcatcher. 1810 by Dick Andrews 12. 1872 bv Vedette Petrarch L. 1802 bv ' ' 1. 11. 1799 bv Beningbrough Cardinal Beaufort D. Ashton L. 1806 by Walnut. 1889 by Wisdom ' ' 10. 1799 byDelpini Pelisse O. 13. 1851 by 3. and Oaks. 19. 8. 1863 by King Tom Ganios O. Trifle 2. Saltram D. 6. 1819 by W^oful Memnon L. 1781 by Plunder Annette O. Miss Letty O. Fillies 1 1. 1867 bv Lord Clifden Galopin D. 10. 5. 1787 by Mercury Portia O. 3. O. 311 The male and female winners arranged according to the number of of the Derby. 1797 by Woodpecker. 14. 5. Bellissima O. 4. 1867 by Saunterer Thebais O. : free generations — 1. Leger. 23. 1873 by Lord Clifden Sainfoin D. 1814 bv Orville Sailor D.' George Pope D. 2 Free Generations. Ephemera O. 17. 22. 1784 by Eclipse Hippolyta O.L. 1887 by Springfield Sir LIugo D. George L. 1829 by Sultan Feu (le Joi O. 1885 by Isonomy 18. 3.L. 1825 by Andrew. 1809" bv Dick Stella An drew11. 20. Music O. 1811 by Governor Ebor L. 19. 7. Free Generation. 1804 by Gohanna 9. . 2. 1812 by W^axy The Duchess L. Ninety-Three L. Fox D. Knight Flvino- of St. 1806 by Waxy William L. 1834 by Priam. 1859 by Longbow Tormentor 0. 1878 by Hermit Seabreeze O. 1865 bv Beadsman Hawthornden L. 14. Petronius L.Inbreedine. 1788 by Volunteer Hermione O. Altisidora L. 1798 bv Buzzard Orville L. 1795 by Phoeno- 4. 1821 bv Phantom. 1796 bv Overton Quiz L. 1813 by Cardinal 15. Free Generation. O. menon. Election D. 1896 bv Orme. 1780 bv Eclipse Noble D. York Neva O. St. 1791 bv Sir Peter Platina O. 1794 by Fidget Cockfighter L. 16. 1805 by Sir Peter Pan D. 21. 1810 bv W^axv Minuet O. Cadland D. 1827 by Emilius Blue Gown D. 1817 by Scud Theodore L. 16. 1805 bv St. 1792 bv :\Iercury Parisot O. 1793 by Sir Peter Scotia O. 24. 9. 1783 bv Highflyer Colt D. 16. Colts Cedric D. 21. 1790 by Florizel. 1822 by Whisker Mameluke D. 22. 20. 2. 1. 1814 by Cervantes Shoveller O. 18. 4. 1824 by Partisan Priam D. 1801 by Whiskey ' 3Ianuella O. 18l6 by Scud Galata O.

1S23 bv Catton The Colonel F. 1. 1873 by Macaroni Jannette O. 1879 bv Hermit Minii O. 25. Wheel FIumphre\. 1812 bv Haphazard Azor D. ISll bv Waxv Whisker D. 21. 4. 1796 bv Sir Peter Ditto D. l. FSo7 bv ITirnus Hippia O. 1825 by Whisker Frederick D. 35. 11. 22. 9. Don John F. 1804 by Beningbrough Morel O. 9. LSI 6 by Octavian St. 1902 bv Isinglass Glass Doll O. 179s bv Whiskey Theophania O. 1S21 by Phantom TuiMjiioise ().O. Elis F. 178() bv Tandem Tag C). 1901 bv Isinglass 33 34 Satirist F.F. 1805 by Sorcerer OrianaO. 19. 1835 by (4>amp) or 34. 1819 by Rubens Zinc O. 23. b)' Fergus Spread Eagle D. 14. 1775 bv Matchem Tetotum O. 15.sOO bv Sir Peter Stavelev L. Camelia^ O. 8. 1815 bv Waxy Pastille O. 1784 by Highflyer Beiiiiij. 1900 bv Avrshire Cherrv Fass O. 26. 3 Free Generaticjns. 1803 by Buzzard Briseis 0. 1813 by Rubens Corinne O.2_ 3. 18. V2. Patrick F. Phosphorus D. 24. 19. 1817 by Walton Jack Spigot F. 1812 bv Waxy Filho da Puta L. 18. 10. 22. Sir Harrv D. 10.312 Heredity. 1840 by Touch- stone . 1780 by Fie rod 1791 by Iving 5. 1776 by Wildair Ruler L. 29. is-JO by Orville Tarrare F. 1815 by Melbourne Butterfly O. 1875 by Ford CI if den 30. 1814 bv Selim Sam D. 1807 by Stripling Bliicher D. 27. 13. 16. 1826 by Little John Rockingham F. 1830 by 8. 10. 1807 by Beningbrough Laiidseape O. 1800 by Delpini Bronze O. 17. 1795 by Delpini Archduke 1). 14. 16. Famp- 32. 1792 Volunteer 7. 21. 28. 24. 33. 1777 bv Young Marske Sir Pt'ter D. l<sl. 1833 by Partisan Refraction O. 6. 12. 1803 by Sir Peter Whalebone D.F.Ii L. 17. 7. Hollandaise F. 20. ls70 bv Scottish Chief 28. 1818 by (Ardrossan) or M arm ion Einilius D. 1888 by Barcaldine Our Fassie O. Cowslip F. 1]. 1807 by Waxv Octavian L.Scud Reveller L. 178() b\. lsC)4 by King Tom Marie Stnart O. 1789 by Highflyer Clilia O. 20. 29. 27. 1S20 by Woful (V)hweh O. Tommv Bourbon L. 1802 by Shuttle Paris D. 1779 bv Alfred 3Iai(l of the ()aks O. 1774 bv Le Sang L. 23. ls76 bv Adventurer Shotnvcr D. . 1777 bv Matchem Imoeratrix F.Clinjcer 30. 1782 by PFghflyer Pewett F. 1816 b}' Soothsayer Antonio F.4^-entham Volante O. 26. 1834 by lighter 32. 13. 1833 by Fangar 31. 1S15 by Comus Tiresias D. 25. 31. 1842 by Glaucus (*. 1790 bv X^olunteer Eleanor D. 1838 by Pantaloon Cotherstone D. 1795 by Sir Peter Symmetrv L.") b\. ^^'averlev of Fortune O.broiii.vniha O. LS25 by Selim Cyprian O.

1785 "by Pot8os Y.Dutchman D. 1786 bv Hii^hflver Eao-er D. 1881 bv Sterling-J 45 . 1806 bv 8. (^atieii 1 D. 1SS2 bv Master Kildare 48 49 . 1. Flora L.. 1842 by Slane Sir Tatton Sykes L. 18. 177() by Herod Faitii O. 1784 by HiohHver Sir Thomas D. 1778 by Herod Serina L. Paulina L. 1789 bv Florizel Hambletoiiiaii L. 1778 by Eclipse Assassin D. 14. 1779 bA. 6. 6. Sorcerer 13. 1.L. 1(1. 1905 bv l^-rsimmon 4 Free Ge nerations. 1779 by Sweet \Yilliam Omphale L. 1866 bv Adventurer 4-2 Pero Gomez L. >l('teora O.L. 1804 by Sir Peter 12. 5. 1818 by \A'oful . 1846 h\ Bav Middleton 40 Kcadsniaii D. Blaise D. 3.L. 1866 bv Beadsman 48 Silvio D. Bridget O. 18^4 by Hampton (ialteo More D. 3. 4. 4.L.Sweetbriar Phoeiionieiioii L.yiiii. 1780 by Herod Serjeant D. Eclipse D. 1788 bv Pavmaster Spadille L. 7. 15. 1794 bv Drone Champion D. 1781 by Highflyer Nightshade O. DioiiKMl D. 1811 by Selim 15. 1N48 bv 88 89 Melbourne Fl. :\Iaid of Orleans 6. 5. 1881 bv Cam- ballo 3Ieltoii D. 12. 1840 by Tombov Orlando D. Medora O. Caroline O. 1782 by Mark Antonv Parao'on L. 1794 by Alexander Bellina O.4. 1792 bv Kino Fergus 2. 1793 by Sir Peter Lounger L.^02 by :\leteor 11. Ambrosio L. 1841 bv Touchstone The Merry Monarch D. 1777 by Florizel 2. ls94 by Kendal Your ALajesty L. 1808 bv Sorcerer 14. 1785 bv Pontac Sk\-scraper D. 177s by Goldfinder Ceres O. Augusta O. 1881 bv Rother- The 46 47 hill or The Rover The Lambkin L. 1. 1796 by Rockingham 10. 1855 by AWatherbii 41 Pretender D. 9. 1880 bv Hermit Harvester i D. 11. 1781 by Eclipse Aim\vell 13. 1785 by Highflyer \ike O. 16.-|St. 9. Inbreedini 313 85 36 87 Xutwith L.L. 1817 bv \Yhalebone 16. 1797 bv PotSos Sorcery O. 7. 8. Y."ill Merrv Hampton D. 1874 by Blair Athol 44 St. 1788 by Florizel Tartar L.

O. 1874 bv Lord Lyon Bonny Jean O. 1822" by Phantom Birmingham L. 34. Poison O. 35. Challacombe L. 29. Barefoot L. 42. 1856 by West Australian 27. 1903 by Carbine Orby D. 1838 bv Pantaloon Bine Bonnet L. 1845 bv Touchstone Wild Dayrell D. 1835 bv Velocipede Little 26.814 17. 49. 32. 1839 bv Touchstone 21. 1852 by Ion Hermit D. 21. 44. 1820 bv Tramp Middleton D. 30. 20. 1900"by Sainfoin St. 24. 1828 by Emilius fxhuznee O.L. 31. 28. 1823 bv Literpreter O. 1894 by Poulet Airs and Ciraces O. 1808"by Walton Octavkis D. 25. 36. Frusquin simmon 48. Sevmour 26. 1904 by Orme . 46. 1850 by Lanercost 23. 1901 by St. 28. O. 33. 22. 1840 by Plenipotentiarv 22. 1810 by Sorcerer GustavLis D. Iris 25. 27. Reine O. 1833 bv Sultan Amato D. 1809 by Golumpus Smoleiisko D. 1902 by St. 1880 bv Macaroni Reve d'Or O. 1841 by Slane O. 1800 by Pipator Sancho L. Snmmerside O.'l831 by Emilius Tonclistone L. 1801 bv Don Quixote Phantom D. •50. 1827 by Filho da Puta Chorister L. 31. 30. The Baron L. 1903 by Per- 39. 1848 by Ithuriel Catherine Hayes O. 29. 1831 by Camel Miindig D. 1837 by Muley 37. 1837 38. Oxyg:en 19. 43. Heredity. 1876 bv Flageolet Rock Sand D. Launcelot L. 19. Wonder D. Serf Spearmint D. 36. 23. 34. 1844 by Venison O. 1842 by Birdcatcher Surplice D. 1819 by Whalebone or 17. 3Iiami 24. 1886 by Trappist Throstle L. 1828 by Lottery Margrave L. 1884 by Hampton L'Abbesse de Jonarre O. Amand D. 45. •20. 1895 by Ayrshire 33. 47. 1809 by Orville Otterington L. 1799 by PotSos Remembrancer L. 1876 bv Favonius Rayon d'Or L. Tyrant D. Keystone II. 1875 by Speculum Sir Bevis D. 1872 bv Macaroni Placida O. Lilias 18. 1864 by Newminster Sefton D. 1891 by Petrarch Limasol O. 1818 by Election Closes D.L. 41. The Princess O. 40. 1829 by Muley Plenipotentiary D. 1869 by Monarque Spinaway O. 32. 1838 by Sir Hercules 35. 1832 bv Catton Bay Mfddieton D. 18. by Camel Coronation D.

Marchioness O. 1. 1879 by Rosicrucian 26. Brigantine O. 1862 by Stockwell The Cossack D. 10. Yariation O. 1844 by Lanercost 21. 1828 by Whalebone St. Caller On L. 1881 bv Petrarch Mrs! Butterwick O. 19. 21. 30. 1856 by Newminster Kettledrum D.L. Rhedy cilia O. 1832 Didelot D. 8. 1891 bv St. Simon Amiable O. 1873 hv Radamanthus D. 1892 by AA^isdom Canterbury Pilgrim O. D. 1879 by Dutch Skater 26. 3. 16. 1859 by Kingston The Marquis L. Enguerrande ^ O. 13. 1851 by Bay Middleton 23. Oreeii Mantle O. 1830 by Muley Waxy^D. 1827 by Bustard 6. 1839 by Cohvick 16.'l890 by St. Reii-alia O. 1836 by Voltaire 15. Soniistress O. Giles D. 1847 'by Voltaire Adventurer Xewmiiister L. Industry O. Alabaculia L. 15. 1858 bv Stockwell Faii^h-a-Balladi L. Tom 30.L. 1826 by Sultan Y. 11. 1868 bv King Tom Tan Troiiip L. Dutch Oven L. 1858 by Rataplan Caractacus D. L. Vespa O. Gladiateur 32. 1849 by BirdRo\yton L. 1821 by 11. 1830 by Tramp bourne Mango L. 20. 1787 by Phoeno- 2. Pussy O. 1788 by King Ferg-us 5. 1847 by Wintonian Lapdog D. 1808 by Sorcerer Prince Leopold D'. 1834 by Emilius 14. Monarque 29. 1843 by Epirus 18. 1829 by Tramo 13. 1848 by Touch. 1860 by KingsHercules ton Pyrrhus I. 1852 by St. 24. 18. 2. 1852 by MelDangerous D. 12. 1824 by Smolensko 4. 1846 by Don Hedley Smolensko John Jerry L. 1826 by Oiseau catcher Spaniel D. by The Baron Andoyer D. 31. Queen Bertha O. Saucebox L. Hannah O. Justice 1. 17. 1844 by Hetman 19. 1877 by The Palmer (leheininiss O. 1849 25. 27. 7. 22. 29. Tmperieuse L. 1793 by Trumpator by Velocipede Soothsayer L.22. 1831 bv Pollio 8.L. 1791 by Justice 7. 9.L. Lawrence Musjid D. 1841 by Sir 17. 1871 by Toltisreur D. 1813 by 9. 1787 bv Ambidexter L. 23. 1867 by King 28. 1823 by Whalebone 12. 0. 1893 by Tristan . Oiilnare O. 1835 by Priam 10. 11. 6. 28. 1854 bv Orlando Attila D. Traveller L. Apology O. Kingcraft D. 1773 by Sampson Matilda L. 1859 by Stockwell 25. Queen of the Trumps O. Vermouth Jenny Howlet O. Simon La Sagesse O. 1862 by D. Busybody O.Inbreedini 315 •5 Free Generations. 1790 by Pot8os Dadalos D. Mincepie O.L. ' stone 24. Stockwell L. 1853 by Sweetmeat Charles XII. 1866 bv Buccaneer Platoff 20. Lady Evelyn O. 4. 1824 by Comus menon 3. 27.

1895 hv janissarv Wildfowler L. Donovan D. 4. Common D.L. 18. Fille do L'Air O. West Australian D. Cap and Bells Domino IT.L. 1837 bv Priam Our Nell O. The Yellow Filly O. Albans L. 1893 bv St. 1783 by Tandem 2. Florian 49. Diamond Jubilee D.316 33. 1905 by Chaleureux Simon 44. 11. Ayrshire D. 1855 bv Chanticleer 11. 5. 3. 1822 by The Flyer Deception O. Isiiii:'Iass D.O. Gamester L. Ard Patrick D. 46. 1890 by Lsonomy 40. stone 8. Persimmon D. 1888 b\. a-Ballasrh minster . 189-2 bv Barraldine 42. Doricles L. Dutchman 7. Signorinetta D. 1898 by 32. 48. 1. 1839 by Bran llendicant O. O. 1789 by Fortitude Hannibal D. Simon Volodyovski D. 1871 by Marsyas 34. 31. 1848 by Orlando Daniel O'Rourke D. Jeddah D.sto D.s3 by Bend Or 36. 1857 bv Stock^vell Macaroni D.L. 1899 by St. 2. 1886 by Galopin 38. D.L. Sir \'i. 1898 bv Florizel 11. Sunbeam L.L. 1901 by Gallinule 33. 1891 bv Hampton 41.O." 1849 by Birdcatcher 1. Heredity. 47. Pretty Polly O. 1897 by 43. Robert' the Devil 1.T. 1851 by Sweetmeat Blink Bonny D. George Frederick D. Ormonde D. 1836 by Defence Crucifix O. 1801 bv Driver Toddinii'ton D. O. 1855 by Chatham 10. \\^ool Winder L. 4.L. 1854 by Mel- Windhound 9. i860 bv New- bourne Governess O. 1904 by jMartagon 6 Free Generations.Isonomy 39. John Bull 13.. 1877 by Bertram 35. St. 1895 bv Gallinule 45. 1853 bv Living 7. 1843 by TouchWinii'S 6. 10. 1856 bv The Cossack Tliormanby D. 8.. St.L. Ladas D.L. 1898 by Florizel H. 1850 by Melbourne Ellington 6. 1860 by S\veetmeat Lord difdon L. 5. 1857 by (Melbourne) or Mincemeat O. 1861 bv Faugh9. 3. 1885 bv Hampton 37.

Achievement L. 23. 21. 1878 by Leamington Brown Duchess O. Blair Atliol D. 3. 1861 by Stock^vell 12. Favonius D. 1853 by Birdcatcher Iroquois D. There is still to be noticed that the stallions and mares born after 1895 have not come into consideration.L. 1889 by St. Iiibreedini 317 1-2. 17. 1873 by Buccaneer Beiul Or D. 1884 by Arbitrator Cicero D. 1877 by Doneaster Ossian L. 1836 by Mulatto Warlock L. 16.5. 1899 by Persimmon ^vell 14. 1 3.4. 1869 by Lord Clifden Doneaster D. As this classification is especially difficult with mares. 15. lo.L. 1883 by Petrarch Memoir O. Simon La Fleche O. 1887 by St. Lord Lvon D. 1880 by Salvator Kihvarlin L. 1869 by Parmesan \\>nlock L. 20.L. 14.L. 1861 by Stockwell la.L. 17. Simon The names of stallions and mares printed in heavy tvpe in above list distinguish those successful in breeding".. 1870 by Stockwell Craig. . 1863 bv Stock' 13.L. 1882 by Hermit Musa O. 1896 by Martagon La Roche O. 1. Bloomsbury D. 1858 by Flving" 2. 1897 by St. 7 1. a number of same are further distinguished bv printing' in italic type as doubtfully successful. Simon Sceptre O.Millar [. 1868 by Parmesan Cremoriie D. Formosa O. 1903 by Ladas 16. 22. 4. 24. 1872 by Blair Athol Kisber D. 19.L. Dutchman Miss Jimimy O. 1865 by Buccaneer Lonely O. 1902 by Cyllene Troutbeck L. Free Generations. as the time of their activity is still too short to rightly classify them.

in 1849. Colts. . Born between 1850 and 1905 inclusive. I Fillies. Number of male and female winners of Derby.50 (4) . Born before and Colts. ' Total. (1) 24 . Fillies.318 Heredity. Leger and Oaks arranged according to free generations. Total Fillies.50 (3) 40 (9) 24 (3) 3 . in 1905. Born before and Colts. St. I Total.

There is vet to be mentioned that every doubtfully successful mare has been counted in the followino. and the right assessment of the stallions. Leger and Oaks born until the year 1895 inclusive. and especially of the mares. . in the case of mares even up to Although the statistics are somewhat small for these 7 free generations.table onlv with i. the regular increase is still worthy of note. The male and female winners of Derby. with regard to their successful activity at the stud. is often verv dijficult. conclusions. St.Inbreedini 319 percentage of stallions most successful in breeding increases with the number of free generations up to 6 free generations.

the third Paulowitz. Goodfellow (sire of Chalereux). and Marco. and sire of W^hitefield. born I8I0 successful one of this group (with 1 free generation). All these things are powerful forces. when the latter produced the Derby winner W^ild Davrell. tW'O own sisters of Flying Fox? Exempla doceut! cess . Sir Visto. the four own brothers and will cause this. was the first. if Flying Fox became at anv Fspoir. Morion. The second is Barcaldine. foundation sire of Buccaneer. of 'i'horoughbred pillars prcjgenximperishable in his leave behind doubt breeding. time the third in this group.ridden in an excellent manner by the best jockey we had in Europe since tiie death of Archer. perhaps the natural power of the virgin soil or the excellent horse pastures of Argentine. Wolf's Crag. however. \\'here and what are. he would be. springs were reared and trained regardless of cost. which ought to increase much the chances of the offsprings of Flying Fox and repair much that exag- which J If Flying Fox should once gerated inbreeding had damaged.320 Heredity. born 1878 b\ Solon. and finall}. where two of his sons now breed. but e\en his suc- — — commenced first with his grandson. bv the side of manv miscarried attempts. ion. b\' Sir Paul.

CHAPTER V. even immunitv against certain illnesses. we did In not tind in Trakehnen any examples districts (in of the transmission of blindness. and especiallv bv clover hav from undrained fields. the walk. Farm).. of which up to now (August.. biting. In the following list.e. roaring. as ^vell as the length and smoothness of hair. habits. foals of blind mares are no more subject to the periodic ophthalmia than others. 1907) only 2 have suffered from periodic ophthalmia. According to the latest researches into the nature of spavin and periodic ophthalmia. i. blind of the other eye. nearlv evervthing. the colt Jorn Uhl by Optimus out of Jesi (No. scientific men (in the first rank Professor Dieckerhoff in a lecture in 1901 on the subject of hereditary faults in breeding horses) have pronounced against their inheritance. etc. however. which frequentlv leads to blindness. are more seldom transmitted. which. are transmitted. 10 of the list). at all. faculties. courage and timidity. Hereditary Faults. firstly. often even in their first year. longevity. spavin. malignity and confidence. sometimes not suffered from periodic ophthalmia In spite of the intentional use for many (moon years of breeding material which blindness). born X . manv low-lying Trakehnen. produced 181 living foals. the names of 25 brood mares in Trakehnen are given. in short. arising from periodic ophthalmia. or of the dis- position thereto. In some cases the brood mares mentioned also became. the Kalpakin. the proportions of the individual parts of the bodv are transmitted. These brood mares have up to the summer of 1907. as blindness. broken windedness. in the course of time. perhaps even less so. small hair-curls. First of all the question to be answered is. acquired So-called hereditarv faults. in consequence of periodic ophthalmia became blind of one eye. This blindness usually occurs with brood mares before their sixth vear. and temperament Above all. horses are often afflicted in damp vears with periodic ophthalmia. According to experiences at Trakehnen. bad or good fertilitv. What is transmitted ? Incredible small details and shades in the build.

Brood jNIares at of Periodic Trakehnen which became Blind in consequence Ophthalmia (Moon Blindness).322 List of Heredity. . No.

1897). who has been covering since 1907 in Trakehnen. at least. 323 the 1st of April. in other words. 48 horses (chiefly weaning foals. there ensues. there was not observed any transmission of a disposition to this disease in their progeny. have been verified by many celebrated scientists. but which did not become blind. P>om the 1st of February. of I also still await the result Roval Stud stallion Ingrimm. the nourishment of the articular cartilage suffers there ensues an inflammation of articular cartilage (chronditis). at first becoming loose and then tight (ostitis rare faciens et condensans). always by a traumatic cause. and who have been covering since 1905 up to is harmless. In the case of spavin or ringbone caused by contusion. Spavin or ringbone in consequence of a rachitic disease happens very seldom in our modern improved breeds. through periodic ophthalmia. 17 were cured without leaving behind any abnormal changes in the Also in the case of brood mares which suffered from periodic eve. for instance. each of w'hom became blind of one eye in Trakehnen. Hereditary Faults. (Elfenfels 1901 the present time in the Li viand Stud. In consequence of the inflammation of the bones. Of the 48 ill ones. One may easily accept Eberlein's views as to the nature and origin of spavin. assuming very different dimensions. In the case of spavin this inflammation of the bone will principally affect the cuneiform bones {os centrale and os tarsale 111) in the case of ringbone it will affect the long pastern bone and the short pastern bone. have never come across such a case. The researches and opinions on spavin of horses published by Professor Eberlein (Berlin. and thus are caused the exudations and proliferations of bone originating in the articular surface. Spavin as well as ringbone are caused either by contusion of the joint bones or by a stretching of the ligaments which hold the joint bones together. and who became blind of his right eye in 1904. . through periodic ophthalmia. 1904. as in the case of the 25 blind mares. nature and causes of spavin and ringsucceeded that neither of them may be taken as a uniform disease. which go to show that the breeding use of stallions which have become blind. ophthalmia. and were cured of same without leaving behind some abnormal changes. 190'2. and Musensohn 1901 by Optimus out of Mumme). yearlings and two-year-olds) caught the periodic ophthalmia. T await with special interest the results of two stallions by Obelisk out of Elisenau. . also for ringbone. an inflammation of the bone. through periodic ophthalmia.5. in consequence of a strong and sudden pressure on the bone substance. I know several cases in East Prussia. there seems to occur the transmission of a certain immunitv against the disease mentioned. without wishing to give even an approximately exhaustive explanation of the many variations and differences of spavin and ringbone. and afterwards developing into bone scientific researches into the The bone have so far . I. or. just as I myself do hereafter. On the contrary. attacking the neighbouring periost. to ophthalmia is fairly frequent in Trakehnen. Torgel.

or ringbone bone begin from the appendage pieces the joint surfaces. admitting of no. be explained bv the fact that. just as in the case of the articular form of the disease. the joints are very tight (as opposed to the coronet joint). and not from in They may then spread round the joint. The certainty with which scientists and laymen have believed in the undoubted transmission of spavin. or at least verv slight. proved. ringbone. the primary Ostitis rare facieus of the small tarsus bones owes its origin to a mechanical contusion of the small tarsus bones. (periarticular). Thus it follows that with regard to spavin. Professor Eberlein writes about the transmission of spavin as follows " The question. and extend the same also to ringbone. I should like to mention yet that horses with short and upright pasterns are more liable to be attacked by the articular ringbone arising from contusion. I do not know of any recognised practical example as a proof of the transmission of ispavin. articular ringbone." I fully subscribe to the view of Professor Eberlein. in itself is just as little transmittable With regard to ringbone. side^va^^ movements. is as 95 to 5. Perhaps the so-called break (in German Absats). however. If the spavin originates at the appendage of the side ligaments or the periost.. which predispose a horse to this disease (causa interna) are transmitted. causes. in the case of the so-called small ankle-joints. Dickerhoff rightly emphasises that every genuine the frequency of articular to periarticular — case of spavin deserves a special judgment in this respect. and moon blindness. Against the previously held views. a push or a blow has generallv been the cause of it. and serious cases also attack the joint surfaces. in my opinion. while in According to Professor Eberlein. which. As I have shown. shows very clearly the low standing of horse breeding as a science. and may arise even in the best formed hocks and thighs from outside Scientifically it is Therefore spavin is in itself not hereditary. neither have I ever met anyone who could point out to me such an . when discussing Aetiology. that a deficient formation of the hocks and a faulty position of the thighs. belongs very often to this periarthritic form of spavin. the exudations of the by stretching (periarthritis). and badly constructed bones on the other hand. while horses with long and sloping pasterns are more exposed to the periarticular ringbone arising from as spavin. only horses with defective hocks or a faulty position of the thighs on the one hand. Thus arises the real spavin or the In the case of spavin caused of the torn ligaments. tearing. the proportion of the frequency of spavin caused bv tearing. substance (formation of Osteophytes). which thev destrov.324 Heredity. Spavin This may at the joint ligaments and the periost is very rare. Mav horses attacked with spavin disease be used for horse breeding or not? is a verv important one for horse breeding. by pressure to that caused the case of ringbone (according to Udrisky) : is as 60 to 40. commencing which is so frequentlv found in the case of covering stallions. must be excluded from breeding.

born left description of the prepared afterwards for four years in the private stud of Julienfelde. by Lahire xx and Peranga by Oromedon. excelled in good and strong hocks. 5. and was stabled at Roseningken. was then sold as stallion to Munich. 325 to example. I do not know of one single offspring of Hermit suffering from spavin. and was afterwards always lame of spavin. 50 brood mares. As far as : transmit spavin — I know. born 1886. born l. must be specially mentioned. as his skeleton. Coturnix. produced any progeny with any suspicion of spavin. with very excellent results. The Derby winner Hermit. which has produced most military remounts (about 300). The Thoroughbred sire. Among the whole of his progenv I never heard of one sus- pected of spavin.s()4. undoubtedly suffered from spavin caused by contusion. page 143). His progeny showed no signs of spavin. which won a prize in Berlin in 1890 at the great horse show. according to the hock given by the stud inspector. I have heard of none being suspected of spavin. born 1880. born 1881. because he was used verv extensivelv for five years in Georgenburg. Miindig was for five years Royal Stiid stallion in Trakehnen. however. born 1882. and in Gudw-allan about 20 brood mares afterwards registered in the East Prussian Stud Book. caused by contusion. bv Childeric and 4. in their very Trakehnen. and was the sire of the chestnut stallion Blondel. the Optimus . as can be distinctly seen frofn the skeleton. Kutzbach (published in a hand-book for horse breeders iDy Count Lehndorff. Hereditary Faults. had 3. the following horses had the opportunity 1. Optimus. like their sire. and was used very much afterwards as stallion at Georgenburg up to 1885. 1867. he has produced in Trakehnen 15 country stallions and 10 brood mares. born Trak. preserved at the hippological museum at Trakehnen. which is preserved in the London Veterinary School. and 2. Neither at excel. The General. Percival. distinctly shows. Among his verv numerous foals (about 200 military remounts. and was afterwards sent to Beberbeck as Royal Stud stallion.5. had spavin on the near hind. The two hocks of Percival are preserved in the Trakehnen hippological museum. and"25 countrv stallions). progeny good and strong hocks. Capitain. spavin on the near hind. at that time the private stud of Herr von Simpson. in East Prussia. I do not know one case of spavin on the contrary. In 1872 he was set aside because he distinctly showed spavin. nor during his sixteen years' activity at Gudwallan. suffered already from spavin when Royal Stud stallion at Trakehnen. Among the sons of Percival. Moreover. Among his verv numerous progeny. just as Percival did. by Odoardo and Optima by The Colonel. 1832. and show that he suffered from spavin. far as . His very numerous progeny. The well-known Derby winner Miindig. as 1 know. later stallion in Georgenburg. has he. was for four years country stallion in Gudwallan. He was for many years the Thoroughbred sire in the Gudwallan district.

If the lameness caused bv spavin. would not. Aqua. in spite I do not know of anv actual examples as. that the disposition to articular ringbone is often transfront. tongue-sucking bad habits. The Thoroughbred stalhons. which for The crib-champing. interferes with the gymnastic development of the bodv. Blue Blood born 1876 by King Tom and Marigold. Ina. the most part only verv tough and durable horses are addicted. became already as foals crib-champers. principally. is so very small that the breeder need not to take it into consideration. In the first The place. of the foals of a brood mare. unfavourable. and if crib-champing often causes attacks of colic. Emina. The early born foals are in I^^ngland said to be more inclined to roaring than the late born ones. on the other hand. I have known some cases. without their parents or grandparents having been addicted thus. in which nearly 50 per cent. Roaring is a consequence. according to experiences in Trakehnen. Blue Blood has not transmitted this disease in Trakehnen. This is the only reason that horses which are lame from spavin when voung are little suitable for breeding purposes. (^r the disposition thereto. and Elsass born 1870 by Napoleon and Esther. and of "their very numerous progeny none was suspected of spavin. Heredity. I must here remark that gasping and tonguesucking are transmitted just as seldom as crib-champing. It is difficult Their development without work is to work horses lame from spavin. and Juniata. to about the same extent. of the break-down of the hindmost.) I I . transmitted by the sire to about 5 per presume that brood mares also transmit these faults cent. suffered from ringbone (Periarticular). during the repose whicli follows the burning and which lasts for many weeks. roaring seems to be more general in certain breeding districts. chances of transmitting crib-champing. but in America and Australia they are the exception. to articular ringbone. who herself was not a crib-champer. or blindness. however. recommend such animals for breeding material. I consider that the acquire whilst grazing. It is an old rule that stallions which are crib-champers do not transmit This is right in those cases only it if burnt on account of a break-down. whilst I do not know a similar case of periarticular ringbone or spavin. bulging out somewhat to the lend whole families which are addicted. without any reason. This crib-champing is n(H transmitted as easil}' as that which foals Finally. gasping. of course. mitted. The respective preparations of the two stallions are in the Trakehnen Museum. as the upright pasterns. in which the stallion has acquired this habit through ennui after a breakdown. or broken wind. of using f(jr manv vears five brood mares which were crib-champers. more or less. In some breeds of horses there are t(. not one of their foals has inherited it. and I am assured the same thing about the progeny of Elsass.go^ 6. I believe. The question on the transmission of roaring is more difficult. are. suffered from spavin (the hocks are in the Tralvehnen Museum). themselves easilv to transmission. The Trakehnen brood mares. of his progenv. damp and foggv climate of England produces more roarers than France.

Prince do not know of anv roarer in the progeny of the roarer Ormonde. and especially so soon as in the second vear. and it should be I once eradicated by the most severe measures from the breeding material. Broken-windedness belongs also to constitutional weakness. however. The former did not transmit it at all. after influenza. at least not when galloping the pace he could well perform. which are reared under the pressure of unreasonable shows. mostly become roarers. does not seem to transmit his roaring either. and other unknown causes. were roarers when they were trained for a fewmonths as two or three-vear-olds. are reared. 307 affects the aspergillum muscle (crico-arytaenoideus) or its nerve.o." All dispositions to disease and constitutional weaknesses. the transmission by stallions differs in certain years. such as biliousness. or that manv become roarers on account of the too great exertion. The only difference is that. " They can never go quite fast enough to trouble themselves. Jf the roaring. If this break-down has been caused by severe glanders. in consequence of public races of Thoroughbreds. After these come the dift'erent Ilalf-breds. as I in the case of Ormonde. are those which are so bad that thev cannot break down because they lack the energy and the stride. The worst. or even in training before racing. The more tenderly the horses of a breed For this reason the Drafters. which is not expected from other breeds of horses. knew a verv much pampered stallion wliich apparently was not a roarer. Weakness in horse breeding is the only real hereditarv fault which is transmitted with certainty. For example. movement Pocahontas and Charlie has not transmitted this roaring in America. and the fewest roarers are found amongst Steppe horses and Thoroughbreds. and the most popular stallion of modern times. only at the end of the third or fourth year. influenza. Horses which have run mucli transmit . without which they are not subject to those shocks which produce the breakdowns. which of the aspergillum cartilage necessary for easy breathing. Horses which break down already as two-vear-olds in racing. one mav reasonably assume that the general weakness of the horse is the cause. bonv excrescences. The well-known Humphrey Clinker of former times did not transmit his roaring at all. Of such horses the Englishman says. according to the tenderness or severity of the method of rearing. and is easily transmitted by stallions which suffered from it in their early years. The same thing applies to horses whose sinews have broken down through over-exertion in training or racing. Chamant \vere roarers. a more unfavourable transmission has been often noticed. In consequence of illness. or bv over-exertion from racing. as well as all other diseases cf)nnected with inflammatory swelling (Kinschuss) are transmitted. commences without anv special exertions in racing. Hereditary I-"aults. a transmission of roaring is not to be expected. mostly left. may be suspected of weakness. however. and the latter very seldom. the more roarers will appear. Gallinule. soft and deformed hoofs. but of his progeny about -50 per cent. every roarer is recognised and becomes known.

four winners. of course. improve hardiness. or horses which during their whole existence are always onlv sold. and Florizel. Buccaneer. however. his best son. Avoid weakness. Orme. but thev are less dangerous. produced in his first covering year as a four-year-old his best son.328 their characters Heredity. Ormonde. no stud can possess faultless breeding material. With hardiness is combined robust health. and therefore belong Mares which feed badly are little suitable as to the most serious faults. in probabilitv brood mares. because all thev will also feed their foals badly. narrowness. covering year his most important son. are faults which are most difficult to remove bv mating. who in his turn proWild Dayrell duced in his first covering vear Ajax and Gouvernant. and in the second covering year Flying Fox. but really never made use of. Old stallions are said to produce more stayers. and there are manv such As. amongst them the tough Ameer. and are not to be recommended. . The same faults are to be blamed in the case of stallions. feed as a rule badly. Just as weakness may be considered the onlv real hereditary fault. Diomed. and the Alpha and Omega of horse breeding is obtained for producing capable horseSj and not horses simplv fit for shows. and young ones more flyers. who ran up to the age of seven years. in like manner hardiness is to be looked upon as the most important hereditary advantage. one must try to equalise faults in the conformation of brood mares by mating them with stallions which are especiallv good in these respective parts. produced in his first covering vear the first Derbv winner. and the latter again. the most important qualitv of all breeding animals. in their early years. also. in his first covering year. Then it will be found that high-leggedness. sometimes worse produced in his first ! Mares which are inclined to corpulenc^•. and bad temperament.

chestnuts. browns (in Danzkehmen. \\'avemore (brown) 190-2 by Ocean Wave out of Make More. of the Coat Colour.CHAPTER The Transmission VI. appears to play a particular part. blacks (in Gurdszen. and chestnuts (in Jonasthal. it is remarkable that a distinct atavism is often evident in the transmission of white marks and particular spots. in three special studs. chestnuts (often dark chestnuts). we have plenty of material at hand from which to construct laws as to the transmission of coat colour. page down as a brown. Whereas. and in two studs (in Trakehnen 80 to 100 brood mares. produce either chestnuts or grays. and in Volume III. II. I have found two cases. 22. too. (brown) 1899 by Kirkham out of Gold A^^ave. but I cannot say if with rubican). Earnest (brown) 1805 by Buzzard out of Mandane. of the General Stud Book. 4. and in Bajohrgallen 60 to 70 brood mares) all colours are represented. This regularit}' is as follows grays and chestnuts mated only to their own colour. never black-brown or dark brown. 70 to SO brood mares). Here we must mention that rubican horses (also rubican chestnuts) also produce at times grays. as for example. and the atavism has perhaps no influence at all. mistake given as a chestnut in put must be mentioned that Gold Wave is by Volume XVII. 3. in which brown foals have been produced by : chestnut parents 1. three cases. is rightly . X^olume XX. and black with black about 8 per cent. a yet unlvHown originating force which causes a distinct deviation from all other laws of heredity. 5. and mixed with each other.. There exists a distinct regularity with gra\"s. : — Oftertorv 2. and blacks as regards transmission. In the General Stud Book. Volume XX. In Gold Wave. 50 to 60 brood mares) have been bred. Captain Candid (brown) 1813 by Cerberus out of Nlandane. for over a hundred years. What concerns the heredity of the coat colour ? There is. Proserpine (gray) 1903 bv Chittabob (chestnut with rubican) and Cybcle (chestnut. 90 to 100 brood mares). The sex.. at that time still unnamed. As in the Royal Stud of Trakehnen. I suppose. the rest always blacks. Elba (brown) 1815 by Stripling out of Maniac. it Referring to the first case.

for different reasons. Pilgrimage. is either wrongly given. but also the four grand-parents. where not onlv the two parents. 1 of Regalia). come across an\. The Biddy (grand- that their respecti\(' of a dams had brown colour. In the appended pedigrees of the best known Thoroughbrrds. Le Sanc\'. was formerly.330 Heredit}-.mistake given as a brown in V'ol. Referring to the fourth case. it seems. Favonius. Trampoline. and ^lerrv Sunshine. whose two parents. who never trod on a racecourse. I suspect that Orville (brown). who covered Mandane 1803 and 1805. born 1891. III. Captain Candid ran second in the St. Hermit. which. and tliat the owner did not mention Many tion. 44iere are also cases in which all four grand-parents were browns and ^et the two chestnut parents always produced chestnut foals. n). and that the dearer one. onh. born 1775 (in Birdcatcher's pedigree). In the case of Old Heroine. page 139.to the second case. In the in fifth case.in the (i(M-man edition). have proved. and the dam. (iladiator. was a grav. The certain transmission of the chestnut coat colour can still be more clear] v recognised with the following chestnuts Diomed. . on closer examina- who was l^een also covered b\' another stallion Also that this second stallion. and in the Racing Calendar 1818. in which brown foals are said to be the offspring of chestnut parents. or the dam. I suspect that W'hiskrx' (brow in 1804. With Maintenon (a chestnut) it must be pointed out as a remarkable i^rcuiustance that of the four grand-parents two were brown and two gra}s. Also Dr\-ad (chestnut. and many others. was a roan (not a grav as given bv mistake in the French Stud Book"). page 07. has been confused with her own sister. III. Leger. were either brown or grav. and great grand-dam of Delphos). with Kincsem. Cambuscan. as for t^xample. In tht^ three last-mentioned cases. also covered her this covering.. was not mentioned in the certificate of serving" (only the covering for one stallion. four grand-parents. who during the two years previouslv covered Mandane. In the third case. pages 55 and 147. and tliat the owner of Cerberus did not mention this covering. or that Old Heroine was a rubican. three grand-parents were brown and one black. La Dauphin.. and w ith Rouge Rose. it must be mentioned that Elba is b\. The remarkabh' certain transmission of the chestnut colour is e\en completely independent of the colour of the ancestors. I have have not given the colours where possible (onl\. and eight great grand-parents. we max well take fr)r granted that one of the grays was .case in which chestnut j^arents had no chestnut foals. dam — a roan. the colour of Wave More. were brown. Referring. 14ie case of the chestnut Le Sagittaire is remarkable. who was brown. cases in the private studs of East Prussia. either bv mistake or for certain reasons.one of each was a chestnut. wliose sire. ]^Iake More (chestnut). often omitted. }'>lba is righth' put down as a chestnut. In Vol. of eight great grand-parents. also covered her again in 1812 as well as Cerberus. also a chestnut. is paid for).

and least seldom of all. 33]^ When both parents are brown. with all foals^ riding. however. roan. with 60-70 mares of different colours. up to and inclusive of 1907 the chestnuts do not increase : — Derby Winners : 3-2 94 Browns. Remarkable minority. were chestnuts. Chestnuts and light browns produce more brown. just as the famous stallions which appeared later. and are even increased bv additions from the black and brown stud.6. working horses altogether 1500-1700 — — — horses. chestnuts less frequently. among which. The Royal Stud of Trakehnen in East Prussia is about 11. Blair Athol. carriage. In consequence of the very sure transmission of the chestnut colour. were also chestnuts. blacks. 1 Gray. and Trakehnen itself. They need not give anything away from their production. Chestnut colour is the most suitable to get rid of the gra_v colour. Doncaster. PotSos. If the parents are of different colours. and Alexander. in most cases the lighter colours are more easily transmitted than the darker ones. Some of the foals will be brown. these statements are in opposition to the fact that amongst Thoroughbreds. Birdcatcher. also gray.. and is composed of 1-2 stud farms. with ftO-lOO mares of all different colours. Eclipse (of two brown parents). St. and often a dirty chestnut colour. 1 Gray. Grays transmit their colour the most frequently and blacks the least frequentlv. and are alwavs in the although the most celebrated foundation sire. to say. 85 Browns 37 Chestnuts 5 Blacks 2 Grays Total 129 horses as winners and 129 horses as seconds. Chestnuts. 1 Black. Sainfoin. 31 Chestnuts. with 90-100 black mares. -200 acres large. Danzkehmen. The majority of foals. Gurdszen. the <:hestnuts are easiest to renew in Jonasthal. the coat colour is distributed as follows to the winners and seconds. also gray if one parent is rubican. with 50-60 chestnut mares. Stockwell. Bajohrgallen. Hermit. Chestnuts and dark browns produce more chestnuts. foals may be of any colour. Mercury. and his four sons. and many others. The Transmission of the Coat Colour. : Oaks Winners : 95 Browns. Brown and black produce more browns and dark browns or brownish blacks than blacks. Jonasthal. King Eergus. will likewise be brown. 1 Black.350-410 brood mares. Seconds : 90 Browns 30 Chestnuts 3 Blacks 5 Grays Total 128 horses as winners and Seconds 128 horses as seconds. with 70-80 bay or brown mares. Thormanby. Bend Or. and piebald total . The Baron. Chestnut and black produce most often browns.e. In the three principal English races. i. . Albans.

the most important and best influence on A the building horses. Leger Winners : 102 Browns. especially when we consider the cert-ain transmission of the chestnut colour. Seconds : 98 Browns 31 Chestnuts 1 Black 2 Grays Total 132 horses as winners and 132 horses as seconds. ascribed to the North-African to each other . 1 Black. This uniform distribution of the coat colour seems.332 St. It is remarkable that the predominant colour of the North. and that. according to decades shows a regular diminution of the chestnuts and an increase of the browns among the winners and the seconds. and black horses more fillies. especially in recent years. It is up of the Thoroughbreds is furthermore remarkable that chestnuts mated produce more colts. to point to a special classification racing capability in connection with the broAvn colour. Heredity. 27 Chestnuts.African horses was bay or brown. 2 Grays.

of the use of food. of performance (stayer and flyer. good-natured. especiallv in Half-bred breeding. in the case of each brood mare he must consider with which of the available sires she has the best chances of producing a good foal. idle. finally. judging of the special factors of mating prevents a clear consideration ofall necessary points of view. weak hocks. instead of which people often think that according to the result of the production one can fix The uncertainty thereby caused in the its mission in every case afterwards.. Furthermore. and vice-versa. narrow at the knees. and. narrowness. in lack of Statistics seem to recommend the mating of qualitv.e. walking). courageous and cowardly). of the available sires and their progeny. In order not to lose sight of all these points of view. slow. faults of the One must endeavour to equalise the brood mares by corresponding merits of the covering stallions. trotting. a knowledge of the ancestors is required as far as to rightly . but also of the ancestors. beauty and vigour. People are verv much inclined to give to the favourite sires the best mares. of temperament (hasty.. high-leggedness. are so frequent that a breeder who does not duly consider them will have many bitter experiences. which have to be equalised do not only consist in a faulty conformation. a too long middle part. w'hilst the latter have already shown their breedOne verv often forgets the natural demand that before ing capabilitv. as it is called). to important thing in practical mating at a stud is for the breeder favour the brood mares more than the covering stalHons. and full of action). action These faults in galloping. i. etc. malign. The reversions to grand-parents and great grand-parents (Atavism. mating. but also in defects of constitution (hard" and tender). as for example. misplaced fore-legs. it is not only necessary to have an exact detailed knowledge of the brood mares and their previous foals.CHAPTER The Art VII. of walk (wide at the knees. although the'former are still untried. old sires with young mares. and not vice-versa. of Mating. the special breeding result to be The most attained in each single case must be clearly pointed out.

and not to sacrifice in one case any more important thing than may be gained in the other. an art. Then weigh the chances of same according to the other above-named points Now begins the of view (deficiencies of conformation. and for considered which is part mating. unless one breeds Thoroughbreds not for racing.. is recommendable. — more suitable in anv special case for a desired quality. I consider the doctrine of so-called saturation wrong. seems to be most probable and most attainable in the case of each single brood mare. point of view is especiallv important in breeding of Thoroughbreds. if.). so to speak. F'urthermore. Even with the best mating and the best breeding material. to rightly estimate the basis oi inbreeding when intending inbreeding with 3 to 6 free generations. it is advisable not to proceed at once to another mating.23-1- Heredity. as shown in the chapter on inbreeding. The fertilisation of brood mares We find the longest is also surer if the covering stallion is not changed. but for riding and hunting. which This last experience has already proved to be good. and is not to be used for further breeding. Even old Fugger is of the opinion that mares conceive easier from that stallion they have been already bred to than by another. for example. several inbreedings with different basis are possible in one mating. judge of the ancestors occurring on both sides representing. one must first of all consider which breeding result. It is specially favourable. wiry mare does not recommend herself for the possesses. as well as of the basis of all their inbreedings. so that one can easily see the possible and the best approved blood mixings. When mating. They must then be arranged according to the applicability which is recognised as the most suitable in exclusive consideration of the blood mixing. production of a Carossier. and that the possible and desirable basis of the inbreedings attained by mating may be found. the compilation of the stallions. pedigrees of the mares and of the sires. and vice-versa. the of part most difficult the advantages and to weigh exactly given than can be advice no other which disadvantages of each case of mating. the common ancestors are as a basis. and the Thoroughbreds as well as for Half-breds. constitution. If the result of a mating decided on for good reasons does not turn out well. a barb i. etc. it is advisable tf) look at first only for the most suitable sires according to the pedigree of the brood mare and of the available For Thoroughbred breeding especially.e. must be preferred. even which shade within the given breeding lines. When mating Half-breds. The object must not be too far removed from the type which the mare herself A verv noble. certain blood mixings. the closer the inbreeding may be. which is most favourable for The more prominent. a small percentage will always go wrong. one will mostly find several sires which appear suitable. in the case of Thoroughbred breeding. series of foals for the most part w here the covering stallion has been changed very seldom. or not at all. but to try the same mating at least once more. in lucid tables. many more half- . unless the foal is considered as the final product. When doing this. for if it were right.

The following table shows that this is not — 1. Brothers and Sisters. 17961 . 17871 K .• T ^T71 _„ by Justice and Myer. The Art of Matini 335 sisters brothers. especially as the that of the case : and brothers should have won classical races than own sisters and number of half-sisters and brothers is larger than own sisters and brothers. (a) Derbv Winners.7. Own J- 1.

. Musis . 4. .. Simon and Quiver. 3.. . „ t^ . 1812^ 18871 bv St. Oaks Winners. 2. Memoir La Fl^che 18101 „.. . To-in/ bv W axv and W oodbine. „ . - 1888-* (b) Half-sisters. (a) Own Sisters. Heredity. . .. 1. 1 J ( ^ud Quecn Bertha. 2. 1.. Minuet 3. A 1847 1855 Spinaway 1872 ^nTu f T7 Wheel of fortune TQrin 1876 Rhedycina Governess 1 4^ by bv by u by Wintonian \ ^ Chatham Macaroni A J Adventurer t- Laurel. 4. ^ .336 3.

.III. The Practical Part of Horsebreeding.

.

Alelbourne occur to me. according to the object of the breed- From each breeding horse. and the latter strength and correctness. which cannot really always be avoided. weakness connected health and aninxil bad breeding is fault of a pardonable with it. material breeding breeding. . (a) Judging Covering Stallions. one great fault is less injurious than several small ones. i. by Sorcerer out of Golden . . Judging and Treating Breeding Material. especially if there are great merits together with the great fault. born 1808. be it stallion or distijict merits. in East Prussian half-breedings was. and foremost. in consideration of the characters of the other ing in question and finally according to sex. principally capabilities and quality. one will estimate the faults of breeding material differently. prominently produced Chamant out of Liane. for example. In Half-bred cypher on the course. Of course. and the less faults it has the greater they may be. a Thoroughbred sire which has little quality. With the I mvself prefer an untried Thoroughbred to a proved cypher. A too great fear of other faults. Only a breeding horse possessing specially prominent characters is justified in having a few The only unfaults.CHAPTER I. and perhaps also Kerl born Cicero born 1882 by In Thoroughbred breeding only a few Oceana. first prominent parts. With Thoroughbred as well as Half-bred stallions. further. is just as little to be recoma distinct and which was which is too light in the bone and not of stallion Half-bred as a mended The former ought to transmit to his progeny sufficiently correct build. The best known example of former times for this is Soothsayer. is the surest way to inferiority. one must demand. At this moment only Golumpus and Y. certain mare. former there is always a chance that he perhaps might have done something Such an untried Thoroughbred stallion which has of note on the course. of by Lord Colney out 1885 similar examples are known.e..

From the table on page 185. strong wind-gall. but. was a grand-daughter of Soothsaver. has shown that even great faults may be combated with success. transmits a bad walk. The fear of faults. as in the case of Marsworth bad temperament. Only Bav Middleton. Friponnier. One mav obtain success in one direction. shows at once a good covering stallion. Further. a much misplaced fore-foot is easier to eradicate by correct mating than an undecided walk without a great fault. A great fault in walking for example. political or scientific. as in the case of Chamant.3 hands to 16. as in the case of Birdcatcher and Saxifrage. who seems to walk sometimes close at the knee and sometimes wide at the knee. Further. it can be seen that the height of 15. as in the case of Euphony. aiming . as in the case of . crooked The Wizard (grand-sire of Optimus) and Mannibal. has just as stagnating an effect in breeding as elsewhere in life. and JMirmidone. distinctly for Thoroughbred as The same heights breeding is are also the best for Half-breds. unfortunately. Here we again come across the old fight between appearance and the real thing. as in the case of Barcaldine. — — well as Half-bred stallions must show the breeder which parts he may expect a prominent transmission. as in the case of Stockwell a bad hock. folly and want of taste may drive breeders into the production of particularlv at capabilities. Gallinule. etc. and that the blood streams of first-class stallions have been thus rightly preserved for breeding purposes. roaring. especially distinct faults which any fool sees at once and criticises. misplaced forefoot. if the object of the Greater heights are often demanded in many studs in order to satisfy customers. a free movement from the shoulders. Mawkstone (Euphony's fore-legs. also specially suited for improvement. and for which parts he must be particular about when mating. well-carried tail. as in the case of the Derby winner Ladas. but seldom in several directions at the same time. who had a coarse club foot (Lymphangitis chronica). straight hind legs rather than those which are too curved. sire). Locks. together with a thin mane. and pasterns which are too long and soft rather than those which are too short and upright. a thin. and who. born 1883. how that vanity. Vorwiirts (Half-bred in Trakehnen). and a knee which is a little protruding to a knee which is too tapered. The progeny of the above stallions. or gasping. : — .340 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. A pronounced sire with a distinctly sharp build. a courageous eye and good health. at the cost of capabilities. the following are to be considered as great faults to be passed over A strong. Moros. Without going into the well-known demands for exterior. crib-champing. produced a few foals which also acquired a club foot. One may here see the danger. and Flugel (Halfbred in Trakehnen). I would like to briefly mention that I prefer a too short neck to a too long one.1 hands is apparently the most favourable for Thoroughbreds. whose dam. Cobweb. in Thoroughbred and Half-bred breeding. almost without exception.

Isonomy. the question arises where men laugh at an idealist who desires to further the cause. especially when winning the '24X)0 Guineas. one has tried almost everywhere cross-breeding with Draft breeds. and even the best chances. Buccaneer. Half-bred Thoroughbred and transmitted in well equally who has Chamant. Foxhall and Sheen. shows how bad— almost ruined many refinement and deterioration of the fundaments.. Judging' and Treatinf. The best selection of chief covering stallions for Half-bred breeding is especially difficult. That is the heel of Achilles in our Half-breds. as well as the most difficult one. and proved himself as such. who. which all modern improved breeds nolens volens aim at. as for example. especially in official life. : Even the great Ormonde won his races generally by the tactics of a flyer. as they say. all things being equal. Breeding Material. Of breeding. is the chief and final purpose of the most important part of Prussian Half-bred manifold than in the winning races. The phenomenal stayer. Fisherman. — studs have become by The favourable results which have often in the first genera- . The latter. because the objects to be attained are much more breeding of Thoroughbreds. and. The history of Half-bred breeds in Germany. Shall the affairs be so conducted that people are first and cause no unpleasantness.. as so often : in life. wants to make man happier than he can comprehend. however. or shall they be so arranged that contented one expects to gain the greatest advantage for the public welfare to man's best knowledge and belief ? The first method is the one usual in America. Energie and Hannibal. Gladiateur. Here again. For Thoroughbred breeding it is certainly more important that the stallion can travel quickly The best over short distances than that he can stay for long distances. Pronounced flyers over one mile who have transmitted well are. was a distinct flyer. I prefer. for one can scarcely over-estimate the importance of a The work of the breeder in this good fundament for a soldier's horse. breeding. which only are wanted for course. Isonomy as a four-year-old. The less Thoroughbred breeding produces good and strong fundaments the more burning becomes the question to the Half-bred breeder as to in which way he may do justice to this most important requirement in Halfbreds. however.1. On account of their high class. has not left one first-class sire behind him in Australia. and not the sufficient capabilities and endurance of cavalry remounts. Gallinule. as well as in other countries. Thurio. In Half-bred breeding as well as Thoroughbred breeding. against the subsequent Derby winner. stayers of recent times were although they had good. 341 appearances by producing exaggerated heights. Silvio. only transmitted moderately. flyers have also frequently Also won longer races. etc. these difierent objects in Half-bred breeding can easily be simplified by taking as the final aim of breeding a satisfactory supply of the country studs with country stallions. respect is the most important. Unfortunately. the flyer to the pronounced stayer. for example.

and will trouble themselves less with the wearying cares just mentioned. work is to find or breed Half-bred stallions which may be used for the abovementioned purpose. Even Irishmen. such as we have in the Steppe horses. the use of Thoroughbred stallions alone is not sufficient I further do not believe that one will be able for making good progress. fundament of brood mares a very difficult. by grazing lasting as long as possible. These faults which must be passed over will be mainly lack of beauty. bv exercise in the summer. got together the remains of their ancient old Half-bred. According to the actual constitution of our Half-breds and Thoroughbreds. Germany. that the ennobling and beautifying traits. If a strong the breeder has succeeded in producing such a Half-bred stallion with fundament. soon found out that the progeny of these coarse cross-breds was a faikire. to improve the it is at first necessary. to produce the same good and strong fundament which their horses formerly possessed to a greater extent. harmony and quality. such as are embodied in the noblest Thoroughbred. mating. because. however. him. have induced many breeders. with the help of the remains of their former native Half-bred horse. The most difficult is afterwards the easiest work in Half-bred breeding.342 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. one will be onlv able to obtain a good and strong fundament. unavoidable One must not forget. to breed such a strong Half-bred stallion with the desired fundament direct In mv opinion two generations will be from a Thoroughbred stallion. called draft horse (not cold blood). especially in its younger years. look angular and ugly. in — exercise in the winter. unfortunately often. to perfection. which most surely are transmitted. to continue breeding on this Hne. feeding and exercise. even some Irish Hunter breeders. the . and by a systematic daily long Ireland as well as in In this strengthening of breeding material. however. also. a bad walk". These latter will for the most part trv to attain agreeable ideals. and the hght fundament of Irishmen have. good time. because it is just the coarseness and the weakness of the Drafter. what is wanted. in the Thoroughbred. Such a stallion will rarely gain the affection of young breeders. there is also brought into the breeding many ugly. he must also have the c©urage to make good use of in spite of some faults which he may undoubtedly have. if one strengthens. tion been attained by this coarse crossing. unpopular and unpoetical work indeed. at the same time as the breed is ennobled by Thoroughbreds. Such a bony Half-bred stallion which has become big and strong in work will always. the best of which are found in County Roscommon. In more recent times they are again trying. llie swinging and correct walk will most certainly be bred in later. on their admirable breeding grounds. necessarv to obtain l)v right If the mating has succeeded and the soil furnishes the necessary bone-making food. but which had been spoiled by mediocre Thoroughbreds and coarse Drafters. and which merest dilettante can easilv recognise.

in France. belongs to the exceptions. What of brood . is also a big-framed Cuirassier horse. had scarcely the calibre to be put even in the class of brood mares for so-called light riding horses. Amalie von Edelreich and Waisenknabe). I know onlv the height of a few of them. Airs and Graces. V'ergissmeinnicht and Pulcherrima. when compared with the heights of prominent stallions given on page IS-*). perhaps the best approved brood mares in Graditz. the dam of Flying Fox. 343 (b) Judging Brood Mares. Uhlans and Hussars the most approved brood mares will be found in the last lot. and yet she could not produce anvthing better than Gunnersburv bv such a good sire as Hermit. Editha. with her conspicuous stallion neck and unfeminine coarseness. Val D'Or's dam. L'nfertunately. If the dams of classical winners are divided according to their conformation into the three military classes Cuirassiers. Mares with pronounced hooked teeth are nearly always bad dams. herself an Oaks winner. and in Germany. I have said about stallions may also be said about the conformation mares yet in the case of the latter a greater length of trunk is allowed. and besides the 1899 Derbv winner has not produced anything useful. Statistics further teach us that small. Good brood mares of the Cuirassier class are few. show that the most favourable size for brood mares is about 155 to 160 cm. Moba also. (15 hands 1 inch to 15 hands 5 inches). so-called show mares. La Traviata (dam of Bauenfanger and Hochstapler). Dirt Cheap (dam of Trachenberg). The strongest brood mares in Gurdszen supply fewer good covering stallions. I only know in England. and the heights of some celebrated brood mares given below support this theorv. Of English mares may here be mentioned Perditta (dam of two Derby winners). I have made the same observations in the Half-bred breeding at Trakeli nen. La Fille du Regiment (dam of Grimston and Primas). were only Hussar tvpes. the dam of Morgenstrahl. The feminine character always finds distinct expression with good brood mares. B Flat (dam of Paul and Flatterer). belongs to the Hussar tvpe. V^ampire. Cantata (dam of Hvmenccus). — — — . therefore at least 5 cm. in Ireland. The dams of the chief stud stallions Polarsturm. also ]\Iedora (dam of Zinfandel). wiry mares are preferable to large. Hippia. St. and even these few. Of Cuirassier types which have produced a Derbv winner or similar. and Jardy's clam. just as Sweet Katie (dam of Flibustier. even if the middle part should suffer therebv. Wandora. Gatien's dam. Juclging" and Treating' Breeding Material. and verv often barren.1. Morganette (dam of Galtee More and Ard Patrick). and more seldom still chief stud stallions. Gorse (dam of Goura and Goodhope). St. Prince Optimus and Alter Herr. Zama (Hannibal's dam). The so-called lighT riding horses in Trakehnen supplv the best covering stallions.iess than the most favourable height of stallions.

344 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. . Heights of Famous Thoroughbred Mares.

The question. 6. is. which are not here mentioned. When stallions are very much used. on the part of young stallions. born 1894. Fertility decreases easilv if stallions are too much used in their youth. 4. 0. caused by the fact that the transition from the course to the stud is too sudden. 1S82 Thunderbolt 23. . 1. Albany 35. In Thoroughbred breeding also. Only in American Trotter breeding I must mention the remarkable example of Hambletonian (10). old stallions and stallions which are much used produce generally more colts. Lady Blanche 1868 Cordelia 1SC2 U. as may be seen from a previously given table (page 87). I do not know a case of a successful use of a three-year-old stallion. because the stallions generally suffer in their vear development bv reason of this early covering. as for example. 1874 Wingrave Lass by Wingrave 0. 187G Goneril by Thunderbolt 1880 Spectre by Speculum 9. Goodw. who produced as a two-year-old in 185-2 Abdallah (15). depends only how long he can cover and still fertilise. 0. In Half-bred breeding statistics are so incomplete that one cannot arrive at anv real conclusions. the power of transmission seems to have decreased lately from the 19th to the 20th year. The sensible and good treatment of young covering stallions (especiallv at Eaton Hall. but which are very favourable. with a record of 2. otherwise old stallions fertilise as long as thev are healthy even often better than young stallions (as already Aristotle and Fugger have taught us). Abdallah (15) became the foundation sire of the celebrated Crcscens.1. In Thoroughbred breeding. as sometimes happens in country studs. 3. 1883 Duchess of Albany 14. of Duke (Gratw. 0. in my opinion.3. because also in Half-bred breeding I have never yet seen good foals produced by threeyear-old stallions. The often observed worse transmission.) (c) I Age and Treatment of Covering Stallions. and in Trakehnen with Optimus. born 1849. especiallv if one compares them with the performances of 19-year-olds. 345 Hermit White Nun. 1870 Thunderer by Robin 1880 Hood 38. and therefore injurious to health. Vengeance 27. St. cannot recommend the use of stallions for covering purposes before firstly. Judg^ing and Treating Bleeding Material. the Duke of Westminster's stud). I have never yet observed at Trakehnen a diminution in the qualitv of the foals due to the great age of the stallion as long as he remained healthy and was not used too much. 12. has led in the following cases to good results in the first covering year their fourth . Many breeders in England contend that old stallions produce more stavers further. as well as worse fertilisation. 4. 1. and secondly. especiallv those who have run much and for long.(>2j. I have now and then observed that the foals become somewhat lighter. 1883 Windthorpe by Tibtorpe 3L o. 1883 Whitefriar by Hermit 18. : — . up to wl>at age the stallion may be used. in Gudwallen with Halm and Harnisch. however.

5° C. in the warm season. Simon — Memoir. of course. the voung covering stallion ought to do sufficient slow work. Wild Dayrell — Buccaneer.34G 1. — Orme. n. 5. It is ver\. Llantonv and Goldfinch. Persimmon — Sceptre and Cheers. Ask the beast itself. and always with the proviso that the stable temperature in winter does not sink below . the best thing to recommend is to lead him in cr)mpan\' with another stallion. the voung covering stallions must do daily fully 2J hours' exercise. Flageolet — Rayon D'or. Doncaster The health of the covering stallions is. 4. Firstly. The sudden stoppage of all work is therefore injurious to health. Here again the individualising breeder's eye must decide how much work would be beneficial to any single stallion. Nothing is so conduci\e to mak'e covering stallions ^•icious than stallio-ns I complete isolation. Old Wollstein already speaks energeticalh. Flying Fox — Ajax and Gouvernant. and that vou do not injure the animals. for example. Highflyer — Rockingham. Stallions which have been accustomed to rugs must be slowly broken off the habit. St. Semolina and St. by often taking things too easily. I'^or consider it very useful to con- . and is not generally less than 8° C. I do not wish to imply that every stallion should do cantering work up to that age. such a full-blooded and phlegmatic stallion as Minting.against the insufficient exercise of covering " If vou nialce doctrines. one of the most important problems of the breeder. Furthermore. therefore. their neighbouring stallions. If. when he commenced covering. and manv excellent Thoroughbred stallions have perished early in consequence of having had too little exercise. Fngiand sins most in this respect. quick work may be left out without injur}-. 8. and in summer to put him in a paddock with an adjoining box. and would very probably have-transmitted better according to his magnificent form as a racehorse and to his perfect exterior. make them so that you stallions. Ormonde 3. When. a horse in training is used to much work. in the box as well as Half-bred in the paddock. he would not have got founder. 10. To sum up. there must be a sensible transition from the condition of training to that of covering. had done his cantering work for the 2A. and sa\'s finallv : yourselves are not ashamed of them. and from it vou will learn. 11. of course.useful for the covering stallions to be able to see. — Bend Or— Ormonde and Kendal. Serf. Galtee More — Irish Lad. 9." If cantering does not seem any more necessary for the covering stallion. of course. The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. but. Florizel — Diomed. As long as Old Chamant was in Beberbeck he did his canters daily up to his 20th year. and he would very likely not have failed in his first year as a covering stallion. 2.hours necessary dail}-. Orlando — Teddington. 7. to which also short canters belong. I believe.

there is only another attendant required to stand at the right side of the mare and give the necessary assistance. In the autumn. and when necessary help on the right thigh the stallion whilst he covers. quietening and educating the stallion. of oats (1 lb.Material. whilst the leading attendant helps him on the left thigh. twice weekly. linseed ground or roasted (about a handful to each feed of oats). of oats= about 1 10 to 15 lbs. daily about ^ lb. He must pull the mare's tail to one side before the stallion mounts. and about the spring. in order to prevent premature ageing and fattening. for about four Young weeks daily. 347 tinue the training of four and five-year-olds for about four months after the coverincr season. as the most important personal and friendly relation and agreement is only possible with one attendant. Xot only is it easv for accidents to happen with two attendants. In my opinion. the mare does not become so easilv frightened. of course. to \vhich the best and healthiest Half-bred stallions are mostly prone. the leading attendant and the man who holds the mare. To guide the penis of the stallion into the vagina is the duty of the leading attendant. unless racing is intended. about 6 to 8 litres fresh carrots finely chopped. a The Stallions whilst Covering. the most 15 lbs. and as long as it is In the case of available. and the covering is done quietly and in the place desired and prepared. They must. of oats. as well as exercise. but only as far as is required. Early in During must be regulated to suit recommend daily 10 to at litre) in four rations.1. however. the covering season I individual cases. green food special attention must be paid to its being chopped twice daily and eaten fresh at once. but a stallion gets vexed much easier. it is stallion when covering. get the green food just the same as the others. give them. most advantageous that one attendant should lead the If two attendants. and with the view of gradually educating the stallion to do it finally himself. sensible and attentive in order to avoid awkward or too sudden pulling or tightening of one or both cavessons when the stallion has to be taken or kept back. It is especially much better Besides to have only one attendant leading when teaching young stallions. The quantity of food. with oats mixed for the evening food. or green clover with Timothee. of meadow hay (not clover hay). one on each side. for about four weeks whilst casting their coats. just the same as horses in training. chang:e from one ration to another must be gradual. they must both be well trained. and Treating Breeding. During green food season leave out the wheat bran. wheat bran. guide the stallion with a cavesson rein. Very likely this old precept was originally has the effect of . green Lucerne. more oats. Half-bred stallions which are still kept in training get. when green food is no longer available. about 2 litres. After the covering season in summer. Judging. (d) Of course. about 6 to 10 lbs. as a mash. The old precept of leading the stallion once before the covering in a circle round the mase This action is very sensible.

Here again.. essential that there should be the greatest quietness during the covering. in all these things. and then for the same number of days once daily. and must accustom him to it bv degrees. people. in the afternoon at 3 or 5 o'clock. From their -iOth year the productive capacity of most stallions gradually decreases.000. Fouryear-old stallions should never be expected to cover more than once a day in their first year of covering. old stud attendants have more experience. of course. Finally. viz. etc. Older stallions ought not to mount twice a day for more than two weeks together. and in summer about 7 o'clock in the morning. and that there should not be many would like to mention one thing more. recommend that same matter of abortion bv the penis of the stallion. as after that period it would do them harm.. It is. A rest day might be useful on the day following that in which the stallion has covered twice. A socalled rest day. and no dogs. cover according to the above rules. in East Prussia. it is most advantageous for most stallions to cover once dail\. should be thoroughly washed immediately after covering with wadding soaked in a solution of chinosol 1 per 1.348 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. in the case of most stallions. which does him more harm than the rest day has done him good. Of course. I never yet found a stallion which did not get used to it in a verv short time. which is frequently unavoidable in many country studs. their progeny becomes lighter. i. about. during fhis manipulation one cannot expect too much patience from the stallion at first. Stallions must not cover immediatelv^ after having had their oats. when it took eight days. Later on. I have never vet found one which did not learn it in one or two days. In the cases of especiallv valuable chief covering stallions I would recommend never to let them mount twice daily for more than three to four days consecutively.without missing. as already mentioned. based on the idea that the good-looking staUion would influence the mare in producing a line foal. when no covering is done. that mounting is facilitated if the mare stands with her fore-feet on Of the about 200 stallions which I have seen taught to higher ground. however.. viz. To merely rinse the penis with an irrigator is not 1 1 sufficient disinfection. in winter about 9 o'clock. with one exception. The over-exertion of stallions by covering twice daily for several months together.e. two mounts dailv can be repeated for two consecutive weeks. for which purpose the penis must be drawn out long with the hand. When stallions first begin covering it is advisable to let them cover onlv three or four times per week. and if twice covered. but. not only causes an early infertility of the stallions. The best time for covering is about half an hour after the stallion has been exercised. results in most cases in the stallion making more effort than is necessary the day after. and for that reason valuable stallions which . After several days with one mount per day. individuality must be the deciding factor. there must be at least an interval of one hour. and in difficult cases always more practical remedies than I am in general able In order to prevent the possible transmission of infectious to propose..

and at the last moment turn him on to the black mare.1. are 20 years or older Performances of Hambletonian (10) at the Stud. Judging.and Treating" Breeding Material. a trick which in most cases is successful. 349 must only in exceptional cases (two to three times monthly) be allowed to cover twice in one day. . for preference a grey mare. to get the stallion ready. Stallions are most liable to refuse to cover dark coloured mares. especially black mares. It is therefore advisable to h«ve a light coloured mare.

I only know one mare in Germany which has dropped 20 living foals. Furthermore. for example. the latter are. and the covering season finishes at the end of May. covered as a 19-year-old in four and a half months in Trakehnen 74 mares in 88 servings. born 5th ?^Iay. Hambletonian died in March. in spite of good food.. has. The same applies to Half-bred mares if they as three-year-olds are still subject to regular training. Hereby it must be mentioned that Red Prince came to Trakehnen from Ireland only on the 8th January. This — applies to Thoroughbred as well as to Half-bred breeding. which had also a record of 2. and left behind 150 sires.. Besides. are produced between their eighth and thirteenth year. on an average. is worthy of note. which had a record of 2. The births are easier. the Thoroughbred stallion. Hambletonian (10). in the case of reasonable in As example of the capabilities of a stallion management as is found oftener in America than — England and Ireland the above-mentioned Trotter. 1849. Wollstein thinks that mares which bear their first foal as four-year-olds have the following advantages when compared with mares which have been covered later in life : — 1. as can be easily seen for Thoroughbred breeding from the Goos' tables.30 and better. According to experiences at Trakehnen. then it is better to put off the covering for another year. with 110 descendants. remain in the following year barren much oftener than mares which have been successfully covered as three-year-olds.30 and better. by Kendal. when 27 years old. and fertilised 66 of same. with 1. as previous tables (pages 56 63) show. and stronger.e. or as riding or carriage horses do so much work that they do not get fat and come too often in heat. almost without exception. by It may be especially noticed in the table Abdallah I. mares which produce the first foal in their fifth year. except in cases where three-year-old Thoroughbred mares are still in training and have to run races. 1876. The most prominent products of mares.490 descendants. i. as well as 80 brood mares. 2. or later. Goos says in the preface of his celebrated tables that the winners of the five classical races in England arc Mares are more 3.. Red Prince II. on the preceding page that the percentage of fertilisation and the quality of transmission has not decreased after the •20th year in spite of very great use (15 years old 217 mares).2 per cent. during a temperature of 30° C. fertiile and have more milk.350 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. better nurses. The foals are bigger distributed as follows : — . The best results as regards the number of foals and perhaps also as regards their quality are. B Flat. namely. 89. which was covered with success as a three-year-old. found on an average with mares which are covered and were in foal as three-year-olds. (e) Age of Brood Mares. The best age at which to cover mares is three years.

of which the following 11 stallions are derived from dams which also had twins Tunnel. this is always bad. Prominent products of Half-bred mares over 20 years of age are not known to me. . 10. in the breeding of Thoroughbreds also. Justizminister. Brood mares at the age in which.» r oi classical ^vlnners. dead or living. 4. born 1896 by Blue Blood and Moba. born 1881 by Fliigel and Palme. the brood mares. the best products are expected from them. — Mares which have produced twins. with Legend born 1825 by jMerlin. also three times consecutively.. „ ) As experience at Trakehnen shows. Morgenstrahl. Elfenbein. bred breeding as well as stallions in Half-bred breeding. 6. with the Oaks winner Bronce.. Judging and Treating Breeding Material. Unfortunately. 14 to 18 . This quality is often hereditary. have more seldom the power to overcome these unfavourable derangements of their breeding career than younger mares. three times consecutively and with Fairy Ring born 1878 by Macaroni. 20-vear-old brood 1 • — — mares have up to now produced three Royal Stud stallions only. . 1. i. r 21 . whilst. those older than 20 none at all. 10-year-old and over. Jenissei. born 1887 by Kingdom and Gradlitz. 11. from 1874 to 1898 inclusive. . however. born 1879 by Marsworth and Ellis. as shown in the previous tables (pages 65 78). considered specially valuable brood mares. (f) Twins. Discant. ^Miscarriage or barrenness of mares in the first three to five years of their being made brood mares is less dangerous than if occurring in later years. born 1898 by Boulevard and Justicia. 7.. born 1888 by Venezuela and Jemba.. 9. 33 — . and there are many examples of it in Thorough. Granicus. as for example. 351 3 to 7-year-old dams 17 per cent. 2. born 1877 by Flligel and Diana. born 1878 by Hector and Viereck. born 1874 by Adonis and Palme. 8 to 13 years of age is also the best and most fertile time for Half-breds. : In the last twenty-five years. born 1874 by The Duke of Edinburgh and Tutti. Hydriot. In Half-breds. four times. as above said. from w-hich prominent progeny may be expected.e.. Paladin. Of course. however undesirable any single case may be. and granddaughter of the celebrated Prunella. 8. 7 19 to 25 .. . up to their 7th year inclusive as opposed to Thoroughbreds seem to be much more fertile than between the age of 14 and IS. Venezuela. Passvan. \ 1 • 55 S to 13 . are in most cases. 24year-old and older brood mares have produced classical winners or other prominent progeny.. 5.1. born 1895 by Fiirstenberg and Hydra. 3.. ^_. twin births frequently recur. Royal Stud have been born in Trakehnen.

From the following list of mares which have produced twins and also performed well in breeding. born 1895 b\. It is worthy of note that in human dams — twins also the average is just over 1 per cent. Onlv one brood mare (Lucca) has produced twins in Beberbeck twice. varies verv much from ^ per cent. who herself was a twin. to 3 per cent. A Few No. in the first sixteen volumes. who commenced with twins. 15 Oaks winners. Optimus. only one mare in Germany has produced 20 li\ing foals. In the First \^olume of the Beberbeck Stud Book. nine mares twice. born in Beberbeck. Leger winners. a twin born in Beberbeck 1800 bv Dreadnought and Augusta. and is higher in those years in which fertilisation has been favourable. and twojiiares three times. Cardinal. As already mentioned. a sure sign that they are amongst the most prominent for breeding purposes an exceedingly good state of affairs. In the General Stud Book. of the mares in foal. of which onlv 13 bore twins: amongst these 13 being the celebrated Optima. 342 brood mares are mentioned. Of the 1.per cent. only 136 haye up to now produced twins. was Trakehnen. 1. More than 80 prominent foundation mares in the Goos' tables are dams which have produced twins.. mares which have produced twins. Of these 413 mares are mentioned in Goos' tables (3rd edition). of which one (Lollo) became a brood mare and also produced twins. namely.085 mares are mentioned which have produced twins. Ajax.297 brood mares mentioned in the Second W^lume of the Trakehnen Stud Book. In one case both lived. 10 Two Thousand Guineas winners. dam of the best stallion which Beberbeck has produced. The number of twin births. became stallion in Xeustadt. who was for eight years up to his death used as a Royal Stud stallion in Perhaps the best son of Optimus. and that was the Thoroughbred mare B Flat (born 1864 by Orlando and Torment).Optimus and Cedar. and 10 One Thousand Guineas winners are offsprings of . Thoroughbred Brood Mares in England which have Produced Twins. 9 St. average about 1^. as their are still alive and are too young-. according to observations made at Trakehnen in the last twelve vears. . it can be seen that in England 13 Derbv winners.352 The Practical Part of Horsebreedinj There can as yet be no final judgment about the later born stallions. amongst them the Derby winner Paul.

6a 10 Woodbine by Woodpecker and Puzzle to 32 years old) (lived 1791 Music O. Miss Tooley (grand-dam of Harkaway Gcp.1. 45 1787 Palmflower by \^'eazIe and Columba Twice twins Cockfig'hter L. Fam. 1 a Twice twins Half-sister to Ht)rnby Lass 11 Mare by PotSos and Editha 1794 12 foals Famous 1795 foundation mare of 2. 1797 Fam. Tiffany Twice twins Bourbon 1811 by Sorcerer Mare by Sorcerer (dam Spigot L. 6 Julia Cressida 9 Rallv by Trumpator and Fancy 1790 Famous foundation mare of Fam. 26 Mare by Trentliam and Cytherea 1789 Pantina (dam of BKichcr D. (dam of Phantom D.) (dam of Antar 2. 3e 12 Mare by Preci|jitate Wizard and Lady Harriet 1796 (lived to Fam. 1796 1 a Woodbine Briseis O. and Priam D. Fam.) Fam. 5 a . judq'inq" and Treating' Breeding" Material. 1788 2 Mare bv Hiijiillver — 12 foals Goldlinder Pensioneer 1795 by Dunganon Agnes 1805 by Shuttle Fam. Minuet O. Name and Pedii^ree Born Familx" and Progeny I\Iaid of b\- Ely Tandem — Herod 1785 13 foals Foundation mare of Fam. Giantess bv Diomed and Giantess Sorcerer Eleanor D. Fam. Fam. O.) of Jack Fam.) Mare by Walton (dam of Nicolo 2. and Langar) Fam. 353 No. 2 Mare by Precipitate and Y. 12 a 13 Hornby Lass by Buzzard and Puzzle 32 years old) Half-sister to 12 foals Morel O. 2 x ) 14 Ladv' Jane by Sir Peter and Paulina Own 13 sister to Hermione O. 1790 4 Y.

354 The Practical Part of Horsebreedinef. No. .

38 Tomboy and Lunatic Manganese 1. O. 5 d 12 The Princess O. and grand-dam of Favonius D. Foundation mare in Fam.. Lady Sophie.and Treating Breeding Material.) . Name and Pedigree Born Family and Progeny 31 Zarina by Mori SCO and Ina 1827 The Prime Warden The Cur Cs. famous mare in Fam.1. Kisber D. Bataglia. 2c 37 Monstrosity by Plenipotentiary and Puce 1838 ^^^ Ugly Buck 2.L. good foundation mare in Fam. 4 c (grand-dam of Apology I. Sittingbourne il The Landgravine by Elis and The Margravine 1841 Maid of Kent Fam. grand-dam of Devotion. Achievement 1. Fam. Fam.) Fam. 36 6 a Crucifix -2. 15 Blacklock 1834 Fam. famous foundation mare in Fam. Cowl Chalice (grand-dam of Placida O. Wenlock L. L. Fam. 355 No. O.. Fam. 3 b (dam of Hannah 1.O. I Rouge Rose (dam Fam.) King of Diamonds Landgrave Cm.. 39 Peggy by Muley ^Moloch and Fanny 1840 amongst others ^Nlusjid D. 1841 6 iO Emerald by Defence and Emiliana Mentmore Lass 1. L. Sch windier U. L. 1 c Habena 1.) 15 foals. Judging.) of 2. and Sacrifice. Gcp.. L. 1. 1 d Bend Or D. Fam. 1835 33 Miss Kitty Cockle by Cadland and Maid of Mansfield Truth Cm. 11 b Twins twice 3i Virginia by Rowton and Pucelle Virago 1. by Slane — 1841 Phantom 1844 The Great Unknown Fam. 9 Paradigm (dam foundation 43 Bridle by The Saddler and Monoeda 44 Ellen Home by Redshank and Delhi 1844 of Lord Lyon D. ND. Dcp. 17 Attila 32 Progress by Langar — 1833 D. 4 a 35 Black Bess by Camel — 1837 Scud Hernandez 2. 4 a 38 Moonbeam by 18. by Priam and Octaviana 1837 Surplice D.

who also had twins) Westminster Cm. Gadabout (dam Doncaster of Scamander) Fam. Name and Pedip'ree Born Family and Progeny 45 Gaiety bv Touchstone and Cast-steel 1844 Gamester L. \'an Amburg and Phryne sister to Sleight of Fair Star Fam. Stodare Fam. 2 a 47 Main}) race by Sheet Anchor — Bay 1844 Fisherman Acp. Fam. Mad.) Frontin FD. (dam of Isola Bella. by Pantaloon and Decov 1846 Toxophilite Sagitta 1. 2 x Middleton The Peer Fam. 52 21 Bassishaw by 1847 Ben Webster Isoline Prime Warden and Miss Whinnie.356 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. Cristophe GG. Kettledrum D. (dam of Cecilia 1.. 3d Legerdemain Cs. No. 46 19 Mare b\- Hampton — 1844 Gaspard Muley Moloch Odd Trick Cm. and Duke of Parma Cs. 24 . Own 51 Hand. 1 b 49 Hybla by The Provost and Otisina 1846 Mincemeat O. Fam. whose grand-dam b Shuttle had also twins who St. had twins.) Siberia 1. Lady Sophia Fam. Gcp. Hobson bv Bav Middleton and Vitula Orestes Pylades Janus Fam. also Fam. 11 1844 48 Prairie Bird bv Touchstone and Zillah Famous foundation mare England's Beauty Bonny Blink Vitula in Fam.. 53 19 a Figtree by Envov and Azora 1848 Palm (dam of Vauban 2. 1846 3 a ^Irs. Braconnier) Gcp. 54 2 of Frolic by Touchstone — 1848 The Saddler Frolicsome (dam GP.

357 No.1.and Treating Breeding Material. Judging. .

TS 1 c Barchettina bv Pelion and 1860 Cvmbn O. 2 f Queen Bertha O. Acp. Nameless (dam of Geheimniss O.. GP. 2 Lord Gough Gladiateur) (the 74 Batta£::lia 1861 best son of by Rataplan and Espoir Fam. 1861 14 Rigolboche by Rataplan Cremorne D.) Wild Huntsman Fam. who also had twins 1861 Foundation mare Fam. 3 b 76 No Name { 1861 .) by Teddington and Queen of Beauty 77 Fam. Gallus) Fam. U. 2d . No. 75 12 in Breeze by King Tom and Mentmore Lass 1. Fousi Yama 8 c Cd.. O. Longbow and Jeu d 'Esprit Alumette Hollandaise (dam of Solange FO. 4d by Newminster and thorn 70 Mrs.. Wheel of Fortune 1. 8 c 1859 Feu de by Joie O. Cd. O. bv Kingston and Flax Spinaway 1. Krakatoa FL. ND. Neudan (dam of Tartar OD.358 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding.) Fam. 71 Pompadour bv Stockwell and Marchioness 1859 O 1860 Advance (dam of Alexander SD. Casar ND. The Abbot 1877 by Hermit Marden 1879 by Hermit Canoe 1881 by Hermit Fam. Name and Pedigree Born Family and Progeny 67 Diana bv Hartneitstein and Iris 1858 Miraflora Hn.) Fam. 7 a in Lady Alice Hawthorn Lady Haw- 1859 Famous foundation mare Fam. Melbourne and Phvsalis (dam of Thunderstorm. Earl of Dartre}' Mabille — Gardham Fam. Grandmaster Queen's Messenger Gertrude Fam. Wood 1859 Little Sister bv Y.

Hrd. St. 19 a . Acp. 9 Poinsettia by Y. Melbourne and Brown 1862 Quiver (dam of Memoir O. Melbourne and Lady Hawthorn ^866 | La Sagesse O.. L. 85 Adelaide by Y. Lilinokalani OO. Prado Tr. and La Fleche 1. O. 4d Wheatear by Y. 1866 10 2. L.) Bess 79 Fam. Isonomy Cm. Wolfgang. Ec.) Fam. Frusquin (dam of Goletta) 2. 359 No. 22 a 1864 Isabel 81 Parma by Parmesan and Archeress Biserta (dam of St. Brown Agnes Fair Agnes Wild Fam.) 4 b Fam. 84 Thrift by Stockwell and Braxey 1865 Tristan Acp. St. 3 x Fam. FL.) in Famous foundation mare Fam. Melbourne and Swallow 1867 Harvester D. 22 a 82 Lady Coventry bv Thormanbv and Ladv Roden 1865 Yorkshire Bride Farnese Lady Golightly Lady of Mercia (grand-dam Ragotsky FD. Tripaway Fam. NZ. — Teddington Queen Adelaide Alvere Alvere of Mary (dam Fam. 27 83 of Pearlfeather b}' Newminster and Bess Lyon 1865 Paraibl (dam of St. Skylark Fam. Fernandez Dcp. GP.1. Melbourne Peregrine St. 80 Tommy 16 Bounceawav bv Zuvder Zee and Press Forward 1864 New Holland Gcp.) Fam. Fam. Little 3 Wild Agnes by Wild Davrell and Little Agnes Agnes FO. Judging and Treating Breeding Material. Name and Pedigree Born Family and Prosfenv 78 Mare b}' 1861 Y. Isola Bella by Stockwell and Isoline 1868 15 2 x Gcp.

GP. L. 7 as 90 who had her dam also twins as well Light Drum 1870 Little Duck FD. O. Bertha also Busybody Arcadian 1. Fam. D. O. 1869 Hackness Cm. and Manners) Gravity (dam of William IIL) Fam. Sa .) Bride of Netherby Fam. by Tibthorpe and als(J had twins 1876 Silver Verona. Melanion Troon Fam. 2 a Tact 1872 92 Spinawa}' O.. Thistle by Scottish Chief and The Flower " 1875 Common Goldfinch D. 94 16 II. Meg O 'Mar- Fam. Safety Throstle L. Name and Pedioree Horn I'amilv and Proijenv 89 Cicely Hacket by Le Marechal and ley. Speed Luciana Fam. Cm. O. 13 by Rataplan and Trinket Lapin Cd.. 1 Ayrshire c 98 Atalanta by Galopin and Feronia 1878 2. Sphynx (dam of Amiable 1. 97 2 Wheel of Fortune 1.360 The Practical Part of Horsebreedin< No. Belle Gcp. (dam of Persimmon D. II. L. 91 Enigma by The Rake and 'J'he ' 1872 Florence BB. by Adventurer and Queen Berthai Three times twins 1876 Oberon Fam. O. Melbourne and La Helene Y. Diamond Jubilee D. who Gold Acp. 1 c Bonnie Agnes by Blair . Hermione by 187i Perditta Florizel L. Ec. 4e 96 Liicetta Cm. 95 7 2. Fam. by Macaroni and Queen who had twins Waltz Fam 93 . 1.\thol and Little Agnes 187c Bonny Jean O.. Agnostic Fam.

Judging" and Treating' Breedings Material. 361 No. .1.

4. 5 Flijgel. Barnet. 3. i) Tommy. Ashton. 6. born 1831 by Camel and Banter. Versuch.362 1. Eckstein. Favonius. Panzer. Windeline. 13 Justizminister. born 1870 bv \''enerato and Echo. 12 Juli (out of a 3-year-old covered mare). 15 ^^lalteser. Ehvin. born 1878 by Hektor and Viereck. born 1849 by Birdcatcher and Springy Jack. In Thoroughbred breeding the following are the firstlings which are noted as classical race winners In the same period were firstlings: — 1 : — 1. Elton. The Practical Tart of Horsriireeding-. 18 Pless. born 1899 bv Fanfarro and Anisette. born 1888 by Duke of Edinburgh and Elpis. . born 1792 by Volunteer Highflyer. 9. 8 Grezano. 8. 19 Tunnel ((jut of a 3-year-old covered mare). 11 Insurgent. 7 Granicus. Fiirstenberg. Grezano. Golumpus — Expectation (covered as a 6. Otterington. Derbv \\'inners. Ethehvold. 9 Hirtenknabe. born 1893 by Euphonv and Etruskerin. 3. 2. Hoffnungsstrahl. 2. 1. The Baron. born 1902 bv Greif and Panzerkette. 3 Ethelwold. 4 Fischerknabe. 7. born 1806 by W^alnut and Miss Haworth (covered as a 3-year-old) — 5. born 1901 by Obelisk and Fischerin. born 1842 by Birdcatcher and Echidna (covered as a 3-year-old). — St. Fischerknabe. Wool Winder. 14 Lauer. born 1904 by Martagon and St. born 1887 by Passvan and Emilia. Paragon. 4. Daniel O'Rourke. 7. born 1776 bv Wildair Syphon (covered as a 3-year-old). born 1857 by Stilton and Giralda. born 1854 bv Stilton and Novello. Venezuela. 5. 10. born 1868 by Parmesan and Zephyr. 9. born 1783 by Paymaster and Calash. born 1812 by Haphazard and Mirs. 11. Leijer Winners. 4. Wild Dayrell. born 1890 by Anarch and Vestitur. born 1780 bv Herod and Frenzy. 2. Fritter. 3. Filho da Puta. born 1900 by Piper and Moffnung (covered as a 3-year-old) 13. 2 Elfenbein. Amtsvorstcher. 14. born 1878 bv Ambos and Fulda. born 1809 bv 3-year-old). Phenomenon. Touchstone. 12. the dams of the following 19 Roval Stud stallions Antenor. born 1852 by Ion and Ellen Middleton. 10 Hoffnungsstrahl. 6 Fiirstenberg. Spread Eagle. 8. Norton. 16 Nisos. 1. 17 Orcus. born lSo6 by Xobelmann and Faucette.

Joe 12. The Ugly Buck. •2. 1.000 Guineas Winners. Fidget — Matchem. Galopin.1. Tetotum. born 1812 by Selim Zeal. Y. Sorcery. 1. Cesario ? Mare. Grey Diomed Diomed and Grey Dorimant a 3-year-old). Eclipse and Aspasia. 8. born 1777 by Matchem (•28-year-old) and Lady Bolingbroke (10-year-old). as 1. 6. born 1808 by Sorcerer and Cobbea. Merlin Gimcrack Paymaster Trentham Conductor 1757 by Merlin and ]\Iolly Long Legs. Sweepstakes and Miss South. . (covered as 15. Poison.000 363 Guineas Winners. born 1859 by Voltigeur and Mirs. Matchem Spectator and Rachel (covered as a — • 3-vear-old). Little John 1789 by Dungannon and Fairy. and Woful 1824 by Arab. — Skim. 1760 by Cripple and ?^Iiss Elliot (covered as a 2 or 3-year-old). Mincemeat. 3. 5. Surefoot. 2. Pot8os 11. 13. Eclipse and Amaranda. Andrews Dungannon Rockingham Eclipse and Sportsmistress. Bridget. Highflver and Purity. born 1841 by Venison and Monstrosity (covered a 3-year-old). Pyrrhus Telemachus Sprightly Herod — Snip. 10. 16. Judging and Treating Breeding Material. Mark Anthony Pantaloon 1766 1766 1767 1767 1767 1767 1770 1773 1778 1780 1781 1783 1785 by by by by by by bv by by by by by by Blank and Snapdragon. 4. Snap. Oaks Winners. born 1887 by 2. 3. 1. born 1776 by Herod and Jemima. ]\Iatchem and Curiosity. 2. Stallions. Vedette. 4. 5. born — The following are to be mentioned as firstlings which have won other important races or which have otherwise become famous : — A. Florizel 14. 3. 1. Bustard 1789 by Woodpecker and Matron (covered as a 3-year-old) 17. born 1851 by Sweetineat and Hybla. born 1840 by Plenipotentiary and Arsenic. Wisdom — Ridgway. 7. 9. 2.

3G4 18. The Practical Part of Horsebreedinc". .

. Judging' 'Titl Treating- Breeding Material. 365 54.1.

(h) It is. the food rations of the brood mares should vary according to the characters of the mares. at the beginning of grazing. In the case of the mare foaling shortly before her feeding time. The Treatment of Brood Mares. About eight days after birth suckling brood mares must have about 2 to 3 lbs. to whom an additional 3 to 5 lbs. for example. or even daily. a very good eater) to whom I gave before foaling 12 to 16 lbs. is pregnant. and some mares older and barren ones which feed with difficulty. of hay. as colic and abortion are easily caused thereby. in order In many parts. of course. of oats and about 1"2 lbs. along with commencing with a quarter of an hour. The foal of a Thoroughbred mare (Noran. also Thoroughbred mares in foal for the first time. in East Prussia. Good Lucerne or Sainfoin hay is. as for example. I consider that a larger ration. as a matter of course. the}^ should be separated at once after giving birth. 12 lbs. To these exceptional cases belong. 8 to 9 lbs. In the spring.3(35 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. of oats and 5 lbs. but are together with several others in loose boxes. after foaling. After grazing time. but no more. of oats. rations as approved of in East Prussia. while for Half-bred breeding clover hay is to be recommended. i. of oats and the same quantity of hay may be given. especially new. of hay more. till finally they do one hour. sickened soon after of bone — mostl}^ — . and particularly to be recommended for Thoroughbred breeding.. by far the best. and remain with their foals alone for about eight to fourteen days. because the after-pains are thus unnecessarily increased. and according I now give the to the soil on which the stud stands and the food grows. barren mares 4 lbs. wheat straw. Wheat bran three times weekly. together with meadow hay. mares covered as three-year-olds and having become oats. it is recommendable to add to the oats twice weekly 2 to 3 litres of wheat bran for the eveningmeal in the same manner as it is given to stallions. Like many other things in horse breeding. of oats and after foaling IS lbs. essential that brood mares outside the grazing time should take gentle exercise for about one and a half hours daily up to the day of foaling. of oats. to produce stronger bones. Supposing that oats and hay are of the very best quality. is not suitable for brood mares. as many breeders do. of oats and about 15 lbs. it is adyisable to reduce this first feeding somewhat. wheat bran is left out. This is just as necessary as is in spring the gradual transition to grazing. In the case when the mares are not in boxes. I recommend that young Thoroughbred brood mares and four-year-old mares should be given. and that there is an ample spread of the foal. healthy rye or summer straw. of hay. is given up to grazing time. of hay. and about ten to fifteen days after the foaling. After the grazing time brood mares in foal are given in three rations 6 lbs. especially of only necessary in a few exceptional cases. or even daily. To give extra food to the brood mares immediately after foaling is not advisable.e. The last two to three weeks before foaling it is advisable to give this additional wheat bran three times weekly. of oats and 20 lbs.

1. To keep brood mares. is necessary. It can be easily understood that the foal in the womb also suft'ers from these unfavourable influences. of oats in two rations. Now also come the short days. feeding stuffs. night grazings. In the case of the above-mentioned oat rations.and Treating Breeding Material. If the grazing is not rich. when I five recom- mend that bad feeding mares should be given an additional 3 lbs. barren and weaned mares 2 lbs. after which follows the so-called stabling of the brood mares. to calculate the age from the 1st of March instead of from the 1st of January. which oats. In England and America late born foals have excelled. (!) Covering of Brood Mares. Feeding is also less favourable. In East Prussia and in Courland. as stated below. The shorter. and winter life commences with IJ hours' exercise on the track and •22J hours standing in the stable. so that in December mares must stand about 16 hours out of the 24 in a dark room. sun and wind. therefore. and never known the need of them. phosphoric acid calcium.. without Also. Pregnant mares must never be given carrots. were born in June. this unfavourable time is from : . it is taken for granted Salt and chalk that the suckling foals. Many contend that English early born foals are specially inclined to roaring. even in the summer when grass is plentiful and good. Opening pills seem to be dispensable. and if that is not sufficient in the evening also. Artificial etc. air. the skeleton is in the Trakehnen Museum). born in January." The question has therefore been raised in England. an additional 3 lbs. These and many other things must be managed according to the different experiences obtained locally. of ground barley. 367 disease {Osteoporosis chronica universalis) and died consequently years of ao-e (Napoleon. for example. were found to be good at Beberbeck. however. Young clover must are not to be only be grazed when in bloom. West Australian and Blue Gown. the more suitable is the soil for breeding. early born foals are stronger and healthier than late born ones. very limited. The reason is as follows In East Prussia the grazing continues till about the middle of October. especially as these unfavourable changes coincide with the last and most important time of its foetal life. proved to be bad at Trakehnen. The question in which month mares should be covered must be answered according to local conditions. Grazing on frosty grass is to be avoided. Judging. with all their benefits. During grazing time suckling mares must get 6 lbs. John Porter says " he never knew a roarer born in ^lay. recommended. exercise less complete. especially in late autumn. Prince Charlie. The age of Half-bred foals in East Prussia is now reckoned from the 1st of November. has proved to be a failure in Trakehnen. of hay in the morning. chemical preparations. must alwavs be in the crib. I have never used them. of oats (early in the morning). The more open air exercise the breeding material can be allowed without bad consequences. get the oats extra. is a well-known example of this.

in like manner as early hatched chickens. offer more good things than so \'oung foals can take advantage of. namely. Moreover. but views differ over any further necessar\. weaning. I consider this heat in nearlv all cases a false one. Breeders of everv countrv are agreed on that point. early born foals are greatly favoured by passing one of the most important and most dangerous times of their lives. and this will amply counterbalance the disadvantage of getting a smaller c|uantitv of milk from their clams before grazing. based on long experience in East Prussia. especially of barren mares. especially as these mares are mostly in heat about the ninth dav. have tried her again the following morning. without ovulation (removal of a ripe egg from the ovarv). If the mare is not well in heat she is tried daily until she is.e. but are no longer in heat on the seventh dav. sometimes even beginning (jn the third dav after the birth. Mv visits to the Thoroughbred studs in England and France have. the better for the foal. i. on the whole. It is possible that in different countries different rules have been observed with regard to mares in heat. when. The early born foals. Neither do I know a stud which successfullv uses such a forced service.'. In exceptional cases T have had foal-mares covered even on the se\enth or eighth day after foaling when thev have showed themselves distincth. is not ^•et well in heat. and also conceive. as recommended by Schwarznecker. I give my views here. If the foal is born more than fourteen days too soon {i. and got her covered if she was well in heat. during the most favourable time of the year. the time of the first and most nourishing green food. fourth or fifth dav after foaling. Otherwise. Furthermore. and is less great than keeping pregnant mares for months in the stable. the 1 .and ample exercise of the sucklings with their dams on special tracks.trt the foaling.never had mares forciblv covered which were not in heat. can make more intensive and better use of all the benefits which the short East Prussian summer gives. with their lig-ht davs of 16 hours' sun. I havs. Eor late born foals the summer benefits. verified my experiences in this direction. the Stabling... The disadvantage of earl\born foals in East Prussia coming to grass only when weaned may be modified by regular daih. On account of these reasons c()\"ering begins in Trakehnen on the 15th of December and finishes at the end of May. The earlv born foals can get about five months fresh Lucerne or clover. it was desirable to cover them.e. as above stated.3(38 '^'""^ Practical Part of Morsebreedini. and I must add that these have been confirmed by mv experiences in Beberbeck and Courland.covering. it ma\' happen that foal-mares come distinctly in heat alreadv on the third. the foal-mare is tried on the afternoon of the eighth day after foaling. and with regard to the readiness of mares to be served. the time of pregnancy is less than 819 days). The most favourable dav for covering foal-mares is the ninth dav after foaling. Many mares come regularly in heat only on the tenth or eleventh da\'. whilst late born foals only get weaned off when green food ceases or has lost already a little of its nourishing power. as often happenis.in heat alread^ for several days. and if she.

which however. by considering the colour and form of the foal when a different stallion has covered the second There are. which after premature births mares. Judging and Treating Breeding Material. swelling and moistness of the privy parts generally to be seen with a mare really in heat is not apparent.1. as the redness. The next heat is usually three or generally after the birth. a false one. based on long experience. one can clearly see how the stallion avoids the mares with a false heat pressing about him. foal-mare in heat on the ninth day after foaling could only be covered the ninth day after the first heat (as the stallion was not available). He finds out the mares which are really in heat and covers them. and conceived from this covering. mares which come in heat on the ninth day after foaling. later date. These cases happen particularly with so-called foal-mares. moreover. and the following instructions for covering. A — . has conceived by the second and not by the first covering. where one stallion lives in the open together with twelve to fifteen mares (called Kosjaerk). be covered the ninth day after foaling. mares which conceive in the first heat come again in heat three or four weeks or more later. then covered again. she is covered. and that . but to a previous covering. comes oft" on the ninth day and shows signs of pregnancy. is always reckoned in order to get the right ninth day. conception of the mare is probably not attributable to the last. i. are There four weeks later. Young Thoroughbred stallions do not days.e. If the mare has not conceived after the covering. In the wild Steppe studs of Russia. then tried nine days later on the morning of the seventeenth. The foaling day. in heat again three or four weeks later. . many practical examples which prove that a time. if everything is all right. as a rule. that the regular heat lasts nine at latest if the mare has conceived in the first covering. There are numerous cases in which a mare after the first covering remains in heat even up to the eighth day. on the ninth of the month.. after day twentieth fifteenth or injurious consequences. On the other hand. only on the i. however. or the day of the first covering. the heat stops on the ninth day after the first covering.e. according to my experifoaling. This heat is. or if the being of not impression the give not born foal does first heat is passed over. and can generally be recognised. may be covered fully developed. instead of on the ninth day.. After a strong heat the interval till the It often happens that next heat is usually a little longer. she comes. 369 if the mare comes in heat as is usual the ninth day happens. and which have been covered at the right time. even after premature births of less than 319 days of pregnancy. and if she is in heat is covered again. she may. These. are always in heat at a and which. are founded on the assumption. which can easily be seen from the many practical examples of properly kept service registers and stud books firstly^ by comparing the number of days between the covering and the foaling with the usual time of pregnancy of the mare and secondly. and vice versa. If the too early without once at ence. it is probable that the mare still in heat after the first covering up to the ninth day. If the mare has foaled in the night before the first of a month.

however. There are. but learn it also gradually. many exceptions to the above-mentioned rules. and decreases generally in intensity after a few days. not the case. In the case of suckling mares which have not conceived during the period of the first heat. first The covering of same. arranged in the same manner as that of foal-mares in the second heat. day. Several cases have happened in Trakehnen where a mare. as I myself have observed. not the most effective on the culminating point are not reckoned as heat days. do not come in heat again for a few months.. two and three days. In the interval there must be no trial. has continued to be in heat uninterruptedly for two or three weeks after the last covering. i.370 The Practical Part ol Horsebreeding. is first two or three days. There are. the covering increases in intensity in the therefore. covered again they will very likely slip a small embryo. not conceiving easily. the first and ninth day. of course. the second covering on the third day. and mares one must pay ibe special attention that they are well in heat. eighth or ninth day is reckoned from the day on which the mare The days before the has reached the culminating point of her heat. When the foal-mares are in heat for the second time. The heat of barren and young mares. When covering barren or young and if that must be deferred until they are. however. in most cases very suddenly. has been covered two or three times during the period of one heat. and if the heat continues to have the third covering on the eighth or ninth day. but only when the heat has reached its culminating point. the covering of these mares is most eft'ective at the beginning of their heat. the fourth or fifth day. which in most cases not noticed. and it is not always possible to recognise it as such. however. With foalmares heat appears on the ninth day after foaling. be arranged as for foal-mares in the first heat. The stud- . often understand this business in the first year. and If such mares are yet proved to be pregnant without being covered again. it is advisable to serve them tw^o or three times. or in the case of sudden warm weather. although they have not conceived. mares who. The second or third covering in this heat on the third. The returning of is heat can only be expected after weaning. In most cases this period of second heat does not continue as long as the first. as the many attempts often produce If a mare false heat. whilst others In the interval between the first and come in heat again in a fortnight. There are mares which are only in heat one.e. visibly remains continually in heat after the last covering. as this heat is nearly always unnatural. second heat mares should not be tried. she should not be covered again. or which could not be covered. develops very slowly. and the mare is then wrongly considered as barren. or if the stallion be not available. it is very uncertain whether they will come in heat again after three or four weeks. Covering of young mares must. and it is therefore advisable to have her covered for the second time earlier. Therefore. according The covering of barren mares must be to experiences of previous years. unless previous experiences point otherwise. and it is very improbable that the covering would lead to conception.

of course. There are mares which conceive with more difficulty. In the case of mares which will not conceive. or that their mode of living should be changed. in difficult cases. I would advise them to be covered with two stallions. together with mares in heat. I recommend. stallion should be changed in the third heat. in order that they may get warm and heated. ovulation probably begins later. if possible. and of producing false heat without ovulation. During the first covering of young mares everything should be avoided which might frighten them. There certainly exists the danger of exciting the sexuality of the mares by too frequent covering. The mounting of a trial stallion is only advisable in exceptional cases with verv troublesome and bad-tempered mares and specially valuable stallions.e. I recommend breeders to try and get the mares pregnant from one covering at any rate from as few coverings as possible. one immediately after the other. I would recommend that mares which do not come in heat should be put in another stable. mares to be covered in the afternoon and again on the following morning. a thing which is often difficult ceive with Thoroughbred breeding. impossible. and take the desired stallion for the second covering. gradually arising heat in the case of barren mares. usually on the ninth day after foaling. They then should be when other mares are covered. and by too many and too intensive trials. Sometimes change of place also helps. he must not wait till the culminating point is reached. and. As a fertilisation without ovulation is. In the case of suddenly occurring heat of foal-mares. mares which have been at work should be let loose. but come in heat more difficultly. and in which the mares were consequently covered too often. as I have observed that in this case the second stallion is usually the fertilising one. Finally. Mares which are ridden or driven usually conmore difficulty. mares which run about loose in the stud should be put to hard work. 371 master must take note of such mares. or even not at all. . but. Judt^ing- and Treating. i. the commencement of the heat very probably coincides with ovula. from certain In Half-bred breeding I would. the above recommended manner of covering of mares also complies tion. recommend that the stallions. on the other hand. moreover. or in warm weather and sunshine should be let loose with in finally allowed to be present several others in a paddock. if it succeeds at all. Young mares especially are spoiled by too frequent covering. but must get them covered as soon as they come in heat. perhaps only when the heat is at its culminating point. therefore. and again on the following day. mostly in studs in which the stallions had not enough to do. of course.Breeding" Material. whilst in the with this point of view. and frequently without ovulation. that mares which conceive with difficulty should be given a good trot about half an hour before the covering. Lean mares conceive easier. I have come across hysterical mares often in heat.1. but should not be driven.. From my own experience I should recommend.

however. Moreover.'. The greatest number of these mares sold. sometimes with less energy. because all those mares about whose foalings no information is given are not reckoned. I must say that the foaling results in many years perhaps in all appear more favourable than thev really were. The foaling results in Trakehnen have come out too favourably. and consequentlv country studs are not able to furnish statistically serviceable figures. and this explains the striking variations in the foaling results of Thoroughbreds in Germany. and this is generally the reason for their being sold in autumn. . the figures on the foalings have been asked for. because mares which were covered and sold were not counted. In addition to the statements of the German General Stud Book of Thoroughbreds.372 The Practical Part of Horsebreedini:. (k) Fertilisation. — — Foalinc results of Thoroughbred breedinc: in Germanv. In order to compare the results of fertilisation. but not the figures of country studs of the different provinces. I have given in the following lists the figures of the respective stud books. are barren. but these mares may be pretty certainly considered as barren or as having slipped their foal. sometimes with more. It is too difficult for a country stud to get reliable statements with regard to foaling.

373 Foaling: results in Trakehnen. Judging" and Treating Breeding Material.1. Foals born Year Colts Fillies Pregnant Total Aborted Barren Number Pregnant Mares Covered Aborted Total Of 1895 124 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 .

.. or suckle their foals for a long. For example.9 days for males and 327. . and are therefore similar to twins premature births with an unripe appearance.67 days for females in the years 1903 till 1907. but many young brood mares are not disposed to carry their first foal longer.95 328. Young mares on an average carry longer than old mares. and the 11|^ to 1-2J months.374 (1) The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-.2 Gurdszen 330. better feeding of the brood mares in Trakehnen has. have become prominent brood mares or stallions.69 Danzkehmen 329.e. . country stallions.. The stallion also has an influence on the duration of pregnancy corresponding to the peculiarities of his breed and family. and there are others which require the same time in addition to the 11 months.38 days for females in the years 1868 till 1877.42 days for males and 333. etc. which have had for a longer time the less favourable winter food. In the modern improved studs the time of pregnancy is shorter than in the wild Steppe The so-called Kunters of Russia. and those which have been carried more than 346 days never. carry on an average about 3 davs less than those foaling in February.4 326. Trakehnen 329. and vice-versa.24 There are mares which almost always foal 1 to 3 weeks too early.38 326. foals which have been carried more than 11 months have seldom become anything prominent. The dry statistics should be In order to produce the first foal well carefully gone into in this direction. All prominent firstlings which I know. however. shortened the time of pregnancv bv 5J days. those that have become Royal Stud stallions. in Trakehnen early covered mares which foal in November. namely. to 329. December and January. developed the dam must carry it some days longer than the foals w-hich come after. were carried 5 to . According to experiences at Trakehnen. having been carried only 315 to 320 days.37 Bajohrgallen 331. carry a few days more. Poland and Courland often carry studs. March and April. and both often transmit this character for several generations. Mares which work hard. The Time of of Pregnancy of Brood Mares.5 327. i. The improvement in meadows and prairies. ^lale foals are carried on an average '2 to If the mares are well fed and their 3 days longer than female foals. the time of pregnancy is shortened by a few days. state of health is favourable.46 fonasthal 330. from 335. Many firstlings are not carried their full time. is on an average of almost exactly 11 months' duration equal to 334 days. on an average. and are mostly premature births with an unripe appearance. twins are carried a few davs less (about 10 to 14 days). time. Many Trakehnen foals.36 327. Mares pregnant from asses carry a few days longer. The regularity with which female foals are carried 2 to 3 days less can be seen more clearly from the following special list for the years 1903 to 1907 inclusive The time of pregnancv necessary in the case of The time of pregnancy mares — : — : Colts Fillies . brood mares.

The Royal Stud activitv at 1. 375 10 days longer than other prominent products. stallions which have been born during my twelve years* Trakehnen rank according to their merits as follows : — .1. In the case of mares foaling normally the time of pregnancy often decreases a few days in the course of years.Breeding Material. Judging and Treating.

Vol. I have noticed several times. The climate seems also to have an influence on the carrying time. In other cases a healthy foal was born approaching the right time. I have found from different old stud books that the carrying time of brood As warm-blooded mares 150 vears ago of all breeds was much longer.33 days. and causing the immediate commencement of a healthy foetal. fillies 329. (m) Abortion and Joint-illness. and that the mare produced a healthv foal at the right time. which the undoubtedly contagious abortion bacteria. according to Tessier (Goltz Handbuch der gesamten Landwirtschaft. If the milk begins to flow some time before the expected birth it is a sure sign that the foal is ill in the womb or if the mare carries twins. and the carrying time of Belgian and Rheinish mares in Mankartshof. in Graditz (colts 338. that one of them is dying. as breeds reach a greater age was higher than it is now. whole a longer carrying time has as a consequence a greater age. and in Trakehnen about 3 days less than in Graditz. colts of Belgian breed on the Worbzig Estate in Anhalt were carried 331. at in not slip the same stable might be infected by Late covered mares are in than early covered ones. In the case of mares which are in heat for a longer period. The average carrying time of Percherons is. Kisber and Babolna the average carrying time is about 3 or 4 days longer than. According to the statements of Rudolf Endlich (Untersuchungen iiber physiologische Unterschiede edler und schwerer Pferde.5 days. but which had been fortunately surmounted bv the foal. the egg-fertilisation appears to take place only several days after covering. 1895). so that one could not really see the consequences of an illness doubtless existing. After abortion it is very important to protect the mares against colds. fillies 336. 322 days. III. Moreover. near Neufs. we must conof all horse breeds 150 years ago comparisons of carrying times. Generally abortion follows. is better to separate the mare. was 329 days. North Germany more inclined to slipping the foal . however. that on the when considering the above clude. Draft horse breeds carry about 3 to 5 days less than warm-blooded horses. autumn and the other healthy twin in the following spring. The longlived Arabians are even to-day a good example in this respect. it . and the average age than cold-blooded ones. and at the same time a dead twin of about the I also know of one case in which one dead twin was foaled in size of a cat. so that she may where there are other pregnant mares.1 days. As according to the above. which they are very apt to catch in this condition.376 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. that the milk again ceased to flow some weeks later. for example.38 days). I therefore recommend that mares after abortion should be put in a warm any rate during the night. the abortion may be. In Mesoheyes. Arabians in Weil and Scharnhausen are said to carr}' on an average about 345 days. taking the average for three years. development.). expected in most cases. however.

the close of her first heat. during the first heat for about 6 days. To clean and disinfect the stable in w-hich the mare has aborted. i. on the other hand. agree with the point of view held by Count Lehndorff in his handbook for horse breeders. at the right time.e. but in the subsequent heat. I have experienced this several times at Beberbeck as well as at Trakehnen. i. Saphir. The mare should only be covered after abortion when the normal carrying time has passed.000 for about 6 to 9 days. \\"hilst nearly all scientists still deny the aetiological relation between abortion and joint-illness of foals.e.. Professor Dieckerhoff intended : . i. Judging" and Treating Breeding Material. till the orifice of the uterus is completely I have chosen for these cleansings at Trakehnen the above solution because it more surelv kills the bacteria than the solution of J per cent. of healthv and strong foals. after having been properl}. if not in everv case. namely. She has up to now without interruption produced four good and healthy foals. all practical breeders. 1899 bv Jenissei). This cleansing had such a successful effect in 1893 with the Thoroughbred mare Sappho. 3. it is necessary wash the uterus twice daily with a lukewarm solution of Chinosol to 1 per closed. i. i\s early as the beginning of 1890. that joint-illness is always inherited. w-hich as a voung suckling foal suffered from a pronounced joint-illness (right hock inflamed). ^Matthias. has arisen during the pregnancy in the womb. 1881. 2. The uterus of the mare should also be washed if the foals are joint-ill. If the abortion has taken place in the pasture.e. and to protect her very carefully from cold. used such cleansings of uterus after abortion at that time by the aid of Creolin-Solution. LysolSolution recommended bv Professor Ostertag and others. in Graditz. she can be covered. To keep the mare warm during this time. The latter has the additional disadvantage of producing in many mares strong pressure and vehement pains. According to my experiences at Trakehnen. that in the following year she produced the Austrian Derby winner. To prevent the transmission of abortion it is advisable 1. to and well covered up also. the Chief Veterinary Surgeon. after the above-mentioned cleansings. which should be used after birth for about 3 davs. which generally occurs 9 daws later.washed. to dig up the spot and 4. 1. these cleansings have prevented in most.1. 3 to 4 weeks later. with good results. 377 Stable free from draught. or if the premature births are suspected of joint-illness. about 18 days. was made a brood mare. In Trakehnen only one such mare (Trommel.. when next in heat. To isolate the mare up to. repetition of abortion. Mares whose foals suffer from joint-illness should not be covered on the 9th da}^ after birth. to discontinue the grazing of brood mares on that part for at least 4 weeks. It is not generally advisable to have as brood mares foals which have suffered from joint disease but w'hich have been cured. If the abortion takes place after a pregnancy of 4 months or still less. and have led to the production. and at the beginning of the second heat once or tW'ice. Moreover.e.. amongst others.

although Ostertag's researches distinctly contradict it. There is. however. are really nothing but the consequences of abortus coccus. I have found in nearly 80 per cent." In my opinion. The same pathological changes may be found with products which have been slipped in consequence of epidemic abortion. or with foals still-born as a consequence of abortion. an inflammation of the navel or navel veins. All these things are. Accordingly.878 in the The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. they consider this also as joint-illness. i. the cause of which has been proved bv Professor Ostertag to be a distinct coccus. in his report on the abortion of mares and the joint-illness of foals. therefore. from a navel infection after birth transmitted by the blood." This is contradicted by the fact of Professor Ostertag having found in cases of joint-illness a different coccus. as I have been well convinced at Trakehnen in 1899. reports as follows " The disease of joint-illness principally consists of an inflammation of the joint which is connected \vith lameness. If at the post-mortem examination of the foal there is found a yellowish colouring of the underskin. next edition of his special pathology and therapy to support the view Count Lehndorff as to the relation between abortion and joint-disease. no valid reason to consider both diseases identical. If the new-born foal dies soon after with all appearance of catarrh of the intestines. the Chief Veterinary Surgeon. with which he could by innoculation produce the appearances of joint-illness. These authorities consider a yellowish tint of the Sclera during lifetime as a pathognomonic symptom of joint-illness. or finally.. or if the same colour is found in the peritoneal covering of the intestines^ or if in the abdominal and thoracic cavity and in the pericardium there is found a quantity of yellowish fluid. dorff's When making : — . and the musculature is greyish-yellow and crumbly. with foals which were born alive but soon died of weakness. According to Bollinger. I. joint-illness arises from a septic infection of the navel wound. which lead to death without metastatic inflammation of the joint. we are at the present only justified in speaking of jointillness ("Lahme") if there is an inflamed swelling of the joint. He did not find this strepto-coccus in aborted foals. It has been asserted that " epidemic abortion and joint-illness are caused by one and the same germ. According to the clinical observations (without microscopic investigations) which I have made at Beberbeck and Trakehnen. with their accompanying and subsequent symptoms. believe that I shall be safe in saying that the greater part of the so-called cases of joint-illness.e.. the diagnosis is for joint-illness. Hence this disease has always been called 'lameness' ('Lahme'). together with general fever. Matthias. of all cases of joint-illness which I have come across. consequences of epidemic abortion. ]\Iany authorities on joint-illness consider themselves justified in diagnosing for joint-illness in the case where a foal has been born weak and dies with the symptoms of general weakness. I consider Count Lehnof view correct. observations at Trakehnen in 1899 on the occasion of the epidemic of abortion.

then one would expect also cases of hereditary joint-illness. be a possibility of an intrauterine origin of jointAt the same time. I may say that at Trakehnen in the epidemic year 1899. one may. even 6 w-eeks after birth. sort of origin of joint-illness bv intrauterine infection is very rare. hereditary acute. page 105) extracted by Professor Sohnle from the complete literature on joint-illness have been rightly noted and interpreted. exists an intrauterine origin of the joint-illness. 10 foals died of joint-illness and 19 The loss bv joint-illness did not in this year. in spite of the non-existing navel much.4 die of joint-illness and 6. conclude therefrom that this illness. good results have without doubt been obtained by carefully attending to the navels of the new-born The cleaning of the uterus of the mare and the washing of the penis foals. i. consider it here proved. As an example of this. Supposing that the three cases of hereditary joint-illness (compare Worz Uber Staats-oder LandespferdezuchtAnstalten Wurtten-bergs. that the strepto-coccus has penetrated to the body from The question now arises whether there also the navel wound after birth. therefore. there were 93 abortions and 6 still-births. of course. taking an average of of weakness. however. number of foals suffering from been about 15 cured of the illness. five years. In the abortion year 1899. after this treatment. The cleansing of the uterus and washing of the penis have not led to a further decrease in cases of joint-illness in Trakehnen. This is another proof against intrauterine infection. without further discussion. No authority living at the present time has seen such a case of hereditary joint-illness. Trakehnen. then there may. for the strepto-coccus may easily have entered into the body I have just stated that I of the young animal by some other way (feeding or breathing). .1. The fact of joint-illness beginning so late is no proof of intrauterine infection. 379 found in at least 80 per cent. exceed the average very joint-illness. 8. Concerning the combating of joint-illness.6 of weakness. of the stallion have certainly produced satisfactory results in fighting epidemic abortus. Judging and Treating Breeding Material. of the cases of joint-illness I have found no pathological changes of navel and navel veins. If the joint-illness had already originated in the womb. only 19 abortions and 2 still-births. py^emic inflammations of the joint. and an illness of the navel could not be proved. One may. In these latter cases the illness began very late.e. or the illness it of the navel in a may already have gone on so far that can no longer be proved rough anatomical way.. of all cases of jointillness a navel illness. In about 20 per cent. To take these cases as a proof of intrauterine infection seems to me too daring. The yearly average of abortions and still-births rn Trakehnen is 21. therefore. In the following year there were. In the case of a great however. there may have illness. It has been observed that in the vears of epidemic abortion cases of jointOf the about '290 foals which are born yearly in illness are more frequent.

Three men are sufficient to assist. however. We have seen that the coccus of abortus does not in every case lead to abortion. the birth itself lasts about 3 minutes. at Trakehnen the navel is disThe navel string is cut with a pair of scissors which infected as follows have been kept in undiluted lysol.380 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding'. must be put behind the mare as a bedding for the foal. for the hygiene of confinement in stables is far from perfect. has laid down and stretched herself out. and make their observations standing far apart. as I suppose. When the birth is complete. and the skin of the ovum must be torn far enough to enable breathing to commence.. nevertheless. needing the assistance of a veterinary surgeon. to take especial care of the navel. these men must keep quiet. clean straw. should the studmaster see whether the head and the two fore-legs of the foal are in the right position. Above all. A normal birth occurring at the right time causes no difficulties. nevertheless. neither can the cleanliness of the stableman who acts as midwife alwavs be relied upon. and seldom lasts longer than 15 minutes. closed when the foal shows signs of illness. case there is an intrauterine existence of joint-illness or not. the coccus of abortus which is in the If the orifice of the uterus is already uterus is destroyed by washing. or show signs of weakness and illness shortly after birth. even in large studs one may succeed in limiting sufficientiv the losses caused by joint-illness and abortion. away from the anus. it Whether is (n) The Birth. generally in the direction of the hocks. however. the uterus must be washed at the first heat. but. these are not cases of joint-illness. in any recommendable. or suffer from joint-disease. Even if. irregular position of the foal in the womb. the men must begin to pull at the fore-legs if need be with ropes round the pasterns. The most effective manner of combating joint-disease is.e. which should be at hand. According to experiences at Trakehnen. As soon as the head and the two fore-legs can be seen as far as the knee after the bursting of the so-called bladder. Judging from the successes of Trakehnen. at a distance of about 3 fingers width from : — . stronger birth throes. so as not to disturb the mare whilst she chooses the place which Only when the mare. Simultaneously with the labour pains. i. it hinders the development of the foals in such a manner that they are born weakly and ill. reckoned from the beginning of the Under normal conditions first visible signs of the approaching birth labour. to clean in the same manner as in the case of an abortion the uterus of all those mares whose foals die under symptoms of weakness. The penis of the stallion must be w-ashed after every covering. Complete extermination of joint-disease and of abortion will scarcely be attainable in larger studs where the greater quantity of brood mares produce such a great deal of epidemic matter. as is done in Trakehnen. as the studmasters are generally very capable. is very seldom. on account of the first best suits her for foaling.

in consequence of a slight stomach illness. Foals should be weaned after 4J to 6 months. the foal dies. After the foals are weaned is the best time for finding out mares which have not conceived. As one does not like to lift the feet of the mares up in order to round their hoofs about two or three months before they foal. out of 3. as a nurse. In Thoroughbred breeding it is. twelve vears 58 times. the foal is carried to the head of the mother. The same thing applies to the cleaning of the stables.388 births. the mare should be used. 23 ended with the death of the foal alone. Accordingly. 3g2 the belly of the foal. where the assistance of a veterinary surgeon was necessary or desirable.689 were — colts and 1. the udder must be carefully milked at least three times daily. if there is time.and TreiUing Breeding Material. only 38 have been difficult births (including 12 breech-births). In my opinion. there is no benefit in omitting to cover good mares for a year in order to spare them and improve their further in the If and give to milk the foal at the beginning too weak . As soon as the navel has been disinfected. the wet straw is replaced by dry. and.674 fillies. only one remaining in the stable. This happens to nearly all foals. The attendants should now leave. then it is dried with wadding and painted on all sides with a 10 per cent. After the blood has been properly pressed out of the stump. evening and morning. when they are two or three days old. A longer suckling time is neither good for the mare (even if barren) nor the foal. year. less When this is not done. Of these 38 difficult births. a thing which they like. of which 1. Twin births or abortions of twins happened in these (o) If Treatment of the Brood Mare after the Birth. and to spread what fresh straw is required. It is advisable to remove at once after foaling the fresh dung. The observations made at Trakehnen show that very often a few days after the cleaning of the stables abortions took place. and this seems to confirm the old doctrine that the smelling: nerves of pregnant mares are very sensitive. solution of blue pyoktanin in spirits. or on the first and third day). she will suffer in her health. the latter is washed with a solution of a 1 per 1. therefore. and that evaporation of the dung and the smell of tar cause abortions. advisable to remove daily all dung. together with the wet straw. and she will then commence to lick the foal. to get them covered again (with two coverings. to prevent the foal from eating same. and 2 with the death of the dam alone altogether 27 mishaps. this must be done after foaling. 3. but which is dangerous. As soon as the after-birth has been removed. is if possible. In the twelve foaling years which I have spent at Trakehnen (from 1896 to 1907 inclusive). apart from all abortions. 2 with the death of the dam and the foal.1. next completely empty the udder of the dam. as in the race stable.363 foals were born without mishap. observing the mare from a short distance.000 sublimat. Judging. which generally takes half an hour.

light work up to covering time is in most cases very useful. by their less smooth hair. especially if thev are inclined to be fat. To .\]QQ. ful. After six months' pregnancy the movements of the foal can In the case of younger easily be felt. but not quick work. products. Barren mares are easily recognisable in autumn. is useful. even If they are not in heat. this has not been successcover mares every second year as is done in some countries produces very bad fertilisation results. According to observations I have made. barren mares. in most cases plentiful. and by their worse feeding condition. For mares which do not easilv conceive. especially during and after drinking. The Practical Part of Horsebreeding^.

To rightly judge a young suckling foal one must catch it at a moment when it stands in a natural position. If the centre of gravity is pushed too far forward. it appears over-built. never transmitted this X-shaped position of the fore-legs. or as yearlings.e. it appears high-legged. like Chamant and several of his sons. the X-legged position of one or both fore-legs. long hind-legs standing out behind. and as far as possible equally on its four legs. The Judging and Treating (a) of Foals. A son of Chamant. As a rule. and holding the head at a height natural and convenient to him. . and who already as yearlings stood and walked perfectly straight. It is safest to judge the exterior of suckling foals one or two days after birth. almost without exception. w-ere born with X-shaped fore-legs. as well as long. Panther. whose progeny. so in the same way it is safer to judge the exterior immediately after birth than when the foals have been weaned. This moment w'ill nearly always be brief. etc. first of all. Eight or fourteen days later one can. it appears perhaps bow-legged. if they are very sloping.. as well as all misplacements (in the womb) of the fore and particularly of the hind-legs.e. i. One must also know that suckling foals often grow out of some of their bad characters. but most of his progeny stood with turned-out toes and had an irregular walk. upright fore-pasterns. polished knees or bending back. If the fore pasterns are still very upright. it seldom happens that foals born with X legs walk irregularly later. The other proportions One thing remains to be noted. nearly always grows normal. it appears often to have a swaying back. which occurs so frequently and often very pronounced. foals generally grow out of the following defects : — Too long. judge more safely as to whether they will turn out well. Judging Suckling Foals. perhaps. but in most cases the judging of the exterior has then become more difficult. and if the head is held too high. if the foal stands wath the fore-legs somewhat under it.^ that foals of the body do not alter. Further. The bending of one or of both hind-pasterns. soft pasterns. all sideway leanings. and the slightest changes of the centre of gravity give a wrong impression. There are stallions. i.CHAPTER 11. Just as one can judge better the real capabilities of Thoroughbred yearlings by the autumn trials than by a few gallops as two-year-olds. To these belong.

one may assume a twisting round a perpendicular axle. The same thing applies to the progeny of scarcely ever lost this fault. but are not so conspicuous in a fulh^-grown horse as in a young foal. which later on. which were born with hocks a little ill-shaped (which. seldom occurred). Often. and vice-versa. if the one leg stands wide-toed and the other narrow-toed. and therefore an improvement of both pasterns. There are stallions.e. for example. the chance of growing out of weakly Hazlehatch. howimprove remarkably. however. often it cannot be perceived later. good or bad crest. Whether the crooked fore-legs will grow straight again can only be verified if one knows the development of foals of certain parents. already recognisable in the suckling foal (of course. No improvement can be expected. Short necks remain short. very high or deficient withers. Optimus' progeny. is probable. this fault cannot be remedied. supported and improperly set hocks is least if there is no misplacement (in the womb) connected with these faults. if both pasterns deviate to the same side. but the most distorted hocks. If. especially of the back and crupper. generally become crooked. if the upper part of the hock It is often very difficult and unsafe (calcaneus) is inclined too far forward. The same thing applies to upright and to sickle hind-legs. strength of joints. i. Most narrow-toed positions of the fore-legs consist of the twisting of the whole leg round a perpendicular axle. Outwardly placed pasterns often become all right if this outward position only consists of a bend of the pastern joint round a horizontal axle. Furthermore. the outw-ard position consists of a twisting of the whole fore-leg commencing at the elbow round a perpendicular axle. almost having the appearance of curbs. the progeny of Optimus born with crooked fore-legs retain same.. however. if necessary. The proportion of the length and the width of the body. which change little. but are not so conspicuous in a fully-grown horse as with a suckling foal. always appear to be higher legged than they are when they become fully grown. be taken Faulty position into consideration when judging). and therefore do not improve. whose progeny were born mostly with their hinder parts very much misplaced and crooked. and usually between Only the second and the third vear. but in the short space of two to six months they grew out of the seemingly impossible One can only judge twists. nearly always remains. approximately correctly if one knows the manner of development of the progeny of certain stallions. including the inwardly placed one. small . All the progeny of Hazlehatch are always born with straight fore-legs. however. Generally speaking. whilst nearly all the progeny of Perfectionist were born with crooked fore-legs and became straight without exception.384 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. this position becomes much worse. of the ankle joint (tied in below hock) is very seldom got over so completely that traces of ever. to rightly judge the hocks of foals born very much misplaced (in the womb). like Pomp and Nlorgenstrahl. the above-mentioned upright position of pasterns must. especially if the connection is broad. remain the same. High-leggedness. however. For example.

The first its especially useful to the foal on account of first fecal somewhat opening effect. and becomes. as one may expect from them qualitv. one little. dry head indicates a strong bone development. i. In the autumn he was put to training as a twoyear-old.e. therefore. cannon bones. The so-called over-built foals. but rather a relapse in manv parts ma^. A big. This Colostrum milk must not. especially Thoroughbreds. must not forget that this they will never look nobler than thev young age is very apt to hide coarseness. develop better than those of coarser stallions.indicates thin. For this reason the former grow out of their faults better than the latter. To is correcth. Short and dull-looking hair is a sign that the foal has been born premature and unripe. whilst those arising from no visible acute illness never get all right. (b) Treatment of Suckling Foals up or so-called Colostrum milk is to the time of Weaning. I have never vet known a case where such premature births have developed into first-class horses. hardness and health. one must not be deceived by the long hairs on the legs. who as weaning foal got a verv bad low back commencing immediatelv behind the withers after a verv severe attack of glanders. the causes of which are often hidden. and must be judged favourably. smooth and shining hairs on the legs look lighter than thev are. The most conspicuous example of this which I know is the Royal Stud stallion Emporer. often completely disappear. a point which changes very do as young" suckling foals. a low back. of course. whilst the fairlv small head generalh. He has a faultless back. In judging earlv the exterior. the foals of high-blooded stallions. take into consideration the healthy development of the foal. born 1899 bv Lehnsherr (bv Chamant) and Emigrantin.. and is to-da}. The In judging the strength of bones of foals. nearlv always grow normallv.2. be milked off. which is mostlv to be seen with one and twovear-olds (nearh. 385 born foals grow out of their faults less often than big born ones. He ^vas transferred in the spring of 1900 In the course of about nine months the low back to Guddin to the geldings. substanjce of the foal known thus hastening the getting rid of the as Meconium. drA-ness. do not get misplaced. therefore.all progenv of V^olapuk). The Judging and Treating of Foals. The former have oenerallv sufficient room in the womb and. as unfortunately often happens. Generally speaking. The back especiallv gives wav most easih'. such as glanders. one must.Roval Stud stallion in Trakehnen. The Meconium passes away under normal conditions in the first twelve to twenty- B— . Foals born with short.judge the nobility of the foal. for without such this growing out is not only not to be expected. Low backs which suddenlv originate after a severe illness. even during the suckling. or immediatelv after the weaning. disappeared completelv. on account of disturbed development and nourishment.be feared which were originally normal. and his progeny also.

386
four hours, and in
too rapidly
of
it is

The

Practical

Part of

Horsebreedinij.

many

instances two hours after birth.

If this

happens

often not a

good

sign.

DiarrhcDea follows, frequently a sign

weakness, or beginning of joint-illness. A delay of this important remoyal causes meconium colics, which may very easily become dangerous. This disease generally attacks foals carried more than eleven months, and male foals more frequently than female foals. I have never vet noticed this meconium colic in foals carried less than 320 days. In Trakehnen in 1896 the chief veterinary surgeon, Dr. Topper, first applied very successfully the Meconotorium, constructed bv ]\Iasch, for the purpose of artificially removing the Meconium. As this instrument can be easih' handled by nonprofessionals, I here state what Dr. Topper says about it " The operator The instrument, sits on a chair, and the foal is held in a proper position. and the first or second finger of the left hand, are oiled. A left finger is carefully inserted, and with it the Mecotorium (the convexity of the spoon If one presses the handle down the spoon presses into the downwards). meconium, and it is then possible to bring it out in parts as far as one can reach forwards. One g. calomel with 50 g. rizinus are afterwards given for the final removal, and an injection of luke-warm water made. The instrument may be had from Hauptner-Berlin." I would like to add that the spoon must be used with the greatest care, for the rectum of the foal is not capable of much resistance, and if it were pierced with the spoon death would always
:

follow.

dam.

announces the first heat of the For a continuous or malignant diarrhoea the following treatment has proved successful in Trakehnen If it is a case of the dangerous grey stinking diarrhoea of foals, the To obtain intestines must be completely emptied as quickly as possible. this result, give the foal 50 to 100 g. rizinus oil in one dose (an ordinary spoon contains about 10 g.). The day following give it again in one dose 10 to 20 g. tincture of opium (a spoon contains about 15 g.) with four times
slight harmless diarrhoea of the foal
:

A

as

milk. If necessary, this treatment with the tincture of increasing from 10 to 20 g., is continued for several days, opium, gradually and if need be even in two doses daily. If in the course of this treatment
the foal should suffer from inflated belly or colic, the treatment of

much mother's

opium

must be abandoned.
If it is

of rizinus oil given at

a question of the ordinarv watery diarrhoea, a dose of 50 to 125 g. the commencement often renders further treatment

superfluous.
tinues for
of

Continuous doses of tincture of opium are essential if the diarrhoea consome time. As a foal soon gets into the habit of taking tincture opium, increase the doses slowly, from 10 to 25 g., and also from once to
Instead of the oats, which cannot be digested b}' the weakened gastroit is advisable in cases of chronic diarrhoea to give a mixture

twice daily.
intestinal canal,

2.

The Judging- and Treating

of

Foals.

387

of oats and linseed meal ground very line, almost to a mash, 1 cwt. of oats to about 5 lbs. of linseed. According to my experiences, a complete change of food of the dam, as regards oats and hay, as well as of bedding straw, does not have any influence on the diarrhoea of the foal. The first nine days after birth the brood mare must be separated, along with the foal, in cases where the mares are together with several others in large stables and not in special boxes. Later on, when the foals are strongenough, it is better both for dam and foal to be able to move about freely in a large stable. Unfortunately, the arrangements in Thoroughbred studs, on account of too great anxiety, are usually not calculated to give these great advantages of freer movement, and to provide at the same time special places for oats and hay for the foals. When it is fourteen days old the suckling foal usually begins to nibble oats. It can be taken for granted that on an average the foals can eat as many pounds of oats daily as they are months old. Besides the oats, it is advisable to give the foals daily as much fresh hay as possible, also clover hay. A four months old suckling foal must have dailv 4 to 5 lbs. of oats, and almost as much hay. If the dam gives too little milk, and it is possible to teach the foal to drink cow milk, which is often very difficult, an addition of about 3 to 5 litres of fresh undiluted cow milk (three times daily 1 to IJ litres direct from the cow) is to be recommended. I have never yet found that this addition of fresh undiluted cow milk had any bad effect on suckling foals. Stunted weaning foals, as well as suckling foals, whose dams die suddenly in giving birth or somewhat later, must have daily 6 to 9 litres fresh undiluted cow milk. One litre every two hours during the day and every four hours during the night is the right quantitv. It is reckoned that a good brood mare gives about 10 to 12 litres daily. About four to six weeks after birth the foal's hoofs must be attended to. The foal must, however, have been already accustomed to being led for a short distance and held by the halter. This care of the hoofs, which is so important for the whole life of the horses, and which can rarely be recovered later, consists in cutting at first the foetal frog, which is provided with unhorned, soft epidermal material, with a sharp knife, holding it level, in such a manner that the hoofs get the necessary form of frog, with a soft depression in the middle and absolutely smooth surfaces. The remaining spongy substance must be removed from the sole in such a manner that it receives its proper depth. Then the wall must be cut down on the quarters and toe as the form and position of the hoof necessitates. Frog and inferior border of the wall must lie on one level, so that the frog also helps to carry the body. The lateral lacunae of the frog must be kept smooth, and wide open below. The small cracks in the lateral lacunae of the frog are removed by so-called air-making, i.e., by a notch cut. However, under no circumstance must the strength of the bars be weakened. The most careful removal of all, even the very smallest cracks, especially in the median and the two lateral lacunae of the frog, is very important, because it is impossible to keep

338

The

Practical

Part of

Horsebreeding".

them clean otherwise, and the}- therefore easily become the means of causing putridity. Everv hoof must be brushed over at once, after cutting, with tar; of course, only the sole, including the frog. This must be repeated, in the case of suckling foals, every four weeks before grazing time. It does not only make the putridity of the frog impossible, but also assures a strong and broad development of the frog and of the hoof. During grazing this work is not so often and so urgently necessary as during the winter stabling, therefore The wearing of the hoof caused by most necessary for early born foals. plenty of exercise in the pastures, and this effect of the damp earth which becomes fastened to the hoof, and which is beneficial to same, by its massaging, widening and preventing putridity, does away with, to a great extent, " The reason that the above artificial treatment of the hoof. Wollstein says hoofs is because they have with their little suffer so foals in natural studs early breeding the care of the Thoroughbred in Even plenty of exercise." hoof is, unfortunately, much neglected, and is the cause of so many contracted hoofs with curved walls and atrophied frogs, which again in their turn produce an early break down.
:

to the hoofs begins also the cleaning not necessary to put a halter round them or to hold them, as, if it is done sensibh*. they enjoy it, and it is the first means by which one can gain their confidence. The purpose of cleaning (of course, only with a dandy brush) is not only to keep them clean and prevent lice, but also for

Simultaneously with the attention
It is

of the foals.

the very beneficial scrubbing of the skin, which

is

especially

good

for foals

born early

in

the year.

Later on during grazing, wind and rain do their

share in this beneficial massaging of the skin. Foals get their first exercise in the open when they, 10 to 14 days old, go with the dam two or three times daily to drink from the trough in the yard. Very soon afterwards, at the latest at the age of 6 weeks, they must be exercised with the dam in the open, commencing with a quarter of an hour daily. Of course, these exercises must take place regularly every day, and in all sorts of weather, being extended to at least one hour daily, taking into
consideration wind and weather, so that the

dams

as well as foals get accus-

weather and W'ind w-hen the grazing commences. On warm and sunny spring days it is advisable to let out at their leisure all the brood mares with their suckling foals in the yard for an hour in the afternoon, over and above the regular exercise as mentioned above. The beneficial fresh air will strengthen brood mares and foals and cause them to mix one with the other, which is very useful. Mares which have not become pregnant will often come in heat on such occasions. i.e., to have open air exercise in all Just as important as this advice is kinds of weather for our Northern climate, so is it just as unnecessar}^ for England and France, admirable horse breeding countries, endowed with the Grace of God. My neighbours have often called the above method of foal rearing an exaggerated and unreasonable attempt to become hardy. Never-

tomed

to fresh air,

2.

The Judging and Treating

of

Foals.

389

have proved that even the youngest foals can endure much more and all sorts of bad weather than I and many other people supposed. This hardening method of rearing is very useful in every respect for all foals, and does much to improve their health, hardness, and In my attempts at hardening I have not finallv, performing capabilities. distinct advantage to the foals ceased^ which a limits at reached the even not to speak of the limits at which they might begin to suffer. Of course, unreasonable attempts at hardening which do not avoid sudden and unprepared changes would soon reach those limits, but an observing and individualising breeder will know how to act to avoid many dangers which I cannot mention here, as for example, when exercising on hard ground, foals with an inclination to upright hcjofs should be suitably shod at the right
theless,
I

exercise, frost, wind, rain

time.

After 4J to 5 months suckling foals lose their foal hairs, and ma}- then be weaned. It is good for foals if the suckling time is extended to ow or 6 months, and this is at any rate advisable in the case of barren and late covered mares. Before weaning it is best to begin at the age of 3 months foals should be led bv the halter, so that one may lead them without their dams to their own stables or to other places on the farm. The best time for Dam as well as foal become quiet much weaning is towards the evening. more easilv than when they are weaned in the morning. Foals which cough much, or suffer from glanders, must be weaned some weeks later, after having overcome the illness. Suckling foals get over glanders sooner than weaned foals. Weakly weaned foals, and such as have not vet lost their coat, mav be assisted for 1 or 2 months with cow milk, about 6 litres daily. To give cowmilk for a longer period, especially to Thoroughbred foals, has the disadvantage that it causes them to grow fat, and possibly somewhat soft, therefore later more difficult to train. On the other hand, one must take into

consideration that weaned foals get over glanders more easily if they are given cow milk during the time they have the disease. Foals which are inclined to grow- fat may be given skimmed milk. In the case of brood mares which are barren, and therefore needing no protection for an embryo in the womb, it is

not advisable to suckle their foals longer than

7

months

at the

most.

In

many

Russian studs, where the suckling period lasts even longer than 1'2 months, I have found that this was not good for the foals. It seems to me that they make poorer use of the oats and hay when suckling so long.
(c)

Treatment of Weanlings.

With a little tact and much love one succeeds in manipulating the weaning process, so deeply connected with the whole life of the suckling foals, in such a manner that no interruption in their development occurs. During the lirst 24 hours at least they must, unfortunately, be kept in their new stables. In my opinion it is necessary to separate the sexes immediately after the

390

The

Practical

Part of

Horsebreeding.

for well fed six-month-old than one year old are already often in heat. In the stud Tammist, of Mr. B. v. Liphardt, Dorpat, in the summer of 18G8, a one-year-old filly (noble Half-bred) was covered whilst grazing bv a one-vear-old colt (also noble Half-bred) and became pregnant. As a two-vear-old she had a living, but very small colt. The Thoroughbred fillv Experiment, 1842 by Bay Middleton out of Miss Craven, was covered

weaning, or a few weeks later. colts to attempt to cover, and

It is

quite

common

manv

fillies less

at 11 months old by Venison, and produced when she was 1 year and 10 months old a living colt, which died after 24 hours. In the following year Experiment produced a fillv bv Venison. Experiment was in Lord Bentinck's stud, who had a special craze for such extravagant trials (see General Stud Book, Vol. VI., and "Post and Paddock" by The Druid, page 208). For weaned foals a roomy, light stable, with constant fresh water and a good meadow close at hand is essential. The more foals are weaned at the same time the sooner they settle down, and when in a few weeks the next lot of weaned foals are put in the same stable, the weaning will be much more easv. The verv best picked food, alwavs attainable fresh water, and

association with horses of their

own

age, soon helps the foals to forget their
fastest,

dams.

During

the time of their

growing the

young

foals require

verv urgentl_y plentiful and frequent supply of water. If that is not possible tlieir development will be distinctlv retarded. Weakly and backward foals must be separated at least in the stable if they are badly treated bv their more robust companions.

added fresh Lucerne, Sainfoin, or green libitum, especially in the evening, and Timothv, in the hot summer weather at dinner time also. I do not recommend the giving of clover to Thoroughbreds, as experience has proved that foals fed with clover, green or dried, look very well but are much more difficult to train, suffer in the wind, i.e., have a thick wind. The best food for Thoroughbred and Half-bred foals is certainly Lucerne, and the longer foals can be fed with fresh, good, and not attacked by rust Lucerne (in East Prussia generallv from the middle of Mav to the end of September and the beginning of October) the better they will develop. ^^"hen the Lucerne or the clover begins to blossom, then is the most favourable moment to commence W'ith green food. Before the blossoming foals do not care to eat Lucerne. Foals, and particularlv young ones, prefer, however, green clover to Lucerne. It is not therefore advisable to substitute often Lucerne for clover. To obtain an early second crop of Lucerne or clover, a part of it must be cut before blossoming. This early cut part will then be ready as a second cut with commencing blossom when the first part has been eaten up or become too dry. In a few words, it is only with great care and a correct division of the available land for food crops that one will succeed in obtaining an uninterrupted and regular supply of green food from spring to autumn. Those
also should be
clover, with or without
cid

To good grazing

2.

The Judging" and Treating

of

Foals.

391

breeders possessing such good pastures that they do not need an addition of Lucerne or clover are to be congratulated. In East Prussia ^ve have not got

them. For weaned foals 6

lbs. of oats are sufficient at the

—6

for those

who

desire

to,

or must save

— for example,

commencement, and

militarv horse breeders

whole period, if green Lucerne or clover can be Those who desire to breed breeding material or racehorses, or firstclass horses for use, must increase the oats monthly by 1 lb. per day up to at most 12 lbs. I do not consider that generallv a greater quantity is necessary, not even in Thoroughbred breeding. At Trakehnen I have never given on an average more than 10 lbs. of oats. Of course, besides this average, an addition of about 3 lbs. of oats is necessary for some backward foals, and The portion of oats is split up into three foals which eat verv little hay. meals morning, noon and evening for supper a little more. The foals must alwavs be fastened up when the oats are given, so that each one gets its right cjuantitv and so that it can be seen which one has not eaten its portion. It is verv useful to give weaned foals with every feed of When in oats a handful of ground or roasted linseed (about J lb. daily). lbs. of ration of about 10 the winter finished and autumn the green food is about them for give to it advisable begins, is hav (Lucerne or clover hav) afterand daily, carrots fine chopped litres of three to four weeks about 6 bran, wheat litres about weekly 2 of the winter twice for whole wards the in congrown well the hav has in which In those rears with oats. toofether in, having well got has been summer, and warm drv and of a sequence therefore a greater nutritive value, we have, in Trakehnen, diminished the share of oats for weaned foals, and given in autumn and winter at the most 9 lbs. to prevent fatness. A diminution of hav or clover would have a bad
lbs. are sufficient for the

added.

effect on the formation of bones, as the bone-forming factors are not in the grain but for the most part in the hay and green food, which contains plenty of lime. \T^rv coarse clover or Lucerne hay produces in young weaned foals diarrhoea, as it irritates the intestines, and it is better to keep same for older Three weeks' feeding with meadow hay causes this diarrhoea of foals. weanlings to disappear without any other remedy. For a few years weaned foals have in Trakehnen been given J lb. of rice along with their oats, with

the idea that the large quantity of phosphorus contained in same would favourably influence the formation of bone. To give a definite result of this
there is in the food of the foals, and good grazing and with green Lucerne, the more (This can be demonstrated by a chemical salt is required by the horses. There ought always to be several large pieces of salt in the formula.)
is

not possible vet.

The more potash

this is particularlv so in

mangers. As long as grazing giving proper exercise

is

possible no difficulty whatever

to

weaned

foals.

Grazing

in

is experienced in East Prussia, which,

unfortunately, only lasts about five months, must be

made

the best possible

tjgo

The
of, i.e.,

Practical

Part of

Horsebreedinjj;-.

must remain on the meadows as long- as it is light, with mid-day meal, which they should receive in the stables and if required, especially in the autumn, an water, oats, form of in the addition of green Lucerne or clover. On hot summer days this interval may
use
the foals

a short interval for the

be prolonged to about three hours, with green food in the stable. use of the grazing time also already for weaned foals is, for the breeding of light horses, the most important and potent factor for the production of health V and capable stock, and yet this is a thing which is very much neglected. The neglect and the final leaving off of grazing represents, in the historv of manv breeding studs, the turning point in the transfer from a capable breeding stud to one which is contented only with the cheaper proat times

The utmost

duction of showy stock.

Those economical considerations which have

led to

the limitation or the abolition of grazing endanger our modern improved breeds in the highest degree. This applies to horses as well as to cattle.

The

influence of grazing, which
air

is

so very great,

bv anything exercise in the open and beneficial effect
stituted

else, consists principally in the long,

on

elastic, turfy

and which cannot be subregular and slow ground, and under the continuous

of sun,

wind and

rain.

The

finest exercising place

cannot replace these advantages of grazing, principally because the exercising place lacks the required food-seeking stimulus necessary for the said regular exercise. The healthy and useful feeding on the pasture is only of second importance. In winter, when there is plentv of snow, exercise mav take place in the same pastures. In our climate it is in the spring and autumn that the difficulty of regular exercise is experienced, as of course the pastures must be spared at these times. ITorses have then to be exercised on the paved grounds, perhaps covered over with straw, railed in and circular, or if it is not possible to get exercise on such places on account of the ice or because the ground is frozen, etc., horses must be exercised in half-covered circusformed rooms. This exercise must take place daily, about IJ to 2 hours in the morning and a little less in the afternoon, if possible with shepherds'
horses, in order to get the regular trotting exercise.

The

regular exercise of

weaned foals, as well as of older horses, whether on the pastures in the summer, or on the covered or uncovered exercising places in the winter, is
the most important thing in the whole breeding of light horses. This point
often very
is

much sinned

against, even in

Thoroughbred breeding,

especially

when horses are to be sold as yearlings. After the weaned Thoroughbred foals and vearlings require
progressive course of exercise.

finishing of grazing time,
a systematic, gradual

and

leading them for 1^^ hours in the morning, and somewhat less in the afternoon, at a slow pace, and galloping them daily on a railed-in track about 10 metres wide and about 500 metres long. To start with, special leading horses with a man up are useful until the foals learn later on the purpose of it. They then will gallop

This

ccjnsists in

the distance of about 500 metres without such help.

2.

The Judguig and Treating

of

Foals.

393

Whilst the Aveaned foals are fastened up for dinner, it is the most suitable time to lead them each dav on a neighbouring track, till they are quite fit to be handled and are obedient for leading, as well as to place them in a proper position to judge their exterior. This first and very thankful teaching
willing foals should only commence four to six weeks after Unfortunately, Thoroughbred foals very seldom get this verv useful scho(^ling, because one does not like the trouble, and, moreover, because one under-estimates the great advantages derived from this educaIn Half-bred breeding this would be the most opportune time to select tion. those colts for castration which are not suitable for breeding. The earlier thev are castrated the easier the foals get over the operation, and the more perfectly do thev develop into the desired type of gelding with thin neck and broad croup. It is still more advantageous, in order to get fine geldings, to castrate colts when thev are about four weeks old and are still with their dam, as the testicles are then sufficiently prominent. Foals which are early castrated grow out of many exterior faults, such as high-leggedness, narrowness, and even faulty action, often to such a degree that when looking at the horses when four-year-olds, one finds the reason for castrating only from the remarks written about the exterior.
of the

voung and

being weaned.

(d)

Treatment of the Skin and Hoofs of Weanlings.
look after weaned foals one

To properly
foals to

one attendant.

Of

course, one

may reckon twelve to fifteen man cannot clean fifteen foals properly

daily, but that is not necessary, not even in Thoroughbred breeding. I consider it sufficient if each foal is simply rubbed down each day in order to take off the worst dirt. This is best done in the morning whilst they eat
their oats, and it requires two to three minutes for each foal. Besides this, each foal must be thoroughly cleaned once a week. For this purpose every disposable attendant is given in the morning or afternoon two to three foals in the stable to clean whilst the rest are being exercised. At the same time he looks after the hoofs and keeps them in order by cutting them properly, rounding them and tarring them once about two or three weeks. The smooth cutting of the frog, and the air-making between the frog and the heels (opening up of the lateral lacunae of the frog), as already stated in connection with sucklings, are continued. In the case of contracted heels, the heel-edges must be cut sufficiently to enable one to draw the hoof scraper through the lateral lacunae of the frog from front to back with ease. The stud attendants must, of course, be speciallv taught this work, which is not difficult, particularly if the studmaster or manager himself understands it. If this work, however, is given to blacksmiths, who mostly have no real interest in the work and are not always available, the proper keeping of hoofs will never be obtained in the stables. This care of the hoofs takes very little time or trouble, but causes much anxiety, and is of the greatest

394

The

Practical

Part of

Horsebreeding.

importance, especiallv for Thoroughbreds. From my many years' experiI can confidently assert that if the hoofs are looked after in the manner stated above, of course a rotten frog is not only made impossible, but strong and resisting hoofs, with correct, broad, full and well-supporting frogs are produced to such a degree as is so much wanted for the racecourse, but which The same order in cleaning and the same care of vet are so rarelv found. the hoof is to be applied later for one and two-year-old foals. In about ten to fifteen per cent, of weaned foals it will be necessary to shoe them from time to time. In the first place, those foals which, on
ence,

account of their straight pasterns, run too much on their toes, and which are therefore inclined to form upright hoofs, must be shod with half-moon shaped toe-shoes. It is generally sufficient to shoe twice every three or Further, on account of some misplacements originating in four W'Ceks. the womb which have not been quite grown out of (the X-formed position of the fore-legs belongs also to these), or in consequence of standing too wide, together with a vet too narrow chest, or again because of some crookedness in the pastern joint which may still be rectified, some foals are exposed to the danger of wearing their hoofs off obliquely, and thus a proper development is prevented. In such cases I would recommend that the foals be shod according to the well-known rules for faulty standing, and in this manner until they have grown out of the supposed causes of faulty standing, and until there is no longer any fear that they will continue In many cases shoeing for three months to wear their hoofs oft' obliquely. and even more are will be sufficient, often, however, twelve months necessary; in fact, some never grow right. A twisting round the vertical axle of the leg, originating at the carpus or wrist, the so-called " knee," or higher (not to be mistaken with the X-legged position, which is easier If these faults are not put to handle), cannot be improved by shoeing.
right

bv shoeing, as unfortunately is so often the case in Thoroughbred breeding, which despises the exterior appearance, one will often find that whilst after about twelve months the formerly misplaced pastern, the narrow chest and other faults have been grown out of and become normal, but at the same time during this year an oblique hoof, i.e., contracted heel on one side, has been formed, which it will, of course, now be much more difficult to put right, especially as improvement by shoeing is very dangerous
for horses in training.

For twistings round a vertical axle, which cannot be put right, it is advisable, in the first years before training, to have a shoe made to suit the particular case, as by this means the early development of an oblique hoof is prevented, or at any rate the tendency to grow The following instructions are given to our local oblique is lessened. stablemen and shoeing smiths for the cutting and shoeing of hoofs in the
case of faultv positions
:

Looked
hoofs.

at sideways, faulty hoofs

may

Pointed hoofs are those of

which the long

be divided into pointed and blunt toe is conspicuously

Looked at from the be again divided for hoofs with wide-set toes. iioofs of the narrow-set toes. The sole must therefore be as little arched as possible. : : desired that the foal shall outgrow these faulty positions. Do not shorten the inferior border of the wall on the inside. more or less pronounced in the following positions X-legged and wide-toed. quarters and heels. Group II. If it is desired to favourably influence these faulty positions. In this case cutting of the hoof must be limited for the most part to the too high heels. The Judging and Treating of Foals. yielding ground. Cut horizontally so that the sole is. sharp ground. and the blunt hoofs are those of which the Pointed hoofs short toe is conspicuously straight and the heels too high. are treated in exactly the opposite manner to group I. If the exercising ground is rough . in the same level with the inferior border of the wall. and if not dealt with at once it cannot be remedied later. or if the position of the toes forms an acute angle (in most cases with long or sloping pasterns). and forms a so-called pincard or ramplin foot. and also that small leather shoes be used. the faulty hoofs may the sake of simplicity into tw-o groups — group I. are to be found when horses stand with their legs very much in front of the body. The advantages of cutting hoofs with faulty positions can best be learned when foals are exercising on soft. or if the hind-legs are too angular. although in many cases the keeping down of the heel does In cases where foals have a lot of exercise on hard. or if the fore-legs are knock-kneed (calf or sheep-kneed). whose hoofs do not permit of a toe shoe. The hoofs of the second group are found in the following cases narrow standing. have to much as possible. On the other hand. as far as cutting is concerned.2. too narrow at the inside in the case of a wide-set toe. Hoofs with wide-set toes are standing wide. oblique. the heels are to be spared as Blunt hoofs are found with horses whose fore-legs are placed too far back or are over in the knees. or if the position of the toes forms an obtuse angle (in most cases with short or upright pasterns). the toe sometimes becomes so worn off that a pronounced upright hoof is produced. hoofs with narrow-set toes. 395 and the heels too low. front. the Repeatedly cut down the outside hoofs of group I. and this is incurable. not weakened) that the sole appears much arched towards the frog. apparently the consequence of diseased bones and sinew'S. This arching of the sole of the hoof. the toe-wall of the hoof will be kept short.. not effect a remedy. if possible. and group II. O-legged and narrow-toed. I would recommend that the toes be hardened by repeated applications of tar. but from the sole so much horn must be removed. and the inner bar so far shortened (shortened. I may here mention that in some rare cases a pincard foot may arise with foals. or otherwise ring-bone with its attendant lameness ensues. aims at a widening of the hoof on the inside by counter-pressure of the ground. must be cut as follows If it is : of the toes. By a timely use of a toe shoe this If it is a question of young foals affliction mav be completely avoided.

when they should be shod earlier. does the work. Horses for whom nothing has been done to remedy their wide-toed position will knock themselves as soon as they are taken in use. and it is to be noted also that the faulty position cannot be remedied at once by a too strong one-sided cutting down of the inferior border of the wall. otherwise it will not be able to overcome quitters. and the value of the horse is accordingly very much reduced. must be fitted on tight and nailed as The inner strong branch must be kept long. the consequence therefrom being an early recognizable widening of the hoof on the inside.. taken for granted that only a hrst-rate smith. and hard the legs. Shoeing should be used not before an age of six months. the edge of which far as the end. the shoe must be changed at the right time. The support: and ing edge of the thick branch heels. a regular shaped hoof is formed. except in the case of upright-hoofed suckling foals. seams. these evils will remain. but usually not before they have reached the age of ten months. of course. as to how long the shoeing ought to be continued. the inner walls incline too much to the inside. The hoof of a narrow-standing requires a shoe exactly opposite in make. nor can it be forced by a too great difference in the strength of the shoe-branches. The nail holes is in far to the front as possible. and they are useless for the wall The inferior bcjrder of . perfectly acquainted with this kind of shoeing.e. in the case of wide-set toes. the hoof soon wears to the shape necessitated by the position of In such cases the only thing to counteract this is shoeing. the shape of the hoof and the results obtained. is inclined by each weight to slip outwards. as well as its regular form. which should have the thickness of the blade of a knife. i. the outer branch tapering towards the end. but even then it is advisable when preparing the hoofs for shoeing to see that thev retain the breaking of the toe axle produced by artificial shoeing. i. etc. sloped outwards in the region of the quarters the inner thick branch should be made as The thin outside branch.. which slopes outwards. For example. Of course.. are low and pushed under. instead of an oblique hoof. which is always the consequence of a faulty position. both things must be done gradually. so very laboriously acquired.396 The Practical Part of Horsebrcedinif. fitted must be kept narrow. on its supporting surface. It depends on howbad the faulty position is. and the whole inner half of the hoof is too narrow.e. and in most cases this hoof will become later on a one-sided contracted hoof (narrowheeledness). As soon as the animal is put to hard work it must be shod with straight shoes. the hoof is very oblique. The advantages of a proper cutting and good shoeing for the form of the hoof and the position of the legs does not only help the foal to outgrow a faulty position well and quickly. If these measures are not made use of. and slowly increased. but does more. But even this does not exhaust the advantages of the breaking of the toe axle. It is. and must be on large. The shoe for the hoof of the wide-toed position must be as follows An outer thin and an inner thick branch.

and will therefore not become so strong. most likely only at Trakehnen.. For breeding material. injurv. of oats. work. of oats and 15 lbs. of oats ma}. and consequently no damage arises from the breaking of the toe axle. very seldom hit their legs when put to work. Thoroughbred yearlings Half-bred require 10 to 12 lbs. The hoof which has been shod does not so easily overcome the sudden breaking of the toe axle as an unshod one does. with a simultaneous addition of green clover or Lucerne. and in addition green Lucerne. and in both cases green Lucerne or clover in addition. of oats are quite sufficient. too sudden break of the toe axle of a three-year-old to the tearing of the A young animals owing (e) The Treatment of Yearlings and Older Foals. as the wearing off of the too high bearing part of the unshod hoof is better accomplished. After the grazing period.2. as it would . When the orazinois good about 4 to 6 lbs. ^lany experts say. yearlings which are given when grazing more than 6 to 8 lbs. Treat and feed yearlings up to the beginning of grazing time in the same manner as I have already pointed out for weaned foals. Thoroughbred yearlings should be broken in during grazing time late in the summer (about IJ hours daily). If Lucerne is very good and plentiful. of hay. a special addition of 3 to 6 lbs. and in autumn after finishing the best grazing they should be turned into training for racing. or the military horse breeder. etc. In some where foals are growing fast. this ruse has nothing to do with the real methods of improvement. and they have demonstrated that a slow breaking of the toe axle can be endured by young horses without carriage. On the other hand I must state that many experiments in this direction have been made for many years. or do not feed well. about 6 to 8 lbs. which are very good and useful for horses. The Judging" and Treating' of Foals. or if grazing is good no oats and those required for breeding stock about 4 to 6 lbs. and with some justification. of oats will eat less clover or Lucerne. of oats and 12 lbs. those bred for use receive during grazing time 2 lbs. Half-bred yearlings destined for use are given about 6 lbs. as for example. to may be disastrous ligaments and spraining of the joints. of oats (early in the morning). Horses destined for breeding stock are given about 8 lbs. instances. more would be detrimental. . whose toe axles bv correct shoeing have acquired the desired breaking. 4 lbs. 397 Foals with wide-set toes. of clover or Lucerne. that the doubtless unnatural breaking of the toe axle may also cause damage. of oats are sufficient for militarv and other horses in use. In the case of two-year-olds. a few days before a sale prepares the hoofs in an artificial manner. of oats. of oats. is required. particularly so if the attempts to improve are made by shoeing.be advisable. If the Lithuanian peasant.

and get until the spring auction 9 lbs. The above indicated food rations are only sufficient if the quality. especially in the hocks. of oats and about 12 lbs. is verv good. cannot be given. A part of the oat ration can be replaced by beans or peas. must very often be modified according to the A soil of the stud and the particular requirements of individual horses. harvests. that these rations.398 cause fattening. will itself perceive all the necessary shades in the treatment of foals. The eye of — pleasure. The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. of oats and about 10 to 12 lbs. of course. which are ordinarily speaking used at Trakehnen. sufficient for two-year-olds intended for use. When autumn same time plentv of exercise. When grazing is finished the three-year-olds are broken in. the breeding material. In the following summer the three-year-olds at Trakehnen get during grazing time 2 lbs. . of hay is oats. should be saddled and trained. but if grazing is very good none. etc. fixed standard to suit all the different conditions when it works with especially the breeder. but at the dailv. same time the disagreeable gall formation appears. of After grazing is finished 6 lbs. Every expert will know. Beans and peas can therefore only be recommended when foals have at the colts as well as fillies. of hav. especiallv of the hav. and it is then advisable to increase the oat ration. of oats. illnesses. In damp years the hay is less nourishing. grazing is finished. the beneficial and bone-forming qualities of hay well got in dry years may be used in more plentiful quantities at the expense of the oat ration. By this means the formation of the bones is favoured. At Trakehnen we give two and three-3^ear-old colts and fillies in training about 9 to 12 lbs. say about 2 lbs. On the other hand.

like all other living creatures. In both training and riding. and racing tests to the lifeless clock time would be all that would be required. then training would not be an art.CHAPTER Training. in strengthening the muscles and sinews. the horse. and in clearing the wind. from which each individual breeder must build up his own theory according to the particular requirements of his available material. It has taken a long time before the simplest doctrines of hygiene could remove much of the evil in English training. In order to obtain this result the horses must be watched carefully and correctly every day and properly dealt with. I HAVE already mentioned in previous chapters the individualisation in the treatment of both breeding material importance of It is and foals. Furthermore. The therefore impossible to give a hard difficultv of the art of training lies in the fact that its object. If the horse were a machine. the race day. The object of all training consists in removing all superfluous fat and connective tissues. the of the trainer is made difficult by the task of having to obtain the highest possible degree of fitness by a fixed time. is endowed with many powerful characteristics.e. etc. has led the Englishmen also in this branch into the comfortable and tenacious conservatism which is just as dangerous and hostile to all progress as was the former conservatism of artillerymen w-ith reference to breech-loaders not invented by them. The trainer's eye is the cause of horses being fit or unfit. who are not bound down by tradition. ideas and experiences. quite evident that when training horses. III. it is most important to individualise. as well as the at admirable racing tracks Newmarket. the training track and climate. I only intend to give general points of view. and and fast rule. . work — given by the grace of God— especially The suitable English and Irish soil. The distinct successes of the Americans in training and riding during the course of the last ten years have caused Englishmen to think and reform where necessary. i.. Americans. whether for the purpose of racing it is or hunting or other performances. rendering a machine-like and uniform treatment impossible.

some parts for example. as is common The usual dailv canter or gallop w'as over to-dav. the weights for six-year-olds being 12 stone. and two-year-olds onlv since 1773. to and ^vho I (a) The Training Methods. that at the Eclipse. arises from the slow manner in which the pilgrims walked to the grave of Archbishop Thomas Becket at Canterbury. and the quantities. after the coming into jDrominence of the classical races for two and three-year-olds. training began with weeklv physics and bleedings. obtained great successes through their practical ideas and almost inconMoreover. 2. the Americans have reason siderate leaning to what is natural. with 4. murdered 1170. : — 1764. At that time it was verv usual to keep horses in training for only three to four months. then the horses were brought into the stable or in the so-called rubbing-down house. that means at half speed. horse rubbed drv bv four persons with woollen cloths. the following sweating gallops were given. In most cases onlv four-\'ear-old and older horses ran.400 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. over distances of 2 to 6 English miles. : — According to Darvill. had to adapt themselves to the time of following There were onlv a few attainable racec(jurses for each horse. The development of training in the last century. circumstances 1. with its long history of classical that Old to be proud of the fact from them rough lesson has had learn such a races. are not spoiled by Engli^i pastures and galloping grounds. proceeded as — — follow^s 1. Thrce-vearolds onlv since 1756. The word "canter. the neck of the bodv which had too much flesh very often were covered with extra heavy rugs. heats. and consequentlv the visiting of the different 3. England. After the Then the grazing.three months. The training methods of the eighteenth century. often onh. Some clavs a week complete rest davs were usual. at the beginning of the nineteenth century. and in anv case at a slower pace than is usual to-day. Duruig the sweating gallops with woollen rugs. and there covered with several woollen rugs until the sweat oozed out in sufficient The sweat was then removed with a sw'eating knife. racecourses entailed long journeys on foot. For yearlings over 2 miles. After the sweating gallop the nose and mouth were washed. In these gallops the last quarter of a mile had to be ridden a little more Cjuick. then covered with fresh rugs and given walking exercise for half an hour. born 1st April. was almost wiknown. horse received about two sweating gallops w-eekly. 2 to 4 English miles." meaning a quiet gallop. and the racing season was much shorter than it is to-dav. and to send them for the rest of the time to grass. for . Tliere were no railwavs. often without a leading horse. whilst long walking exercise. is. Most races were run for a distance of 2 to 4 English miles.

5. t^vo-vear-olds over limited to one or two doses a year. at full racing speed. tw ice weekly the second canter was made almost at racing pace.414 metres. extending eventually over 4 miles. About the second half of the nineteenth centurv the w'ork of the yearlings and of the two and three-year-olds was limited to two canters daily. can be removed. and in the late autumn were The tried up to 800 metres with the assistance of an older leading horse. called physics.000 metres. sweating gallops.200 metres. at full or half speed. i. The present day views on training are characterised as follows 1. The distance was gradually just as often. even in the case of horses.e. and ceases almost everywhere towards the end of the nineteenth century. beginning as they are transferred from the straw-bed to the racecourse. equal to 2. and then a somewhat quicker canter of about 1. 6.000 metres. i. however. Opening medicines. and were held over somewhat shorter distances. for three-year-olds over 3 to 3J miles.e. Sweating gallops and physics are only applied in exceptional cases the condition of the legs does not permit that quantity of w'ork by which the useless fat and flesh. over 1 English mile) gradually ceased altogether. each time 600 to 800 metres. The sweating gallops gradually became more scarce. has become stale or has broken c — . and yet at the same time muscle can be formed. This afternoon work. The sweating gallops of two-year-olds (at the beginning once weekly.. for example. Training. given in addition to the daily work. Leger :^ (distance 1 mile. The daily work consisted of IJ to 2 hours in the morning. and are finally 4. The work in the forenoon for the two-year-olds consisted of a short walk and trot.. In Autumn the yearlings cantered two or three times dailv. Sweating gallops at the beginning of the nineteenth century were 3. but over longer distances. in addition to the quick work or Later on there was no quick gallop on the days of the so-called gallop.437 metres. distances than IJ English miles gradually cease altogether. galloped at least two or three times before the race 1^ Gallops over longer miles. for fourover 4 to vear-olds 4J miles. 7. seldom more than 2. called in German luder.3. The three-year-old and older horses cantered Derby generally about 1 English mile. became more rare. i. Further physics are given if a when horse. and about 1 hour in the afternoon. then two quiet canters of about 1. equal to 2. increased to the distance of the racecourse. •2. in accordance with the progressive condition. 132 yards. which were trained for the Doncaster St. in consequence of too much work. for example. and for 5 and 6 year-olds over 5 miles. shortly before the beginning of quicker work. the latter once or twice The older horses cantered and galloped weekly.937 metres). afternoon work consisted only in walking and a little trotting. especially in spring. does not seem to have been generally practised. 401 'l^ miles.. 6 furlongs. horses. Once or of which the second canter was somewhat longer and quicker.e. equal to 6.

AValker. afternoon f to 1 hour's w'alking exercise. and two canters or gallops. . . Leger. for the preparation of the Grand Prix. whilst at least two months are required if the distance is IJ English miles. but rather the reverse.000 metres. W. Eels. later on in canter. sometimes even with relay leading horses.000 The new method metres.000 metres do not improve the condition. The winner of the St. Troutbeck. Waugh.000 metres. none or ver\^ little trotting. as the other daily work was only slow cantering. the American trainer. twice weekly. better and more surely into condition than the former usual longer gallops. This slow part of the slow pace done at such a Once or canter may be accordingly extended up to 2. so its enforced rest it may not put on too horse has to be blistered or fired. the last 500 to 3.000 metres. distance than 2. equal to 2. equal to 2. down. at first only in the second of a more The beginning of this gallop in any case must be both. The daily work consists in the morning of IJ to 2^ hours' walking 2. according American idea. and in the case advanced condition at racing pace. In the case of the two daily canters or gallops. that one can trot alongside. and the lungs.200 to 1. uninterrupted gradual improvement of condition. for example. has.-and of training is supposed to effect a daily. undertaken once or twice weekly. every tw'o steps forward should be counteracted Moreover.600 metres. in the case of more advanced condition. 800 metres (or as some trainers say. several gallops at racing pace over 2. gave his Derby candidate.400 metres. for which the horses were not sufficiently prepared. Where needed it is also given a physic about eight days before the race when some slight accident to a fit horse requires an important reduction of W'Ork. never during the w-hole of his existence galloped or cantered over a longer On the other hand. when. the slow part can be very much to the reduced. which is run over a distance of 3. or omitted altogether. bring the muscles which are used for quicker w^ork. the last 300 to 600 metres) should. it is calculated that under normal conditions about six weeks are sufficient to make the horse fit for racing up to I3 English miles.000 metres. according to the doctrine of the old trainers. that during the time of If much flesh. experience has taught that 'by one in the opposite direction. either led or with a man up. be done at medium pace. the quick part of the •second gallop may be extended up to 1. it is given a pill before and after the rest of four to six w'eeks. later on up to at the most 2. of course. and is even sufficient. at a medium or at racing pace. a broken down After the beginning of the fast work. who gets perhaps the most out of his horses. as I have been assured by his trainer.000 to 3.400 metres. whilst formerly. Only few trainers are of the opinion that the gallop at racing pace may be extended up to 2.400 metres. In the exercise. But even this trainer is of opinion that this distance is the extreme limit. The idea which underlies this kind of training is that the daily gallops over short distances. 1906. gallops at racing pace for longer distances than about 2.402 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding.

however. had. 403 and better American racing stables. in my opinion. For steeplechasing the same kind of training is also recommended. often gallop with loose joints. and in the afternoon generally to the yard. as they galloped each of practise to of opportunity plenty had It is principally owing to this very practheir about 7 horses twice daily. In American training such tasks are very popular.3. was undertaken by about eight to ten young fellows who.). the stable for example. jockey also rode.-200 to 1.600 metres on the flat. tical division of work that the Americans are in the position to produce so many good jockeys.000 metres and more at a steeplechase pace. as well as taking them to their dailv work on the racecourse. Thev think that in our racing to a finish the art of the jockey in riding is more important than the capacity of riding in the shortest possible time. In these longer canters energy and a desire for going soon disappear. and that final!}' at the finish it can still put on the required well-prepared speed which it has not used up whilst going at a steeplechase pace. over trainers assume that if a horse is and if it has had sufficient practice in jumping. however. 50 sees. it is also fit to do 5. howBy this arrangement the two stable lads ever. the best record would certainly not be obtained by this method. Lazy horses. In your daily the most important instructions given to the stable boys is : . one often finds the arrangement of using one part of the stablemen for riding only. consequently the absence of strained nerves and muscles causes the sinews to break down easily or the legs to become splints. A change in the galloping track is in this respect often very useful. The partisans of racing against time do not recognise. attention and the desire for going. only two stable boys who could ride. A racing stable of about 30 horses not far from New York. If this long canter is over obstacles it causes excitement. With living horses. sufiiciently the difficulties attached to same. they are more often given a hunting gallop. obstacles. galloping. fit Many to gallop 1. never were allowed to ride. Besides these. Some of them even learn to accomplish fairly accurately the very difficult task of doing a gallop whilst training at a certain defined pace (eventually 1 mile in about 1 min. is to ride definite In the bigger practical distances in the shortest possible time. w'hich are so useful and so necessary in training.600 metres as recommended. provided that the horses do not need to stretch themselves in these quick gallops. feeding and leading the horses. except that instead of galloping them once or twice weekly over l. as well as fillies in heat. The cleaning and feeding of the horses. If the horse were a mere machine it would be an easy thing to get the best record by letting it go full speed ahead from start to finish. as it serves to increase the One of attention of the horses. Experience has furthermore taught that short quick gallops are less dangerous for the legs than longer canters. for 8. Training.000 metres.000 to 5. and therefore often break down very easily. whilst the greater part is employed in cleaning. The most difficult task. and removes the so dangerous weariness.

may feel and think that the rider really wishes to go a little more slowly. A little easy useless fat. a short canter of 800 metres. it is a sign for the jockey to pull up. pressing the knees of the jockey outwards. can best be noticed at the mane and on the ribs. a fit horse certainly sweats less but more readily. sweating is bv no means a sign of bad condition. that of an unfit one like lather. especially the breathing. and in order to get a perfect condition. About five hours before the race give the horse some oats with a little water. even after this last gallop the horse must do its usual two canters daily up On the day of the race itself. Of course. like clear water. you can do as the Americans like to let the sprint follow the canter without any interval. on the contrary.404 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-.. If desired. so that the horse Sit still. or it does not snort at all. and a so-called sprint for the same distance. must add that before the race.e. i. i. Besides a horse's galloping performances. early in the morning. canters or gallops be very careful to avoid pushing your horse. If the horse when galloping begins to become long. to the day of the race.e. As long as the legs give no cause for anxiety bandages must not be made use of. are required. requires is its condition. in most cases several gallops at full speed. and when only this protection seems necessary. If the horse is very fit and the gallop has been too short. or to breathe more deeply. it takes a long time lo snort. and pace of the gallop must fit the condition. give the horse 1 to IJ hours' walking exercise. a minute or more to snort.000 metres. as its sweat is more liquid and its The sweat of a fit horse looks skin thinner and more readily penetrated. so that if it clears the wind by snorting 10 to 30 seconds after being pulled up. notice must be taken how long it takes the horse to snort (clear the wind) after it has been pulled up. a mistake has been made. and dries up less quickly. which can be most distinctly seen between the hind legs. The sooner this happens the more forward If the horse. the hair more The latter. it has been easy work The length for it. The following points may be briefly mentioned with reference to the Finally. To commence with. as well as the disappearance of shiny. : — . and strengthens the nerves of the horses. for example. except for steeplechasers as a orotection against external injuries when jumping. An hour before racing lead the horse (jut of the stable. and the flesh firmer. on the other hand. it is a sure sign that the horse has been asked to do too much in the gallop in question. there are several other very remarkable signs to shoAv how far its condition has improved. it is a sure sign that ever}"thing is all right. I — — — important treatment of horses' legs when in training 1. This soothing belief sustains the desire for going.. and that the last quick gallop which often works wonders must be undertaken two or three days before race day. over not more than 2. In the case of a horse which is fit the skin becomes thinner.

Even w-hen doing slow work. Vol. 405 Bandages only then fulfil their purpose when they are carefully wound and fastened round the right place. neglect). w^iich increases in proportion to the speed. After riding. it is necessary to begin well-known treatment of stitched-on stockings. 2. This leg which is causing anxiety is generally discovered in the well- known afternoon cleaning and sary to find out often be found probability this In such a case and it is then first of all necesshoeing is required. which may be caused in various ways (laziness. than all these remedies is supposed to be the Hydro3. 31. are exposed by this apparatus for 30 to 50 hours to a temperature of 50 to 55 deg. More effective. Training. so that the strings of the bandage lie even and only on one place. new shoes with thick branches must be got at once. It will very whether a changing of the much. it is advisable for the remainder of the day to apply wet bandages with dry ones over them. straighter position of the pasterns. the System Ullman (see Archiv. however. the lameness has In order to prevent or to limit as it much as necessary to exercise a permanent pressure on the splint bones by careful bandaging. below the upper edge of the bandage. is and of course during the night. according to the stage of the disease. If exostosis is apparent.3. Professor Eberlein says that by this treatment a complete reformation and thus a cure of the break dow-n is possible. 4. of course. When the place where the splint-exostosis arises is already to be recognised. place a piece of lead about the size of a two-shilling piece into the bandage. which often takes place when training. heat. und page 196). during training by the shock. prakt. lameness frequently occurs through splint-exostosis. cold douches. when galloping. requires the heels to be lifted slightly. possible an interruption of the training. The rule is to cord somewhat loosely but wind round rather firmly. Besides the break down of the sinews (apart from about 50 per cent. however. such as by knocking or striking by the other leg. and thermoregulator. In the case of lameness thus arising. Tierheilkunde. and especially fresh breakdowns. often already passed away. For riding. Thick sinews. of all lameness produced by hoof diseases). C. and to change them at three hours' interval. As soon as the sinews give way when working. wet bandages. exostosis itself is. apply only dry bandages. blistering and firing. not yet existing. and in such a manner that it is easy to put one It must be corded about two inches finger between the bandage and the leg. exostosis may arise from sudden and irregular effort of the upper parts of the splint bones. but it arises from the tearing of the ligaments by which the splint bones are connected to This tearing of the ligaments is caused when galloping their cannon bone. fur wissenschaftlich. and in all that the heels have been shortened too has been the chief cause for the beginning of the break down. The revision hour. This exostosis is never or very rarely caused from external injury. so that it exer- . therefore not yet to be perceived.

The hoofs must be washed once a week at least. douched. the horses are to be regularly attended to in the in Work the stable begins in the the horses are taken out. the fresh Lucerne. take off the saddle and put same on the cleaningbench. when required. ing with the neck and shoulders. dry. 3. and if necessary fasten them up. The bandages beginning with the near fore. make them smooth and shiny.ewhat . and all the four legs. filled inside with dry and washed. the horses in the meantime eating the hay. and in such a manner that the inside of the rug comes on the •2. W^hen cleaning or drying The hoofs are now from the front. Sperber's brother is a well-known example of this. the application of the (b) Stable Regulation and Instruction for Rubbing Down Horses. On their return from the training track. be rubbed with fluid and bandaged. and rub each horse down. morning about IJ to 2 hours before thing to be done is to give the horses water and a little oats. always commencThen massage the horse with a som. and then the right side. or in the summer. and is often dangerous. There are g(jod racehorses which. cover them up again.406 The Practical Part of Horsebreedini^. Take the rug off partly or altogether. top. clean the stable. etc. as the soil clay on damp is to put washed it unnecessary which adheres to them is sufficient protection against the stable urine and ag-ainst over-dr\infr of the hoofs. cises tlie necessary pressure. must kneel dow'n and stable boy the the legs. and then again rubbed washed or thoroughly cleaned. but as above-mentioned. Remove the snaffle. on account of exostosis caused whilst training and not looked to at the proper time. after the completion of the above work. brush first the left. The stable boy then commences to wipe the place where the saddle has been with a straw wisp. The next work the treatment of the legs more is the outer part of the hoof can be well brushed daily cloth in order to desired for the decoration as well as for the preservation of the hoofs. damp clay must always be smeared in the The blacking of hoofs is not required. and with the same straw wisp removes the greater part of the dirt from the belly and legs. If sole.. The first following manner : — 1. is and hoofs. if required. Perhaps also in the case of splint-exostosis Hydrothermoregulator might be useful. ccnild never be properly trained for the whole of the season. horse of the take firm hold of the lee: If the hoofs are not damp clay. Then give the horse half a bucket of water to drink. and wiped with a wool the legs must. care being taken that the horses keep their heads low. \Vhen above has been done. put on the horses' halters. after which the men go to breakfast and put on their riding clothes. The real process of cleaning the horse begins with the head and ears. are are taken off. which must be there ready for them in the manger. If the horses are under rugs. rubbed the frog and sole.

as most horses prefer them like that. about ] lb. I find it more practical to give the peas unground and unsw'Ollen. be replaced by the same quantity of peas or beans. of oats will be. darkened. especially with us in the advisable to work very early. and put on the girth. on an average..m. and if necessarv in the summer on account of flies and heat. This Thev is are then got readv for their afternoon's exercise of about three-quarters of an hour. as there might easily be a relapse.few horses in training eat more than 16 lbs. In the long hot summer days. racehorses. and the work In the evening give water once again. The horses must now have four hours' rest up to the afternoon \visp consisting of hay and bast. mended. except in rare instances. (c) Food whilst Training. is recomlittle. with oats (mash). In this case the five feeds would be about as it is : follows — 4 o'clock a.. Finally wipe the eyes. damped a in any case. after the quicker gallops. 12 noon 5 o'clock . the harness and away in room. nose. The halter The saddle is then taken off. when the legs are the\' are first examined and the appetite controlled. about 2 to 4 lbs. the time when mav be for the next day considered. of oats daily for long. put them on again. of wheat bran twice weekly. not the day before. mouth and backside with a soft sponge. The above-mentioned stable rest of four hours would then be after the third feed of oats. For horses in training for racing about 12 to 10 lbs.. and as the peas or beans which have not been ground remove the tartar from An addition of about 2 litres the teeth. and I consider it inadvisable.m. and tc^ arrange for five feeding times instead of four. 3 2 . given water and oats. Ver}. . Horses which have sufficient time and rest for eating. however. when they will scarcely eat 10 lbs. after which visitors again cleaned.3. especially where horses will not eat hay.. p. . as opposed to farm horses. Beat the dust well out of the rugs. and do not get dirty so easily. and the horse's toilet is complete. Part of the oats. for horses to receive more than this quantity. may use of Lucerne or Sainfoin hay. especially there be added to this so-called that hairing I recommend During the season . received to inspect the stables. especially if horses in quick work lose their appetite. then once more clean the tail and mane.. as well as oats and hav. the horse bedded and given sufficient water. I would advise the without chaff. as for example. 407 damp wipe with a woollen cloth. sufficient for one day. then stabling time. Training. put and harness are then cleaned An hour after coming home the horses are given their chief feed of oats^ the stable shut. digest their oats better If it is desired to give chaff. North.

To-day racehorses in training are given 10 to 12 lbs. a few pounds of green Lucerne as long as it is to be had. Americans have introduced a very good custom. Formerly the portion of hay was fixed in England as 5 lbs. mash but . less oats and more hay. receive. or about ^ lb. especially clover hav. and in addition. of clover or Lucerne ha}^ or in summer green Lucerne ad libitum^ but care must be taken that it is mown twice dailv and given to the horses as soon as possible after it has been cut.. in order to produce stronger bones. of hay daily (but no clover hay). of ground or roasted linseed. i. per day maximum. lung activity and health. after their morning work. of oats and 18 lbs. and they did not think it possible that the horse with more flesh. a little slime of linseed. in quantity less than when they are watered three to four times dailv. Horses in consequence drink oftener. Half-bred horses which are not trained for racing but for the improvement of muscle formation.e. or even with a so-called hay stomach. could be fit for racing.408 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. In Trakehnen the two and three-year-old colts in training are given on an average 10 lbs. to put a bucket of water in the stables so that the racehorses can drink whenever they like. because one wished to get the racehorses more slender after the training than to-day.

" later on the Spanish word for clover. and called it there by the Arabian word " Alfalfa. has a much less capacity for digestion than cud-chewing animals. and imported this grass about 100 B. which was rich in their clever cavalr}-.). The horse.640 acres grew Lucerne. grass was brought first to France and Belgium iria Spain. and in the sunny East of England (especially in Essex and Kent) very much extended. in this respect even the sheep. Wolff. Lucerne has only taken root in Germany since the middle of the eighteenth century at Erfurt. the name " Medicago " arising later.C. mostly on account of their good horses and Only after allying Medea. on account of the simpler organism of its stomach and the shorter intestines. the Greeks and Romans found one particularly suitable. and in founding a great Persian Empire. Since 1760 Lucerne has been cultivated in England in the fields. . whose kings were so fond of horses that they had their celebrated studs for their own use and for that of their cavalry even in the horses.). and received the name Lucerne from the little Italian town Clauserne according to other information from the old Spanish word " Userdas.CHAPTER IV. did Cyrus succeed in overcoming the rich Croesus in destroying Babylon (538 B. For this reason the horse utilises less hay and straw than cow'S or sheep. The Medes were one of the first and most ancient nations which gained great political power in Asia.C. the horse utilises best Lucerne hay. Of all kinds of hay. into Italy under the name of Medic In the fifteenth century this grass. In 1892 about 6.C. with Persia. Victor Hehn supposes starting point of the horse breeding . and excels far distant Medea." Soon after the discovery of the New World the Spaniards took this Lucerne into America. that Medea was the home and and horsemanship for Anterior xA^sia.160 acres. and in 1906 already about 22. Amongst the grasses which improved especially the horse breeding in Medea. according to the experiments of E. Establishment of Studs. <549 B.

gives only one crop. (onobrychis sativa maxima). has been proved to be cwts. Trakehnen only three to four years. well as 6 every autumn. about 20 lbs. coming suddenly and in great quantities. more suitable for Thoroughbred breeding than clover. is In the South of France it often grows in the same spot able to run off well. to suppress weeds. as long as the Lucerne appears strong enough After every crop it is advisable to harrow the Lucerne. It takes more from the soil. crop of vegetables. there is contained in every 1. by the Persians carbohydrates concerned. Lucerne thrives best after a it can withstand the greatest scarcity of water. it is not injurious to the breathing organs. is the most nourishing and healthiest food for horses. to one acre. thereSainfoin is less fore. not only the history ing. seem to point to the special yalue of Lucerne for Medicago satiya.e. in order to destroy the weed. as per acre After Lucerne the best food for horses is Sainfoin sufficient at Trakehnen. in fifteen years and longer. deep and warm soil. Sainfoin contains a little less chalk than clover. especially as far as the use of the raw protein is and digestible of horse breedscientific conhorse breeding. . In the middle of Germany about six years.000 part : — Wood Sorrel . Thomas meal first night frosts. where the rain water. In winter it is easily affected by strong frost. On account of its roots. and the experiences of the present time. but like Lucerne. literally — than in wet years. and which can be mown green. sown in oats or barley. or common Lucerne named " aspert " — forage for horses) giyen either green or dried. It thrives better in dry years (i.. and most suitable to produce strong and hard bones. but in Trakehnen only three times. which grow 2 to 3 metres deep. with deep leyel of subsoil water. and is more difficult to get in. Therefore.410 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. but it also grows well in mountainous districts. It can be cut in France five to six times yearly. but also siderations. Wolff. Hohenheim. and even in special cases to harrow continuously even with the usurpator. and is. . capable of resistance than Lucerne. three w'eeks before the to in spring. strong. This grass requires a chalky. about two and it is therefore Manure of 3 cwts. According to the tables of E. advisable to cut it for the last time in autumn.

and described. in both men and horses The noble horse. in districts where there is not much wind it is very difficult to get hay really dried by the wind. on a light soil. yet there is no doubt that thev prosper better in dry and high-lying districts than in damn and lowIving ones. it can be taken for oranted that there will be found good pasture and meadow land. in spite of many other unfavourable conditions. on high-lying plains the lungs of the horses develop better on account of the thinner air. Where Lucerne thrives well. without diminishing the nutritive power. near place. To sum up. and the worst situation is a rich. due to its Northern position. which is only fit for cattle and cart horses. yet breeders who are not living on favourable soil admit it very unwillingly. Good meadows and grazing are amongst the most important conditions Although horses have a great power of for the thriving of horse breeding. on which clover flourishes luxuriantly. by drying the hair. 411 and Persians. acclimatises itself easily. which causes the horse to breathe more often and more deep. wet pasture on stiff clay. as the wind. The massage of the skin which is effected bv the wind strengthens the nerves and improves the health of men as w-ell as of animals. or that they can be laid out. and they in their turn produce health. and is better in every respect on a soil similar to the one just Although the influence of the soil is generally recognised. in Wiltshire. resistance against heat and cold. namely. has proved to be just as good. are the elements which cause horse breeding to thrive so well in that district." A windv climate is healthier than one which is not windy. otherwise rather deficient. especially Lucerne and clover. wind and weather. courage and beauty. Beckhampton. a chalky soil and a windy climate produce good and strong nerves. Admiral Rous writes about the establishment of a stud as follows "The best site for a breeding establishment is undulating ground. over limestone. is the best protection against colds. Moreover. the mountainous Medea. : — ! every practical breeder can see it every year in his own as well as in his neighbour's case. training The high-lying training place. The almost constant wind in East Prussia. Moreover. gravel. and yet a keen observer must confess that it prospers. trained there. Calne. must partlv be ascribed to the high-lying. Kingsclere. well drained. because the food which grows on the former is more nutritive. and probably the first home of the Arabs is the same as that of Lucerne. The best Arabs are found on the highest-lying. witness the two Derby winners.4. The possibilitv of foals catching cold after heavy rain is much greater in districts where there is not much wind than in districts where there is much wind. I have often heard East cannot I breed Hunters here in East Prussia Prussian breeders say " The influence of the soil is. Galtee More and Ard Patrick. it is true. just as well as they do in Ireland?" : Why . and may be used and bred all over the world. sand and loam. Ormonde. and often deceive themselves. The great superiority of that wonderful horse. then over chalk. and the good loam soil there.plains of Arabia. Establishment of Studs.

amid combinations are especially useful for the building up of firm b(jnes and muscles. and even are able to gallop through the whole of the w'inter Prussian the East which difficulties the hand. — ! the very great importance of the soil. the plants contain more amid. Even the home of the Suftolks in England has the trace of a marshy It is. or even remain at their height. would not be so good as Besides. one can well understand. are the cause of more roarers being found there than in other breeding districts. England. a grazing period lasting at best longer than five months. the meadows." The best soil for the breeding of draft horses is in fertile low-lying and diluvial regions. W. as horses. has rooted itself so often in mankind. and in America the ground cannot stand being galloped on. has retained its power. The danger to this horse country. consequently the oceanic climate of England seems to be speciallv favourable for horse breeding. possib-le. horses heavy of breeding the that expected. the home of the Clydesdales. and especially the galloping tracks. whilst in the more sunny East. without continuous borrowing from England. secondlv. Medea. and as according to the latest researches of Dr. look at other the we. English soil is that the English reared and trained Thoroughbred is far superior to all other Thoroughbreds. from this standpoint alone. however. Buckle has shown in his " History of Civilisation in England. caused bv the sea. In the less sunny Western part of England. and may be . Lucerne thrives better. Voltz. France is behind England in this respect. the English fogs which are so frequent. Without this fog. and for that reason all races are run on The consequence of these advantages of the artificial Macadam courses. are suitable for producing the desired large and heavy-limbed cold-blood Perhaps. over walls and If obstacles. oceanic climate of England favours the specially high proportion of amid in the horse forage. Ireland) undoubtedly possesses the is often said. endowed with the Grace of God. as already mentioned. in spite of the yearly growing export of good and the best breeding material. If however. by reason of the elasticitv of its galloping and its high qualitv. on account of their plentiful and fattening forage. however. the they are in this country and nowhere else in the world. is to be had most surely in England. The United Kingdom (England and best soil for breeding horses. and more so the Clyde valley. which produces wonders. the splendid galloping country on which three-year-old Hunters carrying small apprentices gallop behind the hounds. which. yet Prussia food from we the finest we were even to import into East could never import two very important conditions for breeding good Hunters firstly. The other Thoroughbreds have not shown as yet that they can make progress. as Th. on breeder experiences in giving his horses the required exercise for seven or eight winter months. by reason of all producing wonderful nature. consists in the increasing neglect which. on the other hand. much greater than even experienced breeders believe.412 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. nature. This blood.

since they cause an increase of troublesome flies. i. as well as all kinds of barberries. in der landwirtschaftlichen Xutztiere"). is. as well as other grasses. nevertheless on high-lying ground. The Percherons grew like Arabs here. two very important factors. The growth of beeches is generally and rightly considered a favourable horse breeding. as in a lesser degree do also oat and barley straw. and still more that of irrigated meadows and marshes. domestic animals. As oaks grow best in wet. limes. On the other hand. wheat straw suffers mostly from rust. or in countries with much rain. The hay of lower lying valley meadows. surface or stagnant water is the most injurious. paddocks and permanent pastures.. and the horses prefer it. which is also suitable for horse breeding. When choosing a ground suitable for a stud for horses. and the Suffolks and Clydesdales became stunted. and that a food is produced poor in lime and phosphoric acid. 413 performances may require something else from the soil. on account of less taste and greater quantity of woodv fibres. Continuallv running water containing lime. Unclean. continuous drought reduces the mineral ingredients of the food. Oaks grow. These remarks are perhaps . out in a milder form after the horses are given better water from fresh springs Of all newlv bored. Establishment of Studs. inferior to the hay of higher lying regions. Alostiv on higher meadows less weed will be found. and also for clover. One of the best examples I know of for the great influence which the soil exercises on the type is the previously mentioned pure draft breeds in the Russian Steope stud of Derkul. in order to derive any benefit from its advantages for breeding good. causing diseases of the bones (as Professor Kellner savs in his well-known manual. or even dangerous. which are especially unfavourable for sign as regards a good soil for Lucerne. dry vears one can only complain about a smaller quantity. capable and sound horses. and thrive well on strong clay soil.e. Even the best soil requires. Even the vapours arising from stagnant waters are very unhealthy for horses. because they are the most popular carriers of rust parasites. one must further take into consideration that the hay of higher lying meadows (especially mountainous and Alp meadows) is superior as far as taste and nutritive value are concerned. is best for horses. especially the small-leaved ones. even if these same grasses should prevail here as well as there. low-lying countries. the horse is the most sensitive to bad drinking water. and as such countries are not favourable for horse breeding. in spite of a smaller quantity. which is colourless and without It has often been observed that glanders breaks smell. the quality is alwavs better. "Die Ernahrung for As far as practice is concerned.4. especially voung foals. are undesirable in a stud. the idea has arisen that horses do not prosper where oaks prosper. all things being equal. and less grasses of I mvself consider it imorobable that a inferior value. Furthermore. and therefore develop much better. in spite of the splendid forage from the Steppe.

for example. wind and weather preserves the whole animal organism in a continuous and beneficial training through frecjuent and sudden changes. primary condition of every healthy development. unfortunately. and in increasing the energy of life by multipl3dng the red corpusculli and the h^emoglobis.414 superfluous The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. A voluntary. muscles and bones are under the influence of a favourable slow. wind and weather strengthens the whole nervous system. The continuous remaining out in the open increases the need of oxygen. voluntary desire of the horses to visit distinct parts of the meadow. exercise on the meadows is necessary when seeking their food. The constant skin massage by 3. But the method of rearing in the stable without paddocks and permanent pastures. continuous and effective training quite impossible outside the meadows. and so noticing all that is going on around them. continuous and mostly slow4. and forces it to get accustomed to outside circumstances for the sake of self-preservation. when speaking of two benefited horse breeding countries like England and Ireland. to 1. The air rich in oxygen in the open is a 2. the possibility of their moving about as they please. threatens to ruin many breedings. Accordingly. and also the energy of life increased. the attention which is required for observing changes. The longer grazing is possible (in East Prussia. First of all must be mentioned here the breeding of horses. Polar travellers often suffered more or less from anaemia. . especially tuberculosis baccili. wind and weather. especially The of the shape of the limbs. Paddocks and permanent pastures serve. According to the observations of Professor Gaule in Zurich. make a greater use of their lungs. and are the best and only preventives — against timidity. which is still so widespread in Germany for all kinds of breeds. The infhience influences of light The following advantages thus arise The recently well recognised beneficial of light. the lungs will Idc extended and strengthened. owing to a normal and strengthening development of the nervous system. consist principallv in destroving manv verv dangerous : — microbes. In conjunction with the beneficial influence of light and air. As a matter of fact. and especially night grazing. and in order to satisfy their needs. horses must. nourish same. the more distinctly is to be observed a favourable development of the formation of the body. The influence of good air. at the many chances to caper and play with their companions all these strengthen the intellect and senses. therefore. to keep the breeding material as long as possible outside the stable and in conformity W'ith nature. as a contrast to the method of rearing in the stable. favour the health in such a good and energetic way altogether impossible if the horses are brought up in the stable. as w-ell as that so important correct w^alk. five months the most). By this means the sinews. by deep breathing. The influence of exercise. The influence of a'ind and 'iceatlier.

from the above damaging characters. in the stable. These damaging characters are developed more intensively the longer grazing is able to be extended in the respective countries.63 Acre. . it is useful to grow a green crop of potatoes or turnips. White or Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) Cow grass (Trifolium pratense perenne) Smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratense) Dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratense) Fiorin or creeping bent grass (Agrostis alba stolonifera) Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) . but the horses whilst on the meadow get them easilv. Food o-ra-/?io-. as horses never much in their mouth in the meadow as in the stable. shortens the grazing season and prevents somewhat the development of these injurious peculiarities. . continued through many years. . Total . where five to seven months winter. . 3 > 10 2 3 2 . for example. The following composition of seeds.. . The pastures in England and Ireland. with snow and frost. seems to produce some peculiarities on the respective pastures which are doubtlessly injurious.. for the most part. firstly.. and these are the most difficult to mow. Sow per Morgen = i ha. = 0. In countries with a short winter and no snow the pastures are especially sensitive to a alternately. . For the good preservation of pastures be grazed it is very important that they should by sheep). .. can afford the luxury of manuring his pastures plentifully every year with composts. . ^^^ho. 28 lbs. will suffer little. suffer much more from continuous grazing by horses alone than pastures in East Prussia... cows or oxen (but not Grazing by horses only. . secondly. 2 .4. The advantages of against green food get as fore. „ . For Clayey 1 Soil. as far as possible. the useful combinations of amids are. in the fact that the grazing on the meadow. one-sided use. have proved suitable for Trakehnen : — 1. mixed with oats or barlev as guard-corn. and that. theresudden overloading of the stomach is avoided. in the younger plants. . Red clover (Trifolium pratense) 2 lbs . 4X5 5. Establishment of Studs. but up to the present not yet investigated scientifically. Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) 2 . however. When preparing the meadows or pastures. or not at all. many and just the best and youngest grasses lose their taste between the time of being mowed and eaten thirdly. by horses. he. on purpose to destroy weeds as radically as possible.

Below I give the model of a stud book introduced at Trakehnen for the last twelve years. the whereabouts of same..63 Acre.. namely. The import certificates from England do not even state the most important dates. i... A well organised and properly kept stud book can be the storehouse of many and different breeding and also biological problems. 2 2 1 . >> Dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) Total . time of pregnane}. a stud it is necessary to have the stud books corresponding to aimed at.. 30 lbs. .416 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. and also for the sake of lucidity special signs for the judgment of foals at different times are practicable. registers of coverings and foalings. must be lucidly arranged together to save space. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) 2 lbs.e.. with the practically tried signs for the judging of foals... The entry of all the coverings with their dates is especially important when several stallions have been used for covering. . For the sake of reference.. all coverings should be entered in the stud book. notices of the judging of foals. j> Smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratense) Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis) Red Fescue (Festuca rubra) Fiorin grass (Agrostis alba stolon if era) 10 2 2 . Sow per Morgen — J ha.. 2 2 2 1 . which are useful for the immediately following matings.. which we mark on each covering and foal certificate. These signs are intended to specially reproduce the exterior peculiarities. etc. . For a Sandy 1 Soil. It is very much to be regretted that in the most studs of England and Ireland these stud books are kept very irregularly and in a loose manner. this stud book introduced at Trakehnen is sufficient for Half-bred breeding. . nevertheless^ . . etc.reckoned from the coverings indicated on the service certificates. "2 White or Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) Cow grass (Trifolium pratense perenne) Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) Trefoil or yellow clover (Medicago lupulina) . . as well as to judge of transmission on the part of the parents and the development of the foals themselves. day of birth (not only year of birth).. •2. as it appears to me. It is alsO' important to know whether the horse has been a premature birth. If. colour and marks (not the breeding To arrange colour alone). =0.

special modifications These will consist principally of a lucidly arrano-ed classification of the racing.. 417 for Thoroughbreds or Trotters. capability and peculiarities of the foals during the breaking-in.and breeding performances of the family in question. to which it might be advisable to insert special columns. as I have similarly shown on page 290. be necessary. would be very useful. will i. . first trials and further trainings.4. Establishment of Studs. short remarks about the development. In addition. for other breeds.e.

169/158 cm.\ntenor vv XX. No. Stud Book No. b. Kni. r»v OX.!. 40. special mark. : x ^ . C \\'ith on th( Date ' Sex Colour. 181 Foundation Mare: 11.. Size I^". \- Im". : darlv brown without lM)nne K. Mark. Coverinp' 'cyo Foalinp' >^ rt Judgment Name. 1.. w 10/5 05 'go A . Y. Emihus XX. past.5 Nobleman n Gener. born 1784.418 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. . Colour.) 8/1 1897 in Bojohrgallen. „ . By Klfenbein and Ismir by Malteser and Issy by Djalnia — Vindex xx '70S°/ 72g// — Reprobate 8i/o a. Date Class Descri])tion Stallion u 14/1 22/1 Marks V\\\\ :VM 16 Insurgent 1 9/2 11/2 01 17/1 02 II !•/ Jamiarv brown 12/5 03 ' II? 00 br 02 Star 15/5 04 II 32S Cult 26 20/8 06 Lehnsherr' 25/1 02 Imposant 27/1 03 m' Hi Gelding Pomp XX i 19/2 02 dark brown 8/5 04 ED 00 A 03 St. Isar born (after 331 d.x°/ — ^.

autumn .a 171/362 cm. 05 1. jumper. Z. alwaj's healthy. I farm horse. Establishment of Studs. Kl.Kl.Il. II. inflam. 3/1 99 1.KL III. 419 Formula. training. 10/8041. I recovered. to N. hxcellent temperament. . b. 3 b. b. (i. Excellent temperament. intlam. Final judgment Condition whilst Training Slight glanders while suckling.4. 3 ') Crib biter. r nurses very well. 3 vear old._ 173/164 cm.N. when weaned. _„. blind. 4/3 99 1. II. remedied. 15/4 07 in Very slight glanders when weaned. r periodical eve ' a nammation. . and Development Diseases of the Foals. year old ridden as a hunter. fi. h. past. swelling. ' farm horse. 1850 Mark 1906 often colic. Meconium removed instruments. | 5/4 99 1. 8/6 Aukt.Kl. swelling. year old a very good riding horse. yet 8/11 04 recovered. Onh" saddled when old in the 3 year as a Brood Mare summer Often 2/3 04 colic 1. Of the Brood Diseases l\i\vv Condition whilst Training Description and Remark's } Severe glanders when 2year old. often lame. in autumn Cood Z. All illnesses overcome. Fissur remedied 11/8 05 crib biter. with 3 3'ear old farm horse at Mattisch. 3 year old. autumn CO ch-iven. I. very idleand slow in the in- weaned.KI. inflam. swelling.

420 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. C 11 Index of the Signs well set up neck calf = -^ =) knee loose stand = | \ over in the knee =( stiff-built stand = .

421 for Judging the Exterior..o<^ ^v . = front ring bone = hind quarters over-built g = large head . ^^c\>- r. = right side lower light fore-leg over in the knees M ^_good muscle formation 1 in the crupper Ig niisplaced = long trunk pointed haunch forwards = right X lef = hanging bel! = = misplaced behind strong and long fore-leg right leg binding over pastern § = = = = irregular action GO br 00 br = regular but somewhat broad but very broad but kw = wide ke cc od! knee narrow in knee in regular action very regular action = regular ooeng' = regular ooA = regular somewhat narrow but high action cc? CO = doubtful action = regular and forceful = regular and not forceful 00^= regular but right thrown outwards 00 = regular but left somewhat outward \ ^ = /\ reijular but turned-in toes .^ \^^.N>^ . <sc^ .cS^ deep set neck = = straight back ) = squeezes Ig the tail XX = nice fore-leg sloping" shoulders in the = long hindlegs bending backwards = )) long flank = ) ( = short and middle strong" fore-Iej? projecting hind-legs = strong j\ 1. Establishment of Studs. fore-leg with short knee == straight hind-leg-s fl. = front right left flat hoof Sch.4. n.

47 973 .539 977 20 2U 22. .5 8353. . . 4.CHAPTER V.445 71. . .) = 12 Inches 1 Foot in England and Russia = 12 Inches= = 1 Foot in America= 12 Inches = 1 Werschok in Russia = 1 Arschin = 16 Werschok . England and Russia America . .. .7814 1 Mile in Prussia 1 = = . = = 201. Tables for comparison of various Measurements. . .13 356 1066.6 7467.5 2.1187 .78 1.8 31.. Hungary Kurland = 7 Versts . ..47 945 30. 8 Inches (English) 81 Inches \ 9^Inches 1 Foot in Prussia (Rheinl. . . 1 Mile in 1 = = 1 Verst = 500 1 Faden (Saxonv) in Russia Faden Faden in Sweden and Finnland .. = = = = = = = 2.38 535 30. . . .6154 cm 2. = = = 0.. . = = 1 Inch in 1 Inch in 1 Inch in Prussia (Rheinland) . .539 954 2.= ..16 219. .91438 0.91 439 m 1 1 1 America Furlong = 220 Yards Distance = 240 Yards Mile in England = 8 Furlongs Mile in America Mile in . Linear Measure.33 7532.31 1609.5 1609. 1 1 1 Yard Yard in in L:ngland = 3 Feet . .

for Horses. 423 Height Measurement 1. In Ell !> land.5. Tables for Comparison of Various Measurements. .

in 1 Pound (lb.38 kg.5 gr.6 gr. Surface Measure. 1 Liter of Pound=^ Kilogramm.. Denmark.35 kg. = i Kilogr.m. '2797 Liter.946 Liter. Engiand= 0. 1 Stone in England = 14 English lbs.568 Liter. in Austria Hungary = 560.424 The Practical Part of Horsebreedinir. in Russia = 409.47 ar=l. Stone . 1 Pint in America = 0. Dessatine in Russia = l. 1 Quart in America = 0. Hektar = 100 ar= 3. in Russia Garnez in Literal Cubicdecimeter. 1 lb. 1 lb.53 ar. Switzerland = 500 gr. Acre in England and America = 40. Weights.136 Liter. 1 lb.9166 Acre. 1 Pud in Russia = 40 Russian lbs. 1 Quart 1 1 1 England = 1. 1 Acre = -25. 1 lb. in Sweden = 425.) in Germany. England and America = 453. Pint in = 3. Liquid and Dry Measure.59 Acre. = 16. Oats weighs about a 1 Hektoliter = 100 Liter.1 gr.09 Hektar=3 Lofstellen in Kurland.1 gr. 1 1 1 1 Ar=100 s.474 Liter. = 6.

5. Tables for Comparison of Various Measuremfiit- 425 Stone .

4 3314. Course since 1901 since 1902 140 140 134 147 22 52 156 20 1133.4 449. since 1865 — — — 1 1 1 6 — — 182 — 25 = 2033.6 5 5 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Cambridgeshire Course (1839) Old Cambr.8 2436. New Two years old Course (on the B. Mile Furl. 1 Yds.6 5759.9 2051.8 1128.6 3326.4 1130.2 = = = = = =.8 1629.9 1953.6 1408.426 ^he Practical Part of Horsebreeding.2 6800.8 119 105 118 18 22 136 142 3307.8 1133.9 2 2 2 2 7 5 1 Dewhurst Course Criterion Course PI.) since 1889 Two years old Course (2 Y. C.2 since 1902 1 — = = 1207 2415. M.6 6782 6769.6 6796.) 4 4 1 1 1 1 since 1864 since 1865 since 1889 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 Round Course (R.6 = 2078.) since 1852 since 1865 since 1889 Ankaster Mile (A. Most Important Distances at Newmarket. 6 4 4 — — — — — — — — 1 1 1 — ~ — — — — 5 5 4 138 173 157 143 177 93 187 139 138 97 = = = = = 6764.5 3615. Course since 1843 New Cambr.) since 1819 since 1852 since 1889 Ditch in (D.9 5803.8 1 1 — 215 28 35 44 24 73 17 1826 1810.1 1172.3 3327.4 3646.5 Cesarewitch Course (1839) since 1852 since 1889 since 1902 Across the Flat (A.1 1828. O. M.) since 1818 since 1852 since 1887 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 — 3652. C.7 5758.7 422.) July St. Meter The Beacon Course since 1852 (B.) since 1853 (on the flat) since 1854 .9 3620.2 1135.8 2414 . C.5 = ^ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1625. F.3 536. Course since 1889 4 4 4 2 = = = = 2011. C.4 Suffolk St. 6119. J.) since 1888 July St since 1902 Two years old Course (on the flat) since 1852 'since 1902 Yearling Course (Y.

CHAPTER VI Tables showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. .

bv Grevhound Bay Malton 1760 D. bv Basto Flying' Cliilders 1715 CM O D. by Cade ? Eclipse 1764 D. bv Partner D. by Old Careless M PQ « . bv Old Careless Second 1732 — — Moses 1746 D. bv Snap — .-QQ (Foundation Sire of HiLk Sanipsou 1745 BIlil/e 1 OO. bv Porland Arabian Shakespeare 1745 D.428 The Brisk 1711 D. Childers D. Darl< . by Snake [Eclipse 1764 D. Marske 1771 D. by Byerly Turk Marske 1750 D. by Bartl. bv Basto Hobgoblin 1724 D. — Foxliunter 1727 D. by Old Careless Squirt 1732 D. by Cade Goldfinder 1764 D.ieys & Norfolk Trotter) D. by Cade F. by Shakespeare — Tandem 1773 D. by Blank (Sweet William 1768 Sypho)i 1750 ID. by ReguJus D. bv Bald Galloway Snap 1750 Snip 1736 D. bv Grev Grantham Jolly Roger 1741 Roundhead 'l733 D. by Blank Shark 1771 — D. bv Jigg Aleppo 1711 D. by Hautboy Practical Part of Horsebreeding Table O^/zo 1760 I. by Blacklegs Stripling 1765 D. bv Basto 1 Engineer 1755 D. by Partner D. by Fox D. bv Hip D. by Cade Sweetbriar 1769 D. by Regulus Bulle — - Rock 1718 D. by Regulus P Bartlet's Childers about 1716 D.

by Herod D. by Flimnap . by Sweeper D'. bv Cade — Hamhletonian 1803 D. by Eclipse Golunipus 1802 see Table D. by Black and Boiidrow 1777 D. bv Woodpecker Election 1804 Joe Andrews 1778 D. by Spectator " — Jerry Sneak 1796 Hvaci)it]nis 1797 D. by Justice Alderman 1787 PotSos 1773 D. b}' Herod D. by Turf Amer. by Lofty Shuttle 1793 D. by Buzzard Dungannon 1780 D. bv Squirrel Waxy 1790 D. bv Tartar Saltram 1780 D. by Highflyer Cervantes 1806 D. by Diomed VH. by Bosphorus Serpent 1786 D. bv Amaranthus ? ' Ambo 1809 D.Feri^iis 1775 Beniiiiigbroiis'h 1791 see Table IV. by Herod Hedle'y 1803 D.the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.[rab. by Herod Mercury 1778 D. bv Snap Alexander 1782 D. by Mambrino Eagle' 1796 D. by Merlin Gunpowder 1784 D. Tables Showing. bv Highflyer D. by Omar Don Quixote 1784 D. b}' Ball 1810 Weathercock Amadis 1807 D. by Dragon Marmion 1806 D. by Sir Peter I D. bv Trumpator Woful 1809 D. bv Herod Bucephalus 1802 D. bv Highflyer Starch 1819 D. by Highflyer Precipitate 1787 \' D. bv Woodpecker Tramp 1810 see Table D. by Highflyer Overton 1788 D. by Phoenomenon 1806 Asparagus 1787 Teddv the Grinder 1798 D. by William's Forester Pegasus 1784 D. by Herod Hambietonian 1792 see Table D. 429 Coxcomb 1771 Babraham Babraham Messenger 1780 / Foundation sire of the \ ^ ^ D. bv Trumpator Whisker 1812 see Table D. 6. by Highflyer Totteridge 1791 D. by Sir Peter Sancho 1801 D. by Woodpecker Canopus 1803 D. bv Vauxhall Snap S/zarfe'l791 D. bv Sedlev Arabian Chocolate 1777 D. by Line. by Omnium Dick Andrews 1797 D. bv William's Forester Meteo''r 1783 D. by \\'oodpecker Cerberus 1802 VL D. bv Tartar Waxv Pope Sportsman D. bv Tartar Hall's Eclipse 1778 Bobtail 1795 D. by Trumpator Champion 1797 D. bv Shuttle Whalebone 1807 see Table H. bv Highflyer — Whiskey 1789 D. bv Mambrino 1768 D. by Spectator Ruler 1777 D. by Herod all HL Kins. by Shark Doctor 1776 D. D. by Herod Volunteer 1780 D. Emigrant 1822 D. by Gohanna Pioneer 1804 D. by Highflyer Juniper 1805 D. Trotters Dorimant 1772 D. D. by Trunnion Coriander 1786 D. bv Resfulus Gohanna 1790 D. Herod D. by Highflyer Cannon I). Black D. by Warrens Jupiter 1774 D. bv Bandv Javelin 1772 D.

430 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. by Pantaloon Gunboat 1854 D. bv Elis Newcourt 1840 D. by Canopus Lawrence 1837 D. by Slane —— T Defence 1824 D. by Truinpator D. bv Heron Lifeboat 1855 D. by Delpini Chateau Margaux 1822 D. bv Roval Oak WHALEBONE iQQy D. The Saddler 1828 D. by Blacklock . by Pantaloon Cecrops 1863 D. by Longbow or Mountain Deer Ethelhert 1850 D. by Liverpool Faug^h-a-Ballagh 1841 D. Whalebone 1823 D. by Rubens Alha)iy 1825 Emperor 1841 -- — "' ? D. by The Flyer D. by Rubens Robert de Gorham 1839 The Nii^^t^er 1847 D. b\. by Bob Booty Leamington 1853 D. bv Kin".Tom Gemma di I'ergi 1854 D. bv Paulowit/: '- S aha ma 1850 D. bv Castrel Waverley 1817 D. bv ^— —— The Provost 1836 D. by Recovery . Emilius —— Wifitonian 1834 r. D. by Lotterv Jago '1843 — ' -- Comus D. bv Revellei Monar((ue 1852 see D. bv Orville Sir Hercules 1826 D. by Selim Moses 1819 Abbas Mirza 1831 D. Rococo 1863 D. bv Master Henr\ Simoom 1838 D. bv Sir Peter ? ? Don John 183o D. by Sheet Anchor Torpedo 1876 D. bv Gohanna Camel' 1822 D. bv Seh'm D. by ^^^anderer Birdcatcher 1833 see Table X. by Emilius D. Arabian Line. bv Gohanna Mcrm'a}} 1826 D. bv Sorcerer D. Table II. by Sheet Anchor ? St. Lapwing 1826 D. bv Filho da Puta Touchstone 1831 see Table VI II D. I)arl. bv Shebdeez Sir Isaac 1831 D. by Y. by Spectre Cotswold 1853 D.Bob Bootv Coronation 1838 D. bv Gohanna Stumps 1822 D. by Master Henry Caravan 1834 Souvenir 1859 D. by Muley Launcelot 183" D.

by Alarm LolJypop 1873 D. b}' Lexington — Tamma\iy 1889 D. by Adventurer . bv Clay Trustie Bramble 1875 D. First Lord 1866 D. by Eclipse Enquirer 1867 D. by Coeruleus Chippendale 1876 D. b}' Morisco Bonnie Scotland 1853 D. by War Dance Haymaker 1865 D. by Y. by Stockwell Lahire 1861 D. Whalebone ble IX. by Australian Ben Brush 1893 D. by Peppermint Longstreet 1886 D. Tables Showing" the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. by Stockwell Longfellow 1867 D. by Lexington Iroquois 1878 D. by Ten Broek -Caiman 1896 D. by Lexington Sensation 1877 D.6. 1865 D. by Australian Onondaga 1879 D. by Teddington King of Kent 1858 - D. by Touchstone Paganini 1865 D. by Great Tom Locohhtcliee 1889 D. bv Gladiator Bo)i)iie Scotla}id jun. 431 Schcrz 1851 D. bv Glen Athol Riley 1887 D.

by Vandal Loivland Chief 1878 D. by Ambrose Lowlander 1870 D. Dutchman The Baron 1869 D. bv Vortex — Umpire 1873 D. by Voltigeur Skylark 1873 D. bv Coltness . bv Cambuscan •=c- s:2 c: I r-i C So :=Q of Diamonds 1857 D. b_v Kino"ston Bruce 1874 D. bv The Fl. by Fernhill or Gleam Col tn CSS 1873 D. by Windhound King Alfonso 1872 D. =Q -^ -Pretty Boy 1853 D. bv Birdcatcher Dalesman 1863 D. by Lexington Ki)ig o Scots 1867 D. by St. by Y. bv Newcastle Ben Alder 1880 D. bv Pantaloon — Dandin 1879 D. Darl. by Voltig^eur Ma. by The Cure Master Fenton 1859 D. by North Lincoln ' King Liid 1869 = U ^Q D. bv Pantaloon Phaeton 1865 D. bv Teddinerton 1879 D. bv Voltieeur King Indian Ocean 1867 D. by Slane King Alfred 1865 D. Table 111.432 J he Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. by Giaucus Ga&fer 1867 D.__Yatteiidou 1861 ^^' t^ ^^ 1 1'os (by Priam) Grand Flaneur 1877 D. bv Touchstone Mogador 1860 D. bv Blenheim Chester 1874 D. Patron 1890 D. by Orlando 7'om King 1863 D. bv Stockwell Foxhall 1878 D. by Storm Restitution 1865 D.rsworth 1871 D. by Goldsbrough \ ?^^ « ^' —= . by Tonnerre des Indes Albans Merman 1892 D. by King of Trumps Boudoir 1890 D. bv Defence Old Calabar 1859 D. by Stockwell Abercorn 1884 D. by Prime Minister Grandmaster 1880 D.. Melbourne Blue Blood 1876 D. bv Plutus Kingdom Loutch 1890 D. by Rataplan King Monmouth 1882 D. by Piccaroon ]Vin grave 1859 D. by Bay Middleton Kingcraft 1867 D. Arabian Line. bv Thormanby Great'Tom 1873 D. J.

6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 433 .

434 The Practical Part of Horsebreedingf. a> .

435 fcjo O 00 to fe -^ .6. Tables Showing" the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.

by Partisan Weatherbit 1842 D. Chorister 1828 D. bv Ardrossan — Mosstrooper 1839 D. 436 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. by PotSos Zigajiee 1825 b. by Tombov Colsterdale 1848 Liverpool 1828 D. bv Whisker 5/. bv Orville Inheritor 1831 Lottery 1820 D. bv Bustard Loup Garou 1846 — D. Arabian Line.. by Priam Vulcan 1837 D. bv Walton Sheet Anchor 1832 D. by Voltaire Tan Tromp 1844 D. b}. War Eagle 1844 D. by Teniers D. by Sandbeck as" ILaneroost 1835 D. by Sandbeck . Darl. bv Y. bv Emilius D. bv Tomboy De Ruyter 1848 D. Drone Little D. Table VII.Waxy Sirikol 1840 _ Red Rover 1827 D. bv Pavnator SI bo ^-. Giles 1829 D. b}' Chorus Alter liter 1831 D. by Muley Vertilam 1833 D.

by Birdcatcher Bel — Whittier 1892 D. bv Knight of Kars Strathmore 1874 D. by Inheritor — Whiffler 1861 D. by Orlando Sir Charles 1878 D. bv Cowl ' Blue Goivn 1865 D. 437 Kelpie 1855 Firtnvorks 1864 Gohhbrough 1870 D. b}' — Pero Gomez 1866 D. bv St. by Niacaroni Touchstone Neptunus 1859 D. by Longbow or Mountain Deer Lam. bv Basnas Masque 1894 D. by Y. bv Sir Hercules Atlantic 1878 D. by Stockwell Beauclerc 1875 D. by Arthur Wellesley or Post Tempore Hilarious 1874 D. by Stockwell Grey Palmer 1872 D. by Rataplan rivan 1851 I 1874 D. by West Australian Whitebait 1871 D. bv Galopin Brown Bread 1862 D. bv Chanticleer PeUegrino 1874 D. bv Brutandorf Van Galen 1853 D. by Fisherman — D. bv Student Alvarez 1869 D. by Stockwell Tim i D. by Voltigeur Ercildoune 1877 D.— 6. bv Stockwell The Jolly Friar 1873 D. bv The Marquis Sweetbread 1879 D. by Exminster Mask Rosicriiciaii 1865 D. by Pantaloon . by King Tom Tyrant 1885 — Macdonald 1899 D. Francis D. by Knight of Kars Toastmaster 1877 D. by Paganini Laureate 1879 D.hourne 1854 D. by John Davis Demonio 1861 D. bv Ethelbert Peregrine 1878 D. by D. bv Uglv Buck Van Ambur'gh 1864 D. by West Australian Brown Tommy 1864 D. bv Lambton Picnic 1872 D. bv Birdcatcher 1 - ——— • Blue-green 1887 D. bv Cowl Beadsman 1855 D. Melbourne • Chislchurst 1880 D. bv Adventurer Mango Mandrake 1864 D. by Stockwell Althoias 1878 D. by King Tom Zanoiii 1875 D. by Student Coeruli'iis 1872 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Peter Wilkins The Palmer 1864 D. bv Vespasian Dalbe'rg 1887 D. by Macaroni Chevron 1874 D.

bv Kettledrum Childeric 1875 D. by Pantaloon D. bv Pantaloon Dundee 1858 D. by Mount Zion Lord of the Vale 1863 D. bv Pantaloon Lord of the Lsles 1852 D. bv Elis Magnes 1849 Victor 1859 D. bv Belshazzar Artillery 1853 Scottish Chief 1861 D. bv Lotterv Falstaff 1842 D. by Esperance Barometre 1868 D. bv Lanijar D.438 The Practical Part of Horsebreedinsr. by New Light Durchlaucht 18. bv Filho da Puta Orpheus 1860 Paragone 1843 D. by Buccaneer James 1875 D. Arabian Line. by Thunderbolt Pursebearer 1879 D. bv St. bv Stockwell D. by Pompey NeAvminster 1848 see Table VIII. bv Langar D. bv The Little Known Blarney 1861 D. b D. by Merry Monarch Soapstone 1860 D. bv Priam b. by Rataplan Taurus 1879 D. b}^ Slane — D. by Knowsley . by Fandango Lamniermoor 1874 Fitz D. bv Belshazzar D. b\' Tombov Flat cat diet 1845 D. by Priam D. Nicholas D. \y\ The Baron GoZos '1868 D. bv Bav Middleton Pont if ex 1847 Flash in the Pan 1856 D. by The Ugly Buck Clare 1852 D. by Venison Wamba 1857 D. bv Birdcatcher Hobcr'oblin 1866 D. Table Till.' bv Catton Annandale 1842 D. bv Filho da Puta Surplice 1845 Pvlades 1852 D. bv Langar Ithiiriel 1841 CO C cc Loin show 1849 D. bv Saunterer Napsbury 1877 D. by The Colonel Claret 1852 D. by Recover Ather stone 1858 D. bv ^Miisker — Stilton 1849 D. by Hetman Platoff — King of the Forest 1868 D. by Snyder Vestminster 1866 D. bv Priam Orlando 1841 see Table VIII.58 D. bv Birdcatcher Master Willie 1864 D. bv Pantaloon Norili Lincoln 1856 D. bv Hautbov Gitan'o 1866 Tournament 1854 D. bv Catton Rifleman 1852 b. bv Dr. Danseur 1854 Auckland 1839 D. by Harkaway Mountain Deer 1848 Coroner 1856 D. bv Redshank — Valour 1875 D. by The Prime \\"arden Mirliflor 1872 D. bv Champion Cotherstoue 1840 D. bv Sweetmeat Marksman De 1864 D. by Magpie Londesborough 1867 D. by Malcolm D. by Envoy Gle>ivjasso)i 1854 ^ D. bv Velocipede D. bv Scroggins Vindex 1850 The Avenger 1S60 D. Svntax Storm 1848 Druid 1857 D. by Sesostris ^ — " Toxophilite 1855 D. Barl. hv Tearawav Harbinger 1849 D. a" D.

bv \^'est Australian Carbine 1885 D. bv Angfler —— Carnage 1890 D. Melbourne Lancastrian 1876 D. by Moulsey The General 1882 D. bv West Australian Bay Archer 1876 Nordenfeld 1882 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.6. by Galopin Spearmint 1903 D. by Beaudesert ———_ - D. by Knowsley Wargrave 1898 D. by Skylark D. by Minting Nohle Chieftain 1885 D. by Thunderbolt . ainsket 1867 b}^ Goldsbrough D. by Y. 439 Petronel 1877 D. bv Hesperus Treiitbu 1881 Aiirum 1894 D. by Richmond Eccleston 1898 D. bv Knowslev — Fowling Piece 1899 D.

a. Dad. Arabian Line "TtH .440 The Practical Part of Horsebreedingf. Table VI II.

bv Stockwell Cadix 1S89 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 441 Diakka 1893 D. bv The Dutchman Gehei'mrath 1889 D. bv Dollar Melch'ior 1891 D. bv Cremorne Stuart 1885 D. bv Bendii20 Arreau 1893 D.6. by Black Eyes Xaintrailles 1882 Fl. bv West Australian Rayon d'Or 1876 D. 1899 D. by Galopin Commando 1898 D. D. bv Saxifrage Chalet 1887 D. by Knowslev Le Destrier 1877 D. bv Dollar Polv^one 1891 D. by Baliol Black Arroiu 1903 D. D. bv Chamant Disguise 1897 D. — . bv War Dance Frejevillc 1886 D. bv Ambrose Zut 1876 D. bv Montarcis Count Schomberg 1892 D. by Stock well " Beauminet 1877 D. bv IMortemer Plaudit 1895 D. bv Cambuscan . by Tomahawk 1891 Domino . bv Dollar — "^ — Maximum II. bv Macaroni Tea Tray 1885 D. bv Darebin Octagon 1884 D. by Enquirer Ismael 1876 D.

Practical Part of Horsebreedine. Table Till. CO . Arabian Line.442 The h. Darl.

Darl. bv Rosicrucian Hii^lilaiid Cliief Marcion 1890 D. bv Tibthorpe Bav Ronald 1893 D'. bv Kettledrum Laureate IL 1886 D. b}' The Flying Dutchman Barefoot 1868 D. by Clairvaux or D. bv Thormanbv "— Ladas 1891 D. by Mortemer Monarque Saxon 1898 Isonomv or Petrarch 1873 D.6. by Stockwell 1880 D. bv Tibthorpe Biishcy Park 1889 D. Hawtliornden 1867 D. Simon Niniis 1895 D. by Orlando Basnds 1872 D. bv Bend Or Speed 1891 D. bv Lowlander —— Troutheck 1903 D. by Orlando Lord Clive 1875 D. by Blair Athol Symington 1893 D. bv King Tom Merry Hampton 1884 D. bv Queen's Messenger Kirkconnel 1892 D. c. by Kettledrum Rotherhill 1872 D. bv Wild Davrell Wenlock 1869 D.the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv St. by Rataplan Winsloiv 1869 D. bv Galopin Sheeii 1885 D. by King Tom Hampton 1872 D. by Stockwell Hymenaeus 1869 D. 443 Table Till. bv Stockwell Royal Hainptoii 1882 D. bv Trocadero The Bard 1883 D. bv Macaroni Lactantiiis 1887 D. Tables Showing. bv Albert Victor . bv Broomielaw Ayrsli'ire 1885 D. Arabian Line. bv Svrian Florentine 1884 Launay 1893 D. by Buccaneer D. by Galliard ! Berenger 1888 D. bv Macaroni Hackler 1887 D.

Brother to Strafford The Abbot 1877 D. Darl. Table YIII. bv Glen Arthur Le Ni'cham D. Melbourne Ga)ui)i 1883 D." 1890 D. Blaise — — Mart^rave 1893 I).Muscovite D. by Breadalbane Astroios. bv Scottish Chief Hawkstoiie 1883 D. by Y. bv Barcaldine Black' Sand 1897 — — ^— D. by Macaroni Edward the Coujessor 1878 D. ^ Royal Meath 1884 D. b\ Soleil 1895 Boia''d . Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. Louis 1878 D. bv Marsvas Torpedo 1880" D. b\.er 1885 D. bv Ill-Used Su'iUiiiqton 1882 D. Arabian Line. bv Thornianby Recorder 1872 D.444 The d. bv Brooinielaw Timothy 1884 D. by Stockwell Gay Hermit 1883 D. by Blair Athol Father Confessor 1885 D. bv Galopin Le H'ardv 1888 D. bv Coroner Sir Patrick 1890 Ascetic 1871 D. bv St. bv Galopin Zsiipdii 1884 — —— — — D. bv Trocadero The Quack 1893 D. b\. by Rataplan St.ord Lvon Mardeu 1879 D. 1878 D. bv Brother to Strafford Melanion 1886 D. bv W'ellingtonia Styx "1891 D. bv Kisber ocscse Galifard 1896 D. by Strathconan Gajare 1885 D. bv Pelion Retreat 1877 D. bv Galopin Millenium 1896 I). by Melbourne Holy Friar 1872 D. by Buccaneer Gourma\}d 1890 D. H'ouorat 1882 D. bv Stockwell Martini 1878 D. bv Stockwell Tristan 1878 D. by I. bv St. by Cathedral Friar's Balsam 1885 D. Albans Trap fist 1872 D. bv KingD. bv Stockwell 1880 D. bv Wenlock Le Roi D. Tom The Miser \877 Albans Zealot 1877 D. by St. bv Toxophilite St. bv 1'hunderbolt Gospodar 1891 D. by Stockwell Tacitus 1882 D. bv Stockwell Peter" 1876 D. by Pelion Clairvaiix 1880 D. by Rosicrucian Urdm-batydm 1886 D. by Galopin Heamiie 1887 D. by Chippendale Kouigsteiii 1888 — D. by Toxophilite Exile II. bv Albion Ambergris 1873 D. bv Galopin Aborigine 1890 D. bv The Hadji Andree 1892 D. Albans Le Nord 1887 D. bv Wellingtonia 77. by Stockwell St. bv Herbertstown Lord Abbot 1898 D. bv "Brother to Strafford Hazle'hatch 1885 D. by I.oni^bow Gniiiiershiiry 1876 Macros 1886 D. bv Breadalbane Missal 1891 D.

by Black Eyes Lydon 1868 D. bv Ventre-St. bv Gladiator r. Tables Showing. bv Sir Hercules Le Drole 1873 D. by Perplexe Trocadf ro 1864 D. bv The Baron General 1868 D. by Epirus Feu d'Amoiir 1871 D. bv Stockwell Gladiateur 1862 D.the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Joskin Aeroli'the 1886 D. by Weatherbit Barioiet 1878 D.6. bv Sesostris Le Mandarin 1862 D. bv Sir Hercules Boulogne 1866 D. by Ion Balagny 1874 D. by Beauvais D. bv Scottish Chief Talion 1896 D. by Fitz Gladiator Xaroisse 1876 D. — Monarque 1863 Lord 'Go ugh 1869 D. bv Gladiator Pafric'ien Highborn 1870 D. bv Ion Le Pompon 1891 D. by Nuncio Grand Coup 1868 D. Hospodar 1860 D. by Gladiator Le Sarrazin 1865 D. Arabian Line. bv Stockwell Albion 1878 D. 445 Table IX. by Orphelin Longchamps 1864 D. bv Westminster OC Don Carlos 1867 D. by Rataplan Grandmaster 1868 D. bv Stockwell Faui^h-a-Ballaiih D/bv The 1879 Student c o D. by Orphelin Fra Diavolo 1881 D. bv Faugh-a-Ballagh Noujrat 1872 D. bv Atherstone Arch id uc 1881 D. bv Atherstone Fripou 1883 01 ^ - Farfadet 1880 D. bv Dollar 00 o Consul 1866 D. Darl. bv Emilius La Marechal 1860 D.-Gris . bv Favonius Barberousse 1886 D. bv Orphelin Richelieu 1881 D. bv Festival or Valbruant Chene Royal 1889 D. bv Emilius 1864 D. bv Gladiator Kilt 1873 D. bv The Baron Henry 1868 D.

^-*ic: • Vo ct . § '^c'-^^'-'c '^' -r.?d O CO I o 00!— ^ o .—. : o -^ c: . •p ~ c ' ^ c: . >. ^ -C -t C S C: — = CA^ ^O i ^ . .Ji S^ = K£^ >• ^ 1^- ^" d «d|d:^d|^ cq — c/5 888T .^ iZ "S ^-^E-«-re!^ ^ g -D ^-''^ .1h rfa =< r: >..S2 rt .? : d '= d ^.= =5 a. >.-He/] OS'S -. t~~ -^ y b/) o M 20 Q. cj o ^- re '^ ^ /-< re LO -o!=SH 1 ^ T'S^ ~ ^ '" — ~ '>D — Cli ">: r^'X O 00 " ry '-. ._ ' O ^ « CD CO :i >-^. j3 c c ^ . ^ go p .:: -^ = i=.>. ~ >. ^^ ? ^j •^-O -^ ~ — C ^ ^ ^\.: >. z >. o >. >^ ^ _£> ^ to >.2 'en 'Z68T riou'34orj S S 5 00 t: ^w L'^ o CO rt 00 5- rnP-." ^ c c: r^ ^ cc ^ . .> >. ^ d '^ d. t.^ ct ^ ?" -u oc cG o C2 lo J-.446 The Practical A'q Part of Horsebreeding-.d. auip|B3Ji3g -q U0pBJ9qj9A3^ Aq 'Q S06T liqqr^iivn .^.- C . '^c c: -p ^ 00 c I— I Lo -p CO r:: cci V- (M 1-.^ >. C M 3 :o .>'- >.^-^ I "12^ 00 ?icoS 7"' . '--^ -^ = = ~ o ^i JJ'p??"'^ . J- "caj -a e^' —1 /^ 2 :.r' 00 id . :-^ LO c a ore o c 00 1.-HO ^. r 00 > : t>:^ (/) OJ I 1 ^ re^ S J^ "t: '-^j (/) 00 C t/3 .co ?=^'~' 2«^ "^ i^ ^'t: <y^'==' re ^^^"o^-c:'^ C^'^i^ — '^ C^ v/~^ C^S 25 h CO o O X I ^2k rH o CO o -S o co-5 E ^ (« v.s -Q /-- = i: ^ ^' ~ ^ "^ ^' U I .

447 o a " ^ p- -.00 >-. .6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.9.

x: ^ !/: ^.-i cc ^^f '^^ ^. h.i2 -^ CJ c3C h <3j _ ^ ^ c ^ oc <U Oj C o I c. ^^i' ~ . t K 7 cc E>-."5 ^'"5 >> c' >. 5_ CO tCC' .:. (M n CD o . .B o ? =.-~ >^ i ^ .-= (£: '-' c cr c OC »^ 00 =: "^ c.448 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. cfj c ^ r »- ^ >^^ s . ^^•^t: I ^ >>-^ >.i^ 3 ?= 00 5^ r^J= : S >- S ^O • >.'~ > ~ ^ - K • cc . r-Z ^ ^ ~ J2 rS V.^5. — > f^ .-.^ ^^C^C ^' c • — ~^^j^^-!=.- V-*_' GC' ^ ^ — t o Oj 3 ^ i-H i. o =t^~ 2 yS 0)-=c S -5 h ~ U CO -S c — O (T. '^ r^ -V t- tf. be .E '^d "^C tn o:±.^ "^ H ^ re C: W ^ c S2 00 =: CN V- £ . ^ f- ^d g^ sd e:""^ CSC od: "^ * _• OtST .^H ?^ ^' C 0:=.

CO .

bv Newminster Glend'ale 1873 D. Winkle^ 1871 D. bv St.ier 1885 D/bv Scottish Chief Delphos 1891 D. bv Wenlock Watercress 1889 D. by Birdcatcher Springfield 1873 D. bv Pell Mell D. Oatien 18^1 D. bv Brown Bread Claremo)it 1872 D. Melbourne . by Peter Lutrin 1899 D. by Touchstone Clanronald 1873 D. by King-ston " Ally re 1874 D. bv Voltiereur Tangihle 1870 D.450 The b. Darl. by Macaroni Neapolis 1885 D. bv Lexington Andred 1870 Lochiel 1882" ^ D. by Orlando St. bv Marsvas - Ethus 1866 D. bv Daniel O'Rourl^ SilTio 1874 D. bv Kingston Maelstrom 1873 D. by Kingley Vale Balioi 1879 D. by Scottish Chief Ju^s. by Don Charlos Mr. Ijy Speculum Minting. bv Touchstone Jack of Oraii 1869 D. bv Lord Clifden — — Meddler 1890 D. b}' Hermit Marshall Scott 1876 D. by Fitz Roland D. Ronan 1865 D. by Scottish Chief Sorrento 1884 D. bv Touchstone Craii^'Millar 1872 Bread Knif 1883 D. bv Birdcatcher M'ungo 1866 D. bv Newminster D. bv Surplice D. bv Teddington The Child of the Mist 1882 D. bv Kinei'ston Morgan 1883 Pardon 1896 D. by Wild Dayrell > — D. Simon Darby 1885 D. bv Touchstone Strua'n 1869 D. bv Petrarch Necromancer 1882 Touchet 1874 D. byY. Julius 1864 D. Melbourne Rock Sand 1900 D. Arabian Line. bv Flatterer Bumptious 1888 D. by Y. Practical Part of Horsebreedinjj. by Macaroni Sainfoin 1887 D. bv Melbourne St. Martyrdom 1866 D. bv Statesman Brag "1878 D. Table X. by Touchstone Prince Charlie 1869 Salvator 1886 D. bv Voltio-eur D. bv Sweetmeat The RoTer 1874 ? St.1883 D. by Euclid Silvester 1869 D.

451 c = >.icitus Saliih Lad by 1). ^ Ji. i: r.? -c •— I. (N r-(M c:.6. -^ • 1900 1900 T. Red Irish .^ = Ojr = -5 . Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.

Simon 1881 see Table XI. bv Doncaster Galoping Lad 1893 D. by Faugh-a-Ballagh or Macheath Disraeli 1895 D. by Birdcatcher St. by Phlegon D. by Orlando Giierrier 1894 D. Arabian Line. by Trumpeter Grafton 1894 ? Thurio 1875 D. bv Liverpool Tibthorpe 1864 D. a D. by Flatcatcher The Ranger 1860 D. Table Xr. by The Flying D. Daii. by Alarm or Orlando — Sefton 1875 D. bv Sterling Brio i895 D. by Emilius Watchfire 1859 D. by King Skirmisher 1854 D. bv Isonomy D. by The Cure Fortunifl 1864 D. bv Dollar Hector 1872 Ga^a 1889 D. by Springfield . by Macaroni Fulmen 1880 D. by Touchstone Oberon 1883 D. by Gardham — John Davis 1861 D. by Macaroni Marmiton 1885 D. bv Kisber D. by Gardham Tom Rosebery 1872 D. by Slane Brennus 1866 D. by Stockwell Falkland 1867 D. bv King Tom 00 Cavendish 1856 D. by Saunterer D. by Birdcatcher Hagioscope 1878 D. by Scottish Chief St. by King Tom Galeazzo 1893 Fortissimo 1878 D. bv Isonomv Double Zero 1873 Jovfui 1890 D. by West Australian Castlereagh 1875 D. bv Thunderbolt rJalliard 1880 — D. by Cremorne Pioneer 1886 D. by Adventurer Galore 1885 D. bv Hermit Galopin 1872 Donovan 1886 D. by Hampton D. by Clairvaux O 3Q Tirgiliiis 1858 — D. bv Macaroni Tedette 1854 D. by Newminster — Speculum 1865 D.452 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. Ani^elo 1889 Dutchman D. Kaiser 1870 D. bv See Saw The Duke of Cambrids^e Ganache 1893 1870 D.

bv Rosicrucian Lohengula 1894 D.6. by Beaudesert Admiral Breeze 1901 D. bv Chamant Gulliver 1886 D. by Scottish Chief D. bv Beauclerc Flacon 1894 D. bv Uncas Perth 1896 D. by Galliard Queen's Birthday 1887 D. by Isonomy Mindig 1895 D. by Plebeian Velasquez 1894 D. bv Hermit ( Sundridoe 1898 ^ ^^^ Springfield D. by Enterprise Matchmaker 1892 D. by Barcaldine King James 1903 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. by Macaroni Handicapper 1898 D. bv Scottish Chief Holldnder 1902 D. by Isonomy . bv Hermit War Dance 1887 D. 453 Crozvberry I880 D.

. >. Gi sra > ^ c .'y^ .^ - O ^ o C^ ^Q .454 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding.5 2 t/j CQ 55 CQ C . 00 c .0 2 rt rt --^ to c/: ^ of^- 00 n . . .

-i. -^ ''J -^j Si^ --. llil.S s'i^2s 2'"' oc 0)—'^ 2 lo^. '_rj >-J Cl. l-Tj !y^ ry-. 455 S ^' I '=^' ^ ^' I ^" ^^' I °' 'i ^ I ^" f ^" — _ „ ^-cXDaj. '^'i. .S^ooajrtcS ^.li iliii l§ilLI:|i .0= ^ X! rp Q 'y-. (y-. Q ^'^ ^ £• 5 ^ g ^ g ^V ^' ^'^ ^ _^ ^'. siy • f ^'lil !y-.d fS 'o ^j S ^ Lr Q • «t. X! x= S ^ I I ^ ° ° ^ =? ^ ?. .d -• d .^E -I -^ cq -a •^.^l ^g^ fpSe-c I c f^o ^-ipg^^oicSS IE (M i|i| i| _5 llil tl v^.-^ Cr. - sgsg^^^s'^^ 2«-^ ^x> :^ ^ j/2 8^0 I ~ LT) . C/^ O i5 ..^ ^^C^ u= o X E. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. ^ .g ^ g. .6.F ^ = ^ I J I I Q f^ Q 'S Q | d s d | d | d ~ d ^ d -• d « d | d | d | d I d ^ d . ft.

by Almanzor D. by Spectator Ball's Florizel 1801 Sir Charles 1816 D. by Messenger Brawner's Eclipse 1839 D. by Woodcock D. by His Grey Barb Sedbury 1734 Skim 1748 D.456 The I. by Rockingham Dionied 1777 D. bv Saltram — Boston 1833 D. by Fox Cub (Foundation sire of Squirrel 1754 the Cleveland Bays) D. by Spanker Soreheels about 1720 Tartar 1743 D. by Grey Diomed American Eclipse 1814D. by Son of Smiling Ball & Partner (Mr. by Citizen — Wagner 1834 - D. by Blaze D. by Leedes Arabian 3 O Parlner (Griseii'ood's) 1730 D. bv Fox Herod 1758 D. by John Henry . bv Ball's Florizel D. Practical Part of Horsebreedin< Table f Byerly Turk Line. by Bloody Buttocks D. Croft's) 1718 Old Traveller 1735 Dainty Davy 1752 D. Grey Diomed 1785 D. Bflsfo 1702 o GO CO D. bv Curwen Bay Barb Table L a. bv Curwen Bay Barb W Eh 3igg about 1702 D. by Shark Duroc 1806 D. by Dorimant Sir Archy 1805 Timoleon 1813 D. by Morion D.

bv Eclipse Huby' 1788 Driver 1798 D. by Glencoe Kingfisher 1867 D. by Kingston Umpire 1857 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Master Bagot Jack Spigot 1818 D. bv Cvgnet Magnet 1770 D. bv Eclipse D. bv Cade Fitz Herod 1773 D. bv Blank Tom Tug 1777 — D. Woodpecker 1773 D. bv Malcolm Americus 1892 D. bv Cvgnet Highflyer 1774 D. 457 Uiomed 1777 Florizel 1786 see Table I. by Eclipse Rugantino 1803 Commodore 1793 D. bv Blank Plunder 1771 D. D.(i. bv Oberon D. by Carbuncle Stripling 1795 Octavian 1807 D. bv Matchem Chantideer 1787 D. bv Evander Lexington 1850 D. by Snap Justice 1774 Buzzard 1787 D. bj^ Bagot Table II. a D. by Spectator Fortunio 1779 D. by Glencoe Optimist 1857 D. bv Blank Drone 1777 D. by Matchem Phoenomenon 1780 D. by Wild Dayrell — Emperor of Norfolk 1885 — D. bv Eclipse Walnut 1786 D. by Snap Bordeaux 1774 D. by Y. bv Matchem Seymour 1807 Delpini 1781 D. by Highflyer Ardrossaii 1809 John Bull 1789 D. by Glenelg . by Sarpedon ^ Lecompte 1850 D. by Volunteer Master Bagot 1787 D. George 1789 D. by Blank D. bv Eclipse D. b\' Sarpedon — — — Mars 1867 D. bv Glencoe Norfolk 1861 D. bv Squirrel Fidget 1780 D. bv Scaramouch D. bv Matchem St. bv Squirrel Sir Peter 1784 see Tabl e III. bv Javelin D. by Glencoe Starke 1855 D. by Eclipse Boh Booty 1804 D. by Shakespeare Rocki>ighani 1781 D. by Snap —— — Antonio 1816 D. bv Sorcerer Bagot 1780 D. bv Blank Spadiile 1784 D. bv Snap Nabocklish 1810 D. by Matchem D. Snip Fortitude 1777 • D. bv see Dux Mentor 1784 D. by Snap Skyscraper 1786 D.

by Alexander Merlin 1815 D. by Malek Adel Lightning 1852 D. by Highland Fling D. bv Walton Sleight of Hand 1836 D. by Y. by Orville Fisliernian 1853 — - D. Whalebone . by Touchstone Lan^ar 1817 D. by Touchstone Traducer 1857 D. bv Defence Herm'it 1851 D. Practical Part of Horsebreedinir Table Byerly Turk Line. by Shuttle Castrel 1801 Heron 1833 D.458 The 11. by Elis Tliormanby 1857 see D. bv Stamford 00 D. by Trumpator Pantaloon 1824 D. bv Phantom • Burgundy 1843 D. by Matchem D. by Alexander Ibrahim 1832 D. by Walton Bustard 1813 D. bv Camel AVindliound 1847 D. by Phantom Jereed 1834 D. bv Phantom The Flying Dutchman 1846 D. by Sandbeck Selim 1802 D. bv Sir Oliver I Fvrrhus L 1843 D. by Alexander Toilers 1816 Snvders 1833 D. by Muley Moloch — Glencoe 1831 D. by Thunderbolt . by Defence Rubens 1805 D. by Sheet Anchor New Light 1833 D. by Ditto Nd Bay Middleton 1833 D. by Delpini — Lamplighter 1823 D. by Stamford Ishmael 1830 D. bv Walton — (Elis 1833 D. by Peruvian D. Roller 1814 Quiz 1798 D. bv Priam Sultan 1816 -^ D. bv Rubens Coivl '1842 Beiram 1829 D. by Tramp Tandal 1850 D. by Wanderer Phosphorus 1834 D. by Defence Ephesus 1848 D. by Woodpecker Fraz-v 1830 D. by Tranby Beiram 1829 D. by Drone Farintosh 1840 D. by Rubens Bustard 1801 D. by Com us Andover 1851 D. by Sir Oliver 1 Epiru's 1834 I D. bv Filho da Puta The Libel 1842 D. — Rostrum 1849 D.

by Ion — Fontainebleati 1874 D. by Father Roitelet 1892 D. by Gladiator Insulaire 1875 D. bv Chattanooga Dauphin 1885 D. by Lanercost Amsterdam 1854 D. by Jon The Condor 1882 D. bv Ion St. by Plutus Lntin 1891 D. Cyr 1872 D. Dutchman Crusoe 1873 D. bv Plutus ( D. bv Wellingtonia Elf 1893 D. by Bruce Arbaces 1897 D. bv Fellowcraft CaUistrate 1890 — D. 1892 D. by The Baron Prologue 1876 D. bv Cambuscan Table" IV. bv Melbourne Dollar 1860 D. by Elis I ^norainus 1854 Hindoo 1878 D. bv Slane ScJiiedam 1865 D. by The Bard Pastisson 1890 D. by D'Estournel Codoman 1897 D. bv Lexington Hannover 1884 — • Hamburg D. bv The Nabob Cambyse 1884 D.6. by Viligant Bocage 1885 D. by Mars Gardefeu 1895 D. by Marksman Phleg'eton 1886 D. by Prince Charlie Omnium \ Massi Nissa 1866 D. by Birdcatcher Vignemale 1876 D. by Don Carlos Clamart 1888 D. by Melbourne —— Maribyniong 1863 D. bv Skirmisher II. by Beadsman . bv The Premier Robiiisotr The Admiral 1887 J). by Gladiateur Saumur 1878 D. bv Adventurer Arizona 1899 D. by The Little Known Amsterdam 1855 D. 459 Angler 1862 D. bv Bonnie Scotland 1895 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. by Mars Thames Dutch Skater 1866 D. Tir^il 1864 D. by Ion Patriiirche 1874 D. bv Fl. by Heron Androcles 1870 D. bv Ion Upas '1883 D. by Idle Boy (by Satan) Cape Flyaway 1857 D. by Light or Serious Salvaior 1872 D. by Henchman Sir Modred 1877 D. by Yorkshire Ellington 1853 D. by Countryman — The Victory 1898 D. by Siockwell Ricluuond 1872 D. by Melton Kizil Kourgan 1899 D.

« . I — >. ti^ja C ^ ~ 5 ^ "2 ^ c7i >^' "^ C O 00 Tl U O c >. 2.= d cC ^ ^ ^ V ST -ti ij 3 > L 00 rH •=: . ry GO . .S (M CO "^ CO .h .s ^ 1^ G -^ Q ^^ 3 O 00 05 CO rH c/j c 3 rt p c.-H (A CO O >-.^ . CD -* CO —~ c: 3 c 'Si O O D -^ .w -f d . ^ ^^ *sd cr .460 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. GO <ij . i 5-° - r^ -^ r^ g .

6. 461 o .*s . Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line.

462 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. bv Energfie o P . Foiirire 1896 D.

bv Blair Athol Balvany 1878 D. bv Verneuil Carrasco 1898 D. by Adventurer c Kisber ocscse 1877 D.Grey Le^ 1861 D. Melbourne Wild Oats 1866 D. b}^ King Tom . bv Orlando Triumph 1867 D. by Gunnersbury Grafton 1882 Archer 1889 D. by John o'Gaunt D.Tokio 1892 D. by Daniel Talpra Magyar 1885 . by Chippendale D. bv Vermouth Gay bayrell 1867 D. bv Orlando D.'bv Bend Or Oroszvar 1875 D. bv Isonomv Trollhetta 1893 D. bv Hermit — I D. bv Chanticleer Discord 1876 D. by Orlando Gamecock 1870 D. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Stockwell Little' Duck 1881 St. D. bv Trumpeter Triumph 1886 D.'bv Ely Buccaneer 1857 D. bv Bois Roussel D. bv Cambuscan D. bv Alert Flibustier 1867 D. by Wenlock Lehct'etlen 1879 -Slusohr 1895 D. by Birdcatcher AllhrSok 1866 D. by Oxford D. by St. bv Pvrrhus Dinna Forget 1892 Din ne ford 1902 D. bv Y. by Stockwell Remeny 1873 D. bv Carnival Ocean Wave 1883 D. bv Shallow D. bv Cathedral Bruce 1879 D. bv Brocket — b\' Mortemer Champaubert 1893 D. bv Compromise Fcnek 1883 D. bv North Lincoln D. bv Rataplan D. by Stockwell r. bv Compromise T'/nea'l881 — 00 Botond 1888 D. bv Blinkhoolie -Pels 1903 Traclienberg 1879 Hannibal 1891 D. Tropez 1890 See Saw 1865 D. bv Bois Roussel Bogdany 1894 D. by Rataplan Nil — Desperandum 1875 D. by St. by Chanticleer Waiseiiknabe 1872 D. by Rataplan Elemer 1877 D. by Newminster Yederemo 1878 D. Byerly Turk Liue. 463 Table TI. by Harkaway — The Rake 1864 D. bv King Lud Sperber's Bruder 1895 D. by Rosicrucian Ausmdrker 1891 D. by Rosicrucian Buz^o 1882 D. by Gunnersbury Gozo 1882 D.6. by Petrarch Arcadian 1883 D. bv Hermit Lovedone 1883 — Stronzian 1881 Aspirant 1887 D. Biiccmieer 1870 D. by King" Tom Kisber 1873 D. bv Macaroni Realist 1890 D. by Arbitrator D. Simon D. bv Oxford Pepper and Salt 1882. by The Earl Jack o'Lantern 1884 D. Albans Vasistas 1896 o'Rourke Idus 1867 D. by Little Red Rover — L — Good 'Hope 1873 D. bv Stockwell Cadet 1867 D. Paul Jones 1865 D.

by Kettledrum o 00 c Thurio 1875 D. by Birdcatcher FaTonius 1868 D. bv Star of Erin . by Birdcatcher Lozenge 1862 D. by Blackthorn Constanz 1872 D. by King Tom Gorham D. by Orlando 1^ Parmesan 1857 D. by Chanticleer Father Claret 1873 D. Table VII. by Melbourne Cucumber 1870 D. Byerly Turk Line. by Pantaloon Macheath 1880 D. by Jago Sir Plum Pudding 1857 D. by Stockwell Mask 1877 D. by Stockwell Saccharometer 1860 D. by Robert de . by Rataplan Cameliard 1878 D. by Brocket D. by Lord Lyon Reveller 1883 Camenhert 1873 D. by Thunderbolt Scohell 1878 D.464 The Practical Part of Horsebreedine. bv Verulam Cremorne 1869 D. '^^ CD re Hydroniel 1875 D. by King Tom ? Bevys 1876 D. by Birdcatcher Macaroon 1874 D. by King Tom Macgregor 1867 D. by Marsyas Stracchino 1874 D. D'Estournel 1864 D. by Jago Vanderdecken 1869 D. by The Fallow Buck Couronne de Fey 1871 3Iacaroiii 1860 — D. by Weatherbit H> ^ Carnival 1860 D. by Orlando Grollo 1869 GO D.

'-' . Tables Showing. - >. "^ -d^d 3c:~Q '-^ '-'-• •^. ^ >.c .>.^ tin a> js. ' ' >.6.i >.u2 -^xi .-i i I ' 1 -i ' .s d ^ d ^ d -^ 1 = ci ^d I I . c^ ~^ 5_j2 «J2'S^g^ £x! 2 d = c = c I d -2 d :. Sr >.±.^ v -4^ -fx. =: j:^ .-i >. V >-.the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. Q -2 W -^ < ^ (J^ 56' lO sd '^ ^d^Ci^'d — i. .^ >.r-H :^ o >. -^ d "^ z: -" s c c?) t« ir 75 .s >.^ -^^d ~. 3: >. © 'C .:« >. r^ >-.s d I c rtC S d ^ d S ~ >.. >.2 ^ ° b C 5 ^ 00 3 S b Of _ m >» — f*" c >. 465 ^ ~ ~ c: C^ _o cx E r5 d aj IQ^d ^ S"' <u '-ri T r^ .. jaipAa^ Aq -q 5 0S8I aoxymrif) zxm .S -^ ^ rO >. 1 c I 13 gQ — Ui -^ i d .

by Bartl. bv Regulus Medley 1776 D. bv Crab Matchless 1754 D. Childers D. by Blacklegs Morw'ick Ball 1762 D. by Snap €a(le 1734 MatcLem 1748 Partner Sportsman 1753 D. by Whitefoot Old Ens^land 1741 D. by Heneage's Reaiihis 1739 Whitenose Fearnought 1755 D.' 17S by Sloe Cripple 1750 D. by BHnd Horse Blank 1740 D. by Bald Galloway D. Table I. by Snap MaiJnuni Bonum 1773 Sorcerer 1796 D. Childers Dormouse 1738 D. by Partner Careless 1751 D. bv Diomed D. by Grisewood's Partner Tantrum 1760 D. bv Second Gimcr'ack 1760 D. by Whitefoot Bahraliam 1740 D. by Squirrel D.'s — Symme's Wildair 1770 D. by Snap Paragon 1783 D. by Whitenose Chymist 1765 D. by Herod Amaranthus 1766 D. bv Bartl.' by Swift Espersykes 1775 D.466 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. Oodolphiii Arabian Line. by Whitenose Pantaloon 1767 D. by Soreheels b\' D. by Spinner Wildair 1753 D. bv Snip Pacolet 1763 Gower Stallion 1740 - D. bv Snap Alfred 1770 Tnimpator 1782 D. by Whitefoot South 1750 D. by Snap — Grey Diomed D. Conductor 1767 D. by Jolly Roger Whitenose Jalap 1758 (Foundation sire of the Cleveland Bays) D. bv Whitenose Turf 1760 D. by Bald Galloway CIia)!geJi)ig 1747 —. by Partner y. bv Bald Gallowav b. bv Herod sire of the Pipator 1786 — - D. by H. bv Partner Cardinal Puff 1760 D. by Traveller Sweepstakes 1749 D. by Fox Dorimont 1758 D. by Squirrel coach Pavnator 1791 D". by Partner I hnperator 1776 D. bv Whitenose Hero 1753 D. by Crab Paymaster 1766 — D. Cade 1747 (Foun dation D.Le D. Tniiinio)! 1747 [ D. by Bartl. by Hampton Court Childers Clockfast 1774 D. by Steady Janus 1746 D. bv Ancaster Starling 1761 hv Mark Anthon}' Dux D. Childers Bajazet 1740 D. bv Partner Sa)ig 1759 D. by Gower StalHon Janus 1738 D. bv Soreheeh . horses) Lath 1732 D.

by Delpini I D.6. by Precipitate — Jerry 1821 D. by Mentor Granicus 1807 D. bv Alexander Truffle 1808 - ScrapaU 1812 D. bv Beningbrough Corinthian 1819 D. by Hambletonian . bv Cervantes oO Smoleusko 1810 t). by Touchstone D. by Taurus Nutzvith 1840 Tomboy 1829 D. 467 Rcnicnihraiiccr ISOO D. bv Orville Huiuphrey Clinker 1822 D. bv Beningbrough riiiinderbolt 1806 Recordon 1807 D. by Precipitate The Doctor 1839 D. by Rubens Rockingham 1830 D. by Oiseau 3Ielbourne 1834 see Table IL D. bv Waxv Ascot 1832 D. Syntax 1811 - D. bv Clinker D. by Ardrossan Jeremy Diddler 1839 Grey Momus 1835 D. by Lottery D. bv Cervantes Ihicus 1849 D. by Gohanna Reveller 1815 j Comus 1809 D. by Whiskey Tiresias 1816 I D. bv Mentor Bourbon 1811 D. by Elis Bran lS31 D. by Comus D. by Mulev Jericho 1842 The Promised Land 1856 D. bv Buzzard Soothsayer 1808 D. Tables Showing" the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Orville AJderinan 1822 D. bv Swordsman Fernhill 1845 ] Heleiius 1821 I D. bv Shuttle D. by Selim Clearwell 1830 D. bv Sir Peter D. bv Eclipse Dr.

(lod. bv Gladiator Eole 'II. Arabian Line. by Muley Moloch MELBOURNE D. bv Y. bv Traducer . bv Pantaloon — Knight of the Garter 1864 D. bv Newminster Cervantes D. bv Autocrat Brother to Rapid Rhone 1859 D. bv Orlando Pell Mell 1869 D. bv Launcelot Oidst'on 1852 1862 D. bv Emilius Mentmore 1855 D. bv Pantaloon The Peer 1855 D. by The Major The Wizard 1857 D. bv Defence i Y. b}' 1834 Arthur Wellesley 1851D. 1868 D. bv Touchstone Joskin 1856 D. by Muley Moloch Illuminator 1853 D. by Zuvder Zee Darebin 1878 D. bv Touchstone Syrian 1867 t). bv Ionian Rity Bias 1864 D. by Orlando York^Minster 1869 D. Emilius Solon 1861 D. by The Baron Pahnerston 1867 D. bv Orlando The Earl 1865 D.468 The Practical Part of Hursebreedini Table If. Melbourne 1855 D. bv Touchstone Brocket 1850 D. by Birdcatcher J. bv Voltig^eur New 'Holland 1872 D. by Flyini^ Dutchman Mornington 1868 D. bv Gameboy General Peel 1861 D. bv Orlando Statesman 1869 D. bv Lanercost or Retriever Rapid' Rhone 1860 D. bv Cotherstone Bagdad 1862 D. bv Gamebov Strafford 1861 D. Sir Tatton Sykes 1743 D. bv Maro^rave Prime' Minister 1848 I). by The Cure Australian 1858 D. bv Launcelot Tempiier 1862 D. bv Lanercost or Retriever Brother to Strafford 1860 D.elio West Australian 1850 D.

by Speculum -Australian Peer 1884 —— D. bv See Saw Sir V'isto 1892 D. bv Macaroni Marco 1892 D. bv Beadsman GoodfelloTV 1887 y^ Chaleureux 1894 O. bv Lecturer Padischah 1885 D. 469 Abonucnt 1884 -Przedswit 1872 D. by Blue Ruin Kilwarlin 1884 D. bv John Davis 1889 Beauclerc Crag 1890 Lammermoor Barbary 1891 D.6. Tables Showing- the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. bv Hermit Barrister 1893 D. b}. bv Espoir D. bv Stockwell -Plebeian 1872 D. bv Adventurer Glitter 1887 —Mourie 1875 D. by S3'lvain D. bv Hobbie Noble -Earl of Dartrey 1872 D. by Hermit — ' f Arbitrator 1874 D. bv Grandmaster . by Macaroni Australian Star 1896 D. bv Beadsman Morion 1887 D. bv Rosicrucian 77. bv Isonomy o a c <- — D. by Belladrum — Kingston 1884 D. bv Wolf's D. Nicholas Spendthrift 1876 D.Autocrat -Goswin 1864 D. by Wild Dayrell Barcaldine 1878 D. bv Lexington D. by John Davis D. bv Speculum Hastings 1893 D. bv St. bv Lord Gough AVinkfleld 1885 — Ogden 1894 D. bv Victorious Lamplighter 1889 D. bv Clanronald —Rehiisant 1882 D. bv Clanronald — hord Glasgow 1867 D. by Rataplan -Carlton 1883 D. (' Rush 1892 D. bv Musjid Philammon 1874 D. by Bend Or Winkfleld's Pride 1893 D.

'QlWofiRns] LEICESTER__y(iy .

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mily Library' of Veterinary . Medjcwe SchoG» <: ': ' ':::r.n3ry Medicine at TufiG UnsvsrsUy .

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